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1. Introduction
A An intelligent network delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers who use
bidirectional digital technology to control devices in the home, saving energy,
reducing costs and increasing reliability and transparency. It is able to evaluate
health in real time, predict behavior, anticipated behavior, adaptation to new
environments, distributed resource management, stochastic demand and optimal
response to smart devices. It is a tool that allows utility companies to focus on the
evolution of real business drivers by enabling cost reduction, end-to-end power
supply control and a more secure infrastructure.

The observability of the network is considered with the integration and analysis of
the data of the node to support the advances in the operation and control of the
system. This includes the integration of the energy supply and the strategic
planning functions of high-level public services.

The existing transmission and distribution systems use old techniques and
strategies and the use of communication and digital control technologies is limited.
It is proposed to implement an improved, reliable and economical energy
distribution information flow and secure integrated communication.

The intelligent network with intelligent features must allow self-correction,


reconfiguration and restoration, as well as the ability to manage the randomness of
the loads and market players, while creating a more complex interaction behavior
with peripherals achieve an interaction complex with intelligent communication
and transport systems.
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 The smart grid should have the following key features:


 Self-repair: a grid capable of detecting, analyzing, reacting and quickly
restoring disturbances.
 Improve and integrate the consumer: the possibility of integrating
equipment and consumer behavior into the design and operation of the
network.
 Attack Tolerant: A grid that mitigates and resists physical and cyber
security attacks.
 It provides the energy quality needed by 21st century users: a network that
delivers energy quality consistent with the needs of consumers and industry.
 Accepts a wide variety of production options: a network that adapts to a
wide variety of local and regional production technologies (including green
energy).
 It fully enables the maturing of electricity markets: it offers competitive
markets to those who want it.
 Optimize assets: a network that uses IT and monitoring to continuously
optimize your assets while minimizing operating and maintenance costs.
 In general, the design objectives of the smart grid are to ensure the
observability of the network; create the ability to control assets, improve the
performance and security of the energy system; and reduce operating,
maintenance, and system planning costs. Benefits of smart grid with the
highlighting of the following:
 Improved system performance indicators.
 Better customer satisfaction.
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Better ability to provide information on price cases, visibility of the functioning of public
services / asset management

Availability of data for strategic planning, as well as better support for the digital summary.

Providing more reliable and cost-effective energy through the flow of information and secure
communication

Smart grid design improves lifecycle management, cost control and end-to-end energy provision.

Improved ability to provide accurate information for tariff cases, with a composite impact on
regulatory public services

Visibility of the operation of the utility for asset management

Impact of access to historical data for


strategic planning.

2. SMART GRID
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Generating
plant

Transmission Line

Substation

Distribution
System End User

SMART GRID provides consumers with supplier-supplied electricity through the


use of two-way digital technology, which allows household appliances to be
controlled, saving energy, reducing costs and reducing energy costs. to increase
reliability and transparency. It covers the electricity distribution network with a
networked information and measurement system. The current flows from the
power station to your home via an incredible system called powerdistribution
grid.Many governments advocate such modernized power grids as a way to
address the problems of energy independence, global warming and emergency
resistance. Smart meters can be part of the smart grid, but they are not just smart
grids.
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An intelligent network includes a smart monitoring system that tracks all the
electricity flowing through the system. It also incorporates the use of
superconducting transmission lines to reduce energy losses, as well as the
integration capacity of renewable electricity, such as solar and wind energy. When
energy is cheaper, the user can allow the smart grid to activate selected devices,
such as washing machines or factory processes that can operate at arbitrary times.
At peak times, the selected devices may be turned off to reduce demand.

2.1 FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED BY THE SMART GRID


ARCHITECTURE
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For the utilitarian extent of the Smart Grid design [2], eight practical situations
have been characterized. A concise depiction of each case is given in the
accompanying subsections.

