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Wall Boundary Conditions

6.3.14. Wall Boundary Conditions

Wall boundary conditions are used to bound fluid and solid regions. In viscous flows, the no-slip boundary condition is enforced at walls
by default, but you can specify a tangential velocity component in terms of the translational or rotational motion of the wall boundary,
or model a “slip” wall by specifying shear. (You can also model a slip wall with zero shear using the symmetry boundary type, but using
a symmetry boundary will apply symmetry conditions for equations. See all Symmetry Boundary Conditions
for details.)

The shear stress and heat transfer between the fluid and wall are computed based on the flow details in the local flow field.

6.3.14.1. Inputs at Wall Boundaries

6.3.14.1.1. Summary

You will enter the following information for a wall boundary:

wall motion conditions (for moving or rotating walls)

shear conditions (for slip walls, optional)

wall roughness (for turbulent flows, optional)

thermal boundary conditions (for heat transfer calculations)

species boundary conditions (for species calculations)

chemical reaction boundary conditions (for surface reactions)

radiation boundary conditions (for calculations using the P-1 model, the DTRM, the DO model, or the surface-to-surface
model)

discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations)

wall adhesion contact angle (for VOF calculations, optional)

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6.3.14.2. Wall Motion

Wall boundaries can be either stationary or moving. The stationary boundary condition specifies a fixed wall, whereas the moving
boundary condition can be used to specify the translational or rotational velocity of the wall, or the velocity components.

Wall motion conditions are entered in the Momentum tab of the Wall Dialog Box (Figure 6.33: The Wall Dialog Box for a Moving Wall),
which is opened from the Boundary Conditions Task Page
(as described in Setting Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions). To view the wall
motion conditions, click the Momentum tab.

Figure 6.33: The Wall Dialog Box for a Moving Wall

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6.3.14.2.1. Defining a Stationary Wall

For a stationary wall, choose the Stationary Wall option under Wall Motion.

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6.3.14.2.2. Velocity Conditions for Moving Walls

If you want to include tangential motion of the wall in your calculation, you need to define the translational or rotational velocity, or the
velocity components. Select the Moving Wall option under Wall Motion. The Wall dialog box will expand, as shown in
Figure 6.33: The Wall Dialog Box for a Moving Wall , to show the wall velocity conditions.

Note that you cannot use the moving wall condition to model problems where the wall motion with respect to the adjacent cell zone has
a component that is normal to the wall itself. For such problems, consider using a Sliding or Dynamic Mesh approach as discussed in
Modeling Flows Using Sliding and Dynamic Meshes . ANSYS Fluent will neglect any normal component of wall motion that you specify
using the methods below.

Specifying Relative or Absolute Velocity

If the cell zone adjacent to the wall is moving (for example, if you are using a moving reference frame or a sliding mesh), you
can choose to specify velocities relative to the zone motion by enabling the Relative to Adjacent Cell Zone option. If you
choose to specify relative velocities, a velocity of zero means that the wall is stationary in the relative frame, and therefore
moving at the speed of the adjacent cell zone in the absolute frame. If you choose to specify absolute velocities (by enabling
the Absolute option), a velocity of zero means that the wall is stationary in the absolute frame, and therefore moving at the
speed of the adjacent cell zone—but in the opposite direction—in the relative reference frame.

Important: If you are using one or more moving reference frames, sliding meshes, or mixing planes, and
you want the wall to be fixed in the moving frame, it is recommended that you specify relative velocities (the
default) rather than absolute velocities. Then, if you modify the speed of the adjacent cell zone, you will not
need to make any changes to the wall velocities, as you would if you specified absolute velocities.

Note that if the adjacent cell zone is not moving, the absolute and relative options are equivalent.

Translational Wall Motion

For problems that include linear translational motion of the wall boundary (for example, a rectangular duct with a moving belt
as one wall) you can enable the Translational option and specify the wall’s Speed and Direction (X,Y,Z vector). By
default, wall motion is “disabled” by the specification of Translational velocity with a Speed of zero.

