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AEB4131 / ASB4131

AEROMODELLING LAB

REG NO:

NAME:_________________________

SIGNATURE OF STUDENT SIGNATURE OF FACULTY

Dr. Vishnu Kumar G C

SIGNATURE OF HOD SIGNATURE OF DEAN


-
School of Aeronautical Sciences, Hindustan Institute of Tech. & Science,
Chennai
AERO MODELLING LAB
COURSE TITLE CREDITS 1
(Common to Aeronautical, Aerospace and Avionics)
COURSE CODE AEB4131 / ASB4131 COURSE CATEGORY PC L-T-P-S 0-0-2-2
CIA 80% ESE 20%
LEARNING LEVEL BTL-3
CO COURSE OUTCOMES PO
1 Know wood crafting and the technology of new materials 1,5,6,8
2 Understand aerodynamics, designing, electronics and technology 3, 5, 6
3 Design, fabricate and fly models 2, 3,6,8
Prerequisites : Nil
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS (30 Hrs)
Module ‐1. Introduction to wing plan forms and Aerofoil

Module ‐2. Introduction to Gliders & its Design calculation.

Module ‐3 Design & Fabrication of powered & Un‐powered


Gliders.
Simulation of RC plane
Module ‐4 using simulators

Module ‐5 Design calculation of RC plane


S.NO MODULE MARKS SIGNATURE
INTRODUCTION TO

1 WING PLANFORM

AND AEROFOIL

INTRODUCTION TO

GLIDERS AND ITS


2
DESIGN

CALCULATIONS

DESIGN AND

FABRICATION OF

3 POWERED AND

UNPOWERED

GLIDERS

SIMULATION OF RC

4 PLANE USING

SIMULATORS

DESIGN

5 CALCULATION OF

RC PLANE
1. INTRODUCTION TO WING PLANFORM
AND AEROFOIL
One of the necessary tools in the wing design process is an aerodynamic technique to
calculate wing lift, wing drag, and wing pitching moment. With the progress of the science of
aerodynamics, there are variety of techniques and tools to accomplish this time consuming job.
Variety of tools and software based on aerodynamics and numerical methods have been
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developed in the past decades. The CFD Software based on the solution of Navier-Stokes
equations, vortex lattice method, thin airfoil theory, and circulation are available in the market.
The application of such software –that are expensive and time-consuming – at this early stage of
wing design seems un-necessary. Instead, a simple approach, namely Lifting Line Theory is
introduced. Using this theory, one can determine those three wing productions (L, D, and M)
with an acceptable accuracy.

At the end of this chapter, the practical steps of wing design are introduced. In the middle
of the chapter, the practical steps of wing airfoil selection will also be presented. Two fully
solved example problems; one about wing airfoil selection, and one in whole wing design are
presented in this chapter. It should be emphasized again; as it is discussed in chapter 3; that it is
essential to note that the wing design is a box in the iterative process of the aircraft design
process. The procedure described in this chapter will be repeated several times until all other
aircraft components are in an optimum point. Thus, wing parameters will vary several times until
the combinations of all design requirements are met.

5.2. Number of Wings


One of the decisions a designer must make is to select the number of wings. The options are:
1. Monoplane (i.e. one wing)
2. Two wings (i.e. biplane)
3. Three wings
The number of wings higher than three is not practical. Figure 5.2 illustrates front view of three
aircraft with various configurations.

1. Monoplane, 2. Biplane, 3. triwing

Figure 5.2. Three options in number of wings (front view)

Nowadays, modern aircraft almost all have monoplane. Currently, there are a few aircraft that
employ biplane, but no modern aircraft is found to have three wings. In the past, the major
reason to select more than one wing was the manufacturing technology limitations. A single
wing usually has a longer wing span compared with two wings (with the same total area). Old
manufacturing technology was not able to structurally support a long wing to stay level and rigid.
With the advance in the manufacturing technology and also new aerospace strong materials; such
as advanced light aluminum, and composite materials; this reason is not valid anymore. Another
reason was the limitations on the aircraft wing span. Hence a way to reduce the wing span is to
increase the number of wings.

Thus, a single wing (that includes both left and right sections) is almost the only practical
option in conventional modern aircraft. However, a few other design considerations may still
force the modern wing designer to lean toward more than one wing. The most significant one is
the aircraft controllability requirements. An aircraft with a shorter wing span delivers higher roll
control, since it has a smaller mass moment of inertia about x axis. Therefore if you are looking
to roll faster; one option is to have more than one wing that leads to a shorter wing span. Several
maneuverable aircraft in 1940s and 1950s had biplane and even three wings. On the other hand,
the disadvantages of an option other than monoplane include higher weight, lower lift, and pilot
visibility limits. The recommendation is to begin with a monoplane, and if the design
requirements were not satisfied, resort to higher number of wings.

5.3. Wing Vertical Location


One of the wing parameters that could be determined at the early stages of wing design process
is the wing vertical location relative to the fuselage centerline. This wing parameter will directly
influence the design of other aircraft components including aircraft tail design, landing gear
design, and center of gravity. In principle, there are four options for the vertical location of the
wing. They are:
1. High wing
2. Mid wing
3. Low wing
4. Parasol wing

a. High wing b. Mid wing

c. Low wing b. Parasol wing


Figure 5.3. Options in vertical wing positions
a. Cargo aircraft C-130 (high wing)
(Photo courtesy of Tech. Sgt. Howard Blair, U.S. Air Force)

b. Passenger aircraft Boeing 747 (low wing)


(Photo courtesy of Philippe Noret – AirTeamimages)

c. Military aircraft Scorpions (mid wing)


(Photo courtesy of Photographer’s Mate 3rd Class Joshua Karsten, U.S. Navy)

d. Home-built Pietenpol Air Camper (parasol wing)


(Photo courtesy of Adrian Pingstone)

Figure 5.4. Four aircraft with different wing vertical positions


Figure 5.3 shows the schematics of these four options. In this figure, only the front-views
of the aircraft fuselage and wing are shown. In general, cargo aircraft and some GA aircraft have
high wing; and most passenger aircraft have low wing. On the other hand, most fighter airplanes
and some GA aircraft have mid wing; while hang gliders and most amphibian aircraft have
parasol wing. The primary criterion to select the wing location originates from operational
requirements, while other requirements such as stability and producibility requirements are the
influencing factors in some design cases.

Figure 5.4 illustrates four aircraft in which various wing locations are shown. In this
sections, the advantages and disadvantages of each option is examined. The final selection will
be made based on the summations of all advantages and disadvantages when incorporated into
design requirements. Since each option has a weight relative to the design requirements, the
summation of all weights derives the final choice.

5.3.1. High Wing


The high wing configuration has several advantages and disadvantages that make it suitable for
some flight operations, but unsuitable for other flight missions. In the following section, these
advantages and disadvantages are presented.

a. Advantages
1. Eases and facilitates the loading and unloading of loads and cargo into and out of cargo
aircraft. For instance, truck and other load lifter vehicles can easily move around aircraft
and under the wing without anxiety of the hitting and breaking the wing.
2. Facilitates the installation of engine on the wing, since the engine (and propeller)
clearance is higher (and safer), compared with low wing configuration.
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3. Saves the wing from high temperature exit gasses in a VTOL aircraft. The reason is that
the hot gasses are bouncing back when they hit the ground, so they wash the wing
afterward. Even with a high wing, this will severely reduce the lift of the wing structure.
Thus, the higher the wing is the farther the wing from hot gasses.
4. Facilitates the installation of strut. This is based on the fact that a strut (rod or tube) can
handle higher tensile stress compared with the compression stress. In a high wing, struts
have to withstand tensile stress, while struts in a low wing must bear the compression
stress. Figure 3.5d shows a parasol wing with strut.
5. Item 4 implies that the aircraft structure is heavier when struts are employed.
6. Facilitates the taking off and landing from sea. In a sea-based or an amphibian aircraft,
during a take-off operation, water will splash around and will high the aircraft. An engine
installed on a high wing will receive less water compared with a low wing. Thus, the
possibility of engine shut-off is much less.
7. Facilitates the aircraft control for a hang glider pilot, since the aircraft center of gravity is
lower than the wing.
8. High wing will increase the dihedral effect ( Cl ). It makes the aircraft laterally more
stable. The reason lies in the higher contribution of the fuselage to the wing dihedral
effect ( ClW ).
9. The wing will produce more lift compared with mid and low wing, since two parts of the
wing are attached 9at least on the top part).
10. For the same reason as in item 8, the aircraft will have lower stall speed, since C Lmax
will be higher.
11. The pilot has better view in lower-than-horizon. A fighter pilot has a full view under the
aircraft.
12. For an engine that is installed under the wing, there is less possibility of sand and debris
to enter engine and damage the blades and propellers.
13. There is a lower possibility of human accident to hit the propeller and be pulled to the
engine inlet. In few rare accidents, several careless people has died (hit the rotating
propeller or pulled into the jet engine inlet).
14. The aerodynamic shape of the fuselage lower section can be smoother.
15. There is more space inside fuselage for cargo, luggage or passenger.
16. The wing drag is producing a nose-down pitching moment, so it is longitudinally
stabilizing. This is due to the higher location of wing drag line relative to the aircraft
center of gravity (MDcg < 0).

b. Disadvantages
1. The aircraft frontal area is more (compared with mid wing). This will increase aircraft
drag.
2. The ground effect is lower, compared with low wing. During takeoff and landing
operations, the ground will influence the wing pressure distribution. The wing lift will
be slightly lower than low wing configuration. This will increase the takeoff run
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slightly. Thus, high wing configuration is not a right option for STOL aircraft.
3. Landing gear is longer if connected to the wing. This makes the landing gear heavier
and requires more space inside the wing for retraction system. This will further make
the wing structure heavier.
4. The pilot has less higher-than-horizon view. The wing above the pilot will obscure
part of the sky for a fighter pilot.
5. If landing gear is connected to fuselage and there is not sufficient space for retraction
system, an extra space must be provided to house landing gear after retraction. This
will increase fuselage frontal area and thus will increase aircraft drag.
6. The wing is producing more induced drag (Di), due to higher lift coefficient.
7. The horizontal tail area of an aircraft with a high wing is about 20% larger than the
horizontal tail area with a low wing. This is due to more downwash of a high wing on
the tail.
8. A high wing is structurally about 20% heavier than low wing.
9. The retraction of the landing gear inside the wing is not usually an option, due to the
required high length of landing gear.
10. The aircraft lateral control is weaker compared with mid wing and low wing, since
the aircraft has more laterally dynamic stability.

Although, the high wing has more advantages than disadvantages, but all items do not
have the same weighing factor. It depends on what design objective is more significant than
other objectives in the eyes of the customer. The systems engineering approach delivers an
approach to determine the best option for a specific aircraft, using a comparison table.

5.3.2. Low Wing


In this section, advantages and disadvantages of a low wing configuration will be presented.
Since the reasons for several items are similar with the reasons for a high wing configuration, the
reasons are not repeated here. In majority of cases, the specifications of low wing are compared
with a high wing configuration.

a. Advantages
1. The aircraft take off performance is better; compared with a high wing configuration;
due to the ground effect.
2. The pilot has a better higher-than-horizon view, since he/she is above the wing.
3. The retraction system inside the wing is an option along with inside the fuselage.
4. Landing gear is shorter if connected to the wing. This makes the landing gear lighter
and requires less space inside the wing for retraction system. This will further make
the wing structure lighter.
5. In alight GA aircraft, the pilot can walk on the wing in order to get into the cockpit.
6. The aircraft is lighter compared with a low wing structure.
7. Aircraft frontal area is less.
8. The application of wing strut is usually no longer an option for the wing structure.
9. Item 8 implies that the aircraft structure is lighter since no strut is utilized.
10. Due to item 8, the aircraft drag is lower.
11. The wing has less induced drag.
12. It is more attractive to the eyes of a regular viewer.
13. The aircraft has higher lateral control compared with a high wing configuration, since
the aircraft has less lateral dynamic stability, due to the fuselage contribution to the
wing dihedral effect ( ClW ).
14. The wing has less downwash on the tail, so the tail is more effectiveness.
15. The tail is lighter; compared with a high wing configuration;.

b. Disadvantages
1. The wing generates less lift; compared with a high wing configuration; since the wing
has two separate sections.
2. With the same token to item 1, the aircraft will have higher stall speed; compared
with a high wing configuration; due to a lower CLmax.
3. Due to item 2, the take-off run is longer.
4. The aircraft has lower airworthiness due to a higher stall speed.
5. Due to item 1, wing is producing less induced drag.
6. The wing has less contribution to the aircraft dihedral effect, thus the aircraft is
laterally dynamically less stable.
7. Due to item 4, the aircraft is laterally more controllable, and thus more maneuverable.
8. The aircraft has a lower landing performance, since it needs more landing run.
9. The pilot has a lower lower-than-horizon view. The wing below the pilot will obscure
part of the sky for a fighter pilot.
10. The wing drag is producing a nose-up pitching moment, so a low wing is
longitudinally destabilizing. This is due to the lower position of the wing drag line
relative to the aircraft center of gravity (MDcg > 0).

Although, the low wing has more advantages than disadvantages, but all items do not
have the same weighing factors. It depends on what design objective is more significant than
other objectives in the eyes of the customer. The systems engineering approach delivers an
approach to determine the best option for a specific aircraft.

5.3.3. Mid Wing


In general, the features of a mid wing configuration stands somewhat between the high wing and
the low wing configuration. The major difference lies in the necessity to cut the wing spar in two
half in order to save the space inside the fuselage. Other than those features that can be easily
derived from two previous sections, some new features of a mid wing configuration are as
follows:

1. The aircraft structure is heavier, due to the necessity of reinforcing wing root at the
intersection with the fuselage.
2. The mid wing is more expensive compared with high and low wing configurations.
3. The mid wing is more attractive compared with two other configurations.
4. The mid wing is aerodynamically streamliner compared with two other configurations.
5. The strut is usually not used to reinforce the wing structure.
6. The pilot can get into the cockpit using the wing as a step in the small GA aircraft.

