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LASER MICROMACHINING

A Seminar

On

‘’Laser Micromachining’’
by

Mr.AYUSH PUSHPAKAR

Exam Seat No.T150530807

Guide

Prof.B.G.CHANDANKAR

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Zeal Education Society’s

Zeal College of Engineering &Research

Pune 411041

[2018-19]

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LASER MICROMACHINING

Zeal Education Society’s

Zeal College of Engineering &Research

Pune 411041

CERTIFICATE
This is certify that Mr.Ayush Pushpakar has successfully completed the Seminar entitled,’’Laser
Miromachining’’,under my supervision in the partial fulfillment of Bacheler of Engineering of
Savitribai Phule Pune University,Pune.

Date:

Place:

Prof.B.G.Chandankar Prof. Dr.Amol Ubale

Guide Seminar Coordinator Head,Mechanical

Department

External Examiner Dr.A.M.Katte

Principal,ZCOER

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take up the opportunity to express my gratitude towards all those who have been
instrumental in the completion of this seminar on ‘Study of laser micromachining’.

I am extremely thankful to the seminar guide Prof. B.G.Chandankar for the valuable guidance
and encouragement throughout the development of the seminar.

I also express our sincere thanks to Dr. AMOL UBALE Head of Department and the staff of
Mechanical Department.

Mr.Ayush.Pushpakar

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LIST OF FIGURES

SR.NO NAME PAGE.NO

1 Laser Micromachining schematic diagram 6

2 Dental view of process of laser micromachining 9

3 Laser Ablation 10

4 Machining With long wave laser Pulse 11

5 Machining with Ultra-Fast laser Pulse 12

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CONTENTS
CERTIFICATES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………………………………………ii

LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………………………………..iii

CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………iv

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….v

1. ITRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………….1

1.1 Type of Construction Technologies …………………………………………………..2

1.2 Microelectronics…………………………………………………………………………………3

1.3 Micromachining………………………………………………………………………………….4

2. LITERATURE SURVEY…………………………………………………………………………………5

2.1 Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………….6

2.2 Problem Statement……………………………………………………………………………….7

3. MICROMACHINING PROCESSES…………………………………………………………………5

3.1 Surface Micromachining……………………………………………………………………..9

3.2 Bulk Micromachining…………………………………………………………………………..10

3.3 Laser Micromachining……………………………………………………………………………11

3.4 Silicon Micromachining………………………………………………………………………….12

4. LASER MICROMACHINING…………………………………………………………………………….13

4.1 Why to use laser……………………………………………………………………………………..14

4.2 What is laser micromachining…………………………………………………………………15

4.3 Material Removal Mechanism………………………………………………………………16

5. TYPE OF LASER MICROMACHINING……………………………………………………………….17

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5.1 Long wave laser pulse……………………………………………………………………..

5.2 Ultra-Fast Laser Pulse…………………………………………………………………….

6. ELEMENTARY VOLUME ABLATION OF BRITTLE MATERIALS………………..

7. APPLICATION AND USE………………………………………………………………………..

8. ADVANTAGES OF MICRO-MACHINING…………………………………………………

9. CHALLENGES FOR LASER MICROMACHINING…………………………………….

10. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS…………………………………………………

11. REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………

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ABSTRACT

We describe micro machining as an important field in micro engineering. Micromachining is the


name for the techniques used to produce the structures and moving parts of microengineering
devices.

Basic information about micro engineering and machining is explained in first chapter of
introduction. We mention four important processes of micro machining which are used to get
high accuracy, increased miniaturization. Among these four processes we explain laser micro
machining in detail. Laser micro machining is the preferred fabrication method in many
industrial sectors where emphasis is mostly on attaining satisfactory feature quality at maximum
processing speed. The brief explanation about the material removal mechanism-using laser is
given with laser micromachining definition. In further chapters we discuss the different types,
benefits and limitations of laser micromachining.

Different processes, which lasers can do under micromachining, are drilling, milling, cutting,
scribing, etc. The detailed study of scribing process is given for glass and other brittle materials.
It includes mechanism, advantages, application and uses of glass and other brittle materials
scribing process. This explains how finely we can scribe the material like glass and any other
brittle material.