If you need to define nonlinear translational motion, you will need to use the Components option, described below.

Rotational Wall Motion

For problems that include rotational wall motion you can enable the Rotational option and define the rotational Speed
about a specified axis. To define the axis, set the Rotation-Axis Direction and Rotation-Axis Origin. This axis is
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independent of the axis of rotation used by the adjacent cell zone, and independent of any other wall rotation axis. For 3D
problems, the axis of rotation is the vector passing through the specified Rotation-Axis Origin and parallel to the vector
from (0,0,0) to the (X,Y,Z) point specified under Rotation-Axis Direction. For 2D problems, you will specify only the
Rotation-Axis Origin; the axis of rotation is the -direction vector passing through the specified point. For 2D axisymmetric
problems, you will not define the axis: the rotation will always be about the axis, with the origin at (0,0).

Note that the modeling of tangential rotational motion will be correct only if the wall bounds a surface of revolution about the
prescribed axis of rotation (for example, a circle or cylinder). Note also that rotational motion can be specified for a wall in a
stationary reference frame.

Wall Motion Based on Velocity Components

For problems that include linear or nonlinear translational motion of the wall boundary you can enable the Components
option and specify the X-Velocity, Y-Velocity, and Z-Velocity of the wall. You can define nonlinear translational motion
using a profile or a user-defined function for the X-Velocity, Y-Velocity, and/or Z-Velocity of the wall.

Wall Motion for Two-Sided Walls

As discussed earlier in this section, when you read a mesh with a two-sided wall zone (which forms the interface between
fluid/solid regions) into ANSYS Fluent, a “shadow” zone will automatically be created so that each side of the wall is a distinct
wall zone. For two-sided walls, it is possible to specify different motions for the wall and shadow zones, whether or not they
are coupled. Note, however, that you cannot specify motion for a wall (or shadow) that is adjacent to a solid zone.

6.3.14.2.3. Shear Conditions at Walls

Four types of shear conditions are available:

no-slip

specified shear

specularity coefficient

Marangoni stress

The no-slip condition is the default, and it indicates that the fluid sticks to the wall and moves with the same velocity as the wall, if it is
moving. The specified shear and Marangoni stress boundary conditions are useful in modeling situations in which the shear stress
(rather than the motion of the fluid) is known. Examples of such situations are applied shear stress, slip wall (zero shear stress), and
free surface conditions (zero shear stress or shear stress dependent on surface tension gradient). The specified shear boundary
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condition allows you to specify the , , and components of the shear stress as constant values or profiles. The Marangoni stress
boundary condition allows you to specify the gradient of the surface tension with respect to the temperature at this surface. The shear
stress is calculated based on the surface gradient of the temperature and the specified surface tension gradient. The Marangoni stress
option is available only for calculations in which the energy equation is being solved.

The specularity coefficient shear condition is specifically used in multiphase with granular flows. The specularity coefficient is a measure
of the fraction of collisions that transfer momentum to the wall and its value ranges between zero and unity. This implementation is
based on the Johnson and Jackson [47] boundary conditions for granular flows.

Shear conditions are entered in the Momentum tab of the Wall Dialog Box, which is opened from the Boundary Conditions Task Page
(as described in Setting Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions
).

6.3.14.2.4. No-Slip Walls

You can model a no-slip wall by selecting the No Slip option under Shear Condition. This is the default for all walls in viscous flows.

6.3.14.2.5. Specified Shear

In addition to the no-slip wall that is the default for viscous flows, you can model a slip wall by specifying zero or nonzero shear. For
nonzero shear, the shear to be specified is the shear at the wall by the fluid. To specify the shear, select the Specified Shear option
under Shear Condition (see Figure 6.34: The Wall Dialog Box for Specified Shear
). You can then enter , , and components of
shear under Shear Stress. Wall functions for turbulence are not used with the Specified Shear option.

