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Original Title: Literature review on MPPT advancements

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Kamal Kumar

Electrical Department

National Institute of Technology, Uttarakhand

due to inadequate supply of fossil fuel, the only option left is I is the cell current (A).

the renewable energy (RE). In last few Years there has been IL is the light generated current(A).

an increase in consideration towards the use of solar energy. Io is the diode saturation current.

The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic cell are non- q is the change of electrone= 1.6 ∗ 10−19 (coul.)

linear.in order to get the Maximum output power from PV system,

the maximum power point (MPP) must be uninterruptedly

K is the Boltzman constant (j/K).

tracked. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms T is the cell temperature (K).

enhance the efficiency of PV system. The Maximum Power Point Rs , Rsh are cell series and shunt resistance (ohms).

(MPP) of a photovoltaic system differs with irradiance and Load V is the cell output voltage(V).

connected to the (PV) system along with the temperature. I have

been asked to review a paper in electrical engg. SoI choose The installation cost of a PV system is very huge.Any

this one.This paper comprehends three of the most commonly improvement in the efficiency of the PV panel and the inverter

applied algorithms and recent developments in them namely is difficult because it depends on available technology, but

as Perturband observe,Incremental Conductance, and also one improvement in the tracking algorithm is easier.

intelligent control algorithm i.e. AI based MPPT techniques. The total investment in the solar PV system constitutes of the

following, PV array around ,60 percent battery, 27 percent

charge controller, inverter and other installation costs around

I. I NTRODUCTION 13 percent. The nominal costing can be reduced by improving

In present time many renewable energy sources are available the efficiency of the PV system. There is a balance to be upheld

such as solar energy, wind energy,bio energy,fuel energy etc. between the cost and efficiency.

Solar energy is one of the most suitablewidespread form of

renewable energy because of the possibility of direct con- II. M AXIMUM P OWER P OINT T RACKING (MPPT)

version into electrical energy using Photo Voltaic system.The T ECHNIQUES

photovoltaic system is the system which practices the sun

light to generate the electrical energy by the photoelectric A. Experimental Framework

phenomenon. This phenomenon converts the solar energy This is an electronic system that operates the photovoltaic

(photo) into electric energy. The general photovoltaic circuit cell in a manner to extract the maximum power from the

module is shown in figure. system. It is an operating point at which maximum power

can be taken out from the system. Usually represented as

MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING. Coupling to the

load for maximum power transmission may require either

providing a difficult voltage at lower current or lower voltage

at higher current. The output of solar array is a function

of solar irradiance, temperature. Generally MPPT is installed

in between PV system and load. Coupling to the load for

maximum power transmissionmay require either providing a

difficult voltage at lower current or lower voltage at higher

current.

Fig. 1: Solar cell diagram PO is the most extensively used algorithm due to the

easiness of enactmentpractically. In Perturb algorithm, a small

increase in operating voltage of PV array is realized, and

(V +IRs ) q

V + IRs the amount of change in power is measured. In the lower

I = IL − IO (e KT − 1) − (1) solar radiation cases, such as because of becoming smooth,

Rsh

it is difficult to define the location of MPP exactly. In this

Kamal Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of technique, as the name says, produces an infinitesimal change

Technology, Uttarakhand, India. e-mail:saini.kamalkant@gmail.com in output voltage to observe the change in power. If the next

D. Advancements in Perturb and Observe method

BIOLOGICAL SWARM INTELLIGENCE-PO algorithm is

comprehended by Chen in 2010.In this algorithm, MPP is seen

as a movement goal. In this research, a MPPT algorithm is

obtained that has biological swarm chasing technique. In order

to determine the direction of tracking accurately, a system

is proposed that assume all modules of PV array connected

with each other. Consequently, each segment is a separate part

of the system, and samples are taken from all of them. In

this algorithm, MPP is seen as a movement goal. Thus, each

module automatically is a chain in the determination of MPP.

This method has provided a higher efficiency at a rate of 12.19

Fig. 2: diagram of traction STEP SIZE SELECTOR MODIFICATION- In this method

step size is selected using various dc-dc convertors so that

the location of maximum power point could be realized using

variable step size and advanced converters.

perturbation should be in same way to find the MPP and

if then direction of perturbation is reversed. In other terms

we can say that if due to increment in voltage, the power E. Incremental Conductance

increases it shows that the actual operating point is at the left Inc.Cond. technique is based on power- voltage character-

side of the maximum power point. This process is repeated at istic, the slope of P-V curve is zero at the maximum power

some fix intervals until the MPP are achieved.In the lower point, positive on the left side and negative on the right side.

solar radiation cases, such as G= 440 W/m2 and G=260 In this technique to track the new MPP, increases or decreases.