5.3.4. Parasol Wing


This wing configuration is usually employed in hang gliders plus amphibian aircraft. In several
areas, the features are similar to a high wing configuration. The reader is referred to above items
for more details and the reader is expected to be able to derive conclusion by comparing various
configurations. Since the wing is utilizing longer struts, it is heavier and has more drag,
compared with a high wing configuration.

Design objectives Weight High wing Low wing Mid wing Parasol wing
Stability requirements 20%
Control requirements 15%
Cost 10%
Producibility requirements 10%
Operational requirements 40%
Other requirements 5%
Summation 100% 93 76 64 68
Table 5.1. A sample table to compare the features of four wing vertical locations

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5.3.5. The Selection Process
The best approach to select the wing vertical location is to produce a table (such as table 5.1)
consists of weight of each option for various design objectives. The weight of each design
objective must be usually designated such that the summation adds up to 100%. A comparison
between the summations of points among four options leads the designer to the best
configuration. Table 5.1 illustrates a sample table to compare four wing configurations in the
wing design process for a cargo aircraft. All elements of this table must be carefully filled with
numbers. The last row is the summation of all numbers in each column. In the case of this table,
the high wing has gained the highest point (93), so high wing seems to be the best candidate for
the sample problem. As it is observed, even the high wing configuration does not fully satisfy all
design requirements, but it is an optimum option among four available options. Reference 5 is a
rich resource for the procedure of the selection technique.

5.4. Airfoil
This section is devoted to the process to determine airfoil section for a wing. It is appropriate to
claim that the airfoil section is the second most important wing parameter; after wing planform
area. The airfoil section is responsible for the generation of the optimum pressure distribution on
the top and bottom surfaces of the wing such that the required lift is created with the lowest
aerodynamic cost (i.e. drag and pitching moment). Although every aircraft designer has some
basic knowledge of aerodynamics and the basics of airfoils; but to have a uniform starting point,
the concept of airfoil and its governing equations will be reviewed. The section begins with a
discussion on airfoil selection or airfoil design. Then basics of airfoil, airfoil parameters, and
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most important factor on airfoil section will be presented. A review of NACA - the forerunner
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of NASA - airfoils will be presented later, since the focus in this section is on the airfoil
selection. The criteria for airfoil selection will be introduced and finally the procedure to select
the best airfoil is introduced. The section will be ended with a fully solved example to select an
airfoil for a candidate wing.

5.4.1. Airfoil Design or Airfoil Selection


The primary function of the wing is to generate lift force. This will be generated by a
special wing cross section called airfoil. Wing is a three dimensional component, while the
airfoil is two dimensional section. Because of the airfoil section, two other outputs of the airfoil,
and consequently the wing, are drag and pitching moment. The wing may have a constant or a
non-constant cross-section across the wing. This topic will be discussed in section 5.9.
There are two ways to determine the wing airfoil section:
1. Airfoil design
2. Airfoil selection

The design of the airfoil is a complex and time consuming process and needs expertise in
fundamentals of aerodynamics at graduate level. Since the airfoil needs to be verified by testing
it in a wind tunnel, it is expensive too. Large aircraft production companies such as Boeing and
Airbus have sufficient human expert (aerodynamicists) and budget to design their own airfoil for
every aircraft, but small aircraft companies, experimental aircraft producers and homebuilt

4
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
5
National Administration for Aeronautics and Astronautics
manufacturers do not afford to design their airfoils. Instead they select the best airfoils among the
current available airfoils that are found in several books or websites.

With the advent of high speed and powerful computers, the design of airfoil is not as hard
as thirty years ago. There is currently a couple of aerodynamic software packages (CFD) in the
market that can be used to design airfoil for variety of needs. Not only aircraft designers need to
design their airfoils, but there other many areas that airfoil needs to be design for their products.
The list includes jet engine axial compressor blades, jet engine axial turbine blades, steam power
plant axial turbine blades, wind turbine propellers, centrifugal and axial pump impeller blades,
turboprop engine propellers, centrifugal and axial compressor impeller blades and large and
small fans. The efficiencies of all of these industrial mechanical or aerospace devices rely
heavily on the section of their blades; that is ―airfoil‖.

If you have enough time, budget and manpower; and decide to design an airfoil for your
aircraft, you are referred to the references that are listed at the end of the textbook. But remember
the airfoil design is a design project for itself and needs to be integrated into the aircraft design
process properly. But if you are a junior aircraft designer with limited resources, you are
recommended to select the airfoil from the available airfoil database.

Any aerodynamics textbook introduces several theories to analyze flow around an airfoil.
The application of potential-flow theory together with boundary-layer theory to airfoil design
and analysis was accomplished many years ago. Since then, potential-flow and boundary layer
theories have been steadily improved. With the advent of computers, these theories have been
used increasingly to complement wind-tunnel tests. Today, computing costs are so low that a
complete potential-flow and boundary-layer analysis of an airfoil costs considerably less than
one percent of the equivalent wind-tunnel test. Accordingly, the tendency today is toward more
and more commonly applicable computer codes. These codes reduce the amount of required
wind-tunnel testing and allow airfoils to be tailored to each specific application.

One of the oldest and most reliable airfoil designers is Richard Eppler (Ref. 1) in
Germany. Eppler has developed an airfoil design code that is based on conformal mapping. The
Eppler code has been developed over the past 45 years. It combines a conformal-mapping
method for the design of airfoils with prescribed velocity-distribution characteristics, a panel
method for the analysis of the potential flow about given airfoils, and an integral boundary-layer
method. The code contains an option that allows aircraft-oriented boundary-layer developments
to be computed, where the Reynolds number and the Mach number vary with aircraft lift
coefficient and the local wing chord. In addition, a local twist angle can be input. Aircraft drag
polar that includes the induced drag and an aircraft parasite drag can also be computed.

The code will execute on almost any personal computer, workstation, or server, with run
times varying accordingly. The most computationally intensive part of the code, the analysis
method, takes only a few seconds to run on a PC. The code is written in standard FORTRAN 77
and, therefore, a FORTRAN compiler is required to translate the supplied source code into
executable code. A sample input and output case is included. All the graphics routines are
contained in a separate, plot-post-processing code that is also supplied. The post-processing code
generates an output file that can be sent directly to a printer. The user can adapt the post-
processing code to other plotting devices, including the screen.
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It is very efficient and has been successfully applied at Reynolds numbers from 3×10 to
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5×10 . A compressibility correction to the velocity distributions, which is valid as long as the
local flow is not supersonic, has been incorporated into the code. The code is available, for a fee,
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in North America exclusively from Mark D. Maughmer .

If you are not ready to design your own airfoil, you are recommended to select a proper
airfoil from the previously designed and published airfoil sections. Two reliable airfoil resources
are NACA and Eppler. The details of Eppler airfoils have been published in Reference 1. NACA
airfoils have been published in a book published by Abbott and Von Donehoff (Ref. 2). The
book has been published in 1950s, but still reprinted and available in almost every aerospace
related library. Both references present the airfoil coordinates plus pressure distribution and a
few other graphs such as Cl, Cd, and Cm for a range angle of attacks. Eppler airfoil names begin
with the letter ―E‖ followed by three numbers. More details on NACA airfoils will be presented
in Section 5.3.4.

A regular flight operation consists of take off, climb, cruise, turn, maneuver, descent,
approach and landing. Basically, the airfoil‟s optimum function is in cruise, that an aircraft
spend much of its flight time in this flight phase. At a cruising flight, lift (L) is equal to aircraft
weight (W), and drag (D) is equal to engine thrust (T). Thus the wing must produce sufficient lift
coefficient, while drag coefficient must be minimum. Both of these coefficients are mainly
coming from airfoil section. Thus two governing equations for a cruising flight are:

1 2
L  W  V SC L  mg (5.1)
2

1
D  T  V SC D  nTmax
2
(jet engine) (5.2)
2
n P
1 P max
D  T  V SCD 
2
(prop-driven engine) (5.3)
V
2 C

The equation 5.2 is for an aircraft with jet engine, but equation 5.3 is for an aircraft with
prop-driven engine. The variable ―n‖ ranges between 0.6 to 0.9. It means that only a partial
engine throttle is used in a cruising flight and maximum engine power or engine thrust is not
employed. The exact value for n will be determined in later design steps. For the airfoil initial
design, it is suggested to use 0.75. The maximum engine power or engine thrust is only used
during take-off or when cruising with maximum speed. Since a major criterion for airfoil design
is to satisfy cruising flight requirements, equations 1 through 3 are used in airfoil design as
explained later in this section. In the following section, the wing airfoil selection procedure is
described.

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RR 1, Box 965 Petersburg, PA 16669 USA
5.4.2. General Features of an Airfoil
Any section of the wing cut by a plane parallel to the aircraft xz plane is called an airfoil. It is
usually looks like a positive cambered section that the thicker part is in front of the airfoil. An
airfoil-shaped body moved through the air will vary the static pressure on the top surface and on
the bottom surface of the airfoil. A typical airfoil section is shown in figure 5.5, where several
geometric parameters are illustrated. If the mean camber line in a straight line, the airfoil is
referred to as symmetric airfoil, otherwise it is called cambered airfoil. The camber of airfoil is
usually positive. In a positive cambered airfoil, the upper surface static pressure in less than
ambient pressure, while the lower surface static pressure is higher than ambient pressure. This is
due higher airspeed at upper surface and lower speed at lower surface of the airfoil (see figure
5.6 and 5.7). As the airfoil angle of attack increases, the pressure difference between upper and
lower surfaces will be higher (see Ref. 3).
x-location of
Maximum thickness
Maximum
thickness
Thickness Maximum Mean camber line
camber

Leading edge
radius

Leading edge
Chord line
Trailing edge

x-location of
Maximum camber Chord

Figure 5.5. Airfoil geometric parameters

a. Small angle of attack b. Large angle of attack

Figure 5.6. Flow around an airfoil

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a. Small angle of attack b. Large angle of attack

Figure 5.7. Pressure distribution around an airfoil

The force divided by the area is called pressure, so the aerodynamic force generated by an airfoil
in a flow field may be calculated by multiplication of total pressure by area. The total pressure is
simply determined by integration of pressure over the entire surface. The magnitude, location,
and direction of this aerodynamic force are functions of airfoil geometry, angle of attack, flow
property, and airspeed relative to the airfoil.

Trailing edge

Flight angle of attacks

Pressure center

Aerodynamic center
Cm

Leading edge
Angle of attack

Figure 5.8. The pressure center movement as a function of angle of attack

The location of this resultant force out of the integration is called center of pressure (cp). The
location of this center depends on aircraft speed plus the airfoil‟s angle of attack. As the aircraft
speed increases, the center of pressure moves aftward (see figure 5.8). At lower speeds, cp
location is close to the leading edge and at higher speeds, it moves toward trailing edge. There is
a location on the airfoil that has significant features in aircraft stability and control. The
aerodynamic center is a useful concept for the study of stability and control. In fact, the force and

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moment system on a wing can be completely specified by the lift and drag acting through the
aerodynamic center, plus the moment about the aerodynamic center, as sketched in Figure 5.9.

It is convenient to move the location of the resultant force – that is moving along - to the
new location; aerodynamic center; that is almost stable. By operation of adding two equal forces
– one at the center of pressure, and another one at the aerodynamic center- we can move the
location of the resultant force. By doing so, we have to account for that, by introducing an
aerodynamic pitching moment (see fig 5.10). This will add a moment to our aerodynamic force.
Therefore we can conclude that the pressure and shear stress distributions over a wing produce a
pitching moment. This moment can be taken about any arbitrary point (the leading edge, the
trailing edge, the quarter chord, etc.). The moment can be visualized as being produced by the
resultant lift acting at a particular distance back from the leading edge. As a fraction of the chord,
the distance to this point, is known as the center of pressure. However, there exists a particular
point about which the moments are independent of angle of attack. This point is defined as the
aerodynamic center for the wing.

a. The force on pressure center b. Addition of two equal forces c. Force on aerodynamic center

Figure 5.9. The movement of resultant force to aerodynamic center

The subsonic airfoil theory shows that lift due to angle of attack acts at a point on the airfoil 25%
of the chord aft of the leading edge. This location is called the quarter-chord point. The point
through which this lift acts is the aerodynamic center (ac). In wind tunnel tests, the ac is usually
within 1% or 2% chord of the quarter-chord point until the Mach number increases to within a
few percent of the drag divergence Mach number. The aerodynamic center then slowly moves aft
as the Mach number is increased further.

Figure 5.10. The aerodynamic lift, drag, pitching moment

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Thus, the pressure and shear stress distributions over the airfoil generate an aerodynamic force.
However, this resultant force is replaced with two aerodynamic forces and one aerodynamic
moment as shown by the vector in Figure 5.10. On the other word, the aerodynamic force can be
resolved into two forces, perpendicular (lift) and parallel (drag) to the relative wind. The lift is
always defined as the component of the aerodynamic force perpendicular to the relative wind.
The drag is always defined as the component of the aerodynamic force parallel to the relative
wind.

5.4.3. Characteristic Graphs of an Airfoil


In the process of wing airfoil selection, we do not look at airfoil geometry only, or its pressure
distribution. Instead, we examine the airfoil operational outputs that are more informative to
satisfy design requirements. There are several graphs that illustrate the characteristics of each
airfoil when compared to other airfoils in the wing airfoil selection process. These are mainly the
variations of non-dimensionalized lift, drag, and pitching moment relative with angle of attack.
Two aerodynamic forces and one aerodynamic pitching moment are usually non-
7
dimensionalized by dividing them to appropriate parameters as follows.
l
Cl  (5.4)
1
V 2 (C 1)
2
d
Cd  (5.5)
1
V 2 (C 1)
2
m
Cm  (5.6)
1
V 2 (C 1)  C
2
where l, d, and m are lift, drag, and pitching moment of a two-dimensional airfoil. The area (C x
1) is assumed to be the airfoil chord times the unit span (b = 1).

