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Q1. How to gather customer requirements?

Ans. We use a four step process to collect and analyze customer data. These
four steps are:
 Identify
 Collect
 Analyze
 Translate
Identify is to identify who the customer is. Customer can be internal or
external, and there may be one customer or several customers with different
needs.
Collect is to collect customer needs. This may be as straightforward as
obtaining a copy of a service level agreement, or specification, or as complex
as conducting a full range of surveys of different customers and there varying
requirements.
Analyze is to examine the collected requirements and start to think about how
they can be made relevant to the project, for example summarizing survey
results, both qualitatively and quantitatively. At this stage we should also be
confirming whether our customers and their needs should be segmented, or
divided into different groups. If this is the case, then of course it will impact on
the subsequent phases of our project.
Translate means to take our analyzed requirements and turn them into
meaningful data for our project, in the form of specifications and tolerances.
Q2. Identify which type of customer you are dealing with.
Ans. Those of us that interact with customers have noticed that each one has a
little bit different personality that comes out during our interactions with
them. Thankfully, we’re not all the same. These personalities are individual
and depending on your interaction with them may determine your success or
failure of striking an understanding, agreement, or sale. Thrown into this mix
is your personality. You have unique personality traits that make you ‘you’. So
with your personality and your customer’s personality, how do you get on the
same page?
While everyone has a unique personality, there are 4 dominant traits that is
weaved in all of us, and it’s a blend of these 4 dominant traits that make us
unique. Here are a few tips that you can practice on the job and hone your
skills to make this positive for you and your customer.
Let’s identify the basic various types and start with the dominant type
personality. This person is a bottom line type person. They want to cut to the
chase and make a decision with a few facts that they tend to piece together to
make a decision. Ever had a customer that has a backed up drain that is
caused by root intrusion and you are showing them a video explaining the
root problem when they stop you and ask what’s it going to take to fix it and
how much will it cost? With this type of customer, you will only hurt yourself
continuing on with a detailed explanation. He’s identified the problem in his
mind, made a decision to move forward and fix it and only wants to know the
bottom line price and time line. If you continue on with what you feel
comfortable explaining, you will most likely lose his attention and he’ll move
on to finding someone who can give him the bottom line information he
wants.
The next type of customer is a steady type personality. They like details and
the more the better. They are the folks who read all of the information you
give them and usually want more. If you are the same type, you will both revel
in the detail and most likely come to an agreement. They will expect to see all
of the specifications, data, studies, and other information. They also will read
every review your company has ever received by online rating sites. He wants
to be sold this way and the more documentation you feed him the better.
An influencer is our next type. They’re relationship orientated and would
rather gather with you over golf or cocktails, and form a friendship bond with
you. They could care less about how you fix the issue as long as your friends
and vow to fix the problem as a friend would fix it. Giving this person a bottom
line proposal will most likely fail as well as feeding them all of the
specifications will fail. Friends first, then they’ll do business with you. Short of
making that friendship bond your proposal will end in the dead file.
The final type of customer is referred to as compliant. Being friends with this
type doesn’t make much difference. They do like most of the details of what
you are proposing, but not in the quantify of information the steady type
wants. They enjoying friendly relationships with those they do business with,
but not to the extent found by the influencer. Finally, they will get to the
bottom line, but need to know all of the information they believe they need to
be comfortable and will want the advice of others to make a decision.
Referrals from previous customers is very helpful in getting these folks to do
business with you. If you jump to the bottom line, over stimulate him with
data, or suggest golf or cocktails, you most likely will be the guy watching your
competition do the work you were proposing.
So with this brief descriptive of personalities how can you use the information
to become more successful in your attempt to interact with your customers?
The first step is to identify your personality. You can do this by figuring out
how you like to buy things. Which type buyer of goods or services fits you best
from the above groupings? The hardest part of this exercise is to be honest
and not view those personalities that don’t fit you as wrong or bad or that
your type is good or right. After you’ve sorted out where you fit, practice by
sizing up your interactions with your customers, remembering that they are
driven by their own individual personality. Also remember that none of us is
all one or the other. We are all a blend of all of them with some more
dominant that others and some less dominant than others. Once you begin
figuring out which type of personality you are dealing with, begin tailoring
your interactions with others as they want to hear it, not how you want to
present it. As you become more proficient you will find more successful
interactions and more closed sales.
Q3. How to prepare the questionnaire based on your observations?
Ans. Steps-
1.Literature review and initial consulations with stakeholders: Checking
policy and relevance
2.Drafting Quesationnaires: Questions, types of variables, formatting, length,
characteristics of respondents, policy relevance, plan for data analysis
3. Pilot Test: Fieldwork to test draft questionnaires, observe ‘respondent
fatigue’ and then revise
4. Final survey
The factors of a good questionnaire
 The questionnaire is asking the right questions.
 Initial consultations; past surveys.
 Questions are asked to the right respondents.
 In general, small children should not be asked questions directly.
 The preferred respondent is the best informed respondent; plan to
record ‘proxy answering’
 The wording should make clear the group of people to which the question
refers to
 Even the most carefully developed question is only as effective as its
translation.
 Language should be straight-forward (avoid double negatives)
 Avoid jargon or overly academic phrased
 Questions should be culturally sensitive and appropriate