2.1.1 Variable-Tariff-Based Load

The fundamental thought is a variable value profile that is conveyed to the


client before conveyance by a retailer. This profile is viewed as fixed after
transmission to the client and, accordingly, the client can confide in him. The
value profile will appear to be unique for every day, reflecting changing
economic situations from everyday. These varieties are relied upon to increment
further with the extension of generation from fluctuating sources, for example,
wind control and photovoltaic vitality. Regularly, this idea permits the
coordination of burdens and age units into the client's site since it relies upon
the customer which gadgets can be overseen dependent on the variable
throughput. To empower home vitality the board, an appropriate home
framework is required, just as a home administration gadget combined with a
brilliant meter.
2.1.2 Energy Usage Monitoring and Feedback

In the "Activity Plan for Energy Efficiency", the European Commission


evaluates the vitality sparing capability of family units at the EU level at
approx. 27% The Action Plan, which is a vital advance in understanding this
potential, shows that mindfulness must be expanded to invigorate changes in
the conduct of the end client. A convenient representation of the vitality
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utilization should effectsly affect vitality sparing. Customized and very much
educated guidance on the most proficient method to spare vitality can likewise
enable you to exploit the funds potential. An entry or screen that consolidates
data on over a wide span of time utilization, examinations with normal
utilization examples and explicit proposals on the most proficient method to
additionally decrease utilization, adjusted to the client, ought to be the best
method to accomplish vitality effectiveness. home.
2.1.3 Real-time Portfolio Imbalance Reduction
This capacity is established in the adjusting instrument as utilized by Transmission
System Operators (TSOs) all through the world. In this unique situation, a discount
showcase member, that is in charge of a decent vitality volume position, is known
as a Balance Responsible Party (BRP). These gatherings have a commitment to
plan or gauge the generation and utilization in their portfolio, just as advise this
arrangement to the TSO. Deviations of these plans may cause (upward or down-
ward) guideline activities by the TSO. The TSO settles the expenses for the
utilized save and crisis limit with those BRPs that had deviations from their vitality
programs. By and large this outcomes in expenses for the BRP alluded to as
awkwardness costs. This business case situation centers around the adjusting
activities by a BRP in the close continuous (for example at the genuine snapshot of
conveyance). Generally, these continuous adjusting activities are performed by
power plants inside the BRP's portfolio. The key thought of this capacity is the
usage of ongoing adaptability of end-client clients to adjust the BRP portfolio.
2.1.4 Offering (secondary) Reserve Capacity to the TSO
Making the past capacity one stride further, the BRP utilizes these VPPs to, also,
offer effectively into the hold limit markets.

2.1.5 Distribution System Congestion Management


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This capacity is exhausted for the postponement of the frame fortifications and
the upgrading of the use of the system to improve the nature of supply in
confined-line areas of lines and transformers. The Distribution Network
Operator (DSO) maintains a strategic distance from infrastructure speculation
and improves the utilization of existing resources by a dynamic administration
using brightly-managed administrations. With the ease of use of these
administrations, the end-user burden may be remote from periods of blockage
and competition from the free-market activities of neighborhoods can be
improved.
2.1.6 Distribution Grid Cell Islanding in Case of Higher- System Instability
The major rule of this is to permit the task of an island-mode lattice cell in the
event of more noteworthy insecurity of the framework in a market domain. The
situation has two primary advances, the first happens before any insecurity and
includes refreshing a heap disposal program. The second step is the island
steady activity. The progress to island mode is programmed and neither the end
clients nor the aggregator meddle with it. The framework oversees vitality
inside the island system and all hubs in the island organize are considered to
partake in the framework.
2.1.7 Black-Start Support from Smart Houses

The most imperative idea of this ability is to help the darkness begin the activity of
the fundamental network. It is accepted that after the power cut, the neighborhood
frame is also out of activity. The main objective is to activate quickly in island
mode and then reconnect with the upstream system to give vitality to the frame.
2.1.8 Integration of Forecasting Techniques
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The instability of the age dimension of dispersed generators, for example, renewables and
cogeneration, makes guaging a crucial device for market support. The market player with the
weakest gauge blunder will have the best piece of the overall industry. Moreover, the utilization
of smart administration devices to oversee data on vulnerabilities identified with substantial scale
wind age will improve working costs, fuel reserve funds and CO2 all through the framework.
The Smart Grid design a work in progress must interface with these anticipating devices and,
moreover, guarantee precise information gathering for these devices.

