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CONDUCTED RF EQUIPMENT POWER AMPLIFIERS

Immunity to harmonics, inter-harmonics and


voltage ripples present in public power grids
IEC 61000-4-13 / -16 / -19

Daniel Spira – Product manager

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Agenda

Introduction
Harmonics and interharmonics immunity –
IEC 61000-4-13
Common mode conducted immunity 0 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-16
Differential mode conducted immunity 2 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-19
Outlook – which changes lay ahead?

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Agenda

Introduction
Harmonics and interharmonics immunity –
IEC 61000-4-13
Common mode conducted immunity 0 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-16
Differential mode conducted immunity 2 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-19
Outlook – which changes lay ahead?

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> Ametek CTS

Over 50 years of EMC experience


300 employees in 9 countries on 3 continents
4 production facilities : CH / D / UK / USA
8 service & support centers
www.ametek-cts.com

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> Speaker information – Daniel Spira

Master of Science in Microengineering, EPFL, Lausanne

Quality engineer, Swatch Group - EM Microelectronic

R&D and Project Manager, Leister Process Technologies

Master of Business Administration,


China Europe International Business School, Shanghai

Product Manager Conducted EMC, TESEQ AG / AMETEK CTS


Member of IEC National Comittee CES/TK 77A

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Agenda

Introduction

Harmonics and interharmonics immunity –


IEC 61000-4-13
Common mode conducted immunity 0 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-16
Differential mode conducted immunity 2 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-19
Outlook – which changes lay ahead?

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13

Status :

Ed. 1.1 : 2009-07 CSV


AMD1 : 2009-05
Ed. 1.0 : 2002-03

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> Source of current harmonics

Linear system :
I U,I
I R
∼ Zn 270 360
U
90 180

Non-Linear system (e.g. DC rectifier) :

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> STANDARD IEC/EN 61000-
61000-4-13
IEC 61000-4-13 defines the immunity test methods and test levels for electrical and
electronic equipment with rated current up to 16 A per phase at disturbance frequencies up to
and including 2 kHz (for 50 Hz mains) and 2,4 kHz (for 60 Hz mains) for harmonics and
interharmonics.

The levels proposed are more adapted for residential, commercial and light industry
environments. For heavy industrial environments the product committees are responsible for
the definition of a class X with the necessary levels.
Harmonic disturbances are generally caused by equipment
with non-linear voltage–current characteristics or by periodic
and line synchronised switching of loads (controlled and
uncontrolled rectifiers, especially with capacitive smoothing
and phase controlled equipment). Flat-topped: Very common caused by
rectifier capacitor loads.
The main sources of interharmonics are indirect and direct
static frequency converters, welding machines and arc furnaces.

The harmonic and interharmonics currents from the different sources produce harmonic
voltage drops across the impedance of the network.

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> Sources of disturbance
Ripple control system is a well proven technology to control consumer loads
such as heating for the optimization of the grid load and to control street lighting
over a wide area and to remote control energy meter tariffs.
The frequency range of such ripple control signals is in the range between 110Hz
and 3 kHz and usually applied as interharmonics. The feed in into the low,
medium or high voltage grid is ensured via coupling devices. The generators of such
ripple control signals can develop an energy up to hundreds kVA (100 kVA).

Ripple control in public mains supply

Host computer Feed in of ripple control signal Ripple control receiver


e.g. in the medium-voltage power grid e.g. for the public illumination
Source: Elster

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> Example of test set-
set-up for single-
single-phase equipment

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> The six basic tests of IEC 61000-
61000-4-13

Flat Curve A1

Over swing A2

Frequency Sweep B

Individual Harmonics
with defined testlevel C1
Interharmonics
with defined testlevel C2

Meister curve test D

Tests as per. Flowchart

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> Test A1 “Flat curve”
curve”

Flat-topped test waveforms based


on clause 8.2.1 and figure 6
of 61000-4-13
where it is called the
“harmonic combination test,
flat curve waveshape”

The rms value of the tested


waveform must correspond to
the nominal mains voltage.
Therefore the flat sinus must be
adapted to 230V rms.

