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Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Experimental and numerical investigations on the performance


evaluation of shear deficient and GFRP strengthened reinforced concrete
beams
Nawal Kishor Banjara ⇑, K. Ramanjaneyulu
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre and Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Taramani, Chennai 600113, India

h i g h l i g h t s

 Experimental investigations on three levels of shear deficient and GFRP strengthened RC beams.
 Design methodologies for evaluating shear capacity of strengthened RC beam.
 A procedure for GFRP strengthening in shear zone.
 Finite element modelling and analysis using perfect bonding and cohesive zone modelling.
 Parametric study for different strengthening schemes using numerical simulation.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The present study is focused on the experimental investigation and nonlinear finite element simulations
Received 8 July 2016 of shear deficient and glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) strengthened reinforced concrete beams. Three
Received in revised form 24 December 2016 levels of shear deficiency are considered in the design. Two layers of GFRP fabric are used for strength-
Accepted 25 January 2017
ening in the shear zone. The behavior of control, shear deficient and GFRP strengthened beams under
two-point monotonic loading is studied. Detailed 3D non-linear finite element analyses with perfect
bonding as well as with cohesive zone modelling are carried out to simulate the behavior of shear defi-
Keywords:
cient beams. The responses, in terms of load-deflection behavior, failure loads and crack patterns,
Structural deficiency
Experimental investigation
obtained from numerical simulations are validated with that of the experimental investigations. The val-
Non-linear finite element analysis idated numerical models are then used for studying the efficacy and effectiveness of various strengthen-
Shear strengthening ing schemes using epoxy impregnated GFRP fabric where the number of layers, orientation and
GFRP fabric distribution of fibres are considered as parameters.
Perfect bonding Based on the parametric studies, the schemes which provide optimum improvement in performance
Cohesive zone modelling for strengthening of the shear deficient beams are identified. For all three classes of deficient beams,
greatest improvement in strength is attained for 45° orientation in single ply, 45°–90° orientation in dou-
ble ply and 90°–45°–90° orientation in triple ply strengthening schemes. In all GFRP strengthened beams,
mode of failure changed from shear to flexural failure and showed great improvement in the ductile
behavior.
Ó 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Various factors affect the deterioration of a structural member.


Apart from structural deterioration due to aging, errors made dur-
Failure of a civil structure refers to the loss of structural integ- ing design and construction phase, and increased load, all con-
rity due to loss of the load-carrying capacity. In a well-designed tribute to the deficient behavior of structures. While
system, a localized failure should not cause immediate or even pro- experimental methods of investigation helps in evaluating the per-
gressive collapse of the entire structure for any kind of loading. formance of these deficient structures under simulated loading
conditions, use of numerical models helps in developing a good
understanding of the behavior and to carry out parametric studies
⇑ Corresponding author at: Bridge Engineering Group, CSIR-Structural Engineer-
at lower costs.
ing Research Centre, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113, India.
E-mail addresses: nawalkishor@serc.res.in, nawal1234@gmail.com
In recent years, lot of research was focused on strengthening of
(N.K. Banjara), rams@serc.res.in (K. Ramanjaneyulu). underdesigned and deficient RC structures. Khalifa and Nanni [1]

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.089
0950-0618/Ó 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534 521