3. Smart Grid And it’s Need


To understand the need for a clever system, you need to know some information about our
foundation. The energy network is the basis of today's human progress, a disconcerting society
with often contradictory needs for vitality: more power, but less petroleum products, greater
reliability, less vitality costs, more maintenance Convincing new development and disaster
viable.

remake, however it may be, while the interest in power has definitely increased, its transmission
is obsolete and focused. The most important thing is that we demand more than one network that
is basically not capable.
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POWER SYSTEM

How “smart” should a smart power grid


Utilities have the ability to communicate and control end-user equipment, from
industrial-scale cooling to residential water heaters. They use it to better balance
supply and demand, partly by reducing demand during peak usage hours.

Leveraging information technology to increase the efficiency of the grid, the


distribution system and the use of electricity is a wise choice. In short, a smart grid
combined with smart meters allows power companies and consumers to be much
more efficient.

An intelligent grid not only allows electricity to be moved more geographically,


but also allows the use of electricity to work overtime, for example, during the
period
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Peak demand peak demand. Achieving these goals means using a “smart
meter” with consumers to understand how much power is being used in a
given time. This facilitates two-way communication between utilities and
consumers. Therefore, they can work together to reduce the maximum
demand and thus benefit both. This allows the use of two-way measurements
so that customers with solar panels or their own wind turbines on the roof
can sell excess power to the utility.

1. Intelligence -

Ability to detect overloads in the system and redirect energy to avoid or


minimize potential outages; work independently when conditions require
faster solutions, allowing people to respond and collaborate to coordinate the
goals of utilities, consumers and regulators.

2. Effective -

Meet the growing demand for efficient consumers without adding an


infrastructure.

3. Accommodation -

Almost all energy sources, including solar and wind, can accept energy as
easily and transparently as coal and natural gas: the ability to integrate every
best idea and technology: energy storage technology. For example, they are
tested on the market and ready to connect.

4. Incentives -
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Continuous correspondence among customers and service organizations is acknowledged with


the goal that shoppers can tailor their vitality utilization to individual inclinations, for example,
cost or natural issues.

1. Resilient -

With the decentralization and upgrade of shrewd network security conventions, it is


progressively impervious to assaults and cataclysmic events.

2. Green -

Relieving the procedure of worldwide environmental change gives a genuine method to


accomplish major natural enhancements.

Technology

Most keen matrix advances are now utilized in different applications, for
example, assembling and broadcast communications, and are being
connected to network activities. As a rule, keen matrix innovation can be
partitioned into five key territories.

I. Integrated Communication

A few correspondences are exceptional, yet not uniform, as they are grown
steadily as opposed to completely coordinated. By and large, information is
gathered through a modem as opposed to an immediate system
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. association. Territories for development include: substation mechanization,


request reaction, dispersion computerization, observing and information
procurement (SCADA), vitality the executives frameworks, remote work
systems and different advancements, control line bearer correspondences
and fiber optics. Coordinated correspondences will permit continuous
control, data and information trade to upgrade framework unwavering
quality, resource use and security.

I. Sensing and measurem3ent


II. The center obligations are to survey blockage and matrix solidness,
screen hardware wellbeing, and forestall vitality robbery and
control system support. Innovations include: propelled chip
instrumentation (brilliant meters) and meter perusing hardware,
wide zone observing frameworks, dynamic line evaluations
(generally dependent on disseminated temperature detecting on the
web readings joined with constant warm appraising (RTTR)
frameworks) , electromagnetic element estimation/investigation,
time and ongoing valuing apparatuses, propelled switches and links,
backscatter radio innovation and advanced assurance transfers.

