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A Study On E-Banking Services: It’s Risks And Impacts

Rajni Sinha, Assistant Professor/ Research Scholar, Amity Business School, Amity
University, Rajasthan
Abstract
Today’s world is one with increasing online access to services. One part of this which is
growing rapidly is Internet Bank- ing. Internet banking refers to systems that enable
bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and
services through a personal computer (PC) or other intelligent devices. Though a large
volume of literature is accessible on E-banking, this area is still a work in progress and
offers a wide array of opportunities for further re- search and applications. This paper
explores in detail about the e-banking services being offered by banks and the pene-
tration level of it in the market. Since the topic is at the stage of development, a detailed
literature review is being provided with special attention to benefits and risks
associated with e-banking services. We hope that the conclusion drawn by this research
will provide deep insight into the constitution of e-banking services and be a relevant
source of information to those who are interested in e-banking. The paper likewise
gives some future bearings to look into.

Keywords: E-banking services


Introduction
E-banking refers to the utilization of the Internet as a remote conveyance channel for
managing an account or other banking services. Such services incorporate custo- mary
ones, for example, opening a bank(savings) ac- count or fund exchange, and new saving
services, for example, electronic bill installment (permitting clients to get and pay bills
on a bank's webpage). E-banking ser- vices are provided by banks primarily in two ways.
An already incorporated bank with physical workplaces can create a website and offer
Internet banking as a new ad- vancement to traditional approaches. A second option is to
build up a virtual or only internet based bank. The PC server that lies at the heart of a
virtual bank might be housed in an office that serves as the lawful location of such a
bank, or at some other area. Virtual banks may offer their clients the capacity to
withdraw or deposit funds through Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) or other easily
accessible tools. Technological up gradation engrosses advancements in our daily
routine. One of the creative products rising up out of technological en- hancements is the
internet, internet banking specifically and has a wide usage. Penetration level is higher
and is doubling at a significant rate. Electronic banking, also known as electronic funds
transfer (EFT), is simply the use of electronic means to transfer funds directly from one
account to another, rather than by cheque or cash.
There are mainly two benefits that every e-banking cus- tomer gets:
a) Transactional: It includes completing money related exchanges, for example,
installment of bills, apply- ing for a credit and enlistment reimbursements, making
another account, contribute sales and pur- chase and exchange of funds between a
customers' value-based record and a bank account.
b) Non- Transactional: It includes downloading of money related archives like a bank
proclamation, co-skimming, checking of connections and a quick
view of latest transaction, for example, seeing pictures of paid cheque etc.
These days’ banks imagine financial returns by practic- ing e-banking services for
customers associated with the web through their personal gadgets computers, thus ex-
panding the danger e-banking related issues.
Objectives
a) To study the e- banking facilities offered by the banks to its customers.
b) To study as to how much e-banking has penetrated in the minds of the customers.
c) To explore the types of risks customer faces while using e-banking services.
d) To study the benefits that is provided to the individ- ual under e- banking services.
Research Methodology
a) Research is problem solving and Systematic.
b) Logics will be followed in study.
c) Decision making and conclusion is drawn from In- formation collected, facts and
Figures.
Research Design
Research Design involves data collection which is done using techniques:
a) Primary Data Collection.
b) Secondary data Collection.

Primary Data does not prevail to be collected unless the need is desired for it. Primary
Data will be collected in many ways like Interviews, Questionnaire, Focus Group
Discussion, observation Techniques and other forms of discussion forums and panels.
Mode of Data Collections
a. The sources of Primary data were questionnaire me- thod and direct interaction with
customers.
b. Secondary Data was collected from annual reports, business magazines and internet.
Sample Design
Doing research via sampling will be important because of impossibility of finding all of
a population, as well as other restrictive parameters like cost, time etc.