In concluding chapters, advantages of micro machining, challenges to laser micro machining,


and the future trends are explained. The application areas of micromachining in practical life are
introduced.

So the paper contains detailed study of micro machining related to lasers including its types,
advantages, limitations, future trends and applications.

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INTRODUCTION
Microengineering refers to the technologies and practice of making three dimensional structures and
devices with dimensions in the order of micrometers. One of the main goals of Microengineering is to
be able to integrate microelectronic circuitry into micromachined structures, to produce completely
integrated systems (Microsystems). Such systems could have the same advantages of low cost,
reliability and small size as silicon chips produced in the microelectronics industry.

1.1 There are two constructional technologies of microengineering:-

1) Microelectronics 2) Micromachining

1.2 Microelectronics, producing electronic circuitry on silicon chips, is a very well developed
technology.

1.3 Micromachining is the name for the techniques used to produce the structures and moving
parts of microengineered devices.

 Micro machining, or miniature machining, refers to the machining of very


small parts. The most common applications of micro machining are for the medical and
electronics industries. Parts that are produced by micro-machining are typically so
small the must be inspected using a microscope.
 Micromachining is typically performed by machine shops that specialize in the
machining of miniature parts to precise tolerances.
 Advances in micromachining in the past decade have been driven by two basic
requirements: increased miniturisation and faster processing speeds.
Miniaturisation, for example in medical device technology and consumer electronics, has lead to a
requirement to create finer features and to pack more functionality into a smaller volume. The
competitive global manufacturing economy drives requirements for ever higher throughput and ever
lower cost per part.

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2. LITERATURE SURVEY:-
2.1 Literature Review:- Grey Relational Analysis Based Optimization of
Laser Cutting Process Parameters for Aluminium
Alloy
Rahul D. Patel -2014
 In This paper we have studied that,The performance of laser cutting process is mainly
depends on number of process parameters like laser power,
cutting speed, gas pressure, pulse width, focal length, focal
point position etc.

2.2 Experimental Analysis on Single-Mode Fiber


Based on LP01-LP11 ModesCoupling for WDM
Systems
Israel Palma-Quiroz1, Aranza M. Santos-Díaz2,
José M. Sausedo-Solorio3,- 2013
 In this paper we have studied,The theoretical and experimental behavior of light in
fibers is essential and important to the understanding of complex phenomena. A single-mode fiber
designed to operate at certain wavelength can behave like a fiber multimodal if it spreads radiation with work.

3. MICROMACHINING PROCESSES

There are number of different techniques of micro-machining. Some of them are as


follows:

3.1) Surface micromachining

3.2) Bulk micromachining

3.3) Laser micromachining

3.4) Silicon micromachining

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3.1 Surface Micromachining:

 Surface micromachining is an additive process that involves depositing combinations of


thin structural and sacrificial layers, wherein the sacrificial layers are subsequently
removed to form raised structures that can include gears, comb fingers, cantilevers, and
membranes.
 As the structures are built on top of the substrate and not inside it, the substrate's
properties are not as important as in bulk micromachining, and the expensive silicon
wafers can be replaced by cheaper substrates, such as glass or plastic
 A simple surface micro machined cantilever beam is shown in figure. A sacrificial layer of
oxide is deposited on the surface of the wafer. A layer of polysilicon is then deposited,
and patterned using RIE techniques to a beam with an anchor pad (figure a). The wafer
is then wet etched to remove the oxide layer under the beam, freeing it (figure b). The
anchor pad has been under etched, however the wafer was removed from the etch bath
before all the oxide was removed from under the pad leaving the beam attached to the
wafer.