III. Smart meters

The Smart Grid replaces analog mechanical meters with digital meters that
record usage in real time. Smart meters are similar to advanced metering
infrastructure meters, providing communication paths from power plants to
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power outlets (smart outlets) and other smart grid devices. Depending on the
customer's choice, such equipment can be turned off during peak demand
periods.
IV.
Advanced components

Innovations in superconductivity, fault tolerance, storage,


power electronics and diagnostic components are
changing the basic capabilities and features of the grid.
Technologies in these broad R&D categories include:
flexible AC transmission system equipment, high voltage
DC, first and second generation superconducting wires,
high temperature superconducting cables, distributed
energy generation and storage devices, composite
conductors and "smart" devices .

REDUCTION OF LOSSES IN GRID


TECHNICAL LOSSES IN T&D SYSTEM



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 The transmission system consists of transmission towers, conductors,


insulators and switchgear protection systems that transmit power from
the power station to any particular distribution substation.
 The distribution system includes feeder towers, utility poles,
insulators, etc., which distribute power from the distribution substation to
any particular area.
 Parameters influencing T&D system:
1) Transformer

2) Transmission line
3) Distribution line

TRANSFORMER LOSSES :-

Transformer losses

Iron losses Copper losses


(constant losses) (variable losses)

a) IRON LOSSES
The power loss consumed to maintain the magnetic field in the transformer
steel core. It is also known as iron loss.
Magnetic losses = hysteresis loss + eddy current loss
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b) COPPER LOSSES
The total power loss taking place in the winding of transformer is
called as copper (Cu) loss or electrical losses.
Cu losses =I12R1+ I22R2

Now that we understand the amount of losses in the T&D department, we


also want to reduce or retain this loss. The percentage of major losses incurred in
the transmission and distribution sector is only transformer losses. It causes 40% of
the loss of the T&D system. Therefore, reducing them is the sole responsibility.

 ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNIOUES -


ENERGY CONSERVATION IN TRANSMISSION SYSTEM:
Transformer is a static device. It does not have any moving parts. Therefore, the
transformer has no mechanical and frictional losses. Therefore, it only faces
electrical and magnetic losses. Therefore, the efficiency of conventional
transformers is about 95-98%.

Therefore, energy saving opportunities for transformers are only available in


materials designed and used. Optimizing the load of the transformer at the same
time can increase the efficiency of the system.

 ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN


TRANSFORMER
 OPTIMIZATION OF LOADING OF TRANSFORMER
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According to a research report provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),


nearly 61 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity is wasted each year. Research on typical
grid systems shows that power transformers account for nearly 40% to 50% of total
transmission and distribution losses.

Maintaining maximum efficiency at 38% load (according to REC recommendations) can


increase the overall efficiency of the transformer and reduce its losses. By using thicker
conductors, even load losses can be reduced.

Transformer ratings Reduction in losses at 38% loading


25 KVA 685-466W
63KVA 1235-844W
100KVA 1760-1196W

 IMPROVISION IN DESIGN AND MATERIAL OF


TRANSFORMER
This is simply to reduce the no-load loss or core loss. They can be reduced by: -

1) BY USING ENERGY EFFICIENT TRANSFORMER-


By using superior quality or improved grades of CRGO (Cold Rolled
Grain Oriented) laminations, the no-load losses can be reduced to 32%.
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2) BY USING AMORPHOUS TRANSFORMER


A transformer having a high quality core material, that is, an amorphous
alloy, is called an amorphous transformer. The amorphous alloy is made of
an iron-boron-silicon alloy. The core of the transformer is made of
amorphous metal and is easy to magnetize/demagnetize. Generally, when
cooled to a solid state at a very high rate, the iron loss can be 70-80% lower
than its molar metal mixture, leaving a non-crystalline random atomic
structure. This is called amorphous.

Amorphous transformer

 ENERGY CONSERVATION IN TRANSMISSION LINE:-


Transmission losses can be reduced as follows:-

1) BY REDUCING RESISTANCE -
The loss is proportional to the I2r in the conductor. Therefore, if we reduce the "R"
from it, it will definitely reduce the loss. For this we can use stranded or bundled
conductors or ACSR conductors. Even this method has been adopted and is also
successful.