Thus, we evaluate the performance and characteristics of an airfoil by looking at the following
graphs.
1. The variations lift coefficient versus angle of attack
2. The variations pitching moment coefficient versus angle of attack
3. The variations of pitching moment coefficient versus lift coefficient
4. The variations of drag coefficient versus lift coefficient
5. The variations of lift-to-drag ratio versus angle of attack

These graphs have several critical features that are essential to the airfoil selection process. Let‟s
first have a review on these graphs.

7
The technique was first introduced by Edger Buckingham (1867-1940) as Buckingham  Theorem. The details
may be found in most Fluid Mechanics textbook.

17
1. The graph of lift coefficient (Cl) versus angle of attack ()

Figure 5.11 shows the typical variations of lift coefficient versus angle of attack for a positive
cambered airfoil. Seven significant features of this graph are: stall angle (s), maximum lift
coefficient (Clmax), zero lift angle of attack (o), ideal lift coefficient (Cli) and angle of attack
corresponding to ideal lift coefficient (Cli), lift coefficient at zero angle of attack (Clo), and lift
curve slope ( Cl ). These are critical to identify the performance of an airfoil.

a. The stall angle (s) is the angle of attack at which the airfoil stalls; i.e. the lift
coefficient will no longer increase with increasing angle of attack. The maximum lift
coefficient that corresponds to stall angle is the maximum angle of attack. The stall
angle is directly related to the flight safety, since the aircraft will lose the balance of
forces in a cruising flight. It the stall is not controlled properly; the aircraft may enter
a spin and eventually crash. In general, the higher the stall angle, the safer is the
aircraft, thus a high stall angle is sought in airfoil selection. The typical stall angles
for majority of airfoils are between 12 to 16 degrees. This means that the pilot is not
allowed to increase the angle of attack more than about 16 degrees. Therefore the
airfoil which has the higher stall angle is more desirable.
b. The maximum lift coefficient (Clmax) is the maximum capacity of an airfoil to
produce non-dimensional lift; i.e. the capacity of an aircraft to lift a load (i.e. aircraft
weight). The maximum lift coefficient is usually occurs at the stall angle. The stall
speed (Vs) is inversely a function of maximum lift coefficient, thus the higher Clmax
leads in the lower Vs. Thus the higher Clmax results in a safer flight. Therefore, the
higher maximum lift coefficient is desired in an airfoil selection process.

Cl
Clmax

C
li

C
lo

0 C s  (deg)

Figure 5.11. The variations of lift coefficient versus angle of attack
c. The zero lift angle of attack (o) is the airfoil angle of attack at which the lift
coefficient is zero. A typical number for o is around -2 degrees when no high lift

18
device is employed. However, when a high lift device is employed; such as -40
degrees of flap down; the o increases to about -12 degrees. The design objective is
to have a higher o (more negative), since it leaves the capacity to have more lift at
zero angle of attack. This is essential for a cruising flight, since the fuselage center
line is aimed to be level (i.e. zero fuselage angle of attack) for variety of flight
reasons such as comfort of passengers.
d. The ideal lift coefficient ( Cli ) is the lift coefficient at which the drag coefficient does
not vary significantly with the slight variations of angle of attack. The ideal lift
coefficient is usually corresponding to the minimum drag coefficient. This is very
critical in airfoil selection, since the lower drag coefficient means the lower flight
cost. Thus, the design objective is to cruise at flight situation such that the cruise lift
coefficient is as close as possible to the ideal lift coefficient. The value of this Cli will
be clear when the graph of variation of drag coefficient versus lift coefficient is
discussed. The typical value of ideal lift coefficient for GA aircraft is about 0.1 to 0.4,
and for a supersonic aircraft is about 0.01 to 0.05.
e. The angle of attack corresponding to ideal lift coefficient (Cli) is self explanatory.
The wing setting angle is often selected to be the same as this angle, since it will
result in a minimum drag. On the other hand, the minimum drag is corresponding to
the minimum engine thrust, which means the minimum flight cost. This will be
discussed in more details, when wing setting angle is discussed. The typical value of
Cli is around 2 to 5 degrees. Thus, such an angle will be a optimum candidate for the
cruising angle of attack.
f. The lift coefficient at zero angle of attack ( Clo ) is the lift coefficient when angle of
attack is zero. From design point of view, the more Clo is the better, since it implies
we can produce a positive lift even at zero angle of attack. Thus, the more Clo is the
better.
g. The lift curve slope ( Cl ) is another important performance feature of an airfoil. The
lift curve slope is the slope of variation of lift coefficient with respect to the change in
the angle of attack, and its unit is 1/deg or 1/rad. Since the main function of an airfoil
is to produce lift, the higher the slope, the better the airfoil. The typical value of lift
curve slope of a 2d airfoil is around 2 (or 6.28) per radian (about 0.1 per degrees). It
implies that for each 1 degree of change in the airfoil angle of attack, the lift
coefficient will be increased by 0.1. The lift curve slope (1/rad) may be found by the
following empirical equation:

Cl Cl

gentle
abrupt

 

19
Figure 5.12. Stall characteristics
t
Cl  dCl  1.8 (1  0.8 max
) (5.7)
 d c

where tmax/c is the maximum thickness to chord ratio of the airfoil.

h. Another airfoil characteristic is the shape of the lift curve at and beyond the stall
angle of attack (stall behavior). An airfoil with a gentle drop in lift after the stall,
rather than an abrupt or sharp rapid lift loss, leads to a safer stall from which the pilot
can more easily recover (see figure 5.12). Although the sudden airfoil stall behavior
does not necessarily imply sudden wing stall behavior, a careful wing design can
significantly modify the airfoil tendency to rapid stall. In general, airfoils with
thickness or camber, in which the separation is associated with the adverse gradient
on the aft portion rather than the nose pressure peak, have a more gradual loss of lift.
Unfortunately, the best airfoils in this regard tend to have lower maximum lift
coefficient.

As it is observed, there are several parameters to judge about the acceptability of an airfoil. In the
next section, the technique to select the best airfoil based on these performance characteristics
will be introduced.

Cm

 (deg)

Figure 5.13. The variations of pitching moment coefficient versus angle of attack

Cm

Cl

Figure 5.14. The variations of pitching moment coefficient versus lift coefficient

20
2. The variations of pitching moment coefficient versus angle of attack
Figure 5.13 shows the typical variations of pitching moment coefficient versus angle of attack
for a positive cambered airfoil. The slope of this graph is usually negative and it is in the region
of negative Cm for typical range angle of attacks. The negative slope is desirable, since it
stabilizes the flight, if the angle of attack is disturbed by a gust. The negative C m is sometimes
referred to as nose-down pitching moment. This is due to its negative direction about y-axis
which means the aircraft nose will be pitched down by such moment.
Figure 5.14 also illustrates the typical variations of pitching moment coefficient versus lift
coefficient for a positive cambered airfoil. The magnitude of C m is almost constant for the
typical ranges of lift coefficient. The typical magnitude is usually about -0.02 to -0.05. The
design objective is to have the Cm close to zero as much as possible. The reason is that the
aircraft must be in equilibrium in cruising flight. This pitching moment must be nullified by
another component of the aircraft, such as tail. Thus, the higher Cm (more negative) results in a
larger tail, which means the heavier aircraft. Therefore the airfoil which has the lower Cm is
more desirable. It is interesting to note that the pitching moment coefficient for a symmetrical
airfoil section is zero.

Cd

C
d min

C (Cd/Cl)min C
l
0 min l

Figure 5.15. The typical variations of drag coefficient versus lift coefficient

3. The variations of drag coefficient as a function of lift coefficient


Figure 5.15 shows the typical variations of drag coefficient as a function of lift coefficient for a
positive cambered airfoil. The lowest point of this graph is called minimum drag coefficient (
Cd min ). The corresponding lift coefficient to the minimum drag coefficient is called Clmin . As
the drag is directly related to the cost of flight, the Cd min is of great importance in airfoil design
or airfoil selection. A typical value for Cd min is about 0.003 to 0.006. Therefore the airfoil which
has the lower Cd min is more desirable.

21
A line drawn through the origin and tangent to the graph locates a point that denotes to
the minimum slope. This point is also of great importance, since it indicates the flight situation
that maximum Cl-to-Cd ratio is generated, since (Cd/Cl)min = (Cl/Cd)max. This is an important
output of an airfoil, and it is referred to as the maximum lift-to-drag ratio. In addition of
requirement of lowest Cd min , the highest (Cl/Cd)max is also desired. These two objectives may not
happen at the same time in one airfoil, but based on aircraft mission and weight of each design
requirement, one of them gets more attention.

The variation of drag coefficient as a function of lift coefficient (figure 5.15) may be
mathematically modeled by the following second order equation:

C C K C C
d dmin  l lmin 2 (5.8)
where K is called section drag factor. The parameter K can be determined by selecting a point on
the graph ( Cl1 and Cd1 ) and plugging in the equation 5.8.

Cd

Cdmin

C
0 Cli ld Cl

Figure 5.16. The variations of Cl versus Cd for a laminar airfoil

Figure 5.16 shows the typical variations of drag coefficient as a function of lift
coefficient for a laminar airfoil; such as in 6-series NACA airfoils. This graph has a unique
feature which is the bucket, due to the bucket shape of the lower portion of the graph. The unique
aspect of the bucket is that the Cdmin will not vary for a limited range of Cl. this is very
significant, since it implies that the pilot can stay at the lowest drag point while changing the
angle of attack. This situation matches with the cruising flight, since the aircraft weight is
reduces as the fuel is burned. Hence, the pilot can bring aircraft nose down (decrease the angle of
attack) with being worried about an increase in the aircraft drag. Therefore it is possible to keep
the engine throttle low during cruising flight.
The middle point of the bucket is called ideal lift coefficient ( Cli ), while the highest Cl in
the bucket region is referred to as design lift coefficient ( Cld ). These two points are among the
list of significant criteria to select/design an airfoil. Remember that the design lift coefficient
occurs at the point whose Cd/Cl is minimum or Cl/Cd is maximum. For some flight operations

22
(such as cruising flight), flying at the point where lift coefficient is equivalent with Cli is the
goal, while for some other flight operations (such as loiter), the objective is to fly at the point
where lift coefficient is equivalent with Cld . This airfoil lift coefficient is a function of aircraft
cruise lift coefficient (CLi) as will be discussed later in this chapter.

4. The variations of lift-to-drag ratio (Cl/Cd) as a function of angle of attack

The last interesting graph that is utilized in the process of airfoil selection is the variations of lift-
to-drag ratio (Cl/Cd) as a function of angle of attack. Figure 5.17 illustrates the typical variations
of lift-to-drag ratio versus angle of attack. As it is noted, this graph has one maximum point
where the value of the lift-to-drag ratio is the highest at this point. The angle of attack
corresponding to this point is an optimum candidate for a loitering flight (l).

The application of these four graphs and twelve parameters in the airfoil selection process will be
introduced in the later sections.

Cl
C
d

(Cl/Cd)max

0 l 

Figure 5.17. The typical variations of lift-to-drag ratio versus angle of attack

5.4.4. Airfoil Selection Criteria


Selecting an airfoil is a part of the overall wing design. Selection of an airfoil for a wing begins
with the clear statement of the flight requirements. For instance, a subsonic flight design
requirements are very much different from a supersonic flight design objectives. On the other
hand, flight in the transonic region requires a special airfoil that meets mach divergence
requirements. The designer must also consider other requirements such as airworthiness,
structural, manufacturability, and cost requirements. In general, the following are the criteria to
select an airfoil for a wing with a collection of design requirements:

1. The airfoil with the highest maximum lift coefficient ( Clmax ).

23
2. The airfoil with the proper ideal or design lift coefficient ( Cld or Cli ).
3. The airfoil with the lowest minimum drag coefficient ( Cdmin ).
4. The airfoil with the highest lift-to-drag ratio ((Cl/Cd)max).
5. The airfoil with the highest lift curve slope ( Clmax ).
6. The airfoil with the lowest pitching moment coefficient (Cm).
7. The proper stall quality in the stall region (the variation must be gentile, not sharp).
8. The airfoil must be structurally reinforceable. The airfoil should not that much thin that
spars cannot be placed inside.
9. The airfoil must be such that the cross section is manufacturable.
10. The cost requirements must be considered.
11. Other design requirements must be considered. For instance, if the fuel tank has been
designated to be places inside the wing inboard section, the airfoil must allow the
sufficient space for this purpose.
12. If more than one airfoil is considered for a wing, the integration of two airfoils in one
wing must be observed. This item will be discussed in more details in section 5.8.

Usually, there is no unique airfoil that that has the optimum values for all above-mentioned
requirements. For example, you may find an airfoil that has the highest Clmax , but not the highest
C l 
  . In such cases, there must be compromise through a weighting process, since not all
 
C
 d max
design requirements have the same importance. The weighting process will be discussed later in
this chapter.
As a guidance, the typical values for the airfoil maximum thickness-to-chord ratio of majority of
aircraft are about 6% to 18%.
1- For a low speed aircraft with a high lift requirement (such as cargo aircraft), the typical
wing (t/c)max is about 15% - 18%.
2- For a high speed aircraft with a low lift requirement (such as high subsonic passenger
aircraft), the typical wing (t/c)max is about 9% - 12%.
3- For the supersonic aircraft, the typical wing (t/c)max is about 6% - 9%.
The details of airfoil selection procedure will be presented in section5.3.7. Figure 5.17 illustrates
a few sample airfoils.

5.4.5. NACA Airfoils


The main focus of this section is how to select a wing airfoil from the available list of NACA
airfoils, so this section is dedicated to the introduction of NACA airfoils. One of the most
reliable resources and widely used data base is the airfoils that have been developed by NACA
(predecessor of NASA) in 1930s and 1940s. Three following groups of NACA airfoils are more
interesting:
- Four-digit NACA airfoils
- Five-digit NACA airfoils
- 6-series NACA airfoils

As the names imply, four digit airfoils are named by four digits (such as 2415), five digit
airfoils are named by five digits (such as 23018), but 6-series airfoils names begin by number 6
(in fact, the have 5 main digits). Figure 5.18 illustrates a four-digit, a five-digit and a 6-series
airfoils.

a. Four-digit NACA airfoils


The four-digit NACA airfoil sections are the oldest and simplest NACA airfoils to generate. The
camber of a four-digit airfoil has made up of two parabolas. One parabola generates the camber
geometry from the leading edge to the maximum camber, and another parabola produces the
camber shape from the maximum camber to the trailing edge. In a Four-digit NACA airfoil, the
first digit indicates the maximum camber in percent chord. The second digit indicates the
position of maximum camber in tenths of chord length. The last two digits represent the
maximum thickness-to-chord ratio. A zero in the first digit means that this airfoil is a
symmetrical airfoil section. For example, the NACA 1408 airfoil section (see figure 5.19a) has a
8 percent (t/c)max (the last two digits), its maximum camber is 10 percent, and its maximum
camber is located at 40 percent of the chord length. Although these airfoils are easy to produce,
but they generate high drag compared with new airfoils.