Function Voltage Function Voltage Class


(part 1 and 3) (part 1 and 3) (part 2) (part 2)
0 <sin(ωt)< 0.95 u= U1 x√2 x sin (ωt) 0.95 <sin(ωt)< 1 u=±0.95 x U1 x√2 1
0 <sin(ωt)< 0.9 u= U1 x√2 x sin (ωt) 0.9 <sin(ωt)< 1 u=±0.9 x U1 x√2 2
(Table 7 IEC 61000-4-13)
0 <sin(ωt)< 0.8 u= U1 x√2 x sin (ωt) 0.8 <sin(ωt)< 1 u=±0.85 x U1 x√2 3
0 <sin(ωt)< X u= U1 x√2 x sin (ωt) X <sin(ωt)< 1 u=± X x U1 x√2 X

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> Test A2 “Over swing“

h 3 5 Class
% of U1 4% / 180° 3% / 0° 1
% of U1 6% / 180° 4% / 0° 2
% of U1 8% / 180° 5% / 0° 3
% of U1 X / 180° X / 0° X
(table 8 IEC 61000-4-13)

Harmonically distorted test waveforms from clause 8.2.1 and


figure 7 of EN 61000-4-13 where it is called the
“harmonic combination test, over swing waveshape”

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> Test generator (AC Source)
Characteristics of the test generator :
A phase shift must be possible with an accuracy of ± 2°.
Harmonic voltages at a test level of >= 3 %, up to the 9th harmonic, shall be applied using a
phase shift of both 0°/ 180°with respect to the positive zero-crossing of the fundamental.
Test levels:
It is essential that the r.m.s. voltage of the
resultant waveforms remain at the nominal
value during the application of these tests by
adjusting the voltage values of fundamental
and harmonics according to the percentages
indicated in the corresponding tables
(for example 230 V r.m.s., 120 V r.m.s.).

Verification of the characteristics of the generator:


The generator output characteristics shall be verified at the terminals of the source prior to
the test. For this purpose, the terminal voltage shall be monitored by a harmonic analyzer
per IEC 61000-4-7, accuracy class A.
The maximum harmonic voltage distortion of the generator shall be in accordance with
IEC 61000-3-2 (when no harmonic/inter-harmonic is selected).

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-13
> Testing devices : Programmable AC-
AC-Sources

1- PH Sources :

EM Test : NetWave TESEQ : NSG 1007 (ProfLine)


3-90 kVA ; 360 VAC/500 VDC ; DC-5 kHz 3-45 kVA ; 400 VAC ; DC-905 Hz

3- PH Sources :

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> Covered Standards :

IEC 61000-3-2, -3-12 : Harmonics emission


IEC 61000-3-3, -3-11 : Flicker emission
IEC 61000-4-8 : Power frequency magnetic field immunity [ProfLine Option 8]
IEC 61000-4-11 : Dips & interrupts immunity (AC, ≤16 A per phase) [ProfLine Option 11]
IEC 61000-4-13 : Harmonics & Interharmonics immunity
IEC 61000-4-14 : Voltage fluctuation immunity
IEC 61000-4-17 : Ripple on D.C. input power port immunity
IEC 61000-4-27 : Unbalance immunity
IEC 61000-4-28 : Variation of power frequency immunity
IEC 61000-4-29 : Dips & interrupts immunity (DC)
IEC 61000-4-34 : Dips & interrupts immunity (AC, >16 A per phase) [ProfLine Option 11]
MIL/Avionics : RTCA/DO-160 ; MIL-STD 704 ; Boeing ; Airbus [Options]

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Agenda

Introduction
Harmonics and interharmonics immunity –
IEC 61000-4-13

Common mode conducted immunity


0 to 150 kHz – IEC 61000-4-16
Differential mode conducted immunity 2 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-19
Outlook – which changes lay ahead?