Figure.1

 Surface micromachining is a process used to produce micromachinery , MEMS, thin film


solar cells

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3.2 Bulk Micromachining:

 Bulk micromachining is a substractive process that involves the selective removal of the
wafer surface material to form MEMS structure.
 Bulk micromachining creates structures inside a substrate, whereas surface
micromachining creates structures on top of substrate.
 Bulk micromachining starts with a silicon wafer or other substrate and selectively etches
into it, using photolithography to transfer a pattern from a mask to the surface. Like
surface micromachining, bulk micromachining can be performed with wet or dry etches,
although the most common etch in silicon is the anisotropic wet etch. This etch takes
advantage of the fact that silicon has a crystal structure, which means its atoms are all
arranged periodically in lines and planes. Certain planes have weaker bonds and are
more susceptible to etching. The etch results in pits that have angled walls, with the
angle being a function of the crystal orientation of the substrate. This type of etching is
inexpensive and is generally used in early and low-budget research.

3.3 Laser micromachining:

Laser micro-machining is an important application of lasers .The unprecedented


miniaturisation of functional devices during the last decade has established laser
micromachining as the preferred fabrication method in many industrial sectors. Today,
a wide variety of lasers are used such as copper vapour lasers,excimer lasers and
femtosecond lasers. Hence, capability has moved on from sawing and drilling to
complex 3D microfabrication of components.

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3.4 Silicon Micromachining:

 Silicon micromachining is given most prominence, since this is one of the better
developed micromachining techniques. Silicon is the primary substrate material used in
the production microelectronic circuitry (i.e., better silicon chips), and so is the most
suitable candidate for the eventual production of Microsystems
 There are a number of basic techniques that can be used to pattern thin films that have
been deposited on a silicon wafer, and to shape the wafer itself, to form a set of basic
microstructures (bulk silicon micromachining). The techniques for depositing and
patterning thin films can be used to produce quite complex microstructures on the
surface of silicon wafer (surface silicon micromachining). Electrochemical etching
techniques are being investigated to extend the set of basic silicon micromachining
techniques. Silicon bonding techniques can also be utilized to extend the structures
produced by silicon micromachining techniques into multilayer structures.

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4. LASER MICROMACHINING

4.1 Why to use laser?:

-Non contact technique

-Soft tooling

-Processing speed

- High resolution

-Cost effectiveness

4.2 what is laser micromachining?

-The material removal mechanism in laser machining is most often termed as laser
ablation .

-Laser ablation-a combination of evaporation and melt expulsion.

-Laser micromachining is most often performed with lasers operating in visible or UV


spectrum and with pulsed durations in the nanosecond regime.

4.3 Material removal mechanism:-

The basis of the mechanism is that the laser radiation absoption depth L is a few microns or less
and that the thermal diffusion during the laser pulse is also limited to a depth D, also of a few
microns or less. That conventional condition for laser micro-machining is, L and D~1micro m or
less

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If either L or D are significantly greater than 1micro m then either the process ceases to
be micromachining (since larger volumes are being removed) or material removal stops
altogether. The thermal diffusion depth D is given by,

where k is the thermal diffusivity and is the laser pulse duration.

Figure.2

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 Important Parameters:-

5.Types of laser micromachining:


Depending upon type of laser used in machining. There are two types-

5.1) Long wave laser pulse:

Figure.3

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 'Long' means that the pulse is longer than about 10 Pico seconds. These long pulse lasers
may be continuous, quasi-continuous, or Q-switched, but in any case they are all generating
long pulses.
 The most fundamental feature of material interaction in the long pulse regime is that the
heat deposited by the laser in the material diffuses away during the pulse duration, as shown
in Figure.
 Material is removed by depositing a lot of energy into the melted material which boils. As
shown in Figure, this boiling ejects globs of the molten material away from the work zone.
 Note that almost all the commercial lasers used in industrial settings today fall in the "long
pulse" laser category.

 Limitations:
 Heat diffusion reduces the efficiency of the micromachining process. Heat diffusion sucks
energy away from the work spot - energy that would otherwise go into removing material.
 Heat-diffusion also reduces the accuracy of the micromachining operation.
5.2) Ultra Fast Laser Pulse:

Figure.4

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The most fundamental feature of laser-matter interaction in the very fast pulse regime is
that the heat deposited by the laser into the material does not have time to move away
from the work spot during the time the laser pulse is illuminating the material.