examined the shear performance and modes of failure of rectangu- Breveglieri et al. [15] developed shear strengthening technique,
lar simply supported RC beams with shear deficiencies. Laboratory designated as embedded through section (ETS), to retrofit existing
tests carried out by Taljsten [2] proved that the concrete beams can reinforced concrete (RC) elements. To explore the potentialities of
be strengthened for enhanced shear capacity by affixing/bonding the ETS technique for the shear strengthening of RC beams, an
fabrics/laminates perpendicular to the shear crack. Santhakumar experimental study was carried out on RC T-beam cross section
et al. [3] performed numerical simulation to evaluate the behavior which was shear strengthened by using steel bars. An experimental
of retrofitted beams. They studied the effect of retrofit using CFRP investigation on the performance of RC T-beams strengthened in
composites with 45° and 90° fibre orientations, on un-cracked and shear using epoxy bonded bi-directional GFRP fabrics was carried
pre-cracked beams. Parretti and Nanni [4] presented a design over- out by Panigrahi et al. [16]. Total of twelve beams were cast and
view on strengthening of RC members using near-surface mounted tested under four-point bending. Study on strengthening of the
(NSM) FRP composites. In their study, recommendations on issues beams in shear was carried out by using mechanically anchored
related to bond, flexure and shear design, and design examples bonded GFRP sheets.
were discussed. Anil [5] conducted experimental study on shear To investigate the effectiveness of using commercially manu-
deficient beams strengthened using externally bonded CFRP strips. factured FRP sheets to increase the shear capacity of RC shear
The scope of using anchorages to prevent de-bonding failure of critical beams, a study was carried out by Baggio et al. [17].
CFRP strips under cyclic loads was investigated in his study. The experimental results revealed that applying FRP sheets
Suleiman et al. [6] conducted experimental and numerical increased the overall shear capacity and ductility of failure, FRP
investigations to study the applicability of CFRP sheets for cyclic strengthening could change the mode of failure from a shear
strengthening of RC beams. They developed finite element model to flexural failure and FRP debonding was delayed with the pres-
by incorporating cracking of concrete, bond between concrete ence of FRP anchors. 3D nonlinear finite element (FE) model to
and steel reinforcement, and bond between concrete and CFRP capture and predict the response of shear deficient simply sup-
sheets. Sundarraja and Rajamohan [7] conducted experimental ported reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened externally
study to understand the behavior of RC beams strengthened in with aluminum alloy plates was developed by Abu-Obeidah
shear using bi-directional GFRP fabrics. They presented the failure et al. [18]. Five FE models were developed based on experimen-
modes, failure load and load deflection behavior of RC beams tal tests conducted. The experimental program included four
strengthened with externally bonded GFRP inclined strips and U- point bending tests on RC beams strengthened in shear zone
strips in the shear region of beam. Dias and Barros [8] evaluated with externally bonded structural aluminum alloy plates till fail-
the effectiveness of shear strengthening provided by externally ure. El-Gamal et al. [19] carried out an experimental study that
bonded reinforcement (EBR) and NSM CFRP. The influence of per- investigates the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams
centage and inclination of laminates in terms of the NSM shear strengthened in flexure with near surface mounted (NSM) tech-
strengthening performance was investigated. Obaidat et al. [9] per- nique using glass and carbon fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP &
formed experimental investigation to study the behavior of beams CFRP). The NSM-CFRP strengthened beams showed greater ulti-
designed in such a way that either flexural or shear failure is mate capacities than the NSM-GFRP beams but they showed less
expected. Load-deflection relationship, failure modes and crack ductile behavior. The NSM-GFRP strengthened beam, however,
patterns obtained from finite element analyses were compared showed good ductile behavior with high deflection values at ulti-
with the experimental results. Fathelbab et al. [10] discussed dif- mate load.
ferent schemes using FRP for shear, flexure and combined shear/
flexure strengthening. It was stated that increase in number of
plies improved the beam capacity and ductility dramatically under 2. Structural deficiency in RC beams and the strengthening
flexure. In shear strengthened beams, the increase in number of schemes
plies improved the ductility but did not have significant effect in
improving the beam shear capacity. The shear failure of reinforced concrete (RC) beam is clearly dif-
Dong et al. [11] conducted a study on the fatigue behavior of RC ferent from the flexural failure. In shear failure, the beam fails sud-
beams strengthened with FRP (CFRP or GFRP) sheets and investi- denly without sufficient warning and diagonal shear cracks are
gated the effectiveness of FRP sheets on the fatigue behavior and considerably wider than the flexural cracks. On several occasions,
their contributions to the ultimate strength of RC beams. Sasmal existing RC beams have been found to be deficient in shear. Shear
et al. [12] carried out nonlinear finite element analysis of FRP deficiencies occur because of several reasons such as insufficient
strengthened reinforced concrete beams using ANSYS. They inves- shear reinforcement or reduction in steel area due to corrosion,
tigated the suitability of different elements available in ANSYS increased service load, and defects. Accordingly, suitable retrofit-
library to represent FRP, epoxy and interface. They recommended ting and up-gradation techniques have to be developed in order
shell elements for modelling when single layer of FRP was used. to strengthen the shear deficient structures. Though many research
When multi layered FRP was used, solid layered element could works were carried out on strengthening of RC members, investi-
be a good choice. The epoxy matrix was modelled using linear solid gations on shear deficient RC members, which are extremely brit-
element and does not require further complicated model. Mostafa tle, are very few. Further, in reported literature more emphasis was
et al. [13] carried out experimental and numerical investigations to given on experimental investigations rather than on numerical
study the effect of strengthening using GFRP and CFRP on continu- simulations which can be used for exhaustive study on the perfor-
ous beams with respect to the ratio and type of longitudinal and mance of RC members with various types of strengthening
transverse reinforcement. The finite element model developed by schemes.
them was used to expand the range of investigated parameters. In view of that, in the present study both experimental and
Jayajothi et al. [14] performed non-linear FEA to study the behavior numerical studies are carried out and the results of experimental
of RC beams strengthened using FRP laminates. Flexural strength- study on various shear deficient RC members are used for valida-
ening was carried out by affixing FRP laminates at the bottom of tion of numerical simulation. In this study, shear deficiency is
the beam. Shear strengthening was done through U-wraps at sup- induced by providing less number of shear reinforcement stirrups
port section. Initial cracking of the beam, yielding of steel rein- than required. The validated numerical models are then used for
forcement and strength limit state of the beam were investigated studying the efficacy and effectiveness of various strengthening
in their study. schemes developed using epoxy impregnated GFRP fabric.
522 N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

3. Experimental investigations on shear deficient and GFRP crete using compression testing machine (CTM), of 3000 kN capac-
strengthened RC beams ity. The test setup of the compressive strength, split tensile
strength and cylinder test for elastic modulus are shown in Fig. 1
For casting of RC beams, concrete mix is designed to get a com- (a) –(c). From the tests, average compressive strength, split tensile
pressive strength of 40 MPa. The constituents of the mix are ordi- strength and elastic modulus are found to be 44.7 MPa, 3.2 MPa
nary Portland cement, natural sand and gravel with aggregate size and 31,500 MPa, respectively. To obtain the strain during loading
of 10 mm and 20 mm. A water cement ratio of 0.5 is adopted. in the reinforcement bars, electrical resistance strain gages are
Cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are mixed in affixed on the reinforced bars before casting. For measurement of
the ratio of 1:0.5:2.25:2.35. In addition to the test beams, three strain on concrete surface, strain gages are affixed over the surface
cubes of 150 mm  150 mm  150 mm and six cylinders of of the beam at identified locations. Reinforcement details of all the
150 mm  300 mm are cast for evaluation of compressive strength, beams are shown in Fig. 2.
modulus of elasticity and split tensile strength of concrete. Three Three control (C) and six shear deficient full scale rectangular
cubes are tested for evaluating compressive strength of the con- beams are designed and cast as per Indian standard IS 456-2000
crete. Three cylinders are tested to evaluate the elastic modulus [20] limit state method. Three levels of shear deficiencies, such
and another three are tested for split tensile strength of the con- as SD1 (20%), SD2 (40%) and SD3 (60%), with stirrups spacing of

(a) Cube compression test (b) Split tensile strength test (c) Elastic modulus test
Fig. 1. (a) Compressive strength test, (b) split tensile test and (c) cylinder test for getting elastic modulus.