Figure 5.18. Five sample airfoils

25
b. Five-digit NACA airfoils
The camber of a five-digit airfoil section has made up of one parabola and one straight line. The
parabola generates the camber geometry from the leading edge to the maximum camber, and then a
straight line connects the end point the parabola to the trailing edge. In a five-digit NACA airfoil
section, the first digit represents the 2/3 of ideal lift coefficient (see figure 5.16) in tenths. It is an
approximate representation of maximum camber in percent chord. The second digit indicates the
position of maximum camber in two hundredths of chord length. The last two digits represent the
maximum thickness-to-chord ratio. A zero in the first digit means that this airfoil is a symmetrical
airfoil section. For example, the NACA 23012 airfoil section (see figure 5.19b) has a 15% (t/c)max,.
The ideal lift coefficient of this airfoil is 0.3 (the second digit), since 2/3 × C li
= 2/10, thus, Cli = 0.2/(2/3) = 0.3. Finally its maximum camber is located at 12% of the chord
length.
c. The 6-series NACA airfoils
The four- and five-digit airfoil sections where designed simply by using parabola and line. They
were not supposed to satisfy major aerodynamic design requirements, such as laminar flow and
no flow separation. When it became clear that the four- and five-digit airfoils have not been
carefully designed, NACA researchers begin the investigation to develop new series of airfoils
that have been driven by design requirements. On the other hands, newly designed faster aircraft
require more efficient airfoil sections. Several series of airfoils were designed at that time, but
the 6-series were found to be the best. The six series airfoils were designed to maintain laminar
flow over a large part of the chord, thus they maintain lower Cd min compared with four- and
five-digit airfoils. The 6-series NACA airfoils are designated by five main digits and begin with
number 6. Some 6-series airfoils have a subscript number after the second digit. There is also a
―-― between the second digit and the third digit.

a. NACA 1408 airfoil section b. NACA 23012 airfoil section

c. NACA 633-218 airfoil section


Figure 5.19. A four-digit, a five-digit and a 6-series airfoil sections (Ref. 2)

The meaning of each digit is as follows. The first digit is always 6; that is the series
designation. The second digit represents the chordwise position of minimum pressure in tenths of
chord for the basic symmetrical section at zero lift. The third digit indicates the ideal lift
coefficient in tenths. The last two digits represent the maximum thickness-to-chord ratio. In case
that the airfoil name has a subscript after the second digit, it indicate the lift coefficient range in
tenths above and below the value of ideal lift coefficient in which favorable pressure gradient
and low drag exist. A zero in the third digit means that this airfoil is a symmetrical airfoil
section.

NACA 6-series airfoils

NACA five digit airfoils

NACA four digit airfoils

Figure 5.20. A general comparison between four-digit, five-digit and 6-series airfoil sections

No Airfoil Clmax at s Cmo (Cl/Cd)max Cli Cdmin (t/c)max


6
section Rn=3×10 (deg)
1 0009 1.25 13 0 39 0 0.0052 9%
2 4412 1.5 13 -0.09 71 0.4 0.006 12%
3 2415 1.4 14 -0.05 86 0.3 0.0065 15%
4 23012 1.6 16 -0.013 60 0.3 0.006 12%
5 23015 1.5 15 -0.008 52 0.1 0.0063 15%
6 631-212 1.55 14 -0.004 67 0.2 0.0045 12%
7 632-015 1.4 14 0 61 0 0.005 15%
8 632-618 1.3 14 -0.1 52 0.5 0.0052 18%
9 64-210 1.4 12 -0.042 57 0.2 0.004 10%
10 654-221 1.1 16 -0.025 46 0.1 0.0048 21%
Table 5.2. Characteristics of several NACA airfoil sections
For example, the NACA 633-218 airfoil section (see figure 5.19c) has 18% thickness-to-chord
ratio. The position of the minimum pressure in this airfoil is located at 30 percent of the chord
(the second digit). The ideal lift coefficient of the airfoil is 0.2 (the third digit). Finally, the lift
coefficient range above and below the value of ideal lift coefficient is 0.3 (the subscript). It
demonstrates that the bucket in Cd-Cl diagram (see figure 5.20) begins from lift coefficient of 0
(since 0.3 - 0.3 = 0) and ends at 0.6 (since 0.3 + 0.3 = 0.6).

No Aircraft name First Max speed Root Tip Average


flight (knot) airfoil airfoil (t/c)max
1 Cessna 550 1994 275 23014 23012 13%
2 Beech Bonanza 1945 127 23016.5 23015 14.25%
3 Cessna 150 1957 106 2412 2412 12%
4 Piper Cherokee 1960 132 652-415 652-415 15%
5 Dornier Do-27 1955 145 23018 23018 18%
6 Fokker F-27 1955 227 644-421 644-421 21%
7 Lockheed L100 1954 297 64A-318 64A-412 15%
8 PC-7 1978 270 642-415 641-415 15%
9 Hawker Siddely 1960 225 23018 4412 15%
10 Beagle 206 1967 140 23015 4412 12.5%
11 Beech Super king 1970 294 23018- 23012 14.5%
23016.5
12 Lockheed Orion 1958 411 0014 0012 13%
13 Moony M20J 1976 175 632-215 641-412 13.5%
14 Lockheed Hercules 1951 315 64A318 64A412 15%
15 Thurston TA16 1980 152 642-A215 642-A215 15%
16 ATR 42 1981 269 43 series 43 series 15.5%
(18%) (13%)
17 AIRTECH CN-235 1983 228 653-218 653-218 18%
18 Fokker 50 1987 282 644-421 644-415 18%

Table 5.3. The wing airfoil section of several prop-driven aircraft (Ref. 4)
Figure 5.20 shows a general comparison between four-digit, five-digit and 6-series airfoil
sections. Figure 5.21 demonstrates Cl-, Cm-, and C d-Cl graphs for NACA 632-615 airfoil
section. There are two groups of graphs, one for flap up and another one for flap down (60 degrees
split flap). As noted, the flap deflection has doubled the airfoil drag (in fact Cd min), increased
pitching moment tremendously, but at the same time, has increased the lift coefficient by 1.2.

Besides NACA airfoil sections, there are variety of other airfoil sections that have been
designed in the past several decades for different purposes. Few examples are peaky, supercritical,
modern, supersonic airfoils. Table 5.2 illustrates the characteristics of several NACA airfoil sections.
Table 5.3 illustrates the wing airfoil sections for several prop-driven aircraft. Table 5.4 illustrates the
wing airfoil sections for several jet aircraft. As noted, all are employing NACA airfoils, from Cessna
GA aircraft to F-16 fighter aircraft.
2. INTRODUCTION TO
GLIDERS AND ITS
DESIGN
CALCULATIONS

The Glider Flying Handbook is designed to aid pilots in


achieving their goals in aviation and to provide the
knowledge and practical information needed to attain
private, commercial, and flight instructor category ratings
for gliders. This handbook, in conjunction with the Pilot’s
Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25 (as
revised), is a source of basic knowledge for certification as
a glider pilot and instructor. There are numerous other
commercial sources available to the pilot for reference that
should be obtained for additional information.

Gliders—The Early Years


The fantasy of flight led people to dream up intricate designs in
an attempt to imitate the flight of birds. Leonardo da Vinci
sketched a vision of flying machines in his 15th century
manuscripts. His work consisted of a number of wing designs
including a human-powered ornithopter, the name derived
from the Greek word for bird. Centuries later, when others
began to experiment with his designs, it became apparent that
the human body could not sustain flight by flapping wings like
birds. [Figure 1-1] The dream of human flight continued to
capture the imagination of many, but it was not until 1799
when Sir George Cayley, a Baronet in Yorkshire, England,
conceived a craft with stationary wings to provide lift, flappers
to provide thrust, and a movable tail to provide control.

Otto Lilienthal was a German pioneer of human flight who


became known as the Glider King. [Figure 1-2] He was the first
person to make well-documented, repeated, successful gliding
flights beginning in 1891. [Figure 1-3] He followed an
experimental approach established earlier by Sir George
By 1920, the sport of soaring was coming into its own.
Glider design was spurred on by developments in Germany
where the World War I Treaty of Versailles banned flying
power aircraft. New forms of lift were discovered that made
it possible to gain altitude and travel distances using these
previously unknown atmospheric resources. In 1921,
Dr.Wolfgang Klemperer broke the Wright Brothers 1911
soaring duration record with a flight of 13 minutes using
ridge lift. In 1928, Austrian Robert Kronfeld proved that
thermal lift could be used by a sailplane to gain altitude by
making a short out and return flight. In 1929, the National
Glider Association was founded in Detroit, Michigan; by
1930, the first USA National Glider Contest was held in
Elmira, New York. In 1937, the first World Championships
were held at the Wasserkuppe in Germany.

Cayley. Newspapers and magazines published By the 1950s, soaring was developing rapidly with the first
photographs of Lilienthal gliding, favorably American, Dr. Paul MacCready, Jr., taking part in a World
influencing public and scientific opinion about the Soaring Championships held in Sweden. Subsequently, Dr.
possibility of flying machines becoming practical. MacCready went on to become the first American to win a
World Soaring Championship in 1956 in France.
By the early 1900s, the famed Wright Brothers were
experimenting with gliders and gliding flight in the hills The period of the 1960s and 1980s found soaring growing
rapidly. During this period, there was also a revival of hang
Figure 1-3. Otto Lilienthal in flight.
gliders and ultralight aircraft as new materials and
of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. [Figure 1-4] The Wrights 4. better understanding of low-speed
developed a series of gliders while experimenting with aerodynamics made new designs possible.
aerodynamics, which was crucial to developing a workable
control system. Many historians, and most importantly the By the late 1990s, aviation had become commonplace
Wrights themselves, pointed out that their game plan was with jet travel becoming critical to the world economy.
to learn flight control and become pilots specifically by Soaring had grown into a diverse and interesting sport.
soaring, whereas all the other experimenters rushed to add Modern high performance gliders are made from composite
power without refining flight control. By 1903, Orville and materials and take advantage of highly refined
Wilbur Wright had achieved powered flight of just over a aerodynamics and control systems. Today, soaring
minute by putting an engine on their best glider design. pilots use sophisticated instrumentation, including global
positioning system (GPS) and altitude information
(variometer) integrated into electronic glide computers to
go farther, faster, and higher than ever before.

Glider or Sailplane?
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) defines a glider as
a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the
dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and
whose free flight does not depend principally on an engine.
[Figure 1-5] The term “glider” is used to designate the rating

Figure 1-4. Orville Wright (left) and Dan Tate (right) launching
the Wright 1902 glider off the east slope of the Big Hill, Kill
Devil Hills, North Carolina on October 17, 1902. Wilbur Wright
is flying the glider.

By 1906, the sport of gliding was progressing rapidly.


An American glider meet was sponsored by the Aero
Club of America on Long Island, New York. By 1911,
Orville Wright had set a world duration record of flying
his motorless craft for 9 minutes and 45 seconds.
Self-launching gliders are equipped with engines; with the
that can be placed on a pilot certificate once a person successfully engine shut down, they display the same flight
completes required glider knowledge and practical tests. characteristics as nonpowered gliders. [Figure 1-7] The
engine allows them to be launched under their own power.
Another widely accepted term used in the industry is sailplane. Once aloft, pilots of self-launching gliders can shut down
A sailplane is a glider (heavier-than-air fixed-wing aircraft) the engine and fly with the power off. The additional
designed to fly efficiently and gain altitude solely from natural training and procedures required to earn a self-launch
forces, such as thermals and ridge waves. [Figure 1-6] Older endorsement are covered later in this handbook.
gliders and those used by the military were not generally
designed to gain altitude in lifting conditions, whereas modern
day sailplanes are designed to gain altitude in various
conditions of lift. Some sailplanes are equipped with sustaining
engines to enable level flight even in light sink, or areas of
descending air flow. More sophisticated sailplanes may have
engines powerful enough to allow takeoffs and climbs to
soaring altitudes. In both cases, the powerplants and propellers
are designed to be stopped in flight and retracted into the body of
the sailplane to retain the high efficiency necessary for
nonpowered flight.

Figure 1-7. An ASH 26 E self-launching sailplane with the


propeller extended.

Glider Pilot Schools


Most airports or glider bases have some type of pilot training
available, either through FAA-approved pilot schools or
individual FAA-certificated flight instructors. FAA-approved
glider schools usually provide a wide variety of training aids,
special facilities, and greater flexibility in scheduling. A number
of colleges and universities also provide glider pilot training as
Figure 1-6. A sailplane is a glider designed to fly efficienctly and a part of their overall pilot training curricula. However, most
gain altitude solely from natural forces, such as thermals and glider training is conducted by individual flight instructors
ridge waves. through a membership in a glider club. Also, there are several
commercial glider companies located around the United States
offering flight training, sightseeing glider rides, and glider
Gliding, that is flying a glider or sailplane, is relatively easy
to learn, but soaring, which is gaining altitude and traveling towing services.
without power, is much more difficult and immensely
Choosing the right facility or instructor for your glider training
satisfying when accomplished. Soaring refers to the sport
should be both exciting and educational. Many factors need to
of flying sailplanes, which usually includes traveling long
be considered when choosing the right school, such as location, type
distances and remaining aloft for extended periods of time.
of certification, part- or full-time training, and cost. The quality
Gliders were designed and built to provide short flights off a
of training received should be the most important factor.
hill down to a landing area. Since their wings provided
Before interviewing schools, potential student pilots should be
relatively low lift and high drag, these simple gliders were
educated on the types of training curriculums that are
generally unsuitable for sustained flight using atmospheric
available. Pilot training is conducted in accordance with one of
lifting forces. Both terms are acceptable and are
two regulatory categories: Title 14 of the Code of Federal
synonymous. Early gliders were easy and inexpensive to
Regulations (14 CFR) part 141 or 14 CFR part 61. Students
build, and they played an important role in flight training.
can receive exceptional flight training under either part 141 or
The most well-known example today of a glider is the
61 training programs, as both have the same teaching and testing
space shuttle, which literally glides back to earth. The
requirements. What differs is the way you are taught in order to
space shuttle, like gliders that remain closer to the earth, cannot
meet those same requirements.
sustain flight for long periods of time.