ACC ACSR Conductor


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2) BY CONTROLLING VOLTAGE LEVELS-

This can be done by following methods-

1. By using voltage controllers

2. By using voltage stabilizer

3. By using power factor controller

AWRENESS IN CONSUMERS-
This is one of the most important, most useful / most helpful energy saving. This can be
achieved by requiring consumers to use energy-saving equipment, holding energy-saving
seminars, and letting them understand and understand the occurrence, advantages and
disadvantages of the event.

Effective use of smart grid technologies by customer helps utilities –

 Optimizes grid use.


 Improve grid efficiency and security.
 Better align demand with supply constraints & grid congestion.
 Enable distributed generation (especially fromrenewablesources)
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 ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM :-


This is done by considering following points:-

1) Balance of phase load -


Due to the uneven load of the individual phase sequences, the components can
cause overheating of the transformer, cable and conductor motors. Therefore, the
loss is increased under unbalanced voltage conditions and the motor is broken. As
a result, the system's negative phase sequence is kept within limits, saving money
(saving equipment duration) and energy loss. Therefore, in order to avoid such
losses, the load is evenly distributed "as is" between the phases.
2) Power factor improvement -
A low power factor will cause an increase in current, which will increase losses
and will affect the voltage. The power factor at the peak is almost identical.
However, during off-peak hours, the main (from 11 am to 3 pm) power factor
dropped to around 0.8, which may be due to the following reasons.
Extensive use of fans.
Wide industrial load.
Wide use of agricultural and domestic pumping motors.
Use less power factor loads such as lightubg.
Now, in order to increase the power factor during off-peak hours, consumers must
be aware of the effects of low power factor and must connect the compensation
device DSTACOM, the capacitor bank

SMART METERS
A smart meter is usually an advanced meter that recognizes consumption in more
detail than a conventional meter and transmits this information back to the local
utility for monitoring and billing. This process is called telemetry.
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The meter includes additional features for power measurement,


such as these communications, data storage, remote
programming and usage time, and is intended to be deployed as
an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) solution. Smart
meters are the next generation of meters and gas meters. Smart
meters will enable customers to choose how much energy to use.
The supplier will install a two-way communication system that
displays accurate real-time information about the home's energy
use to consumers and returns it to the energy provider.
COMPARISION BETWEEN TODAY’S GRID AND
SMART GRID(MODERN GRID)

Characteristics Today’s grid Smart grid


(Modern grid)
1) Self-heals Respond to prevent further Automatically detects &
damage. focus is on respond to actual &
protection of assets emerging transmission
following system faults. &distribution problems.
Focus is on prevention.
minimizes computer
impacts.
2) Motivates & Consumers are uniformed Informed involve &active
includes the &non-participative with the consumers. Broad
consumers power system. penetration of demand
response.
3) Resist attack Vulnerable to malicious Resilient to attach &natural
acts of terrors natural disasters with rapid
disasters. restoration capabilities.
4) Provided power Focused on outstage rather Quality of power meets
quality for 21st than power quality industry standards &
century needs problems. Solve response in consumers need. PQ issues
revolving PQ issues. identified &revolved prior
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to manifestation. Various
levels of PQ at various
prices.
5) Accommodates all Relatively small no. of Very large no. of diverse
generation and large generating plants. distributed generation &
storage option. numerous obstacles exist storage devices deployed to
for interconnecting DER. complements the large
generating plant.

Advantages Of Smart Grid-


Reduce the cost of power outages.
Help measure and reduce energy savings and costs.
Help companies reduce their carbon footprint.
Providing new opportunities for technology companies means creating
more jobs.

Disadvantages Of Smart Grid


The biggest concern: it is secure and private.
Two-way communication between power consumers and suppliers and
sensors is therefore costly.
Some types of meters may be attacked.
HACKER-
Gain control of thousands or even millions of meters.
Increase or decrease electricity demand.
More than just a single component. The various technical components used
are software, system integrators, and generators.
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Future –
There will be no broad development in the new future.
Due to the dangers of financial development and regulations.
In the long run, attitudes will change and the widespread use of smart grids
will range from every business to every home like the Internet.