Our sampling decision will be in-coordination with the research and data objectives.
Sample size – 100
Literature Review
The literature available to the researcher on the applica- tion of Information technology
in Indian banks are clas- sified according to the related topics as mentioned be- low:

Technological development in the banking sector


The technological development in the banking sector began with the use of Advanced
Ledger Posting Ma- chines (ALPM) in the 1980s and nowadays banks are using core
banking solution (CBS) for providing better services to their customers. Over the years
several stu- dies have been conducted both at the industry and aca- demic level to
examine the impact of IT on banking productivity and profitability.
Brynjolfsson and Hitt (1996) however, cautioned that these findings do not account for
the economic theory of equilibrium which implies that increased IT spending does not
imply increased profitability. More recent firm level studies, however, point a more
positive picture of IT contributions towards productivity. These findings raise several
questions about miss-measurement of out- put by not accounting for improved variety
and quality and about whether IT benefits are seen at the firm level or at the industry
level. Such issues have been discussed in detail by Brynjolfsson [1993][2] and to a lesser
extent by Brynjolfsson and Hitt [1996].
Committee Reports
Information Technology and the Communication Net- working Systems have
revolutionized the functioning of banks and other financial institutions all over the
world. Reserve bank of India has played an important role in implementation of
information technology in banking sector. Various researchers have also contributed in
this regard. In addition to the work done by various scholars in the area of Information
Technology and Banking or- ganization, RBI had appointed various committees to work
in this area. The reports of various committees are briefly summarized below:
Dr. C. Rangarajan Committee [1983]
Dr. Rangarajan committee had drawn up in 1983-84 the first blue print for
computerization and mechanization in banking industry and looked into modalities of
drawing up a phased plan for mechanization for the banking in-
dustry covering period 1985-89. The committee in its report in 1984 recommended
introduction of computeri- zation and mechanization at branch, regional office / zonal
office and head office levels of banks. In 1988[6] another committee was constituted
under the chairman- ship of Dr. Rangarajan for making plans for computeri- zation for
the next five years from 1990-94 for the bank- ing industry. It identified the purpose of
computerization as improvement in customer service, decision making, housekeeping
and profitability. The committee observed that banking is a service industry and
improved efficien- cy will lead to a faster rate of growth in output and help to expand
employment all around. The work force in the banking industry must, therefore, look
upon computeri- zation as a means to improve customer service and must welcome it in
that spirit.
W.S. Saraf Committee [1994]
In 1994, the Governor, Reserve bank of India had ap- pointed a committee on
technology issues under the chairmanship of W. S. Saraf. The committee looked into
technological issues related to the payment system and to make recommendations for
widening the use of modern technology in the banking industry. The Saraf committee
recommended setting up institutions for electronic funds transfer system in India. The
committee also reviewed the telecommunication system like use of BANKNET and
optimum utilization of SWIFT by the banks in India.
Shere Committee [1995]
In 1995, RBI formed a committee under the chairman- ship of K. S. Shere, to study all
aspects relating to elec- tronic funds transfer and propose appropriate legislation. The
Shere committee had recommended framing of RBI (EFT system) regulations under
section 58 of the Re- serve bank of India Act 1934 (RBI Act.), amendments to the RBI
act and to the bankers book evidence act, 1891 as short term measures and enacting of a
few new acts such as EFT act, the computer misuse and data protec- tion act etc. as long
term measures.
Narasimhan Committee [1998]
In order to examine the various issues related to the technology up gradation in the
banking sector, the Re- serve Bank of India appointed Narasimhan committee in
September 1998. The committee consists of representa- tives from the Government,
Reserve Bank of India, banks and academic institutions associated with the in-
formation technology. The committee dealt with the is- sues on technology up gradation
and observed that the most of the technology that could be considered suitable for India
in some form or the other has been introduced in some diluted form or as a pilot project,
but the desired success has not been achieved because of the reasons inter-alia lack of
clarity and certainty on legal issues. The committee also suggested implementation of
the
necessary legislative changes, keeping in the view the recommendations of Shere
committee.