1-4
14 CFR Part 141 Pilot Schools pilot. The quality of training is very important and should
Pilot schools that are certificated under 14 CFR part 141 be the first priority when choosing a course of training.
provide a more structured training program with a standardized Prior to making a final decision, visit the facility being
FAA-approved training syllabus. This ensures that all considered and talk with management, instructors, and both
necessary skills are taught in a specific order through current and former students. Evaluate all training
approved lesson plans. Under part 141, students are also requirements using a checklist, and then take some
required to complete a specific number of hours of formal time to think things over before making a decision.
ground instruction either in a classroom or one on one with an FAA-
certificated flight instructor. Students are also required to pass After deciding where to learn to fly and making the
the FAA knowledge and practical tests. In order to obtain necessary arrangements, training can begin. An important
approval and maintain their part 141 certification, pilot schools fact: ground and flight training should be obtained as
must adhere to several FAA regulations. regularly and frequently as possible. This assures
maximum retention of instruction and the achievement of
Because part 141 pilot schools must adhere to the approved proficiency for which every pilot should strive.
training regiment, their students are allowed to complete the pilot
certificate or rating in fewer flight training hours than required Glider Certificate Eligibility Requirements
by part 61. However, most students generally exceed the To be eligible to fly a glider solo, an individual must be at
reduced part 141 flight training hour requirements in order to least 14 years of age and demonstrate satisfactory
meet the proficiency standards to pass the practical test. aeronautical knowledge on a test developed by an
instructor. A student must also have received and logged
14 CFR Part 61 Instruction ground and flight training for the maneuvers and
Pilot training conducted under 14 CFR part 61 offers a procedures in 14 CFR part 61 that are appropriate to the
somewhat more flexible and less structured training make and model of aircraft to be flown. A student pilot must
program than that conducted under part 141. A part 61 demonstrate satisfactory proficiency and safety. Only after
training syllabus is not subject to FAA approval; therefore, all of these requirements are met can an instructor endorse
flight instructors have the flexibility to rearrange lesson a student’s certificate and logbook for solo flight.
plans to suit the individual needs of their students.
However, it is important to understand that flight instructors To be eligible for a private pilot certificate with a glider
must adhere to the requirements of part 61 and train their rating, an individual must be at least 16 years of age,
students to the standards of part 61. complete the specific training and flight time
requirements described in 14 CFR part 61, pass a
Training under part 61 does not require the student to knowledge test, and successfully complete a practical test.
complete a formal ground school. Instead, students have
the following three options: (1) attend a ground school To be eligible for a commercial or flight instructor glider
course, (2) complete a home-study program, or (3) hire a certificate, an individual must be 18 years of age, complete the
certificated flight or ground instructor to teach and review specific training requirements described in 14 CFR part 61,
any materials that they choose. Regardless of which option pass the required knowledge tests, and pass another practical
a student chooses to take, all students are required to pass the test. If currently a pilot for a powered aircraft is adding a glider
FAA knowledge and practical tests for the pilot certificate or category rating on that certificate, the pilot is exempt from the
rating for which they are applying. The requirements for knowledge test but must satisfactorily complete the practical
pilot training under part 61 are less structured than those test. Certificated glider pilots are not required to hold an
under part 141, and part 61 may require more flight training airman medical certificate to operate a glider. However, they
hours to obtain a pilot certificate or rating than part 141. must not have any medical deficiencies.

Most glider training programs can be found on the SSA The FAA Practical Test Standards (PTS) establish the
website at www.ssa.org. Once you choose a general location, standards for the knowledge and skills necessary for the
make a checklist of things to look for in a training organization. By issuance of a pilot certificate. It is important to reference
talking to pilots, visiting the facility, and reading articles in pilot the PTS, FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 60-22, Aeronautical
magazines, a checklist can be made and used to evaluate Decision Making, Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical
your options. Your choice might depend on whether you are Knowledge (FAA-H-8083-25), and the Risk Management
planning to obtain a sport or private pilot certificate or pursuing Handbook (FAA-H-8083-2) to understand the knowledge,
a higher pilot certificate or a flight instructor certificate toward skills, and experience required to obtain a pilot certificate to
becoming a professional glider

1-5
fly a glider. For more information on the certification of the gliders themselves, refer to 14 CFR part 21,
the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Certification Specifications (CS) 22.221, and the Weight
and Balance Handbook (FAA-H-8083-1).

Common Glider Concepts


Terminology
There are a number of terms used in gliding that all glider pilots should be familiar with. The list is not
comprehensive, but includes the following:
1 Knot—one nautical mile per hour (NMPH). A nautical mile is 6,076.115 feet as opposed to 5,280 feet in a
statute mile. Rounded that is 6,000 feet, which divided by 60 minutes equals 100 feet per minute (fpm). Hence,
this gives 1 on a variometer, which means one knot per hour or approximately 100 fpm. A 4-knot thermal lifts
the glider at 400 fpm.
2 Lift—measured in knots, rising air lifting the glider higher.
3 Sink—falling air that forces the glider to lose height and is measured in knots.
4 Attitude—the orientation of an aircraft in the air with respect to the horizon. If the aircraft is diving, then it is
said to have a “nose-down attitude about its lateral axes.” Attitude can also be a roll or bank as
referenced to the longitudinal axis and pitch up or down as referenced to lateral axis.
5 Pitch—the up and down movement around the lateral axis for pitch. Increasing the pitch lifts the
nose and drops the tail. Decreasing the pitch drops the nose and lifts the tail.
6 Roll—movement around a line between the nose and tail longitudinal axes. Rolling right drops the
right wing while lifting the left wing.
7 Yaw—a turning motion in which the nose of the aircraft moves to the right or left about its vertical axis.
8 Cable—steel wire used to connect the glider to the winch. It is approximately 5mm wide and should
be avoided at all times until after the correct training for safe handling. There are some winch
operations using composite fiber cable that is stronger and lighter than steel.
9 Strop—a special part of the winch cable that is designed to be handled. The strop has the tost rings that
are attached to the glider.
10 Weak link—a safety device in the winch cable or tow line. They come in various strengths
(indicated by their color) and the correct one must be used with a given glider.

1-6
5. Elevator—a moveable section in the tailplane (the small wing at the back of the glider) that effectively controls
whether the glider climbs or dives in flight.
6. Thermal—a bubble or column of warm rising air. Pilots try to find these columns of rising air and
stay within them to gain altitude.

Converting Metric Distance to Feet


A glider pilot must also be able to convert distance in meters to distance in feet, using the following conversion:

1 meter = 3.2808 feet

Multiply the number of meters by 3.2808

To convert kilometers to nautical miles and nautical miles to kilometers or statute miles, use the following:

1 nautical mile (NM) = 1.852 kilometers (km)


1 nautical mile (NM) = 1.151 statute miles (SM)
1 km = 0.53996 NM
3.
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF POWERED
AND UNPOWERED GLIDERS
282 P A RT 2 • Airplane Performance

5. 10.3 Gliding (Unpowered) Flight


Whenever an airplane is flying such that the power required is larger than the power
available, it will descend rather than climb. In the ultimate situation, there is no power
at all; in this case, the airplane will be in gliding, or unpowered, flight. This will occur
for a conventional airplane when the engine quits during flight (e.g., engine failure
or running out of fuel). Also, this is the case for unpowered gliders and sailplanes.
(Raymer in Ref. 25 adds a "cultural note" that distinguishes between sailplanes and
gliders. He stated the following on p. 471: "In sailplane terminology, a 'sailplane'
is an expensive, high-performance unpowered aircraft. A 'glider' is a crude, low-
performance unpowered aircraft!") Gliding flight is a special (and opposite) case of
our previous considerations dealing with climb; it is the subject of this subsection.
The force dia_gram for an unpowered aircraft in descending flight is shown in
Fig. 5.39. For steady, unaccelerated descent, where() is the equilibrium glide angle,
L= Wcos() [5.123]
D = Wsin() [5,124]
The equilibrium glide angle is obtained by dividing Eq. (5.124) by Eq. (5.123).
sin() D
cos() =L
or
~ [5.125]
~
Clearly, the glide angle is strictly a function of the lift-to-drag ratio; the higher the
L/ D, the shallower the glide angle. From Eq. (5.125), the smallest equilibrium glide
angle occurs at (L/ D)max·

1
Tan ()min = (L/ D)max [5.126]

Rateof ~
L

descent~

Horizontal
- -------r
I
I v u

~
I
I
/
~-u
I
I

w
Figure 5.39 Force and velocity diagram for gliding Right.
C HA PTER 5 @ Airplane Performance: Steady Flight :283

For an aircraft at a given altitude h, this is the case for maximum horizontal distance
covered over the ground (maximum range). This distance, denoted by R, is illustrated
in Fig. 5.40 for a constant e.
The simplicity reflected in Eqs. (5.125) and (5.126) is beautiful. The equilibrium
glide angle e does not depend on altitude or wing loading, or the like; it simply depends
on the lift-to-drag ratio. However, to achieve a given l/ D at a given altitude, the
aircraft must fly at a specified velocity V00 , called the equilibrium glide velocity, and
this value of V00 does depend on the altitude and wing loading, as follows. Since

L = !Poo V!SCL
Eq. (5.123) becomes

or

27]

In Eq. (5.127), V00 is the equilibrium glide velocity. Clearly, it depends on altitude
(through p 00 ) and wing loading. The value of CL in Eq. (5.127) is that particular
value which corresponds to the specific value of L/ D used in Eq. (5.125). Recall
that both CL and L / D are aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft that vary with
angle of attack, as sketched in Fig. 5.41. Note from Fig. 5.41 that a specific value of
L / D, say (L/ D) 1, corresponds to a specific angle of attack a 1, which in turn dictates
the lift coefficient (CL) 1 • If L / D is held constant throughout the glide path, then CL
is constant along the glide path. However, the equilibrium velocity along this glide
path will change with altitude, decreasing with decreasing altitude.

LID

Angle of attack

Figure 5.40 Range covered in an equilibrium guide. Figure 5.4 i Sketch of !he variation of Cl and
LID versus angle of attack for a
given airplane.
To visit the Learning Center,
press the ALT key to display the
Flight Simulator menu bar and
then click Learning Center on
the Help menu.

Flight Simulator X

The Learning Center includes a set of


Key Topics, a Site Map that guides you
to all available topics, and an Index to
make it easy to find specific information.
To see the main pages of the Learning
To see more information in the Learning
Center, click the Key Topics, Site Map, Center window, use the vertical scroll bars.
Index, or Lessons tab labels.
The topics in the Learning Center
include text, pictures, and videos to help
you learn how to use all the features in
Flight Simulator.
Topics in the Learning Center
include links to detailed
information, just like a Web page.
The Kneeboard
The Kneeboard is a handy pop-up
reference that you can use as you fly.
Flight Simulator 2004 Flight Simulator X
The Kneeboard
To display or hide the Kneeboard, press the F10
key or click the Kneeboard icon () on the
instrument panel.
Flight Simulator 2004 Flight Simulator 2004

Kneeboard Icon
Kneeboard Icon
Basic Flight Simulator Setup
 Although you can create an
elaborate virtual cockpit, you
can use Flight Simulator
effectively with just a basic
setup: joystick or yoke and
mouse.
Typical Joystick Controls
Roll mouse wheel
to tune radios,
Switches adjust power, etc.
for trim,
view, etc. Rudder
(twist)

Throttle

Buttons for
flaps, landing
gear, etc.
Using the Mouse Wheel
 Think of the mouse as an electronic
extension of your hand.
 To operate many of the controls in
the cockpit, use the mouse to point
at a knob, button, or control, and:
 Roll the mouse wheel slowly forward or Roll mouse wheel
backward to tune radios,
adjust power, etc.
 Click a button
 Drag the mouse
Controlling the Airplane
with the Mouse
 You can use the mouse to:
 Operate the throttle, propeller, mixture controls

 Change heading (when the autopilot is ON and in HDG mode)

 Extend and retract the flaps

 Adjust elevator, rudder, and aileron trim

 Change altitude and rate of climb or descent with the autopilot

controls (when the autopilot is ON and ALT mode is selected)


 Tune communication and navigation radios

 Select courses on the VOR/ILS indicators and HSI

 Turn lights on and off

 Display and hide the Avionics panel, Kneeboard, Map View,

GPS, and aircraft control sub-panels


Cockpit Orientation
The following slides point out controls that you
can operate by using the mouse as an electronic
extension of your hand.
In most cases, you can operate important
controls much as you would in an airplane.
Instead of pushing buttons and twisting knobs,
however, point to an item and click the left
mouse button or roll the mouse wheel forward
and backward.
The positions of some controls vary in different
aircraft, just as they do in real cockpits, but the
same basic actions apply regardless of which
a i
rcraft y ou’re f
ly i
ng.
This is the normal (2D) Cockpit view for the Cessna 172S in
FS2004. All aircraft have similar 2D cockpit views.

All 2D cockpits include a row of


special icons. This row is in a
d i
fferent l
ocation on e
ac h a i
rc r
af
t

s
instrument panel.
Click the appropriate icon to
display/hide the Kneeboard, ATC You can also
You can operate
window, Map view, Avionics Stack, operate the throttle,
electrical switches
GPS, or Compass pop-up mixture, flaps, etc.
with the mouse
windows.3 with the mouse
This is the normal (2D) Cockpit view for the Cessna 172S in
Flight Simulator X.