(a) Control beam

(b) SD1

(c) SD2

(d) SD3
Fig. 2. Cross-section and reinforcement details of beams with varying shear deficiencies (a) Control Beam, (b) SD1, (c) SD2 and (d) SD3.
N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534 523

375 mm, 500 mm and 750 mm, respectively are considered in this From the tests, it has been observed that the control (C) and
study. The overall length of the beam is chosen as 1800 mm and shear deficient (SD1, SD2 and SD3) RC rectangular beams are failed
the cross section is 150 mm  200 mm. The net span of the beam under shear/flexural and shear kind of failure, respectively. Typical
is limited to 1500 mm. Four point bending tests are carried out failure modes of the control and shear deficient RC beams are
on control beams and three different types of shear deficient shown in Fig. 4(a)–(d). First crack load, ultimate load and deflection
beams under monotonic loading using hydraulic actuator. Hydrau- of the beams are given in Table 1. Load deflection behavior of the
lic actuator of 500 kN capacity and (+/) 125 mm stroke is used for control and shear deficient RC beams are shown in Fig. 5. The first
loading of the specimens. The specimens are loaded at a rate of cracks are observed to be vertical flexure cracks for all the beams.
0.2 mm/min. The test setup used for testing under monotonic load- With increase in load, new cracks are developed, while the existing
ing is shown in Fig. 3. To obtain the deflection of the beam, three cracks propagated vertically towards the compression zone for up
linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs) are mounted at to approximately 75% of the maximum load. Shear cracks started
one-third, centre and two-third length of the span. near the supports, at loads approximately 40% of the maximum
load for all deficient beams and propagated until the beams are
failed. Typical shear mode of failure is observed for all the tested
shear deficient beams with a sudden formation of a diagonal crack
starting from support and extending up to the loading point. In the
case of control beams, shear crack started at 60% of maximum load
and beams are failed in the mixed mode kind of failure, i.e. shear/
flexural mode of failure.
Based on the results of experimental investigations carried out
on nine RC beams, in this study, the plot of % reduction in ultimate
load versus % shear deficiency is plotted as shown in Fig. 6. Trend
line of % reduction in ultimate load with % shear deficiency is also
included. This trend line can be used for estimation of % reduction
in ultimate load of shear deficient RC beams of any deficiency level
with reference to control beam (without any shear deficiency),
within the bounds of experimental results (i.e. 20–60% shear defi-
ciency). This would help in deciding the level of strengthening
Fig. 3. Test setup for experimental investigations. required.

(a) - Control

(b) - SD1

(c) - SD2

(d) - SD3
Fig. 4. Crack patterns of tested shear deficient RC beams.
524 N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

Table 1
First crack load, ultimate load, deflection and failure mode.

Beam ID First crack load (kN) Ultimate load (kN) Deflection at ultimate load (mm) Deflection at failure (mm) Observed failure mode
C 18.34 97.62 10.07 14.56 Shear/Flexural
18.71 101.15 10.74 16.21
20.98 102.54 11.23 16.63
SD1 18.68 83.86 4.68 4.90 Shear
19.57 85.54 4.78 5.12
SD2 18.87 77.63 4.43 4.53 Shear
16.20 76.35 4.35 4.48
SD3 18.35 66.26 4.11 4.18 Shear
15.57 64.15 4.00 4.04
SSD-3 19.98 95.40 20.24 29.47 Flexural
20.28 98.65 22.65 30.38

3.1. Design for shear strengthening deficient RC beams

Shear capacity of the strengthened beam need to be evaluated.


It need to be evaluated in a similar way as the control beam (with-
out strengthening). Then, shear strength of beam due to fabric need
to be evaluated. According to ACI 440 [21], the nominal shear
strength by means of externally bonded fibre matrix (vn) can be
evaluated as a sum of the shear resistance contribution of the con-
crete (vc), steel stirrups (vs) and bonded fibre (vf). Fig. 7 shows the
idealized forces, strains and corresponding stresses within a con-
crete beam resisting an applied moment.

vn ¼ vc þ vs þ vf ð1Þ

qffiffiffiffi
17:24qs F u ds
v c ¼ 0:1578 0
fc þ ð2Þ
Fig. 5. Load-deflection behavior of control and shear deficient RC beams. Mu

Ast f y;st
vs ¼ ðcot h þ cot as Þ sin as ð3Þ
ss bw

Awf Ef ef ;eff df
vf ¼ ðcot h þ cot as Þ sin af  ð4Þ
sf bw ds

where Ast and Awf are the cross sectional area of the internal and
external web reinforcement, respectively, f y;st is the yield strength
0
of internal web reinforcement, f c concrete compressive strength
of cylinder, qs is the ratio of internal tension reinforcement, ss and
sf are the spacing between internal and external web reinforcement
respectively, Mu =F u represents the shear span (a = 2.5), Ef and ef ;eff
are the modulus of elasticity and effective strain of the bonded fibre
fabric respectively, df and ds depth of FRP fabric and effective depth
of web respectively, and h, as and af are inclination of major diago-
nal shear cracks, steel stirrups and bonded fibres fabric respectively.
Fig. 6. Effect of deficiency level on the ultimate load.
Diagonal shear cracks with h = 45° is assumed. Shear strength due

Fig. 7. Internal forces, strain and stresses in concrete beam.