The need for addressing the following issues was also emphasized:-
a. Encryption on Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN) lines
b. Admission of electronic files as evidence
c. Treating Electronic Funds Transfers on par with crossed cheques / drafts for
d. Purposes of Income Tax etc
e. Electronic Record keeping
f. Provide data protection
g. Implementation of digital signatures
h. Clarification on payment finality in case of EFT

Taking into consideration the recommendations by vari- ous committees appointed by


RBI and guidelines of RBI, banks have started using IT to automate banking transac-
tions and processes.
Waves In Banking Technology
As per the Reports of RBI [8] [9], the first wave in bank- ing technology began with the
use of Advanced Ledger Posting Machines (ALPM) in the 1980s. The RBI ad- vised all
the banks to go in for huge computerization at the branch level. There were two options:
automate the front office or the back office. Many banks opted for automating the front
office in the first phase. Whereas banks like State Bank of India also concentrated on the
back office automation at the branch level. The Second wave of development was in
Total Branch Automation (TBA) which came in late 1980s. This automated both the
front-end and back-end operations within the same branch. TBA comprised of total
automation of a particu- lar branch with its own database. In the third wave, the new
private sector banks entered into the field of auto- mation. These banks opted for
different models of hav- ing a single centralized database instead of having mul- tiple
databases for all their branches. This was possible due to the availability of good
network infrastructure. Earlier, banks were not confident of running the whole operation
through a single data center. However, when a couple of private sector banks showed
that it can be done efficiently, other banks began to show interest and they also began
consolidating their databases into a single database. The banks followed up on this move
by choos- ing suitable application software that would support cen- tralized operations.
The fourth wave started with the evolution of the ATM delivery channel. This was the
first stage of empowerment of the customer for his own transactions. The second stage
was the Suvidha experi- ment in Bangalore. This showed the power of technolo- gy and
how the reach can be increased amazingly at a great pace. Seeing these, all the banks
started revamping their retail delivery channels. Their core focus became
increasing the number of customers they can service at a lower cost. The main channels
for these were internet banking and mobile banking. After this, came the al- liances for
payment through various other gateways. The third important development happening
now is the real- time gross settlement system of the RBI. Once this was in place,
transactions between banks could be done through the settlement system, online,
electronically thereby, ensuring faster collection. The process of com- puterization had
started from Back Office Application, after that Total Branch Automation and nowadays
it is the period of implementation of Core Banking Solutions (CBS). A key trend in the
last couple of years has been the focus on core banking systems. With the implemen-
tation of core banking systems across the banks, the usage level of IT for customer
management has in- creased. Core banking systems have enabled banks to launch new
products and services targeting specific cus- tomer segments after understanding their
banking and investment requirements. ATM, internet banking and mobile banking have
improved customer convenience by providing anywhere any time banking services. The
utili- ty bill presenting and payment has helped customers to pay their bills online at the
click of a button. Electronic clearing system and electronic funds transfer have facili-
tated faster funds movement and settlement for the cus- tomers of different banks and
different centers. The elec- tronic data interchange and cash management service
facilities have enabled better funds management for the customer. Very few banks
offered customers the ability to access their accounts and perform at least simple money
transactions using internet banking. Advance- ments in information technology have
made it possible for the banks to use the internet as a delivery channel for banking
services. Technological developments have in- troduced tremendous changes in the
ability of financial and non financial firms to efficiently collect, store, use and sell
information about their customers. Balasubra- manya S.(2002) [10] in his study
analyzed that the auto- mation in the banking sector has come a long way start- ing with
the Rangarajan Committee report on the bank- ing sector reforms during the eighties,
followed by re- ports of the Narasimhan Committee in the nineties. With over 65,000
branches of the banks (public, private and the cooperative sector) in the country, the
author found that the percentage of branches covered by automation was very low.
Though many banks had claimed that more than 70% business has been automated due
to the enforcement of RBI guidelines, in reality it was much lower, as many functions in
each branch were still done manually or with partial automation. Hence, there was a
significant amount of automation work to be achieved in the banking sector.
Reserve Bank Of India And Impact Of Li- beralization On Banking System
With liberalization in the telecom industry and its im- proved reliability at a reduced
cost, many banks and fi- nancial sectors at that time were going forward with large-scale
networking of their branches and implement- ing the centralized core banking solutions.
As a result, banks were able to provide their products and services to their customers
anywhere, any time. With these devel- opments, bank customers could avail these
services across different locations with improved transaction rea- lization and reduced
cost. With increasing proliferation of ATMs, tele banking, and availability of internet
bank- ing facilities, the customer contact points had increased enormously, thereby
resulting in increased services to customers. This has been possible solely due to the im-
plementation of technology.