All 2D cockpits include a


row of special icons. This
row is in a different
loc at
ion o n ea ch airc
r
aft’s
instrument panel.
Click the appropriate icon
to display/hide the
Kneeboard, ATC window,
the Map, GPS, etc.

You can also operate the


You can operate throttle, mixture, flaps,
electrical switches trim, and avionics with
with the mouse the mouse wheel.
This screen shows a special IFR Training Panel in
Flight Simulator 2004. IFR Training Panels are
available for the C172S, C182S, and Mooney Bravo.
These IFR panels reduce the space devoted to the
outside view so that the flight instruments, avionics
stack, and other important controls are all visible in
the main window.

With the autopilot ON and in ALT mode,


you can change altitude with the
mouse. Point to the digits in the
altitude window and roll the mouse
With the autopilot ON and in HDG
wheel forward or backward.
mode, you can change heading
with the mouse. Point here and Change the rate of climb/descent by
roll the mouse wheel forward or pointing to the digits in the VS window
backward to move the heading and rolling the mouse wheel.
bug on the heading indicator.

To increase or reduce power,


point at the throttle and roll
the mouse wheel forward or
backward.
The Cessna 172S in Flight Simulator X includes the
avionics stack in the main window.
You can use the mouse to operate controls just as in
Flight Simulator 2004.

With the autopilot ON and in ALT mode,


you can change altitude with the
mouse. Point to the digits in the
altitude window and roll the mouse
With the autopilot ON and in HDG wheel forward or backward.
mode, you can change heading
Change the rate of climb/descent by
with the mouse. Point here and
pointing to the digits in the VS window
roll the mouse wheel forward or
and rolling the mouse wheel.
backward to move the heading
bug on the heading indicator.

To increase or reduce power,


point at the throttle and roll
the mouse wheel forward or
backward.
To select a course on a VOR or ILS
indicator, point to the appropriate OBS
knob and roll the mouse wheel
backward or forward.

To adjust the elevator trim with the


mouse, point to the trim wheel and
roll the mouse wheel forward or To extend or retract the flaps,
backward. point at the flap lever and roll the
mouse wheel forward or
backward.
To change a communications or navigation
frequency, point to the digits in the
appropriate standby frequency window and
roll the mouse wheel backward or forward.
Point separately at the digits to the left (MHz)
and right (KHz) of the decimal point.

To activate a frequency, click the


appropriate flip-flop (STBY) button
with the left mouse button.

Change the ADF frequency and


transponder squawk code much as you
change communication and navigation
frequencies.
Point separately at each digit in the ADF
and transponder displays and roll the
mouse wheel.
To monitor the Morse Code ID for a
navigation radio or marker beacon, point to
the appropriate button on the audio panel
and click the left mouse button.
Or click the Pull Ident button on the
appropriate radio.

To adjust the wings of the airplane in


the attitude indicator, point to the
To select the DME source, point to the
adjustment knob and roll the mouse
selector button and click next to R1 or R2.
button forward or backward.
To select the navigation source
that drives the NAV1 indicator or
HSI, click the NAV/GPS switch.

To display the GPS window, click


this icon.
To display the Kneeboard (which
includes the Flight Briefing,
keyboard shortcuts, and other
information), click this icon.
To turn the autopilot on and off
and to select autopilot functions,
click the appropriate button(s) on
the autopilot panel.
To turn the master switches,
lights, Pitot heat, etc. on and off,
click the appropriate switches.
Note the location of several key items in
the Cessna cockpit in Flight Simulator X

NAV/GPS switch,
which drives the
number 1 nav
indicator

Control panel icons

Autopilot ON/OFF
This is the normal cockpit view for the Baron. You can operate the
main controls just as you do in any Flight Simulator cockpit, by
pointing with the mouse and rolling the wheel forward or backward,
dragging the mouse, or clicking the left mouse button.

To display the Kneeboard, engine


controls, map, avionics stack, GPS,
and other information, click one of the You can adjust the pitch, aileron, and
icons in this row. rudder trim by pointing to the
appropriate trim wheel and rolling the
mouse wheel forward or backward.

You can extend and retract the


landing gear and flaps by
pointing to the appropriate
control and rolling the mouse
wheel forward or backward.
To display the avionics stack while in normal cockpit
view, click the Avionics icon on the instrument panel.
The avionics stack appears in a pop-up window.
To hide the avionics stack, click the Avionics icon again.

To display or hide the avionics


stack, click the Avionics icon.

You can change frequencies,


control the autopilot, identify
navaids, etc. with the mouse.
Point to the item you want to
change, and roll the mouse wheel
forward or backward. Or click a
button or control.
To display the GPS in any aircraft, click the GPS
icon on the instrument panel. The GPS appears
in a pop-up window.
To hide the GPS, click the GPS icon again.
You can operate the GPS with the
mouse by pointing and clicking
buttons on the GPS.
You can use the mouse to drag the
GPS window anywhere on the
screen.
To learn more about how to use the
GPS in Flight Simulator, see the GPS
topics in the Learning Center.

To display or hide the


GPS, click the GPS icon.
Some aircraft, like the Baron, have a separate pop-up window for
engine controls.
You can drag the pop-up window anywhere on the screen.
If you prefer not to display the engine controls, you can use the
throttle on the joystick or keyboard shortcuts to increase and
decrease power and adjust RPM.
To increase power incrementally, press the F3 key. To decrease
power, press the F2 key.
To adjust RPM, press CTRL+F3 (increase) or CTRL+F2 (decrease)

You can operate the engine controls in the pop-up window with
the mouse by pointing at the appropriate control and dragging
the mouse pointer up and down.
To use the fuel selector, point to the position you want to select
(not the lever itself) and click.

To display or hide the engine controls,


click the Engine Controls icon.
To display the Flight Simulator menu bar, press the
ALT key.

Use the mouse or the left and right arrow keys (←


and →
) to highlight a top-level command and the
mouse or the up and down arrow keys (↑
and ↓) to
select commands on the drop-down menus, just as
you do in any Windows application.

Flight Simulator 2004

Flight Simulator X

For more information about


all of the menus in Flight
Simulator, see the slides
later in this presentation.
Using the Practice Flights
 The following screens show to choose and start the
Practice Flights provided with Microsoft Flight Simulator
as a Training Aid, published by ASA.
 For more information about the book, visit the ASA Web
site and www.BruceAir.com.
Copying the Practice Flights
To use the Practice Flights, copy the
contents of the appropriate folder from the
CD that accompanies the book to the
correct folder on your hard drive.
For more information, see
InstallingPracticeFlights.pdf on the CD that
accompanies the book.
When you start Flight Simulator 2004, this dialog box
appears. To start one of the Practice Flights, click Select
a Flight in the left column.

To start one of the Practice Flights, click


Select a Flight.
Flight Simulator 2004: In the Select a
Flight dialog box, click My Saved Flights.
The BruceAir Practice Flights appear in
the list under Choose a Flight.

The titles of the Practice Flights appear in this


list. Click the one you want to fly.

A detailed description of the selected


Flight appears in this box.

W
he
ny
o
u’
r
er
e
ad
yt
ob
e
gi
n,
c
li
c
kF
l
yN
ow
.
To start a Practice Flight in Flight Simulator X, click Free Flight.

Click Free Flight.

And then click Load.


When the Load Flight dialog box appears,
click the title of the Practice Flight that you
want to fly. A description of the selected
Practice Flight appears in the box.

W
he
ny
o
u’
r
er
e
ad
yt
of
l
y
,c
l
ic
kF
l
yN
ow
!
Key Flight Simulator Views

2D Cockpit

Virtual Cockpit (3D)

Spot Plane

Maximize (W)
This is the normal (2D) Cockpit view for the Cessna 172S in Flight Simulator
2004. All aircraft have similar 2D cockpit views.
All of the basic controls you need to fly the airplane are available in this
view, except the avionics stack, which pops up in a small window when you
click the Avionics icon. Some aircraft also have pop-up windows for engine
controls and sub-panels.
The GPS also appears in a pop-up window when you click GPS icon.
You can return to this view by pressing the large black Button 2 on the top of
the joystick to cycle through the views until this cockpit appears.

While in Cockpit view, you can use the


mouse to move the heading bug, set
courses with the OBS knobs, tune radios,
and operate the autopilot, flaps, throttle,
mixture, lights, and other controls.

Click this icon to display the GPS

Click this icon to display


the avionics stack
In Virtual Cockpit (3D) view, you see more of the outside view while keeping the
instrument panel in view.
To switch to Virtual Cockpit view, press the large black Button 2 on the top of
the joystick until the Virtual Cockpit view appears. To switch back to normal
cockpit view, press Button 2 until the normal cockpit cycles back into view.
While in the Virtual Cockpit, you can zoom in and out by pressing the + and –
keys on the keyboard.
To look around as if you were moving your head while in Virtual Cockpit view,
m ov e t
he sil
ve r―hat‖ sw i
tc
h a tt
he top oft
h e j
oysti
ck i
n t
h e directi
on t
h a ty o
u
w ant tolook.M ovin g t
he ―hat‖switch pans (mov esth e view sm oothl
y) in the
direction you choose.
While in Virtual Cockpit view, you can use the mouse to move the heading bug,
tune radios, and operate the autopilot, flaps, throttle, mixture, and other
controls just as you do in normal Cockpit view.
In exterior, or Spot Plane view, you see your airplane as if you were flying in
formation.
To switch to Spot Plane view, press the large black Button 2 on the top of
the joystick until the Spot Plane view appears. Note that you may have to
cycle through the Tower view, which shows your airplane from the
perspective of the control tower or airport reference point at the last airport
you visited.
Ifyou don’tapp ear t
o b e i
n close f
o rma ti
on a syou s wit
ch v i
ew s,p r
es s
joystick Button 2 again to continue cycling views to Spot Plane view.
To switch back to normal cockpit view, press Button 2 until that the normal
cockpit cycles back into view.

While in Spot Plane view, you can zoom in and out by


pressing the + and – keys on the keyboard.

To look around as if your chase plane were changing


it
s pos i
ti
o n in f
o rm at
io n, m ove the silver ―hat‖ swit
ch
at the top of the joystick in the direction that you want
the chase plane to move. You can move around, above,
and below your airplane.
Ma xim um ,o r ―
W ‖ v iew ,d e-clutters the main screen. In Maximum view, you see
only a set of basic flight and navigation instruments along the bottom of the
screen .Th e instrum ents yo u se e de pendo n the t
ype of a
ir
c r
aft
yo u’r
e flyi
ng .
Maximum view is particularly useful during the last stages of an instrument
a pproa ch or l
a ndin g. Thin ko f i
t as―takinga pe ek‖ over t
he in s t
rum en tp
ane l

just as you do in real flying— as you approach the decision altitude or MDA or
transition into the flare prior to touchdown.
This view is available only when you are flying in the main 2D Cockpit view.
To switch to and from Maximum view, press the W key on the keyboard (this
view is not available by pressing a button on the joystick).
Pressing the W key once displays the view you see here. Pressing the W key
again removes the instruments at the bottom of the screen. Pressing the W key
once more cycles back to the 2D Cockpit view.
Flight Simulator X Views
Most of the views in Flight Simulator X
work just like those in Flight Simulator
2004.
The following slides point out a few key
differences. For more information about
the new views in Flight Simulator X, see
the t
opic “U si
n g Vi
e w s an d W i
n d
o ws ” i
n
the Learning Center.
In Flight Simulator X, the
Views menu includes
commands display the new
Landing View and IFR Panels,
where appropriate.

In some aircraft, you


can also click icons to
switch to Landing View
or the IFR Panel.
Flight Simulator X introduces the
Right Seat view, which puts you
in the copilot position.
Right Seat view is especially
useful when flying together
with another pilot in a
Shared Cockpit.
Map View
Flight Simulator includes a Map view that
shows the location of your airplane and
other information— e.g., airports and
navaids.
You can also use the Map view to
reposition your aircraft and to view a trail
of your flight path.
In Flight Simulator 2004, to
display the Map, click this icon

In Flight Simulator X, to display


the Map, click this icon
Flight Simulator 2004
In Map view, you can see your
aircraft’
s po si
ti
o n,t
h elo ca
ti
on
of airports and navaids,
airspace boundaries, etc.
A red trail also marks your
flight path. Click these buttons to change the map scale and to
hide/display map elements such as airports, VORs,
NDBs, intersections, and airways.

You can change your


air
craft’
s alt
it
ud e,
heading, speed and
LAT/LONG by clicking in
these boxes and typing.
The black aircraft icon
shows your position.
You can use the mouse to
drag the airplane icon to a
new position

To return to the cockpit, click OK


Flight Simulator X
I
n M a pvie w, you c ans ee y oura i
rcraft

s
position, the location of airports and
navaids, airspace boundaries, etc.
A red trail also marks your flight path,
and a magenta line shows the GPS
course to your next waypoint. Click these buttons to change the map scale and to
hide/display map elements such as airports, VORs,
NDBs, intersections, airways, and weather.

You can change your


air
craft’
s alt
it
ud e,
heading, speed and
LAT/LONG by clicking in
these boxes and typing.

The black aircraft icon


shows your position.
You can use the mouse to
drag the airplane icon to a
new position
To return to the cockpit, click OK
EDGE 540
Hand-made Almost Ready to Fly R/C Model Aircraft
ASSEMBLY MANUAL

Specifications

Wingspan---------------------------------------- 68.2 in------------------------- 173.2cm.


Wing area--------------------------------------- 753sq.in-------------------- 48.6 sq.dm.
Approximate flying weight-------------------- 8.4-8.8lbs--------------------- 3.8-4kg.
Length-------------------------------------------- 60.6 in---------------------------- 154cm.
Recommended engine size-----------------.61- .91 cu.in---------------- 2-stroke.
.91-1.00 cu.in---------------- 4-stroke.
Radio System required 4 channel with 6 digital servos.
Flying skill level Intermediate/advanced.
Kit features.

• Ready-made—minimal assembly & finishing required.