N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534 525

to concrete and steel stirrups are evaluated using Eqs. (2) and (3). shown in Fig. 8(a). Required length of GFRP fabric is cut carefully
Shear strength due to fibre matrix is evaluated using Eq. (4). Modu- as shown in Fig. 8(b). Once the surface is prepared, the epoxy resin
lus of elasticity and effective strain of bonded fibre matrix given in is mixed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The
SIKA catalogue are considered for evaluating shear strength of fibre mixing is carried out (Sikadur 330-a, weight of 0.8 kg and Sikadur
matrix. 330-b, weight of 0.2 kg) and is continued until the mixture
becomes uniform as shown in Fig. 8(c). After attaining uniform
v cs ¼ v c þ v s ¼ 2:0678 MPa
mixing, the GFRP fabric is cut according to the required size and
the epoxy resin is applied on the concrete surface as shown in
Pcþs ¼ v cs  cross section area  62 kN
Fig. 8(d). Then the GFRP fabric is placed on the epoxy resin and
v f ;single ply ¼ 0:7157 MPa the resin is squeezed through the roving of the fabric with the
roller. Air bubbles entrapped at the epoxy/concrete or epoxy/fabric
interface are squeezed out as shown in Fig. 8(e). Then the second
Pf ;single ply ¼ v f ;single ply  cross section area  21:47 kN
layer of the epoxy resin is applied over the first layer of GFRP, fol-
lowed by placing of second layer of GFRP fabric. Again, the resin is
Pf ;double ply ¼ 2  21:47 ¼ 42:94 kN
squeezed through the roving of the GFRP fabric with the roller. The
above process is repeated for all the regions of strengthening. This
Pcþsþf ¼ 104:94 kN
operation is carried out at room temperature. Concrete beams
Average load carrying capacity of the control beam is found to strengthened with GFRP fabric are cured for a minimum period
be 100 kN. To bring load capacity of shear deficient (SD3) beam of one week at room temperature. The strengthened RC beam is
around control beam, two layers of GFRP fabric is required. shown in Fig. 8(f).
The shear strengthened beams are tested under monotonic
3.2. Experimental investigations on GFRP strengthened RC beam loading and it is found that the strengthened shear deficient
(SSD-3) beams are failed under flexural mode. Failure mode of
In this study, RC beams with critical shear deficiency of 60%, strengthened shear deficient (SSD-3) beam is shown in Fig. 9. No
(SD3) are chosen for glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) shear cracks are formed from starting till the ultimate load. Typical
strengthening. The shear deficient RC beam SD3 is having three load versus deflection plots for control, SD3 and SSD-3 beams are
stirrups i.e. one at the middle and the other two are at the ends shown in Fig. 10. Table 1, also presents first crack and ultimate
of the reinforcement caging at spacing 750 mm. Two numbers of loads of strengthened shear deficient beams (SSD-3). From
RC beams with 60% shear deficiency (SD3) are strengthened using Fig. 10 and Table 1, it may be observed that load carrying capacity
glass GFRP fabric. Two layers of GFRP fabric are used for strength- of strengthened shear deficient beams reached almost closer to
ening of beams in shear zone. Before affixing GFRP fabric on beams, that of the control beam. Displacement of the shear deficient
region of concrete surface to be strengthened is made rough as (SD3) beam at its failure load is found to be 4.04 mm and exhibited

(a) Surface prearation (b) GFRP fabric (c) Mixing of two component epoxy

(d) Application of epoxy on concrete surface (e) Squeezing out of entrapped air bubbles

(f) GFRP strengthened beam


Fig. 8. Step-by-step procedure adopted for strengthening of RC beam.
526 N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

Fig. 9. Typical failure pattern of strengthened shear deficient RC beam (SSD-3).