W/m2, because of becoming smooth, it is difficult to define The drawback of the PO method (oscillation of operating point

the location of MPP exactly. Disadvantage of PO method is in varying irradiance condition) is eliminated by Inc.Cond.

also that it cannot determine actual location of MPP. method. This is a further improvement on the PO algorithm.

The Inc.Cond. methodconcedes that the MPPT has reached at

MPP and stops perturbing the output voltage. The PV array

C. Flowchart for the PO method operation is maintained at this point until output current is

unchanged.

2

G. Advancements/Improvements In Incremental Conductance of system. As an outcome of cost optimization, after decided

Method to use a maximum power point traction system by the designer,

Parasitic Capacity Algorithm-Parasitic capacity (PC) method it is important to choose which algorithm will be used in ap-

shows similarities with the IC method. However, changing of plication. In this paper, general classification and descriptions

parasitic junction capacity (PJC) value is taken in account in of the most widely used MPPT algorithms are analysed and

this method. Parasitic junction capacity occurs as outcome compared. Operating principles and application processes of

of charge accumulation in junction area and the inductance Maximum power point algorithms such as PO, incremental

associated to the connections of photovoltaic cells. Actually, conductance, parasitic capacity, and artificial intelligence have

there are two main apparatuses (parasitic capacitance and been explained. As results of analysis, obtained efficiency,

inductance) called the reactive parasitic components. It is ranges and other criteria for comparison are given in the liter-

determined that the parasitic capacitance reduces the error ature review. As explained, different profits may be selection

signal when the PV panel is operating outside the MPP, reason for each algorithm. Parasitic capacity, modified PO,

slackening down the system dynamic. The charge is stored in and artificial intelligence-based MPPT algorithms are the most

pn junction of the solar cells. In case we add the capacitance advantageous systems in terms of electrical efficiency.As I

to the lighted diode equation we obtained- In the parasitic have stated above, varied MPPT techniques are suitable for

capacitance the maximum power is found at the point where different applications. In each system, an algorithm may not

(dP/d) Byreproducing the above equation by array voltage (v) give the same result. However, in practice, the most popularly

to obtaining the power of array and differentiating the result. used commercial designs are PO and IC algorithms due to their

simple organizations and low cost. Recently, the using areas

of software-based artificial intelligent techniques such as FL,

H. AI(artificial intelligence based MPPT techniques ANN are growing in MPTT applications.

An Artificial Intelligence MPPT technique in PV system

realizes very good enactment and fast responses especially R EFERENCES

for rapidly varying temperature and irradiance variations. In [1] 1. S. Jain and V. Agarwal, “New current control based MPPT technique

present time AI technique is implemented in vast areas. This for single stage grid connected PV systems,” Energy Conversion and

paper contemplates only artificial neural network (ANN) and Management, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 625–644, 2007.

Fuzzy logic (FL) method out of the many remaining AI [2] 2. H. Patel and V. Agarwal “ Maximum power point tracking scheme

techniques for MPPT. for PV system operating under partially shaded conditions” IEEE Trans.

Artificial Neural Network – An Artificial neural network Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1689-1698, April 2008

(ANN) consists of electrical neurons which are connected [3] 3. Insights of the Advancement in Maximum Power Point Tracking

Techniques in PV Module, Yoganandini A.P., IEEE Trams. Ind., March

to each other depending on diverse topologies. An ANN 2012.

uses nonlinear and complex function for identification and [4] 4. T. Tafticht, K. Agbossou, M. L. Doumbia, and A. Chériti, “An im-

modelling of the system. A neural network consists of three proved maximum power point tracking method for photovoltaic systems,”

layers. The output signal is the duty cycle signal for power Renewable Energy, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1508–1516, 2008.

converter to operate at Maximum power point. The exact

knowledge of PV system parameter is not obligatory, which

is a major advantage of Artificial neural Network.The PV

data such as open circuit voltage and short circuit current or

atmospheric irradiance and temperature can be used as input.

Fuzzy Logic-The Fuzzy-Logic technique is used for complex

and non-linear systems and in recent years has found applica-

tion in MPPT system. The fuzzy logic based MPPT controllers,

similar to ANN, can also work with imprecise inputs. Wang

at. al. compared the two MPPT algorithms with FL and the

above-mentioned TPWC. According to the simulation results,

FL-based algorithm operate with 3.07W power loses of total

220W. These loses reduce by increasing of solar radiation to

0.475W. The average error is around 1.6W, and this value is a

significantly successful value for a 220W system. In algorithm,

average loses are under 1.5W. But unsteadiness of this method

is higher especially in low solar radiation situation especially

in the morning and evening time. Eventually, both choices are

considered equally.

MPPT algorithms used in photo voltaic systems are one of

the most important factors distressing the electrical efficiency

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