Figure 6.34: The Wall Dialog Box for Specified Shear

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6.3.14.2.6. Specularity Coefficient

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For multiphase granular flow, you can specify the specularity coefficient such that when the value is zero, this condition is equivalent to
zero shear at the wall, but when the value is near unity, there is a significant amount of lateral momentum transfer. To specify the
specularity coefficient, select the Specularity Coefficient option under Shear Condition (see Figure 6.35: The Wall Dialog Box for
the Specularity Coefficient ) and enter the desired value in the text-entry box under Specularity Coefficient.

Figure 6.35: The Wall Dialog Box for the Specularity Coefficient

6.3.14.2.7. Marangoni Stress

ANSYS Fluent can also model shear stresses caused by the variation of surface tension due to temperature. The shear stress applied at
the wall is given by

(6–97)

where is the surface tension gradient with respect to temperature, and is the surface gradient. This shear stress is then applied
to the momentum equation.

To model Marangoni stress for the wall, select the Marangoni Stress option under Shear Condition (see Figure 6.36: The Wall
Dialog Box for Marangoni Stress). This option is available only for calculations in which the energy equation is being solved. You can
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then enter the surface tension gradient ( in Equation 6–97) in the Surface Tension Gradient field. Wall functions for turbulence are
not used with the Marangoni Stress option.

Figure 6.36: The Wall Dialog Box for Marangoni Stress

The Wall Dialog Box for Marangoni Stress

6.3.14.2.8. Wall Roughness Effects in Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows

Fluid flows over rough surfaces are encountered in diverse situations. Examples are, among many others, flows over the surfaces of
airplanes, ships, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and piping systems, and atmospheric boundary layers over terrain of varying
roughness. Wall roughness affects drag (resistance) and heat and mass transfer on the walls.

If you are modeling a turbulent wall-bounded flow in which the wall roughness effects are considered to be significant, you can include
the wall roughness effects through the law-of-the-wall modified for roughness.

6.3.14.2.9. Law-of-the-Wall Modified for Roughness

Experiments in roughened pipes and channels indicate that the mean velocity distribution near rough walls, when plotted in the usual
semi-logarithmic scale, has the same slope ( ) but a different intercept (additive constant in the log-law). Therefore, the law-of-the-
wall for mean velocity modified for roughness has the form

(6–98)

where and

(6–99)

where is a roughness function that quantifies the shift of the intercept due to roughness effects.

depends, in general, on the type (uniform sand, rivets, threads, ribs, mesh-wire, and so on) and size of the roughness. There is no
universal roughness function valid for all types of roughness. For a sand-grain roughness and similar types of uniform roughness
elements, however, has been found to be well-correlated with the nondimensional roughness height, , where is
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the physical roughness height and . Analyses of experimental data show that the roughness function is not a single
function of , but takes different forms depending on the value. It has been observed that there are three distinct regimes:

hydrodynamically smooth ( )

transitional ( )

fully rough ( )

According to the data, roughness effects are negligible in the hydrodynamically smooth regime, but become increasingly important in
the transitional regime, and take full effect in the fully rough regime.

In ANSYS Fluent, the whole roughness regime is subdivided into the three regimes, and the formulas proposed by Cebeci and Bradshaw
based on Nikuradse’s data [19] are adopted to compute for each regime.

For the hydrodynamically smooth regime ( ):

(6–100)

For the transitional regime ( ):

(6–101)

where is a roughness constant, and depends on the type of the roughness.

In the fully rough regime ( ):

(6–102)

In the solver, given the roughness parameters, is evaluated using the corresponding formula ( ,Equation 6–100 Equation 6–
101 Equation 6–102
, or ). The modified law-of-the-wall in Equation 6–98
is then used to evaluate the shear stress at the wall and other
wall functions for the mean temperature and turbulent quantities.

represents a downward shift of the logarithmic velocity profile, as shown in the following figure:

Figure 6.37: Downward Shift of the Logarithmic Velocity Profile

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Downward Shift of the Logarithmic Velocity Profile

This downward shift leads to a singularity for large roughness heights and low values of . Depending on the turbulence model and
near wall treatment, two different approaches are used in ANSYS Fluent in order to avoid this issue:

reducing the roughness height as decreases

The first approach consists in redefining the roughness height based on the mesh refinement:

(6–103)

This ensures that as approaches zero, so too does . Therefore, the mesh requirement for rough walls in this case is
, in order to maintain the full effect of the roughness on the flow.

virtually shifting the wall

The second approach is based on the observation that the viscous sublayer is fully established only near hydraulically smooth
walls. In the transitional roughness regime, the roughness elements are slightly thicker than the viscous sublayer and start to
disturb it, so that in fully rough flows, the sublayer is destroyed and viscous effects become negligible. The following figure
illustrates the equivalent sand-grain roughness using a wall with a layer of closely packed spheres, which have an average
roughness height representing a technical roughness with peaks and valleys of different shapes and sizes (see Schlichting and
Gersten [95]):

Figure 6.38: Illustration of Equivalent Sand-Grain Roughness

Illustration of Equivalent Sand-Grain Roughness

It can be assumed that the roughness has a blockage effect, which is about 50% of its height (note that the figure above
shows a two-dimensional cut of a three-dimensional arrangement).

It is therefore sensible to virtually shift the wall to 50% of the height of the roughness elements. This results in a corrected
value for the first cell center:

(6–104)

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which gives about the correct displacement caused by the surface roughness. Thus the singularity issue is avoided and fine
meshes can be handled correctly.

The second approach (that is, virtually shifting the wall) is the default treatment for rough walls for all two-equation turbulence models
based on the -equation and for the following turbulence models based on the -equation, when they are used with standard and
scalable wall functions (note that the use of scalable wall functions is recommended over the use of standard wall functions):

standard, RNG, and realizable - model

Reynolds stress models

All other model combinations with rough walls (for example, the Spalart-Allmaras model) have no special calibration on fine meshes,
and therefore the first approach (reducing the roughness height as decreases) is used.

Note: Rough walls cannot be used together with the following model combinations:
an -equation model with enhanced wall treatment or the Menter-Lechner near-wall treatment
Note that the following are the relevant -equation models:
all of the - models (that is, standard, RNG, and realizable)
the Reynolds stress model with the Linear Pressure-Strain option selected
the detached eddy simulation (DES) model with the Realizable k-epsilon option selected
the Reynolds stress model with the Stress-Omega option selected
the transition - - model
the large eddy simulation (LES) model

Important: Prior to ANSYS Fluent 14, the shift described by Equation 6–104
was not applied when using turbulence
models based on the -equation. You can recover the previous code behavior by using the following scheme command:

(rpsetvar 'ke-rough-wall-treatment-r14? #f)


(models-changed)

6.3.14.2.10. Setting the Roughness Parameters

The roughness parameters are in the Momentum tab of the Wall Dialog Box (see Figure 6.36: The Wall Dialog Box for Marangoni
Stress), which is opened from the Boundary Conditions Task Page (as described in Setting Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions).
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To model the wall roughness effects, you must specify two roughness parameters: the Roughness Height, , and the Roughness
Constant, . The default roughness height ( ) is zero, which corresponds to smooth walls. For the roughness to take effect, you
must specify a nonzero value for . For a uniform sand-grain roughness, the height of the sand-grain can simply be taken for . For a
non-uniform sand-grain, however, the mean diameter ( ) would be a more meaningful roughness height. For other types of
roughness, an “equivalent” sand-grain roughness height could be used for . The above approaches are only relevant if the height is
considered constant per surface. However, if the roughness constant or roughness height is not constant, then you can specify a profile
(see Profiles
). Similarly, user-defined functions may be used to define a wall roughness height that is not constant. For details on the
format of user-defined functions, refer to the Fluent Customization Manual
.

Choosing a proper roughness constant ( ) is dictated mainly by the type of the given roughness. The default roughness constant ( )
was determined so that, when used with - turbulence models, it reproduces Nikuradse’s resistance data for pipes roughened with
tightly-packed, uniform sand-grain roughness. You may need to adjust the roughness constant when the roughness you want to model
departs much from uniform sand-grain. For instance, there is some experimental evidence that, for non-uniform sand-grains, ribs, and
wire-mesh roughness, a higher value ( ) is more appropriate. Unfortunately, a clear guideline for choosing for arbitrary types of
roughness is not available.