defined physical and material properties and the behavior of over-


all structure is obtained. However, modelling of reinforced con-
crete, which is non-homogenous and anisotropic, is challenging
as many parameters have to be taken into consideration to simu-
late the quasi-brittle material behavior of concrete accurately. In
this study, finite element modelling of RC beams is carried out
using ANSYS, to simulate the behavior of the control as well as
shear deficient beams, from linear through non-linear response
and up to failure. Discrete reinforcement modelling is adopted
for the idealization of reinforcement within the concrete and
smeared crack model is adopted for modelling of cracking in con-
crete. Load deflection plots at mid span, first crack load, failure load
and crack pattern at failure that are obtained from numerical sim-
ulations are compared with the corresponding experimental
results in order to validate the finite element model.
Fig. 10. Load versus deflection plot for control, shear deficient and strengthened
shear deficient beams.
4.1. Finite elements for modelling of concrete, reinforcement and GFRP
fabric
a brittle type of failure. But after strengthening with two layers of
GFRP fabric in shear zone, displacement of the beam (SSD-3) at the Concrete is modelled using solid element, SOLID65 which han-
failure load is around 20 mm with the associated increased in load dles non-linear behavior, plastic deformation, cracking in three
carrying capacity (95.4 kN, which is very close to that of control orthogonal directions under tension and crushing under compres-
specimen). The ductility of SSD-3 is found to be beyond that of sion. It is defined by eight nodes having three translational degrees
even control beam. Also, mode of failure is changed from shear of freedom at each node as shown in Fig. 12(a). The important
to flexural. This demonstrates the efficacy and effectiveness of aspect of this element is the treatment of nonlinear material prop-
the GFRP strengthening adopted for shear deficient RC beams. erties. Though SOLID65 is RC element, the reinforcement capability
Strain in reinforcement and on concrete surface at different load of this element is not considered in this study. Steel reinforcements
levels are acquired through data acquisition system. Fig. 11(a) are modelled using two node spar element LINK8 with three trans-
shows load versus strain in reinforcement bars of RC beams and lational degrees of freedom at each node as shown in Fig. 12(b). It
Fig. 11(b) shows load versus strain at concrete surface. From the is a uni-axial tension–compression element. This element can han-
Fig. 11(a) and (b), it is observed that shear deficient beam has dle plasticity, creep, stress stiffening, large deflection and swelling.
shown less strain at failure than control and strengthened beams. To model the steel plates at supports and at point of application of
Also, strain plot shows that shear deficient RC beam is failed before load, SOLID45, a 3-D structural solid element as shown in Fig. 12(c)
yielding of reinforcement. is used.
Two types of de-bonding criteria are available in literature such
as stress based (perfectly bonding) and fracture mechanics based
4. Numerical investigation on RC beam and its validation
(cohesive zone modelling).
Finite element (FE) analysis, allows simulation of the behavior
of RC members with sufficient accuracy in lesser time and cost. 4.1.1. Perfectly bonding
In finite element modelling and analysis, the structure is repre- The layer-by-layer numerical model (perfectly bonded), was
sented as an assemblage of finite elements, each having well subsequently adopted by researchers to account for the material

(a) 100 (b) 100


90 90
80 80
70 70
60
Load, kN

Load, kN

60
50 50
40 Control Beam 40 Control Beam
30 SD3 30
SD3
20 20
SSD-3 SSD-3
10 10
0 0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Strain in Reinforcement bar Strain at concrete surface

Fig. 11. (a) Load versus strain in reinforcement and (b) load versus strain at concrete surface at bottom.
N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534 527

(a) Solid 65 (b) LINK 8

(c) Solid 45 (d) Solid 46


Fig. 12. Details of finite elements (a) SOLID 65, (b) LINK 8, (C) SOLID 45 and (d) SOLID 46 used for modelling of RC beams.

nonlinearities of the concrete before and after cracking (Sasmal critical fracture energy that is also the energy required to break
et al. [12], Mostafa et al. [13], Jayajothi et al. [14], Abu-Obeidah apart the interface surfaces. The interface surfaces of the materials
et al. [18], Takahashi et al. [22], Nitereka and Neale [23], Almusal- can be represented by a special set of interface elements or contact
lam et al. [24] and Hassan et al. [25] or to include the effect of ten- elements, and a CZM model can be used to characterize the consti-
sion stiffening (Ebead and Marzouk [26]). These analyses were tutive behavior of the interface. The CZM model consists of a con-
intended for the prediction of the load-deflection behavior and stitutive relation between the traction ‘T’ acting on the interface
the ultimate load carrying capacities and did not model the and the corresponding interfacial separation ‘d’ (displacement
debonding failure modes as such. jump across the interface). The definitions of traction and separa-
In this study, FRP composites for strengthening of beams are tion depend on the element and the material model. For interface
modelled using layered SOLID46 elements as shown in Fig. 12(d). elements, the interfacial separation is defined as the displacement
SOLID46, 3D layered structural solid element, is used to represent jump, d (that is, the difference of the displacements of the adjacent
the FRP materials. The element has eight nodes with three degrees interface surfaces):
of freedom – translations in the x, y and z directions and can incor-
porate up to 100 material layers with different orthotropic mate- d ¼ uTop  uBottom ð5Þ
rial properties and orientations. Assuming perfect interlaminate
The definition of the separation is based on local element coor-
bond, no slippage is allowed between the element layers of con-
dinate system. The normal of the interface is denoted as local
crete, epoxy and FRP. In this study, FRP laminates are considered
direction ‘n’, and the local tangent direction is denoted as ‘t’.
as brittle materials, and the stress-strain relationship is roughly
linear up to failure. Longitudinal modulus of elasticity (El), Pois-
dn ¼ n  d ¼ normal separation ð6Þ
son’s ration (vl) and shear modulus (Gl) are considered as
71,000 MPa, 0.28, and 59,280 MPa. Similarly, transverse modulus
of elasticity (Et), Poisson’s ration (vt) and shear modulus (Gt) are dt ¼ t  d ¼ tangential ðshearÞ separation ð7Þ
considered as 42,000 MPa, 0.22, and 30,912 MPa, respectively.
Interface elements were used to represent the interfacial
behavior between the FRP and concrete in the studies of Wong
4.1.2. Cohesive zone material (CZM) modelling and Vecchio [27] and Lu et al. [28]. In the cohesive zone
Fracture along the interface plays a major role in limiting the approach, it was assumed that ahead of the physical crack tip,
toughness and the ductility of the matrix-matrix composites and there exist a cohesive zone which consist of upper and lower sur-
laminated composite structure. Interface delamination can be faces (cohesive surface) held by cohesive traction (Jin and Sun,
modelled by traditional fracture mechanics methods such as the [29], Godat et al. [30] and Sajedi et al. [31]). Interfacial debonding
nodal release technique. Alternatively, techniques that directly between concrete and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) was investi-
introduce fracture mechanics by adopting softening relationships gated through integrating experiments and computations by Park
between tractions and the separations, which in turn introduce a et al. [32]. Evaluation of moment capacity based on interfacial
528 N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