• Ready-covered covering.
• Photo-illustrated step-by-step Assembly Manual.

Made in Vietnam.
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

INTRODUCTION.

Thank you for choosing the EDGE 540 ARTF by SEAGULL MODELS. The EDGE 540 was designed
with the intermediate/advanced sport flyer in mind. It is a semi scale airplane which is easy to fly
and quick to assemble. The airframe is conventionally built using balsa, plywood to make it stronger
than the average ARTF , yet the design allows the aeroplane to be kept light. You will find that most
of the work has been done for you already.Flying the EDGE 540 is simply a joy.
This instruction manual is designed to help you build a great flying aeroplane. Please read this
manual thoroughly before starting assembly of your EDGE 540. Use the parts listing below to identify
all parts.

WARNING.

Please be aware that this aeroplane is not a toy and if assembled or used incorrectly it is
capable of causing injury to people or property. WHEN YOU FLY THIS AEROPLANE YOU
ASSUME ALL RISK & RESPONSIBILITY.
If you are inexperienced with basic R/C flight we strongly recommend you contact your R/C supplier
and join your local R/C Model Flying Club. R/C Model Flying Clubs offer a variety of training
procedures designed to help the new pilot on his way to successful R/C flight. They will also be able
to advise on any insurance and safety regulations that may apply.

ADDITIONAL ITEMS REQUIRED. PARTS LISTING.


.61- .91 2-stroke engine. FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY
.91-1.00 4-stroke engine. (1) Fuselage.
Computer radio with six digital (1) Canopy hatch.
servos.
WING ASSEMBLY
Glow plug to suit engine.
Propeller to suit engine.
(1) Right wing half with pre-installed
Protective foam rubber for radio
aileron.
system.
(1) Left wing half with pre-installed
Silicone fuel line.
aileron.
(1) Aluminium dihedral brace.

TOOLS & SUPPLIES NEEDED. Tail section assembly


Thick cyanoacrylate glue.
30 minute epoxy. (1) Horizontal stabilizer with pre-
5 minute epoxy. installed elevator halves.
Hand or electric drill. (1) Vertical stabilizer with pre-
Assorted drill bits. installed rudder.
Modelling knife.
Straight edge ruler. Some more parts.
2mm ball driver.
Phillips head screwdriver. HARDWARE PACK
220 grit sandpaper.
90° square or builder’s triangle. COWLING
Wire cutters. Landing gear.....
Masking tape & T-pins.
Thread-lock.
Paper towels.

2
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

NOTE: To avoid scratching your new aero-


plane we suggest that you cover your
workbench with an old towel. Keep a
couple of jars or bowls handy to hold
the small parts after you open the
bags.
Please trial fit all parts. Make sure you
have the correct parts and that they
fit and are aligned properly before
gluing! This will ensure proper as-
sembly as the EDGE 540 is made
from natural materials and minor ad-
justments may have to be made.
The paint and plastic parts used in
this kit are fuel proof. However, they
are not tolerant of many harsh chemi-
cals including the following: paint
thinner, cyano-acrylate glue accel-
erator, cyanoacrylate glue de-bonder
and acetone. Do not let these chemi-
cals come in contact with the colours
on the covering and the plastic parts.

3
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

HINGING THE AILERONS. 4)Deflect the aileron and completely


saturate each hinge with thin C/A glue. The
ailerons front surface should lightly contact the
Note:The control surfaces, including the
wing during this procedure. Ideally, when the
ailerons, elevators, and rudder, are
hinges are glued in place, a 1/64” gap or less
prehinged with hinges installed, but the
will be maintained throughout the lengh of the
hinges are not glued in place. It is
aileron to the wing panel hinge line.
imperative that you properly adhere the
hinges in place per the steps that follow
Note:The hinge is constructed of a special
using a high-quality thin C/A glue.
material that allows the C/A to wick or
penetrate and distribute throughout the
1) Carefully remove the aileron from one hinge, securely bonding it to the wood
of the wing panels. Note the position of the structure of the wing panel and aileron.
hinges.

2) Remove each hinge from the wing panel


and aileron and place a T-pin in the center of
each hinge. Slide each hinge into the aileron
until the T-pin is snug against the aileron. This
will help ensure an equal amount of hinge is
on either side of the hinge line when the aileron C/A glue.
is mounted to the wing panel.

T-pin. 5) Turn the wing panel over and deflect the


aileron in the opposite direction from the
opposite side. Apply thin C/A glue to each
hinge, making sure that the C/A penetrates into
both the aileron and wing panel.
Hinge.

3) Slide the aileron on the wing panel until


there is only a slight gap. The hinge is now
centered on the wing panel and aileron.
Remove the T-pins and snug the aileron
against the wing panel. A gap of 1/64” or less C/A glue.
should be maintained between the wing panel
and aileron.

6) Using C/A remover/debonder and a


paper towel, remove any excess C/A glue that
may have accumulated on the wing or in the
aileron hinge area.
T-pin.

7) Repeat this process with the other wing


panel, securely hinging the aileron in place.

4
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

8) After both ailerons are securely hinged,


firmly grasp the wing panel and aileron to
make sure the hinges are securely glued and
cannot be pulled out. Do this by carefully
applying medium pressure, trying to separate
the aileron from the wing panel. Use caution
not to crush the wing structure.

Note:Work the aileron up and down several


times to “work in” the hinges and check
for proper movement. 4)Deflect the elevator and completely
saturate each hinge with thin C/A glue. The
elevators front surface should lightly contact
the horizontal stabilizer during this procedure.
Ideally, when the hinges are glued in place, a
1/64” gap or less will be maintained throughout
the lengh of the elevator to the horizontal
stabilizer panel hinge line.
Note:The hinge is constructed of a special
material that allows the C/A to wick or
penetrate and distribute throughout the
HINGING THE ELEVATORS. hinge, securely bonding it to the wood
structure of the horizontal stabilizer panel
and elevator.
1) Carefully remove the elevator from one
of the horizontal stabilizer panels. Note the
position of the hinges.

2) Remove each hinge from the horizontal


stabilizer panel and elevator and place a T-pin
in the center of each hinge. Slide each hinge
into the elevator until the T-pin is snug against
the elevator. This will help ensure an equal
amount of hinge is on either side of the hinge C/A glue.
line when the elevator is mounted to the
horizontal stabilizer panel.

5) Turn the horizontal stabilizer panel over


and deflect the elevator in the opposite
T-pins. direction from the opposite side. Apply thin CA
glue to each hinge, making sure that the C/A
penetrates into both the elevator and horizontal
stabilizer panel.

Hinges.

3) Slide the elevator on the horizontal


stabilizer panel until there is only a slight gap.
The hinge is now centered on the horizontal
stabilizer panel and elevator. Remove the T-
pins and snug the elevator against the
horizontal stabilizer panel. A gap of 1/64” or C/A glue.
less should be maintained between the
horizontal stabilizer panel and elevator.

5
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

6) Using C/A remover/debonder and a paper


T-pin.
towel, remove any excess C/A glue that may
have accumulated on the horizontal stabilizer
or in the elevator hinge area.

7) Repeat this process with the other


horizontal stabilizer panel, securely hinging the Hinges.
elevator in place.

8) After both elevator are securely hinged,


firmly grasp the horizontal stabilizer panel and
elevator to make sure the hinges are securely
glued and cannot be pulled out. Do this by
carefully applying medium pressure, trying to
separate the elevator from the horizontal
stabilizer panel. Use caution not to crush the
horizontal stabilizer structure.

C/A glue.

HINGING THE RUDDER. 4)Deflect the rudder and completely


saturate each hinge with thin C/A glue. The
1) Carefully remove the rudder from the rudder front surface should lightly contact the
vertical fin. Note the position of the hinges. vertical fin during this procedure. Ideally, when
the hinges are glued in place, a 1/64” gap or
2) Placing a T-pin in the center of each less will be maintained throughout the lengh
hinge. Slide each hinge into the rudder until of the rudder to the fuselage panel hinge line.
the T-pin is snug against the rudder. This will
help ensure an equal amount of hinge is on Note: The hinge is constructed of a special
either side of the hinge line when the rudder is material that allows the C/A to wick or
mounted to the fuselage panel. penetrate and distribute throughout the
hinge, securely bonding it to the wood
structure of the fuselage panel and rudder.

Hinges.

3) Slide the rudder on the vertical fin until C/A glue.


there is only a slight gap. The hinge is now
centered on the fuselage panel and rudder.
Remove the T-pins and snug the rudder
against the fuselage panel. A gap of 1/64” or
less should be maintained between the vertical
fin panel and rudder.

6
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

Install the rubber grommets and brass


collets onto the aileron servo. Test fit the servo
into the aileron servo mount.

Install the servo into the servo tray.


C/A glue.
Secure the servos with the screws pro-
vided with your radio system.

Because the size of servos differ, you


may need to adjust the size of the precut
opening in the mount. The notch in the
5) Turn the vertical fin panel over and deflect sides of the mount allow the servo lead to
the rudder in the opposite direction from the pass through.
opposite side. Apply thin C/A glue to each
hinge, making sure that the C/A penetrates into
the rudder and fuselage panel.

6) Using C/A remover/debonder and a paper


towel, remove any excess C/A glue that may
have accumulated on the fuselage or in the
rudder hinge area.

Note:Work the rudder left and right several


Using a small weight (Weighted fuel pick-up
times to “work in” the hinges and check
works well) and thread, feed the string through
for proper movement.
the wing as indicated.

Thread. Small weight.

Wing bottom.
Thread.

INSTALLING THE AILERON SERVOS.

Small weight.

Small weight.

Attach the string to the servo lead and


Servo.
Thread. carefully thread it though the wing. Once you
have thread the lead throught the wing, remove
the string so it can use for the other servo
We recommended to use long servos lead. Tape the servo lead to the wing to prevent
arm for all servos without throttle servo.
it from falling back into the wing.

7
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

Wing panel bottom.

Thread.
Pull.
Thread.

Electric wire.
Electric wire.

Plastic tape.

Aileron electric.

Install the aileron servo tray into the servo


mount.

Repeat the procedure for orther wing


haft.

AILERON LINKAGE.

INSTALLING THE AILERON LINKAGE.

1) Using a ruler & pen to draw a straight


line as below picture.

Pen.

8
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

Servo arm.

Straigh line.

2) Locate the two nylon control horns, two


nylon control horn backplates and two ma-
chine screws.

2mm x 30 mm.

7) Pushrod assemble as same as pictures


3) Position the aileron horn on the bottom
below:
side of aileron. The clevis attachment holes
should be positioned over the hinge line.

Control Horn.

Mounting Screws. Mounting Plate.

4) Using a 1mm drill bit and the control M3 lock nut.


horns as a guide, drill the mounting holes
through the aileron halves.

Pushrod.
5) Mount the control horns by inserting the
screws through the control horn bases and
aileron halves, then into the mounting 2.8cm.
backplates. Do not overtighten the screws or
the backplates may crush the wood.

6) Thread one nylon adjustable control horn


onto each aileron control rod. Thread the
horns on until they are flush with the ends of
the control rods.

9
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

INSTALLING THE BATTERY.

Battery.
C/A glue.

FUEL TANK.
INSTALLING THE STOPPER ASSEMBLY.

1) Using a modeling knife, carefully cut


off the rear portion of one of the 3 nylon tubes
leaving 1/2” protruding from the rear of the
stopper. This will be the fuel pick up tube.
2) Using a modeling knife, cut one length
Repeat the procedure for the other
of silicon fuel line. Connect one end of the line
aileron servo.
to the weighted fuel pick up and the other end
to the nylon pick up tube.
ENGINE MOUNT.
See pictures below: 3) Carefully bend the second nylon tube
up at a 45º angle. This tube is the vent tube.

4mm X 20mm.

10
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

Vent tube. Fuel pick-up


tube.

Fuel fill tube.

Carefully use a lighter or heat gun to You should mark which tube is the
permenently set the angle of the vent tube. vent and which is the fuel pickup when you
attach fuel tubing to the tubes in the
Important: When the stopper assembly is
stopper. Once the tank is installed inside
installed in the tank, the top of the vent
the fuselage, it may be difficult to determine
tube should rest just below the top surface which is which.
of the tank. It should not touch the top of
the tank.

4) Test fit the stopper assembly into the


tank. It may be necessary to remove some of
the flashing around the tank opening using a
modeling knife. If flashing is present, make
sure none falls into the tank.

5) With the stopper assembly in place, Fuel tank.


the weighted pick up should rest away from
the rear of the tank and move freely inside the
tank. The top of the vent tube should rest just
below the top of the tank. It should not touch
the top of the tank. Vent tube.

6) When satisfied with the alignment of


the stopper assembly tighten the 3mm x 20mm
machine screw until the rubber stopper ex-
pands and seals the tank opening. Do not
overtighten the assembly as this could cause
the tank to split.

Fuel pick-up
tube. Fuel fill tube.

Blow through one of the lines to en-


sure the fuel lines have not become kinked
inside the fuel tank compartment. Air
should flow through easily.

MOUNTING THE ENGINE.

1) Install the pushrod housing through the


predrilled hole in the firewall and into the servo
Attach the silicone fuel and pressure pipes compartment. The pushrod housing should
to the tank. The lower pipe is the ‘feed’ and the protrude 1/4" out past the front of the firewall.
upper two the ‘pressure and fill’. The fill pipe is
the next pipe. Make a Z-Bend 1/4" from one end of the
plain wire pushrod.

11
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

125mm.
4mm X 30mm.

2) Place your engine onto the engine


mount. Adjust the engine is centered of the
edges of the engine case.

3) When you are satisfied with the align-


ment, mark the locations of the engine
mounting.

4) Remove the engine. Using an drill bit, Pushrod wire.


drill the mounting holes through the engine
mount at the four locations marked.

4.2mm
(4 pcs).

WHEEL AND WHEEL PANTS.


1) Assemble and mounting the wheel pants
5) Bolt the engine to the engine mount as shown in the following pictures.
using the four machine screws. Double cheek
that all the screws are tight before proceeding.

