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I.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND
Bamboo shoot is one of most socioeconomically important products. Every year, over
two million bamboo shoots are consumed around the world. It supply a rapidly expanding export
market, with China as the major world producer and exporter, followed by Thailand, with minor
quantities from Indonesia, Vietnam, and Malaysia (Russo et al. 2000; ERG 2004). At the present,
it is largerly sold in the fresh form. However, bamboo shoot is a very seasonal and perishable
product, it can be stored just for one day at ambient temperature. Thus, to meet export demands, it
needs to be processed and preserved properly.
Doi Tung, a mountainous region in Northen Thailand, produces 6000-7000 kg fresh
bamboo shoots every week during the season (Halbreich et al. 2012). Fresh bamboo shoots
(Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro) are minimally processed there. They are just boiled and
sliced specifically and then sent to secondary factories in Chiang Mai and Lampang for futher
processing. At the secondary factories, the sliced bamboo shoots are canned to increase its shelf
life. Yet, the canned products have perceived minus points, such as loss of flavor and crunchiness,
poor shape and size, and should be consumed within three to four days after the container opened.
Hence, it takes other processing method to increase the shelf life of fresh bamboo shoots which is
applicable in Doi Tung, i.e. drying.
Drying is a good alternative processing method that is often applied by Thai people. It can
prolong shelf life of bamboo shoots. Dried bamboo shoots can be a good alternative to canned
bamboo shoots or even fresh bamboo shoots that remain available in off-season. Moreover, dried
bamboo shoots have been produced traditionally in China. There bamboo shoots were processed
using heat generated from wood burning. This drying method has many disadvantages, i.e. time
consuming, weather dependent, and dust and insects contamination possibility. This study is aimed
to overcome such disadvantages. Bamboo shoots were dried using hot air drying method, which is
more hygienic, controlable, and applicable in Doi Tung, until its moisture content reached 10% dry
basis which is less than Thai Industrial Standards Institute (14% wet basis for dried products).
Prior to drying bamboo shoots were also subjected to prtreatment, blanching using
sodium metabisulfite solution, to prevent browning reaction during drying with regard to total
residual sulfites. Moreover, it should be noted that total residual sulfites in the product should be
less than maximum level regulated by Thailand FDA which is 2500 ppm SO2 for dried fruits and
vegetables. Both pretreatment and drying process may cause many physical, chemical,
biochemical, and sensory changes in the bamboo shoots. Hence, it is nesessary to develop the
availability of high quality dried bamboo shoots with acceptable color and shape, good
rehydration, texture properties, and total residual sulfites which is less than Thailand FDA
maximum level, to be produced in Doi Tung largerly.
1.2 OBJECTIVES
Objectives of this study are:

1.2.1 To examine main effects of pretreatment and drying temperature on quality of dried and
rehydrated bamboo shoots.
1.2.2 To determine drying conditions of fresh bamboo shoots (Dendrocalamus membranaceus
Munro), i.e. concentration of sodium metabisulfite used in blanching solution and drying
temperature.

1.3 SCOPE
Scope of this study is determination of good drying temperature and concentration sodium
metabisulfite used in blanching solution to produce dried bamboo shoots (Dendrocalamus
membranaceus Munro) which is good in physical properties (color, rehydration ratio, and
firmness); chemical properties (total residual sulfites); and sensory properties (color, taste, texture,
and aroma).

1.4 EXPECTED OUTCOME


This study would provide a better drying condition which is applicable in Doi Tung,
Chiang Rai, Thailand.