shear stress of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with assumed. Table 2 shows the used parameters in the interface mod-
various types of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets was carried elling for analysis.
out by Kim et al. [33].
In this study, in order to obtain interfacial behavior between 4.2. Mesh convergence study
concrete and FRP, contact pair with debonding capabilities are
used. Contact pair elements consist of two elements such as Accuracy and convergence of results depends on mesh density.
contact element (CONTA174) and target element (TARGE170) are Trial analyses are carried out by varying the mesh size in order to
used. CONTA174 is an 8-node element that is intended for general obtain the optimum mesh density. For this study, four trial analy-
rigid-flexible and flexible-flexible contact analysis. The CONTA174 ses are carried out using mesh sizes 6.25 mm, 12.5 mm, 25 mm
contact element is associated with the 3-D target segment ele- and 50 mm. Fig. 13 shows the plot of mesh size versus mid span
ments (TARGE170) using a shared real constant set number. The deflection which shows little variation of mid span deflection with
bond between concrete and FRP is defined by using real constants respect to the mesh size from 25 mm to 32 mm and it is approxi-
for the contact pairs and input for the CZM material model. In this mately equal to the theoretical value of 1.996 mm. Hence, an opti-
analysis, the traction and separation distances option is used which mum mesh size of 25 mm is adopted for further numerical
is having six input options. Maximum normal contact stress (rmax ), investigations in this study.
contact gap at the completion of debonding (unc ), maximum equiv-
alent tangential contact stress (smax ), tangential slip at the comple-
4.3. Material modelling
tion of debonding (utc ), artificial damping coefficient (g) and an
indicator for tangential slip under compressive normal contact
Concrete has different tensile and compressive behavior and
stress (b). The contact parameters should be determined from bond
exhibits quasi-brittle properties. The various material parameters
strength and direct shear test. In this study, these parameters are
that are to be given as input in the FE software, to simulate non-
linear behavior of concrete, include isotropic parameters such as
modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, multi-linear stress-strain val-
ues for concrete and other concrete parameters such as tensile and
Table 2 compressive strength of concrete and shear coefficient. Up to 30%
Parameters used for CZM analysis.
of compressive strength (i.e. elastic limit), behavior of the
Parameters Constants used stress–strain curve is linear and after the elastic linear region,
rmax (MPa) 2.75 the nonlinear region or plastic region starts subsequently. Hence,
smax (MPa) 2.75 the ultimate load of the beam cannot be achieved only by the elas-
unc (mm) 0.15 tic properties of the beam. The stress–strain relationship has to be
utc (mm) 0.15
defined for the nonlinear region. The model should be capable of
g 0.01
predicting failure of concrete by both crushing and cracking failure
modes. In ANSYS, the stress–strain behavior of the concrete can be

Fig. 13. Influence of mesh density on mid span deflection.

(a) Stress-strain curve for Concrete (b) Stress-strain curve for steel
Fig. 14. Stress-strain relationship for (a) concrete and (b) steel.
N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534 529

Table 3
Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel.

Material property Value


Concrete
28 days compressive strength of concrete 44.7 N/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity 31,500 N/mm2
Poisson’s Ratio 0.2
Shear coefficient for open crack 0.2
Shear coefficient for closed crack 0.8
Uniaxial tensile cracking stress 3.2 N/mm2
Reinforcing steel
Modulus of elasticity 200,000 N/mm2
Poisson’s ratio 0.3
Yield stress 500 N/mm2

Fig. 15. FE model of the RC beam (C).


defined by using von-Mises or Drucker–Prager yield criterion.
While using von-Mises yield criterion, the multilinear isotropic
hardening is used to plot the relationship. Expressions given by
Desayi and Krishna [34], as reproduced in Eqs. (8) and (9) are used
along with expression given by Gere and Timoshenko, [35] as Eq.
(10) to construct the uniaxial compressive stress–strain curve for
concrete in this study.
Ec e
f ¼  2 ð8Þ
1 þ ee0

0
2f c
e0 ¼ ð9Þ
Ec

f
Ec ¼ ð10Þ
e
0
where, f is the stress at any strain e, f c is the ultimate compressive
strength corresponding to the strain of e0 .
The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the beam can Fig. 16. Newton–Raphson approach for single degree of freedom.
be calculated from the following expressions,
 2
0 Ec GFRP fabric is used for shear strengthening. In this study, epoxy
fc ¼ ð11Þ
5000 and fabric are modelled as a single element with different layers.
qffiffiffiffi Isotropic properties like modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio
0 are adopted for both epoxy as well as the fabric, from the manufac-
f r ¼ 0:7 f c ð12Þ
turer’s (SIKA) catalogue. The input data needed for strengthening
0
where, Ec is the modulus of elasticity of concrete, f c is uniaxial com- materials included number of layers, orientation of layers, thick-
pressive stress and f r is ultimate tensile stress of the RC beam. ness of each layer, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. The
In tension, the stress-strain curve for concrete is assumed to be values of material properties for epoxy and fabric are presented
linearly elastic up to the ultimate tensile strength. After this point, in Table 4.
the concrete cracks and strength decreases to zero. Fig. 14(a)
shows the simplified uniaxial stress-strain relationship. The values 4.4. FE modelling and analysis of control beam
used in the analysis are adopted from experimental results. Design
material properties of reinforcing steel used in experimental stud- FE model of control RC beam is shown in Fig. 15. Modelling of
ies are adopted in FE model too. For the numerical study, steel is steel reinforcement within concrete can be done using either
assumed to be an elastic-perfectly plastic material with identical smeared model, discrete model or embedded model. Based on
behavior in tension and compression. Fig. 14(b) shows the stress- recommendations from literature, Kachlakev [36] and Dahmani
strain relationship used in this study. For the linear behavior, linear [37], discrete modelling is adopted in the present study, since it
isotropic properties of modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are provides accurate and true representation of actual beam response.
provided. Material properties adopted in this study for concrete At loading points and supports, steel plates are modelled. The load
and steel reinforcement are given in Table 3. Epoxy impregnated is applied in steps/increments as required by Newton Raphson