 The duration of the laser pulse is shorter than the time. This is a very unusual and very
desirable regime, which can be reached only with ultra fast lasers.
 Laser energy just piles up at the level of the working spot, whose temperature rises
instantly past the melting point of the material and goes, very quickly, well beyond even
the evaporation point. In fact, the temperature keeps on climbing into what is called the
plasma regime.
 The internal forces that previously held the material together are vastly insufficient to
contain this expansion of highly ionized atoms (physicists call these charged atoms "ions")
and electrons from the surface. Because the electrons are lighter and more these systems
routinely deliver 5 to 10 Gig watts of peak power. And because the ions (in plasma) all
have some positive charge, they repel each other as they expand away from the material.
Consequently, there are no droplets that condense onto the surrounding material.
Additionally, since there is no melt phase, there is no splattering of material onto the
surrounding surface.
 Advantages:
 Ultra fast laser pulses can machine materials to produce no contamination to the
surrounding material, no melt zone, no micro cracks, no shock wave, no delaminating, no
recast layer, and do damage to adjacent structures. It is highly reproducible, it can be used
to create sub-micron features, and it can machine features inside transparent materials.
 Because the energy does not have the time to diffuse away, the efficiency of the
machining process is high.
 Disadvantages:
 Because the rate of removal of material is dependent on average power, throughput is
low. The technology that makes these ultra fast laser pulses does not produce high
average power.

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6. Laser Scribing of Glass and Other Brittle Materials:

TLS - Thermal Laser Beam Separation Laser separated coupling element

Process for glass fibre cable

An area of the glass surface is heated by a laser working in the infrared spectral range.
Compressive stress builds up in the layers near the surface without however, damaging the
glass. The laser beam moves over the glass along the X axis at working speed, v, and the glass
surface exposed to the laser is cooled from optimal distance.

When coolant (water/air aerosol) is applied the local surface along the cutting line is
suddenly cooled. The resulting steep temperature gradient generates tensile stress of a
magnitude in the layers near the glass panel surface that can be higher than the strength limit
of the glass. This causes propagation of the incipient crack in the glass.

In heat-induced laser beam separation (TLS), the surface of the material is heated by a carbon
dioxide laser, which causes compression stress in the layers near the surface. A steep
temperature gradient is produced by sudden local cooling of the hot line of cut. This generates
tensile stresses above the strength limit in the surface near layers of the material.

Brittle materials can be scribed or a full-body cut made by this method.

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 Elementary volume Ablation of brittle materials:


Elementary Volume Ablation (EVA) is a micro material process in which a carbon dioxide laser
beam is modulated by an optical system in such a way that a specific pulsed radiation is
generated. Each pulse removes 5-20μm of material by instant evaporation. The adjacent areas
are not exposed to temperature.

Principle of Elementary Volume Ablation Laser structured AI2O3

 Advantages of Elementary Volume Ablation:


Elementary Volume Ablation is a no-contact, no-force laser method with no tool wear.
Due to the specific pulsed energy and pulse form, any thermal Stress of adjacent areas is
avoided. This makes the process suitable even for heat-sensitive materials. Stress cracks
do not occur.
This method is neither chipping nor flashing. The processing contour can be programmed
freely. Processing even of small batches is cost efficient.

7. Applications and Use:


Marking and Structuring:
Generation of marks (e.g., logos and letters) or identification codes (e.g. barcodes or
DataMatrixCodes)
Generation of structures with specific optical features in glass or plastic materials
- Generation of surface microstructures, e.g., for modifying surface adhesion or
generating structures (grainy structures, etc.)
Separation:

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- Separation and stripping of glass fibers and coupling elements


- Freeform cutting of glass foil
Microdrilling:
Drilling of micro holes in glass or ceramics.

8. ADVANTAGES OF MICRO-MACHINING

 Laser processing is a method requiring neither contact nor force.