a. MICR cheque processing at four metros (Mumbai, New Delhi, Calcutta and Chennai)
with image tech- nology (July - October 1999)
I. Electronic Clearing Services (debit and credit) at 15 centers where RBI has its
offices and 30 centers managed by SBI.
II. Electronic Funds Transfer at four metros and its extension to Hyderabad,
Ahmedabad and Ban- galore

b) Projects in the Process of Development:


I. Indian Financial Network (INFINET)
II. Securities Settlement System (SSS) and Nego- tiated Dealing System (NDS)
III. Centralized Funds Management System (CFMS)
IV. Structured Financial Messaging Solution (SFMS)
V. Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS)
IT Framework For Indian Banking Sector
IT planning is an ongoing effort intended to match the bank’s technology capabilities
with its changing strategic objectives. It is necessary for a bank to identify technol- ogy
gaps and develop a plan that supports the bank’s long/medium term-strategic goals in
order to bridge the gaps. It is imperative for banks to have a clearly defined technology
planning process that is based on a well founded technology action plan for the
following rea- sons:
a. Increasing competition, new products and changing distribution channels.
b. Banks currently spend a huge amount of their budg- et annually on technology. Such
Investments will only continue to escalate.
c. Effective technology management requires an un- derlying technology plan. Without
it, Scarce re-
sources are likely to be wasted and opportunities missed.
Security Aspects Of Banking Transactions Hebbar Raveendranath (2004) [29]
described that the advancements in computing and telecom have revolutio- nized the
financial industry. Banks are developing alter- native channels of delivery like ATM, tele
banking, re- mote access, internet banking etc., Some questions that need to be answered
are , how can one trust these chan- nels, our personal data and transactions which are
driven by technology. Are they reliable and accurate? Is there a way out to independently
validate the integrity of infor- mation? If we analyze, why the lack of trust exists, we
realize that the primary issues center on the following aspects of information security:
a. Authentication and identity of user: The act of veri- fying the identity of a user. How
to recognize the person dealing on the net? Can one be sure of his or her identity?
b. Confidentiality: How can one be sure that the in- formation transmitted has not been
intercepted or viewed by any other party in transit?
c. Integrity: How can one ensure that the information sent, received or stored has not
been tampered with the modified at any time?
E-Banking: Global Perspective
The advent of Internet has initiated an electronic revolu- tion in the global banking
sector. The dynamic and flexi- ble nature of this communication channel as well as its
ubiquitous reach has helped in leveraging a variety of banking activities. New banking
intermediaries offering entirely new types of banking services have emerged as a result
of innovative e-business models. The Internet has emerged as one of the major
distribution channels of banking products and services, for the banks in US and in the
European countries. Initially, banks promoted their core capabilities i.e., products,
services and advice through Internet. Then, they entered the e-commerce market as
providers/distributors of their own products and services. More recently, due to
advances in Internet security and the advent of relevant protocols, banks have
discovered that they can play their primary role as finan- cial intermediates and
facilitators of complete commer- cial transactions via electronic networks especially
through the Internet. Some banks have chosen a route of establishing a direct web
presence while others have opted for either being an owner of financial services cen-
tric electronic marketplace or being participants of a non-financial services centric
electronic marketplace.
The trend towards electronic delivery of banking prod- ucts and services is occurring
partly as a result of con- sumer demand and partly because of the increasing com-
petitive environment in the global banking industry. The
Internet has changed the customers' behaviors who are demanding more
customized products/services at a lower price. Moreover, new competition
from pure online banks has put the profitability of even established brick and
mortar banks under pressure. However, very few banks have been successful
in developing effective strat- egies for fully exploiting the opportunities
offered by the Internet. For traditional banks to define what niche mar- kets to
serve and decide what products/services to offer there is a need for a clear and
concise Internet commerce strategy.
Banking transactions had already started taking place through the Internet way
back in 1995. The Internet promised an ideal platform for commercial