Table 4
Material properties of GFRP and epoxy.

FRP composite Modulus of elasticity (N/mm2) Tensile strength (N/mm2) Elongation at break (%) Poisson’s ratio Layer thickness (mm)
Epoxy 3800 45 1.5 0.21 1
Dry Fibre 76,000 3400 2.3 – –
Laminate Properties 71,000 2000 – 0.28 0.17
530 N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

method, in order to predict the nonlinear behavior. The stiffness the restoring force vector calculated from the element stresses.
matrix of the model is updated to incorporate the changes in the Fig. 16 shows the use of the Newton–Raphson approach in a
structural stiffness after completion of each increment before pro- single degree of freedom nonlinear analysis. As seen in the
ceeding to the subsequent load increments. Newton Raphson equi- Fig. 16, more than one iteration is needed to obtain a converged
librium iterations provide convergence within the tolerance limits solution. As an initial step, this method assumes u0 is the con-
at the end of each load increment. Usually the FE discretisation verged solution from the previous time step. Next it computes
h i

process yield a set of simultaneous equations, the updated tangent matrix K Ti and the restoring load F nr from
i

½Kfug ¼ fF a g ð13Þ configuration, fui g. And then it calculates fDui g from the Eq. (15),
and it is added with fui g to obtain the next approximation,
If the coefficient matrix [K] is itself a function of the unknown
fuiþ1 g. It continues these steps until convergence is obtained. Dur-
DOF values then Eq. (13) is a nonlinear equation. {u}, is the vector
ing concrete cracking and crushing, if it is found that the conver-
of unknown DOF. The Newton–Raphson is an iterative process of
gence of solutions for the models is difficult, the tolerance limit
solving the nonlinear equations and can be written as
can be increased to achieve the converged solutions. Another
h i   way is the smaller load increment and increased iterations which
K Ti fDui g ¼ fF a g  F nr
i ð14Þ
may help to get the converged solutions.
FE modelling of control beam is validated by comparing the
fuiþ1 g ¼ fui g þ fDui g ð15Þ load deflection plot of numerical model with that of the experi-
h i
mental study as shown in Fig. 17. Very good correlation is
Both K Ti and F i nr
are evaluated based on the values given by obtained. Fig. 18(a) shows the crack pattern observed in the
the displacement vector, fui g. Right hand side of Eq. (14) is the experimentally tested control beam. Fig. 18(b) shows crack pat-
 
residual load vector. fF a g, is the applied load vector and F nr
i is tern observed from numerical investigation. Good agreement of
load-deflection behavior and crack pattern observed in experi-
120 mental study with that obtained from the finite element analysis
of RC beam can be seen. The compressive crack, flexural crack and
100

80
Load, kN

60

40
Experimental Study

Numerical Study
20

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Deflection, mm
Fig. 19. Cross-section of upgraded beam with GFRP fabric.
Fig. 17. Validation of numerical model of control beam.

(a) Experimental crack pattern of concrete RC beam

(b) Numerical crack pattern

(c) (d) (e)


Fig. 18. (a) Crack pattern observed in experimental study and (b) crack pattern from numerical study. (c) Compressive crack. (d) Flexural crack. (e) Diagonal tensile crack.
N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534 531

Fig. 20. Numerical model of GFRP strengthened RC beam (all dimensions are in mm).

Epoxy layer

RC Beam

GFRP layer

(a) Single layer (b) Double layer (c) Triple layer


Fig. 21. Modelling of number layers of GFRP fabric and epoxy.