Note: The advantage of the rough wall formulation using a virtual shift of the wall ( Equation 6–104
) compared to
reducing the roughness height as decreases ( Equation 6–103
) is that it eliminates all restrictions with respect to mesh
resolution near the wall, and can therefore be used on arbitrarily fine meshes.

6.3.14.3. Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls

When you are solving the energy equation, you need to define thermal boundary conditions at wall boundaries. Seven types of thermal
conditions are available:

fixed heat flux

fixed temperature

convective heat transfer

external radiation heat transfer

combined external radiation and convection heat transfer

thermal data transferred between another system in Workbench using System Coupling

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thermal coupling across a mapped interface

If the wall zone is a “two-sided wall” (a wall that forms the interface between two regions, such as the fluid/solid interface for a
conjugate heat transfer problem) a subset of these thermal conditions will be available, but you will also be able to choose whether or
not the two sides of the wall are “coupled”. See below for details.

The inputs for each type of thermal condition are described below. If the wall has a nonzero-thickness, you should also set parameters
for calculating thin-wall thermal resistance and heat generation in the wall, as described below.

You can model conduction within boundary walls and internal (that is, two-sided) walls of your model. This type of conduction, called
shell conduction, allows you to more conveniently model heat conduction on walls where the wall thickness is small with respect to the
overall geometry (for example, finned heat exchangers or sheet metal in automobile underhoods). Meshing these walls with solid cells
would lead to high-aspect-ratio meshes and a significant increase in the total number of cells. See below for details about shell
conduction.

Thermal conditions are entered in the Thermal tab of the Wall Dialog Box (Figure 6.39: The Wall Dialog Box (Thermal Tab)), which is
opened from the Boundary Conditions task page (as described in Setting Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions).
Figure 6.39: The Wall Dialog Box (Thermal Tab)

The Wall Dialog Box (Thermal Tab)

6.3.14.3.1. Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

For a fixed heat flux condition, choose the Heat Flux option under Thermal Conditions. You will then need to set the appropriate
value for the heat flux at the wall surface in the Heat Flux field. You can define an adiabatic wall by setting a zero heat flux condition.
This is the default condition for all walls.

6.3.14.3.2. Temperature Boundary Conditions

To select the fixed temperature condition, choose the Temperature option under Thermal Conditions in the Wall dialog box. You
will need to specify the temperature at the wall surface (Temperature). The heat transfer to the wall is computed using Equation 6–
106 Equation 6–107
or .

6.3.14.3.3. Convective Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions

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For a convective heat transfer wall boundary, select Convection under Thermal Conditions. Your inputs of Heat Transfer
Coefficient and Free Stream Temperature will allow ANSYS Fluent to compute the heat transfer to the wall using Equation 6–110.
6.3.14.3.4. External Radiation Boundary Conditions

If radiation heat transfer from the exterior of your model is of interest, you can enable the Radiation option in the Wall dialog box
and set the External Emissivity and External Radiation Temperature.

6.3.14.3.5. Combined Convection and External Radiation Boundary Conditions

You can choose a thermal condition that combines the convection and radiation boundary conditions by selecting the Mixed option.
With this thermal condition, you will need to set the Heat Transfer Coefficient, Free Stream Temperature, External Emissivity,
and External Radiation Temperature.

6.3.14.3.6. Augmented Heat Transfer

When modeling the heat transfer of applications that have perturbed flow and/or disturbed boundary layers, it can be necessary to
augment the calculation of the diffusive heat flux with a convective augmentation factor. Such applications include the modeling of
underhood and underbody heat loads, as wells as transient heat transfer in fully warmed-up exhaust systems.