 Defined pre-weakened patterns (tear-open or opening aids)

 High Productivity (Up to 400 Meters/Minute,1,312 Feet/Minute) Resulting in Significant


Cost Savings

 The scribing/cutting and perforating tool is a non-wearing laser beam

 High flexibility due to quick changeover to other formats and materials

 Simple handling of the equipment

 Perfectly cut and/or scored edges or lines

 Good finish of ready packaging

 Processing possible from the web or of individual blanks

 Defined tear-open and opening force can be set

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 Particle-free cutting edge

 The system can be integrated into available production lines


 Adapts to Different Laser Beam Sources Whose Wavelength Can by Optical Fiber.

 Visualization of the Process

 Beam Transmission by Optical Fiber

9. CHALLENGES FOR LASER MICROMACHINING

 In the case of micromachining with conventional long pulse lasers (or more conventional
machining tools), heat-diffusion dominates the micromachining process. This introduces
numerous undesirable side effects that reduces the value of the machining

 Heat diffusion reduces the efficiency of the micromachining process.

 Heat-diffusion also reduces the accuracy of the micromachining operation .

 Heat-diffusion affects a large zone around the machining spot.

 This zone is referred to as the "heat-affected zone" or HAZ. The heating (and
subsequent cooling) waves that propagate through the HAZ causes mechanical stress
and can create micro cracks (or in some cases macro cracks) in the surrounding material.

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 Heat-diffusion is sometimes associated with the formation of surface shock waves.


These shock waves can damage nearby device structures or delaminate multiplayer
materials

 No materials can withstand the forces at work at these power densities. This means that
with ultra fast laser pulses we can machine very hard materials, as well as materials with
extremely high melting points such as Molybdenum, Rhenium, etc.

 The technology is VERY expensive.

10. FUTURE TRENDS

The advances in laser source and beam delivery technology are set to continue and there
are many interesting new products in the pipe line. We anticipate the following trends in
laser technology to allow finer and faster applications which satisfy the market
expectations:

 Higher power (especially at shorter wavelengths) allowing more energy per pulse and
therefore higher material removal rates. In addition, the beam quality will be improved
at higher average powers to combine fine features with high speeds.
 Higher operating frequencies (>200 kHz) will allow faster scribing and ablation rates with
the same quality as is currently available.
 Expanded pulse length operating regime.

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 It is likely that we will see both longer and shorter pulses being offered in combination
with higher average powers:

 Longer pulses will allow more material to be removed with each pulse for high volume
removal.

 Shorter pulses will allow more precise removal of material with little or no heat affected
zone.

 The growth in the market for laser micromachining is likely to be significant as the
investment in the equipment for finer and faster processing continues.

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7.Applicatiions Of Laser Micromachining:-

 The Laser micro machining group focuses on micro precision machining and
micromachining for MEMS applications which includes micro hole drilling, scribing and
cutting of metals, ceramics, silicon, semiconductors, composites and polymers.
 Automated, industrial, turn–key laser micro machining systems are applied to fuel
injector hole micromachining, probe card micro drilling, ink jet nozzle micro drilling,
MEMS and MOEMS micro precision machining applications, scribing and micro drilling of
silicon and semiconductors, micro-fluidics, PCB microvias and biomedical applications.
 Industries:

 Automobile

 Auto Body Shop Repair

 Aerospace and Aircraft

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10. CONCLUSION

By considering all the parameters discussed above we can conclude that, for effective laser micro
machining, length and depth of material should less than or equal to 1 micro m. Among the types
of laser micro machining, ultra fast lasers are more effective than long wave pulse lasers due to
no contamination, no heat diffusion and no shockwaves. But ultra fast pulse lasers have low
average power; so long wave lasers are preferred where very high average power is required.
Laser micro machining is suitable even for heat-sensitive materials where stress cracks do not
occur. Thus laser micro machining increases speed to great extent, extra fineness, and improved
miniaturization.

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11. REFERENCES

1)Lasers Principles,Types And Applications-K.R.Nambiar

2)Micromachining Of Engineering Materials-Joseph McGough

3) Experimental Analysis on Single-Mode Fiber


Based on LP01-LP11 ModesCoupling for WDM

4) Grey Relational Analysis Based Optimization of


Laser Cutting Process Parameters for Aluminium Alloy

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