diagonal tensile crack as represented in finite element model are strengthening has been carried out in such a way that the dam-
shown in Fig. 18(c), (d) and (e), respectively. Crack pattern is age is propagated through the concrete (in flexural zone) and
recorded at each loading step. At early load step, flexural cracks the interface between the GFRP fabric and concrete is not
are noticed at mid-span. With further increase in the load, cracks envisaged to initiate the cracks as was also observed during
are found to spread from mid-span to supports followed by experimental study.
development of diagonal tensile cracks from supports to loading Hence, in this study, the FRP-concrete interface has been
points. assumed perfectly connected and the nonlinearity of the con-
crete has been suitability incorporated to achieve realistic behav-
ior. Numerical analyses are carried out using different
5. Parametric study on GFRP strengthening of shear deficient RC
strengthening schemes by varying the number of plies and ori-
beams
entation of fibres are considered in this study as shown in
Fig. 23 (a) to (i). After validating the numerical model of GFRP
The effect of up-gradation of the deficient beams are studied
strengthened beam specimen SSD-3, further parametric studies
using the numerical models. The beams are strengthened with
are carried out using different schemes for SD1, SD2 and SD3
epoxy impregnated GFRP fabric. Beams are strengthened in the
beams.
shear zone. The fabric is applied in the shear zone of the deficient
The shear strengthened RC beams SD1, SD2 and SD3 with single,
beams in a U-wrap configuration as shown in Fig. 19. Modelling of
double and triple plies are analysed and their load-displacement
the strengthened RC beam is done in two ways. In first case,
behavior is shown in Fig. 24(a), (b) and (c), respectively. From
layer -by -layer modelling is done. The volume of the epoxy and
the above study, it is observed that U-wrap strengthening with
the fabric are modelled over the beam model in the shear zone.
Approximately, 1 mm uniform thickness of the epoxy and
0.17 mm thickness of the fabric is used. Accordingly, material
properties, element types and real constants are assigned. Fig. 20
shows the numerical model of GFRP strengthened RC beam. GFRP
layers (Solid46) with epoxy (Solid45) are modelled and perfect
bonding is assumed as shown in Fig. 21.
In the second case, volume of concrete and GFRP fabric is mod-
elled, interfacial properties are used and real constants are
assigned properly. CZM modelling is used and FE analysis is carried
out. At first, validation of finite modelling and analysis results of
GFRP strengthened RC beam with perfect bonding and with inter-
facial behavior is carried out. Load-displacement behavior with
perfect bonding and interface behavior is compared with the
experimental study as shown in Fig. 22.
From the Fig. 22, it is observed that in this study there is
not much difference while using perfect bonding and CZM
modelling. Because, in the present study, the design of Fig. 22. Validation of numerical model of GFRP strengthened RC beam (SSD-3).
532 N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

(a) single ply - 0º Orientation (b) single ply - 45º Orientation

(c) single ply - 90º Orientation (d) two ply - 0º-90º Orientation

(e) two ply - 0º-45º Orientation (f) two ply - 45º-90º Orientation

(g) three ply - 0º-45º-90º Orientation (h) three ply - 90º-0º-90º Orientation

(i) three ply - 90º-45º-90º Orientation


Fig. 23. Strengthening schemes considered for parametric study.

GFRP fabric in shear zone of beam SD1 gives better results for sin- carrying capacity by 28.1%, 41.2% and 42.9%, respectively as com-
gle ply with orientation of 45°, two ply with orientation of 45°–90° pared to that of control beam. Similarly, in beam SD3, shear
and three ply with orientation of 90°–45°–90°. Hence, analysis of strengthening with single ply with 45° orientation, double ply
beams SD2 and SD3 are carried out for orientation of 45° using sin- with 45°–90° orientation and triple ply with 90°–45°–90°, is
gle ply, two ply with orientation of 45°–90° and three ply with ori- found to increase the maximum load carrying capacity by
entation of 90°–45°–90°. 19.4%, 32.5% and 37.1%, respectively as compared to that of con-
The percentage increase in maximum load carrying capacity of trol beam. Also, it is found that the strengthened shear deficient
SD1 with single, double and triple ply are found to be 38.77%, beams exhibited better ductility behavior. The load strain behav-
43.3% and 42.6%, respectively as compared to that of control ior of shear strengthened RC beams SD1, SD2 and SD3 with single
beam. In beam SD2, shear strengthening with single ply with ply with 45° orientation, double ply with 45°–90° orientation and
45° orientation, double ply with 45°–90° orientation and triple triple ply with 90°–45°–90° orientation are shown in Fig. 25 (a),
ply with 90°–45°–90°, is found to increase the maximum load (b) and (c), respectively.
N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534 533

(i) Single ply (ii) Double ply (iii) Triple Ply


(a) SD1-strengthened

(i) Single ply (ii) Double ply (iii) Triple Ply


(b) SD2- strengthened

(i) Single ply (ii) Double ply (iii) Triple Ply


(c) SD3- strengthened
Fig. 24. Behavior of GFRP strengthened RC beams.

160 160 160


140 140 140
120 120 120
Load, kN
Load, kN

100 100
Load, kN

100
80 80 80
60 60 45 60 45
40 45 45-90 40 45-90
40
45-90 90-45-90
20 20 20 90-45-90
90-45-90
0 0 0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000 0 1000 2000 3000
Strain at concrete surface Strain at concrete surface Strain at concrete surface
(a) SD1- strengthened (b) SD2- strengthened (c) SD3 -strengthened
Fig. 25. Load versus strain at concrete surface on strengthened RC beams.

6. Conclusions stirrup spacing (increased % deficiency) with corresponding


decrease in displacement indicating brittle failure. All the tested
The conclusions and recommendations of this study are divided shear deficient beams failed in shear with formation of diagonal
into three categories: the monotonic test results, FE analysis tension crack prior to yielding of steel indicating a weak shear
results of un-strengthened models and FE analysis results of zone. The deficient beams showed sudden failure before steel
strengthened models. yielding. The load-strain plot of the control beam shows beginning
From experimental studies, it is noted that all the shear defi- of steel yielding which could be the reason for ductile behavior of
cient beam failed due to development of a major diagonal tension control beam. GFRP strengthened beams exhibited flexural failure
crack extending from the supports to the loading point. The failure mode. GFRP strengthened beam showed improvement in load car-
loads of the shear deficient beams decreased with increasing rying capacity as well as ductility.
534 N.K. Banjara, K. Ramanjaneyulu / Construction and Building Materials 137 (2017) 520–534

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