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Part B: Descriptive Statistics – Case Study

Part 1: Descriptive Statistics


I. Central Tendency
Petrol Diesel
Median 109 140

Mean 125.2711864 147.7804878

Mode 90 186
Figure of Central Tendency of Petrol cars and Diesel cars.

This tables summarize multiple characteristics of the given data on diesel and
petrol using cars. We can see that the diesel cars middle value is noticeably
higher than that of petrol cars and the average of Diesel Cars is also higher than
the average of Petrol Cars. As both statistics lean towards the minimum rather
than the maximum which shows that the production of most car of both Petrol
and Diesel has the low power. However, although the Mean and the Median of
Diesel cars as well as Petrol Cars is low but the maximum is still high especially
in Petrol cars the top one is 319 KWh.
II. Measures of Variations
Petrol Diesel
Standard Deviation 55.98855502 30.7567165

Range 260 95

Sample Variance 3134.718293 945.9756098

IQR 57 55

Coefficient of variation 45% 21%


Measures of Variation of Petrol cars and Diesel cars.

In this table, the variation of the mean (standard deviation) shows how much
data spread around the average number and also shows that the figures of Petrol
are higher than Diesel which also means that the fluctuate of Petrol is higher
than Diesel. The range of Petrol is way higher than Diesel because the most
powerful car of Petrol is 319KWh while Diesel just has 189KWh.Furthermore,
because of the outliers (319KWh) affect the variance so it makes the number
of petrol is much higher than diesel. To sum up, these factor shows that the
Petrol car has more powerful cars than Diesel but the Diesel is more balance
and focus more on the medium power cars.
III. Histogram

Histograms of Petrol cars and Diesel cars.

Both of the histogram gives a clearer look for the discussion above. In the Petrol
Histogram the graph is right-skewed and it also shows that the majority of
Petrol cars are fall into the low power cars but Petrol still has some powerful
cars above 300KWh. In fact, the lowest value is 53% and we can see that the
higher the power the lower the frequency as well as most of the data spread to
the left. On the other hand, Diesel cars histogram is right skewed but less
skewed as well as most of the data is around median and the average is also
bigger than the middle number the majority of Diesel cars are medium power
cars based on the graph above and there are no cars have the power above
300KWh so there are no outlier in the Diesel graph .
IV. Box-and-Whisker Plots

In the graph we can see that the graph of the Petrol Car is right skewed because
the right box is bigger than the left box and the right whisker is also bigger than
the left whisker. For the second graph, it is left skewed because:
- |Q1Q2| > |Q2Q3| = 140-124 < 179-140 = 16<36 (Right Skewed)
-|XminQ1| > |Q3Xmax| = 124-91 >186-179 = 33>7 (Left Skewed)
-|XminQ2| < |Q2Xmax| = 140-91 >186-140 = 49>46 (Left Skewed)
Compares two graph we can see that the right whisker of petrol is long means
that the power engine of Petrol is very high while the Q3 of Diesel is near to the
maximum so the engine power of Diesel is less than Petrol. However, Q1,Q2
and Q3 of Diesel is higher than that of Petrol which means that in terms of
average engine power Diesel is more powerful than Petrol.

Part 2: Probability
I. Contingency Table
Diesel(A) Petrol(A’) Total
>=125(B) 28 24 52
<125 13 35 48
Total 41 59 100