The convective augmentation factor represents the ratio of the measured Nusselt number to the Nusselt number of an ideal flow. You
can define it by using the following text command:

define → boundary-conditions → wall

You will be prompted to define the Convective Augmentation Factor as either a profile or a single value. Note that a value of 1
(the default value) represents no augmentation of the diffusive heat flux, whereas values greater than 1 initiate augmentation. For
further details, see the equation for qid in DEFINE_HEAT_FLUX of the Fluent Customization Manual
.

6.3.14.3.7. Thin-Wall Thermal Resistance Parameters

By default, a wall will have a thickness of zero. You can, however, in conjunction with any of the thermal conditions, model a thin layer
of material on the wall. For example, you can model the effect of a piece of sheet metal between two fluid zones, a coating on a solid

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zone, or contact resistance between two solid regions. ANSYS Fluent will solve a 1D steady heat conduction equation to compute the
thermal resistance offered by the wall and the heat generation in the wall.

To include these effects in the heat transfer calculation you will need to specify the type of material, the thickness of the wall, and the
heat generation rate in the wall. Select the material type in the Material Name drop-down list, and specify the thickness in the Wall
Thickness field. If you want to check or modify the properties of the selected material, you can click Edit... to open the Edit Material
dialog box; this dialog box contains just the properties of the selected material, not the full contents of the standard Create/Edit
Materials dialog box.

When you specify a thickness, the wall is then treated as a coupled wall, where the surface that is adjacent to the fluid / solid cells is
referred to as the “wall surface”. See Figure 6.40: A Thin Wall
.

Figure 6.40: A Thin Wall

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The thermal resistance of the wall is , where is the conductivity of the wall material and is the wall thickness. The
thermal wall boundary condition you set will be specified on the surface that is separated from the fluid / solid cells by the wall
thickness. The temperature specified at this side of the wall is .

Important: Note that for thin walls, you can only specify a constant thermal conductivity. If you want to use a non-
constant thermal conductivity for a wall with nonzero-thickness, you should use the shell conduction model (see Shell
Conduction for details).

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Specify the heat generation rate inside the wall in the Heat Generation Rate field. This option is useful if, for example, you are
modeling printed circuit boards where you know the electrical power dissipated in the circuits.

When postprocessing a wall that has a thickness but does not have shell conduction enabled, the Temperature... category provides
three options: the temperature of the adjacent fluid / solid cells are stored as Static Temperature; the temperature of the wall
surface itself is stored as Wall Temperature; and the temperature of the surface that is separated from the fluid / solid cells by the
wall thickness is stored as Wall Temperature (Thin). If a more detailed analysis of the solid zone and surfaces is required, then you
should consider creating layers of solid cells in your meshing application.

6.3.14.3.8. Thermal Conditions for Two-Sided Walls

If the wall zone has a fluid or solid region on each side, it is called a “two-sided wall”. When you read a mesh with this type of wall zone
into ANSYS Fluent, a “shadow” zone will automatically be created so that each side of the wall is a distinct wall zone. In the Wall dialog
box, the shadow zone’s name will be shown in the Shadow Face Zone field. You can choose to specify different thermal conditions on
each zone, or to couple the two zones:

To couple the two sides of the wall, select the Coupled option under Thermal Conditions. (This option will appear in the
Wall dialog box only when the wall is a two-sided wall.) No additional thermal boundary conditions are required, because the
solver will calculate heat transfer directly from the solution in the adjacent cells. You can, however, specify the material type,
wall thickness, and heat generation rate for thin-wall thermal resistance calculations, as described above. Note that the
resistance parameters you set for one side of the wall will automatically be assigned to its shadow wall zone. Specifying the
heat generation rate inside the wall is useful if, for example, you are modeling printed circuit boards where you know the
electrical power dissipated in the circuits but not the heat flux or wall temperature.