exchange, helping banks to achieve new levels of efficiency in fi- nancial
transactions by strengthening customer relation- ship, promoting price
discovery and spend aggregation and increasing the reach. Electronic finance
offered con- siderable opportunities for banks to expand their client base and
rationalize their business while the customers received value in the form of
savings in time and money.
Global E-banking industry is covered by the following four sections:
a) E-banking Scenario: It discusses the actual state, prospects, and issues
related to E-banking in Asia with a focus on India, US and Europe. It also
deals with the impact of E-banking on the banking indus- try structure.
b) E-banking Strategies: It reveals the key strategies that banks must
implement to derive maximum val- ue through the online channel. It also
brings guid- ance for those banks, which are planning to build online
businesses.
c) E-banking Transactions: It discusses how Internet has radically
transformed banking transactions. The section focuses on cross border
transactions, B2B transactions, electronic bill payment and present- ment
and mobile payments. In spite of all the hype, E-banking has been a non-
starter in several coun- tries.
d) E-banking Trends: It discusses the innovation of new technologies in
banks.
The Risks Involved In E-Banking
Without a doubt, the technological growth has consider- ably affected the
profile of Bank risks and financial insti- tution formation more generally.
Some of these risks are increased, while others on the contrary are possible to
be decreased. In any case, the growth of electronic banking has created a new
basis with regard to the degree of ex- posure to the risk and therefore
consequently the need of not only a differentiated regulating frame, but also
me- chanisms of monitoring to be formed, which has already begun to be
shaped in the fields of Basle Committee of
Banking Supervision. The degree of exposing to risks, which are related to
the electronic banking, depends mainly on the degree of adopting new
alternative elec- tronic means of distribution of services and products. The
business risk is the risk of not being able to achieve the business targets due
to inappropriate strategies, in- adequate resources or changes in the economic
or com- petitive environment. Various banking foundations com- prehend that
online exchange essentially improves in- formation security hazards with
practically zero consid- eration being paid towards the result including
further internet banking related exchange risks. Controls includ- ing the
supervision of dangers are creating at a moderate pace when contrasted with
the force at which heaps of associations are developing without the
combination of risk management standards in their business game plans.
Online money related exchanges don't make new danger bunches, yet to a
specific degree attracts thoughtfulness regarding the dangers that few
financial institution faces. These dangers, which have basic attributes, are
clarified next:
Transactional Risks: Depicted as the potential danger to savings, money
and investments coming up from the scam, carelessness and the inadequacy
to maintain fore- seen administration force. A hoisted force of risk may exist
with online banking services, because of the need to have refined inside
controls and consistent openness. A decent number of tools in monetary
exchanges are footed on creative foundations that associate with legacy
systems utilizing multifaceted interfaces, in so doing expanding the
inaccuracy liable to happen while com- pleting an exchange. The requirement
for disproving of an exchange and the capacity to ensure information ought
not to be ignored. The existence of third parties, adds to risks connected with
money related exchanges, giving that no aggregate control over the third
party is practiced by the organization. There is an eminent dan- ger of
exchange errors even within the sight of frame- work connections and
nonappearance of perfect strate- gies between the bank and the third-party
sources.
Compliance Risk: Depicted as the potential threat to savings or investment
resulting because of the failure to adjust to, or encroachments of rules and
ethical values. Dangers connected with being consistent may achieve
diminished status, tactile money related fatalities, and shortened business
opportunities. Banks ought to warily grasp and read between the lines
displayed laws seeing that they relate to internet money saving and assurance
consistency with different controls like regional banking. The risk is
fundamentally expanded when the money related exchange, client or the bank
is situated in addi- tional than one nation furthermore by opposing direc-
tions, charge practices and treatment commitments ath- wart different locales.
The need to keep up customer data