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Immunity standards overview
Imm uni ty

Pu ls e d Pow e r q u ality H Field C on duc te d LF Co nd uc ted R F R adiated R F

E SD D ip s Pow e r fre q. D C , 15 H z - 15 0 kH z - 8 0 M H z -6 G H z
E F T/ B urst R in g w ave Im p uls e 15 0 kH z 8 0 (230) M H z 3, 10 V/m
Sur ge H arm o nic s Da m p e d sine up to 3 0 0 V, 1, 3, 10 V E M F 8 0 % A M 1 kH z
V. fluc tu atio n 2 - 15 0 kH z DM 8 0 % A M 1 kH z
R ip ple a n D C
O sc il. w ave
U n b alan ce
Freq. v ar iation

E N 6100 0 -4 -2 EN 6100 0 -4 -11 EN 6100 0 -4 -8 EN 6100 0 -4 -16 EN 6100 0 -4-6 E N 6100 0 -4 -3


E N 6100 0 -4 -4 EN 6100 0 -4 -12 EN 6100 0 -4 -9 EN 6100 0-4-19 E N 6100 0 -4 -20
E N 6100 0 -4 -5 EN 6100 0 -4 -13 EN 6100 0 -4 -10 E N 6100 0 -4 -21
EN 6100 0 -4 -14 (EN 6100 0-4-22)
EN 6100 0 -4 -17
EN 6100 0 -4 -18 NSG 4060
EN 6100 0 -4 -27 NSG 4060-1
EN 6100 0 -4 -28 NSG 4070
EN 6100 0 -4 -29 ITS 6006
EN 6100 0 -4 -3 4

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16

Status :

Ed. 1.2 : 2011-05 CSV


AMD2 : 2009-07
Ed. 1.1 : 2002-07 CSV
AMD1 : 2001-07
Ed. 1.0 : 1998-01

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Disturbance sources & victims
Ground lines are made of series resistors and inductors. The CM currents generates over the series impedance
of the grounding conductor voltage drops, which are the source of the common mode interference.

Voltages and currents


are superposed with all
kinds of interference.

Leakage current
through filter burden
the earth wire.

Voltage drops in the Earth conductors caused by the interference of CM in


supply lines leading to disturbances in signal and data cable.

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Disturbance sources & victims

DC (0 Hz) DC-power supplies in industrial plants and electric


systems as in telephone distribution centers can
generate DC Common Mode interferences. In particular
if the positive or negative pole is connected to Earth.
Telecom Standby Batterysystem in Zürich
48V 5000Ah Source: Oerlikon

16 2/3 Hz Railway networks generates disturbances


on the railway-frequency caused by the
return currents in the earth. The return
current to the sub-station is in general,
each 1/3 through the rail, in the earth wire
and as earth current in the soil.

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Common-
Common-mode (CM) testing <150 kHz

IEC 61000-4-16

Test at mains frequency DC, 162/3 Hz, 50 Hz or 60 Hz Sweep test 15 Hz to 150 kHz

Continuous test Short time test 1 s


up to 30 V up to 300 V

Level 15 Hz-150 Hz 150 Hz-1.5 kHz 1.5 kHz-15 kHz 15 kHz-150 kHz
1 1 – 0.1 0.1 0.1 – 1 1
2 3 – 0.3 0.3 0.3 – 3 3
3 10 – 1 1 1 – 10 10
4 30 – 3 3 3 – 30 30
x x x x x

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Common-
Common-mode (CM) disturbances & testing

Coupling network
Decoupling network

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Related IEC & EN standards

Disturbance source :
IEC 61543 Residual Current Protective Device (RCDs) for household and similar use
IEC 60255-22-7 Electrical relays - Part 22-7: Electrical disturbance tests for
measuring relays and protection equipment - Power frequency
immunity tests
IEC 60533/ Electrical and electronic installations in ships -
IEC 60945 Electromagnetic compatibility
EN 61326-3-1 Electrical equipment for measurement, control and
laboratory use - EMC requirements - Part 3-1: Immunity
requirements for safety-related systems and for equipment
intended to perform safety-related functions (functional safety) - General
industrial applications Level 3
IEC 61850-3 Communication networks and systems in substations- Part 3:
General requirements:
- E.g. Industrial ethernet
- Required up to level 4 with 30 V cont. and 300 V for 1 s

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Example : Product standard IEC 61543

Residual current-operated protective devices (RCDs) for household and similar use
RCD = Residual Current Protective Device

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-16
> Solutions :

EM Test : CWS 500N4 TESEQ : NSG 4060

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Agenda

Introduction
Harmonics and interharmonics immunity –
IEC 61000-4-13
Common mode conducted immunity 0 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-16

Differential mode conducted immunity


2 to 150 kHz – IEC 61000-4-19
Outlook – which changes lay ahead?