To uncouple the two sides of the wall and specify different thermal conditions on each one, choose Temperature or Heat
Flux as the thermal condition type (Convection and Radiation are not applicable for two-sided walls); note that this
uncoupling will not be effective if you have enabled shell conduction for the wall. The relationship between the wall and its
shadow will be retained, so that you can couple them again at a later time, if desired. You will need to set the relevant
parameters for the selected thermal condition, as described above. The two uncoupled walls can have different thicknesses,
and are effectively insulated from one another. If you specify a nonzero wall thickness for the uncoupled walls, the thermal
boundary conditions you set will be specified for each thin wall on the surface that is separated from the fluid / solid cells by
the wall thickness, as shown in Figure 6.41: Uncoupled Thin Walls
, where is the Temperature (or is the Heat Flux)
specified on one wall and is the Temperature (or is the Heat Flux) specified on the other wall. and are the
thermal conductivities of the uncoupled thin walls. Note that the gap between the walls in Figure 6.41: Uncoupled Thin Walls
is not part of the model; it is included in the figure only to show where the thermal boundary condition for each uncoupled
wall is applied.

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Figure 6.41: Uncoupled Thin Walls

6.3.14.3.9. Shell Conduction

To enable shell conduction for a wall, enable the Shell Conduction option in the Wall boundary condition dialog box. You can then
click the Edit... button to open the Shell Conduction Layers dialog box, where you can define the properties of the single or multiple
layers of the shell. Note that you must specify a nonzero wall thickness for every layer of the shell. When shell conduction is enabled,
ANSYS Fluent will compute heat conduction for the wall not only in the normal direction (which is always computed when the energy
equation is solved), but also in the planar directions. The Shell Conduction option will appear in the Wall dialog box for all walls
when solution of the energy equation is active (except for mapped interfaces). For information about how the thermal conditions are
applied on a wall with shell conduction enabled, managing multiple shells, and postprocessing shell conduction walls, see Shell
Conduction Considerations .

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ANSYS Fluent cases with shell conduction can be read in serial or parallel. Either a partitioned or an unpartitioned case file can be read
in parallel (see Mesh Partitioning and Load Balancing
for more information on partitioning). After reading a case file in parallel, shell
zones can be created on any wall.

To convert every wall with a finite thickness into a shell with a single action, the TUI command define/boundary-
conditions/modify-zones/create-all-shell-threads can be used; each converted shell will have a single layer with the
same thickness as the original thin wall (any pre-existing shells will not be modified). To disable shell conduction in every wall with a
single action, the TUI command define/boundary-conditions/modify-zones/delete-all-shells can be used. These
capabilities are available in both serial and parallel mode.

Important: Note that the shell conduction model has several limitations:
It cannot be applied on non-conformal interfaces, including mapped interfaces.
It cannot be applied on moving wall zones.
It cannot be used with FMG initialization.
Shell conduction is not available when the wall is set up to receive thermal data via system coupling.
It is available only in 3D.
It is available only when the pressure-based solver is used.
Shells cannot be split or merged. If you need to split or merge a shell, disable the Shell Conduction option
for the wall, perform the split or merge operation, and then enable Shell Conduction for the new wall zones.
The shell conduction model cannot be used on a wall zone that has been adapted. If you want to perform
adaption elsewhere in the computational domain, be sure to use the mask register described in Manipulating
Adaption Registers .
Fluxes at the ends of a shell are not included in the heat balance reports. These fluxes are accounted for
correctly in the ANSYS Fluent solution, but not in the flux report itself.
The junction of a wall with shell conduction enabled and a non-conformal coupled wall is not supported. Such
a junction will not be thermally connected, that is, there will be no heat transfer between the shell and the
mesh interface wall.
When running the parallel solver with the shell conduction model, note that coupled walls are encapsulated. If
you encounter problems with the partitioning of the mesh, you can try changing the encapsulation method to
see if that resolves the problem (see Troubleshooting
for this and other troubleshooting options).

6.3.14.3.10. Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Through System Coupling

System coupling allows the input and output of thermal data from ANSYS Fluent. When Fluent is coupled with another system in
Workbench using System Coupling, you can select the via System Coupling option on the desired wall boundaries to receive thermal
data through System Coupling service. Note that this option does not need to be selected to provide thermal data from Fluent.
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For more details about setting up a simulation with system coupling, see the Fluent in Workbench User's Guide and the System
Coupling User’s Guide.