6) Attach the Z-Bend in the pushrod wire


to the throttle arm on the carburetor. You will
need to remove the throttle arm from the car-
buretor to be able to attach the Z-bend. When
complete, reattach the throttle arm to the car-
buretor.

12
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

(2) Washer.
(2) Wheel Collar.

Axle. Nut.

2) Follow diagram below for wheel pant Wheel.


Nut.
installation:

(2) Washer.
Wheel Collar.

Axle. Nut.

Nut.
Wheel.
Landing Gear.
Wheel Pant. Landing gear.

10mm.

3) You have to trim each axle using a toll


cutting and cut-off wheel.

Caution when cutting the axles and


wear protective goggles.

46mm.

13
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

3mmX10mm.

4) A drop of C/A glue on the wheel collar


screws will help keep them from coming lose
Trim and cut.
during operation.

Repeat the process for the other wheel.

INSTALLING THE MAIN LANDING


GEAR.
1) The blind nuts for securing the landing
gear are already mounted inside the fuselage.

2) Using the hardware provided, mount the


main landing gear to the fuselage.
Trim and cut.

2) While keeping the back edge of the


cowl flush with the marks, align the front of
the cowl with the crankshaft of the engine. The
front of the cowl should be positioned so the
crankshaft is in nearly the middle of the cowl
opening. Use the spinner backplate as a guide.
Hold the cowl firmly in place using pieces of
masking tape.

4mm X 20mm. Because of the diameter of the cowl,


it may be necessary to use a needle
valve extension for the high speed needle
COWLING. valve. Make this out of sufficient length
1.5mm wire and install it into the end of
1) Slide the fiberglass cowl over the en-
the needle valve. Secure the wire in place
gine and line up the back edge of the cowl with
by tightening the set screw in the side of
the marks you made on the fuselage then trim
the needle valve.
and cut.

14
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

3mm X 10mm
(6pcs).

1.5mm wire
(needle valve).

INSTALLING THE SPINNER.


1) Install the spinner backplate, propeller
and spinner cone. The spinner cone is held in
place using two 3mm x 15mm wood screws.
(spinner is not included).

The propeller should not touch any


part of the spinner cone. If it does,
use a sharp modeling knife and carefully
trim away the spinner cone where the pro-
peller comes in contact with it.

3) Slide the cowl back over the engine


and secure it in place using six 3mm x 10mm
wood screws. See picture below.

4) Install the muffler and muffler extension


onto the engine and make the cutout in the
cowl for muffler clearance. Connect the fuel
and pressure lines to the carburetor, muffler
and fuel filler valve.

15
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

ELEVATOR - RUDDER SERVO Center line.


INSTALLATION.

1) Locate and cut out the covering film from


the servo holes in both sides of fuselage.

2) Using a modeling knife, carefully re-


move the covering at mounting slot of horizon-
tal stabilizer ( both side of fuselage).

Remove covering.
Remove covering.

2) Install the rubber grommets and brass


collets onto the elevator and rudder servo. Test
fit the servo into the aileron servo mount.

Because the size of servos differ, you may


need to adjust the size of the precut opening
in the mount. The notch in the sides of the 3) Slide the stabilizer into place in the pre-
mount allow the servo lead to pass through. cut slot in the rear of the fuselage. The stabi-
lizer should be pushed firmly against the front
3) Secure the servos with the screws pro- of the slot.
vided with your radio system.

Left side.

Elevator servo.

4) With the stabilizer held firmly in place,


use a pen and draw lines onto the stabilizer
where it and the fuselage sides meet. Do this
Right side.
on both the right and left sides and top and
bottom of the stabilizer.
Elevator
servo. Rudder servo.

Pen.
HORIZONTAL STABILIZER.

1) Using a ruler and a pen, locate the


centerline of the horizontal stabilizer, at the trail-
ing edge, and place a mark. Use a triangle
5) Remove the stabilizer. Using the lines
and extend this mark, from back to front,
you just drew as a guide, carefully remove the
across the top of the stabilizer. Also extend
covering from between them using a model-
this mark down the back of the trailing edge of
ing knife.
the stabilizer.

16
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

Remove covering.

Covered wood
When cutting through the covering
filler piece.
to remove it, cut with only enough pres-
sure to only cut through the covering it-
self. Cutting into the balsa structure may
weaken it.
VERTICAL STABILIZER
6) Using a modeling knife, carefully re- INSTALLATION.
move the covering that overlaps the stabilizer
mounting platform sides in the fuselage. Re-
move the covering from both the top and the
bottom of the platform sides.

7) When you are sure that everything is


aligned correctly, mix up a generous amount
of 30 Minute Epoxy. Apply a thin layer to the
top and bottom of the stabilizer mounting area
and to the stabilizer mounting platform sides
Hinge.
in the fuselage. Slide the stabilizer in place
and realign. Double check all of your mea-
surements once more before the epoxy cures. 1) Using a modeling knife, remove the
Hold the stabilizer in place with T-pins or mask-
covering from over the precut hinge slot cut
ing tape and remove any excess epoxy using
into the lower rear portion of the fuselage. This
a paper towel and rubbing alcohol.
slot accepts the lower rudder hinge.

8) After the epoxy has fully cured, re-


move the masking tape or T-pins used to hold
the stabilizer in place. Carefully inspect the
glue joints. Use more epoxy to fill in any gaps Hinge slot.
that may exist that were not filled previously
and clean up the excess using a paper towel
and rubbing alcohol.
2) Slide the vertical stabilizer into the slot
Remove covering. in the top of the fuselage. The rear edge of
the stabilizer should be flush with the rear edge
of the fuselage and the lower rudder hinge
should engage the precut hinge slot in the
lower fuselage. The bottom edge of the stabi-
lizer should also be firmly pushed against the
top of the horizontal stabilizer.

17
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

5) Slide the vertical stabilizer back in


place. Using a triangle, check to ensure that
the vertical stabilizer is aligned 90º to the hori-
zontal stabilizer.

Vertical
Horizontal 90º Stabilizer.
Stabilizer.

6) When you are sure that everything is


aligned correctly, mix up a generous amount of
3) While holding the vertical stabilizer Flash 30 Minute Epoxy. Apply a thin layer to the
firmly in place, use a pen and draw a line on mounting slot in the top of the fuselage and to
each side of the vertical stabilizer where it the sides and bottom of the vertical stabilizer
meets the top of the fuselage. mounting area. Apply epoxy to the bottom and
top edges of the filler block and to the lower
hinge also. Set the stabilizer in place and re-
align. Double check all of your measurements
Pen. once more before the epoxy cures. Hold the
stabilizer in place with T-pins or masking tape
and remove any excess epoxy using a paper
towel and rubbing alcohol. Allow the epoxy to
fully cure before proceeding.

4) Remove the stabilizer. Using a mod-


eling knife, remove the covering from below
the lines you drew. Also remove the covering C/A glue.
from the bottom edge of the stabilizer and the
bottom and top edges of the filler block. Leave
the covering in place on the sides of the filler
block.

Remove covering.

When cutting through the covering to CONTROL HORN INSTALLATION.


remove it, cut with only enough pressure
to only cut through the covering itself. Cut- 1) Locate the two nylon control horns, two
ting into the balsa structure may weaken nylon control horn backplates and four
it. machine screws.

18
EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

2) Position the elevator horn on the both


side of elevator. The clevis attach- ment holes Elevator control horn.
should be positioned over the hinge line.

2mm x 20 mm.

Rudder control horn.

ELEVATOR-RUDDER PUSHROD
INSTALLATION.

Elevator - rudder pushrods assembly follow


Control Horn. pictures below.

11.8cm.

Rudder pushrod.

Mounting Screws. Elevator pushrod.


Mounting Plate.

10.8cm.
3) Using a 1.5mm drill bit and the control
horns as a guide, drill the mounting holes
through the elevator halves.

4) Mount the control horns by inserting the


bolts through the control horn bases and
elevator halves, then into the mounting
backplates. Do not overtighten the nuts or the
backplates may crush the wood.

5) Position the rudder control horn on the


left side of the airplane. Mount the control horn
parallel with the horizontal stabilizer.
C/A glue.
6) Install the rudder control horn using the
same method as with the elevator control
horns.

Left side.
Elevator control horn.

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EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

Right side.
2mm X 20mm.

Control clasp.
2 screws.

MOUNTING THE TAIL WHEEL BRACKET.

1) Set the tail wheel assembly in place on INSTALLING TAIL STRUT SYSTEM.
the plywood plate. The pivot point of the tail
wheel wire should be even with the rudder Tail strut system assembly follow pictures
hinge line and the tail wheel bracket should below.
be centered on the plywood plate.

2 Using a pen, mark the locations of the


two mounting screws. Remove the tail wheel
bracket and drill 1mm pilot holes at the loca-
tions marked.

3) Secure the tail wheel bracket in place


using two 3mm x 12mm wood screws. Be
careful not to overtighten the screws.

3.2mm drill bit.

MOUNTING THE CONTROL CLASP.

See pictures below:

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EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

INSTALLING THE SWITCH.

Install the switch into the precut hole in the


servo tray, in the fuselage, from the bottom.
Use the two screws provided with the switch
3x10mm. to secure it in place. Drill two 3/32” holes
through the tray for the screws to pass
through.

3/ 32” Hole.

Switch.

INSTALLING THE FUSELAGE SERVO.

Throttle servo.

THROTTLE SERVO INSTALLATION.

1) Install adjustable servo connector in the


servo arm.

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EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

Adjustable Servo connector.

Receiver.

Servo arm.

2) Install the rubber grommets and brass


collets onto the throttle servo. Test fit the servo
into the aileron servo mount.

Because the size of servos differ, you may


need to adjust the size of the precut opening
in the mount. The notch in the sides of the
Antenna tube.
mount allow the servo lead to pass through.

3) Secure the servos with the screws pro- Antenna.


vided with your radio system.

4) Install the pushrod throttle.

Throttle.

Antenna.

INSTALLING THE RECEIVER.

1) Plug the six servo leads and the switch


lead into the receiver. Plug the battery pack
lead into the switch also.

2) Wrap the receiver and battery pack in


the protective foam rubber to protect them
from vibration.

3) Route the antenna in the antenna tube


inside the fuselage and secure it to the bot-
tom of fuselage using a plastic tape. See pic-
ture below.

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EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

ATTACHMENT WING-FUSELAGE.

See picture below:


Wing
bolts.

Remove covering.

Attach the aluminium tube into fuselage.

BALANCING.
Insert two wing panels as pictures below: 1) It is critical that your airplane be bal-
anced correctly. Improper balance will cause
your plane to lose control and crash. The cen-
ter of gravity is locate100-110mm back from
the leading edge of the wing, measured at the
fuselage.

2) If the nose of the plane falls, the plane


is nose heavy. To correct this first move the
battery pack further back in the fuselage. If
this is not possible or does not correct it, stick
small amounts of lead weight on the fuselage
sides under the horizontal stabilizer. If the tail
of the plane falls, the plane is tail heavy. To
correct this, move the battery and receiver for-
ward orif this is not possible, stick weight onto
the firewall or use a brass heavy hub spinner
hub, similar to those offered by Harry Higley.
When balanced correctly, the airplane should
sit level or slightly nose down when you lift it
up with your fingers.

CONTROL THROWS.

1) We highly recommend setting up the


EDGE 540 using the control throws listed at
right. We have listed control throws for both
Low Rate (initial test flying/sport flying) and
High Rate (aerobatic flying).

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EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

2) Turn on the radio system, and with the E) Check the throttle. Moving the throttle
trim tabs on the transmitter in neutral, center stick forward should open the carburetor bar-
the control surfaces by making adjustments rel. If it does not, flip the servo reversing switch
to the clevises or adjustable servo connec- on your transmitter to change the direction.
tors. The servo arms should be centered also.
F) From behind the airplane, look at the
3) When the elevator, rudder and aileron aileron on the right wing half. Move the aileron
control surfaces are centered, use a ruler and stick to the right. The right aileron should move
check the amount of the control throw in each up and the other aileron should move down. If
surface. The control throws should be it does not, flip the servo reversing switch on
measured at the widest point of each sur- your transmitter to change the direction.
face!
PREFLIGHT CHECK.
INITIAL FLYING/SPORT FLYING
1) Completely charge your transmitter
Ailerons: 5/8” up 1/2” down and receiver batteries before your first day of
Elevator: 3/4” up 3/4” down flying.
Rudder: 2 1/2” right and left
2) Check every bolt and every glue joint
AEROBATIC FLYING in the EDGE 540 to ensure that everything is
Ailerons: 1” up 7/8” down tight and well bonded.
Elevator: 1 1/4” up 1 1/4”down
Rudder: 3 1/2” right and left 3) Double check the balance of the air-
plane. Do this with the fuel tank empty.
Do not use the aerobatic settings for ini-
tial test flying or sport flying.
4) Check the control surfaces. All should
4) By moving the position of the adjust- move in the correct direction and not bind in
able control horn out from the control surface, any way.
you will decrease the amount of throw of that
control surface. Moving the adjustable con- 5) If your radio transmitter is equipped
trol horn toward the control surface will in- with dual rate switches double check that they
crease the amount of throw. are on the low rate setting for your first few
flights.
FLIGHT PREPARATION.
A) Check the operation and direction of 6) Check to ensure the control surfaces
the elevator, rudder, ailerons and throttle. are moving the proper amount for both low
and high rate settings.
B) Plug in your radio system per the
manufacturer's instructions and turn every-
thing on. 7) Check the receiver antenna. It should
be fully extended and not coiled up inside the
fuselage.
C) Check the elevator first. Pull back on
the elevator stick. The elevator halves should
move up. If it they do not, flip the servo re- 8) Properly balance the propeller. An out
versing switch on your transmitter to change of balance propeller will cause excessive vi-
the direction. bration which could lead to engine and/or air-
frame failure.
D) Check the rudder. Looking from be-
hind the airplane, move the rudder stick to the
right. The rudder should move to the right. If it We wish you many safe and enjoy-
does not, flip the servo reversing switch on able flights with your EDGE 540.
your transmitter to change the direction.

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EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

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EDGE 540. Instruction Manual.

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