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-19

Status :

Ed. 1.0 : 2014-05


Stability date : 2017

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-19
> Disturbance sources & victims
Disturbance sources :
Inverters (e.g. elevator drives, ski lift drives, PV installations);
Smart meters with PLC data transmission;
Switched mode power supplies (e.g. in compact lamps, computers, TVs);
UPS;
Variable speed drives (e.g. heat pumps);
DVD players

Victims – with degraded performance or malfunction :


Smart meters with PLC data transmission, solid state meters;
Touch-dimmer lamps (TDL);
Communication systems (e.g. Ethernet-system, routers);
Contactless card readers, credit card terminals;
Alarm systems;
Electronic controls (e.g. in heating systems, street lighting);
Household appliances (e.g. coffee machines, ceramic hobs, washing machines)

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-19
> Differential-
Differential-mode (DM) testing <150 kHz

IEC 61000-4-19

Voltage testing Current testing

CW pulses Rectangularly CW pulses Rectangularly


with pause modulated pulses with pause modulated pulses

Testing electricity meters

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-19
> Test levels
Open circuit output voltage (r.m.s.)
Profile : Level 2 kHz-9 kHz 9 kHz-95 kHz 95 kHz-150 kHz
- Frequency step : ∆ 2% of previous setting
1 0.5 0.5 to 0.1 0.1
2 3 3 to 0.6 0.6 - Step duration : min. 3 s
3 12 12 to 2.4 2.4
4 20 20 to 10 10
x Special Special Special

Short circuit output current (r.m.s.)


Profile : Level 2 kHz- 30 kHz 30 kHz-150 kHz
1 1 0.5
2 2 1
3 3 1.5
4 4 2
x Special Special

Example :
Fi = 2 kHz
T dwell = 3 s - Frequency step : ∆ 2% of previous setting
T pause = 300 ms - Step duration : min. 3 s

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-19
> Differential-
Differential-mode (DM) disturbances & testing

Coupling to a.c. power ports only

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-19
> Example for testing an electricity meter (EN 50579)

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IEC 61000-
61000-4-19
> Test equipment : IEC 61000-
61000-4-16 vs -4-19

IEC 61000-4-16 IEC 61000-4-19

NSG 4060 + NSG 4060-1 NSG 4060

DC 15 Hz 150 kHz (15 Hz) 2 kHz 150 kHz

Coupling decoupling networks CDND


(Voltage testing)
Coupling networks CN series

Current transformer CT
(Current testing)
Isolation transformer ITF series

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Agenda

Introduction
Harmonics and interharmonics immunity –
IEC 61000-4-13
Common mode conducted immunity 0 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-16
Differential mode conducted immunity 2 to 150 kHz –
IEC 61000-4-19

Outlook – which changes lay ahead?

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> Outlook – changes in work

IEC 61000-4-13 : Ed. 1.0 Amend. 2 ; Status: CDV


Review of chapter 4.1.3 Mains signaling (ripple control) ; extended frequency
range from min. 110 Hz down to 100 Hz
Review of chapter 5.2 Test levels for interharmonics and mains signalling
Review of chapter 8.2.4 Application of the Meister curve Meister curve test
Table 11 changed to fix frequency ranges (16.5 – 2400 Hz)
IEC 61000-4-16 : Ed. 2.0 (Amend. 3 to Ed.1) ; Status: FDIS (voting to 2015-11)
Added reference to IEC 61000-4-19
Added definition of Source impedance of the test generator
Revised : Source impedance : Voc/Isc = 50 Ω, with a relative tolerance of ± 10 %.
Verification of test generator : generator impedance deleted
Replaced Figure 3 & 4
IEC 61000-4-19 : Ed. 1.0 ; Status: stable
Published 2014-05
Stability date : 2017

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CONDUCTED RF EQUIPMENT POWER AMPLIFIERS

Thank you for your attention

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