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CRITICAL ABSTRACT: “HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN

THE PHI LI PPI NES: FRO M PRECOLONI AL TO THE PHI LI PPI NE


REVOLUTI ON”
BY BENJAMIN M. VALLEJO JR.
WHAT IS THE ARTICLE ALL ABOUT?

The article is about the past science and technology in the Philippines. It

involves the functions and notions of science and technology from precolonial up

to Philippine revolution. It stated that before the European colonization in the

Philippines, science is viewed as understanding of the physical world as a product

of intuition and observation, while technology is the application of this knowledge

which they used in acquiring resources. They referred to science as “Agham”,

which came from the Sanskrit word “agama” meaning “impending the truth”, but

is interpreted by the Malays as religion. Hence, is given by their view in science in

religious way. Their knowledge of science and technology is found to be their way

of extracting, refining, and crafting gold and some metals. Moreover, precolonial

Filipinos are found to have their own way of naming stars and its arrangement

which they utilized in their calendar and guide in their agriculture. What is more

enlightening was that we already had our technology in processing copra even

before, proving how knowledgeable our precolonial ancestors are even without

the minds of the colonizers. On the other hand, Spanish colonization, brought

upon documentation and including science as a part of schooling. Pharmacy,

botany and zoology was also introduced. They also gave emphasis in the

application of science in course plotting, agrarian enterprise, business


development, and public welfare. In terms of industrial development, Spaniards

aimed to utilize science in improving the economies of their colonies. On the

other hand, the Philippine “Sociedad” was focused on improving the

competitiveness of the agricultural sector, driven by the competition with the

British people. Modern public health system was also established as they

recognized the significance of public health. Technologies were also invented like

the cartographic, bathymetric and oceanographic surveys. Improvised

equipment were introduced in the last decades of the Spanish regime, like the

one used by Francisco Colina in observing the weather and the barometer of

Father Federico Faura SJ that monitored typhoons which are major threats to

navigation, life, possessions and economy of the Philippines. On the contrary,

science at the birth of Filipino nation, involved the Ilustrados, or the overseas

educated Filipino scholars as scientists. Policies like the Moret Decree of 1871 were

also established which furthers the advancement of science and its contribution

to the development of the nation. Licensing also occurred in granting the person

their degrees. More researches are also done by the scholars which mostly

focused on reducing the health disasters in the Philippines.

HOW WILL YOU CONNECT THE ARTICLE TO THE CURRENT STATE OF PHILIPPINE

DEVELOPMENT?

According to The World Bank Group (2018), the state of the Philippine

development as of 2017 remains positive but with national threats still in the verge
of taking control. The country’s economy is likely to maintain its augmentation

path and develop at a percentage rate of 6.7 in both 2018 and 2019. With this

trend, in year 2020, development is estimated to reach 6.6 percent. However,

domestic risks are expected as well as inflationary pressure estimated to increase

in 2018 as well. As of now, this inflation is highly felt by the people of the Philippines

given by the uncontrollable price increase of the products. According to Napa

(2017), in her article “The Role of Science and Technology in the Philippine

Economy”, in a joint-meeting, the Department of Science and Technology (DOST)

has highlighted the significance of science and technology in developing our

nation, mentioning that almost all of the extremely developed countries around

the world has a great recognition for science and technology. Thus, they have

emphasized the need of our country to lean on science and technology for the

betterment of our economy that DOST, through research and development, aims

to stimulate sustainable growth with their ability to improve health, produce

energy and emerging technologies and contribute in disaster risk reduction whilst

providing new sources of income in our country as well. An example of the effect

of S & T in the state o development of the Philippines is that through DOST, risk

reduction and damage mitigation for natural calamities would be possible. In

fact, the Philippines has launched its own micro-satellite, which is the “DIWATA 1”,

and has even “DIWATA 2” as its follow-up development.

REFERENCES
Napa, D. (2017). The Role of Science and Technology in the Philippine Economy.

Retrieved September 16, 2018, from https://medium.com/the-looking-

glass/the-role-of-science-and-technology-in-the-philippine-economy-

8bd6562ed71c

World Bank Group. (2018). Philippines Economic Update: Investing in the Future.

Retrieved September 16, 2018, from

https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/philippines/publication/philippines-

economic-update-investing-in-the-future