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the upper bound for all systems would show ‘An appraisal of the results shown in Table 8.2 shows that considerably iven by the failure modes approach. For instance, in the present example the results show that the system failure rate and ly due to the overlapping forced outage of the two that the system outage duration is mainly due to the overlapping ment will give the greatest reliability improvement. This information is not readily deducible from the network reduction method, particularly when the system increases in size. 8.3. Inclusion of busbar failures ‘The results shown in Sections 8.2.3 and 8.2.4 were evaluated assuming the breakers and busbars were ‘ nents can be taken into account using both network re modes. analyses. ‘The effect of busbars is considered breakers in Section 8.9. Assume the busbars in Fig. 8.1 have the reliability data shown in Table 8.3. Table 83 Reliability indices of Dbusbars in Fig. 8.1 Component 2 (flyx) (hows) 5 coe 6 oo 2 (@) Network reduction "previously obtained in Se Di App = 6.984% 10*+0.01+0.02= 3.070 10" tyr Ujy= 4.107 10 +0.01 5 +0.02X2=9.411 x10"? hours/yr Us fog 2-307 hours, (b) Failure modes dnalysis nal failure modes (minimal cut sets) are component S and component 6, giving the results shown in Table 8.4. Toble 8.4. Rel dices including busbar failures Failure dee ee Up event (iy) (hows) (howrsye) Subtotal from 6.98610 5.88 4,110x10" ‘Table 82 5 1x10? 6 2107 ‘Tol 3.070107 by failures of the two busbars. components are series components and therefore counteract much of the benefit provided by the redundancy aspect of the parallel bran Recognition of series components can be an important aspect in system design because they frequently possess the dominant role. This must not be assumed to be a general conclusion, however, because their contribu- tion depends on their own individual reliability indices. For instance, if the failure rate of each busbar was very small compared with that of the parallel branches, the contribution by the parallel branches could still be . This effect is illustrated by the results of Fig. 8.3, whi variation in the values Of App typ and Upp of failure raté of the busbars are increased, the’ repair times being those shown in Table 8.3. ;