RELIABILITY

 Renewable resources, while supplementing the grid's power generation


capacity and solving some environmental problems, have increased
reliability due to its volatility. Demand response and power storage
resources are necessary to address grid economics and to sense support grid
reliability by reducing peak demand and load changes. Electricity
transportation resources are considered to contribute to achieving
environmental goals and can be used to mitigate load changes. Balancing the
diversity of these resource type characteristics is a challenge to maintain grid
reliability [7].

 Reliability is always at the forefront of grid design and operation due to the
cost of customer disruption. In the United States, the annual cost of
disruption in 2002 was estimated at $7.9 billion [5], equivalent to about one-
third of the total electricity retail revenue of $24.9 billion [6]. A similar
estimate based on 2008 retail revenue will reach $10.9 billion. Others
reported higher estimates. Reliability issues in modern power grids are
becoming more and more challenging. The factors that contribute to these
challenges include:
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Uncertainty, diversity and distribution of energy supply due to


environmental and sustainability issues have led to increased grid
congestion. The real-time power flow pattern may be quite different from
the power flow patterns considered in design or off-line analysis.

Large shifts over longer distances increase volatility and reduce reliability.
The energy market has exacerbated this phenomenon.

The grid runs on the “edge” of more places, and the more common
reasons are:
Insufficient investment and limited rights
Increase energy consumption and peak demand, resulting in competition
for limited transfer capacity
• Ageing infrastructure
Maximize the use of modern tool-driven asset utilization for monitoring,
analysis and control

Integrating business entities, creating larger “footprints”, more complex


issues, requiring smaller errors and shorter decision times. This problem
may be exacerbated by the exhaustion of experienced personnel due to
retirement and other reasons.
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7.1 DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS


The reliability problem also arises due to faults occurring in the system. A set
of advanced automation functions [8] is developed to combat this problem. These
new distribution management functions can be summarized as follows:

7.1.1 The Fault Diagnosis and Alarm Processing Function:


This feature is automatically triggered as soon as a fault occurs. It generates
event diagnostics based on a predefined set of scenarios (remote information flows
are compared to patterns predefined by experienced operators). Diagnostics
produces an analysis of the type of failure, enabling the operator to quickly
understand what is happening in the network under his control. This feature also
detects lost remote signals.
7.1.2 The Fault Location Function:
After detecting and analyzing the fault, it is necessary to find the location of the
fault. The goal of this feature is to quickly identify the portion of the feeder that
has failed. This is performed by analyzing the information sent from the fault
indicator to the control center. The operator can then intervene and isolate the fault
zone by remotely opening the appropriate switch. Accuracy depends on the density
of the fault indicator on the MV network....

7.1.3 The Service Restoration Function:

After the fault is found, the function finds all plans, allowing the power to
be restored to the lost customer of the faulty portion of the feeder, taking into
account technical limitations. Each plan includes a series of actions (switching
device on/off) for power recovery.
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in conclusion
As the world's population increases, thereby increasing demand and resource
depletion, our “smart” and effective demand for energy use has become a top
priority. The implementation of the smart grid concept will largely address
many current energy issues. The entire network needs to be upgraded to meet
the requirements, ie the transfer and distribution levels. Research is looking for
the best solutions and new technologies to achieve all the required features.

Smart meters, smart homes, smart cities, etc. will form a smart grid. As new
technologies are invented and existing technologies are upgraded to meet the
required specifications, smart grids will become a reality and change the
overall energy model of the entire world.
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Resources of information

 Articles –

 Energy Conservation Through Energy Management


- byProf. S. P. Rath (IEEMA magazine, January 2008)

 WIRELESS Transmission Of Electric Power


- by Syed Khadeerullah(Electrical India magazine, January
2008)
 Magazine of “Electrical India 2010”

 Websites:-
 www.nima.com
 www.howstuffworks.com
 www.wikipedia.com
 www.xcelenergy.com/smartgridcity
 www.schneider.com
 www.powersmiths.com
 www.renewableenrgyworld.com