Contingency Table of Diesel and Petrol cars

In the table we have A for Diesel, A’ for Petrol, B for Power KWh
Probability of Diesel car has an engine at least 125KW
P(B|A)= P(B∩A)/P(A)= 28/41= 68%
Probability of Petrol car has an engine at least 125KW
P(B|A’)= P(B∩A’)/P(A’)= 24/59= 41%
Diesel car is likely to have an engine of at least 125 KWh with 68% while
Petrol just have 41% less than 27%. So as a result, the Diesel cars is 1,678 times
more likely to have an engine at least 125KWh. On the other hand, are having
an engine of at least 125 KW and the Type of Car statistically independent
events? To answer that we have:
P(B|A) = P(B∩A)/P(A)= 28/41= 68% is not equal to P(A)=41/100 =52% and
P(B|A’) = P(B∩A’)/P(A’) = 24/59= 41% is not equal to P(A’) =59/100 =59%
So the result is Dependent which also mean that the customers choice type of
cars is depend on the engine because P(B|A) is not equal to P(A) as well as
P(B|A’) is not equal to P(A’).
Part 3: Conclusion
In conclusion, through all the statistic above we can see that Diesel car is more
powerful than Petrol cars. In terms of the high power engine it is very clear that
the most powerful car of Petrol (319KWh) is way more powerful than Diesel
car. Therefore, it is an extreme value based on the variance table which is not
the main factor that can affect the real result. If we consider in another aspect,
based on the histogram and the box-and-whisker plots the majority car of Diesel
are in the middle tier from 122KWh to 215KWh which is higher than that of
petrol cars. Moreover, the minimum power of Petrol car is 59KWh while the
minimum power of Diesel is 91KWh which is much higher than Petrol.
Furthermore, based on the contingency table the figures of Diesel cars that at
least 125KWh is 28 which is also higher than Petrol just 24 cars and the number
of car that below 125KWh of petrol is way larger than Diesel (35>13). Thus, all
of these number has shown that despite of having the most powerful car but
most of the car of petrol are very weak. In contrast, diesel have a higher
consistency and better performance make them become more powerful on
average.
Part A – Article Reading: Outperformer

I. Analyze the performance of ASEAN.


Figure 1

The graph above shows the Ratio of large-company revenue to GDP of three
type of group including High Income, Outperformers, Non-outperformers.
There are some national that are in the ASEAN in outperformers group like
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and one in Non-outperformers group
is Philippines. In the graph we can see that the revenue of the outperformer
group is ranked second but it has the highest growth figure (+42) from 22 to 64
despite of have a low value added. Moreover, the graph also shows that the
speed of outperformer develops the economies is very fast especially in the year
of 2005 to 2010. Furthermore, with this rate Outperformers can catch up with
the High-income group which has the largest revenue as well as value added.

Figure 2
This second graph illustrates eighteen emerging economies sustained long-term
GDP per capita growth, outperforming their peers. There are 5 groups, high-
income, Long-term outperformers, Recent outperformers, Middlers,
Underperformers. We will focus on 2 group that have the ASEAN members to
analyze including Long-term outperformers and Recent outperformers. Firstly,
in the Long-term outperformers there are Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and
Thailand are in ASEAN and it seem that they are doing very well when
outpaced US growth consistently from 1965 to 2016. Moreover, the Recent
outperformers group also outpaced US growth consistently but later on until
1996 to 2016 including some ASEAN members Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar,
and Vietnam. To sum up, the ASEAN is doing a good job when outpaced the
US growth and surpass the other two groups are Middlers and underperformers.
Figure 3

The graph shows the population lifted out of extreme poverty, 1990–2013 and
the Household consumption expenditure change, 1995–2016. There are China,
India, Other outperformers, Non-outperformers. Notice on the group that have
the ASEAN members which is Other outperformer in terms of the population
lifted out of extreme poverty, 1990-2013 Other outperformer has achieve a
number up to 158 million behind China and India. On the other hand, in terms
of Household consumption expenditure change, 1995–2016, Outerperformer
have a remarkable number about $1202 billion which is way higher than China
as well as India.

II. Conclusion
In conclusion, the performance of ASEAN is on the good trend and developing
through every period of the year with a fast speed based on the fisrt figure the
outperformers including ASEAN has the highest growth figure (+42) from 22 to
64. Moreover, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos,
Myanmar, and Vietnam. are doing very well when outpaced US growth
consistently from 1965 to 2016 and 1996 to 2016. Last but not least, the
ASEAN members also lifted out of extreme poverty and do household
consumption expenditure change as well. These are some evidence from the
report that can show the performance of ASEAN is doing very good and
developed very well.