When thermal data is transferred into Fluent via System Coupling, the following variables are available:

temperature

heat flow (heat rate)

When thermal data is transferred out of Fluent via System Coupling, the following variables are available:

temperature

heat flow (heat rate)

heat transfer coefficient (also known as “convection coefficient”)

near wall temperature (also known as “bulk temperature” or “ambient temperature”)

For each data transfer, you specify the type of data transfer (the variables transferred) during the System Coupling setup.

As part of standard heat transfer boundary condition settings in ANSYS Fluent, you can also specify the type of material, the thickness
of the wall, and the heat generation rate in the wall. Select the material type in the Material Name drop-down list; if you want to
check or modify the properties of the selected material, you can click Edit... to open the Edit Material dialog box (this dialog box
contains just the properties of the selected material, and not the full contents of the standard Create/Edit Materials dialog box). You
can specify the thickness in the Wall Thickness number-entry box and the heat generation rate in the Heat Generation Rate
number-entry box.

Note: A boundary will behave in the same way as an adiabatic boundary if the via System Coupling option is
enabled on this boundary, and ANSYS Fluent is not receiving data from the coupling data transfer. Fluent is not receiving
coupling data if it is either not involved with a System Coupling simulation, or if the coupling is a one-way transfer with
the Fluent analysis only providing data to the second solver.

6.3.14.3.11. Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Across a Mapped Interface

Mapped interfaces provide a robust approach for modeling coupled walls between zones when the interface zones penetrate each other
or have gaps between them (see Figure 6.42: 2D Interface with Penetration and Gaps
). For the interface wall boundary zones created

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as part of such interfaces, via Mapped Interface is automatically selected from the Thermal Conditions list in the Thermal tab of
the Wall dialog box, in order to interpolate the thermal data.

Important: Note that thermal coupling calculations will not be performed at mapped interfaces for the Eulerian
multiphase model.

For more details about mapped interfaces, see The Mapped Option and Using a Non-Conformal Mesh in ANSYS Fluent.
Figure 6.42: 2D Interface with Penetration and Gaps

Such boundaries also allow you to specify the standard heat transfer boundary condition settings, such as the type of material, the
thickness of the wall, and the heat generation rate in the wall. Select the material type in the Material Name drop-down list; if you
want to check or modify the properties of the selected material, you can click Edit... to open the Edit Material dialog box (this dialog
box contains just the properties of the selected material, and not the full contents of the standard Create/Edit Materials dialog box).
You can specify the thickness in the Wall Thickness number-entry box and the heat generation rate in the Heat Generation Rate
number-entry box. Note that the Shell Conduction option is not available with the via Mapped Interface thermal condition.

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6.3.14.4. Species Boundary Conditions for Walls

By default, a zero-gradient condition for all species is assumed at walls (except for species that participate in surface reactions), but it is
also possible to specify species mass fractions at walls. That is, Dirichlet boundary conditions such as those that are specified at inlets
can be used at walls as well.

If you want to retain the default zero-gradient condition for a species, no inputs are required. If you want to specify the mass fraction
for a species at the wall, the steps are as follows:

1. Click the Species tab in the Wall Dialog Box to view the species boundary conditions for the wall (see Figure 6.43: The Wall
Dialog Box for Species Boundary Condition Input).
2. Under Species Boundary Condition, select Specified Mass Fraction (rather than Zero Diffusive Flux) in the drop-
down list to the right of the species name. The dialog box will expand to include a field for Species Mass Fractions.

Figure 6.43: The Wall Dialog Box for Species Boundary Condition Input

The Wall Dialog Box for Species Boundary Condition Input

3. Under Species Mass Fractions, specify the mass fraction for the species.

The boundary condition type for each species is specified separately, so you can choose to use different methods for different species.

If you are modeling species transport with reactions, you can, alternatively, enable a reaction mechanism at a wall by turning on the
Reaction option and selecting an available mechanism from the Reaction Mechanisms drop-down list. See Defining Zone-Based
Reaction Mechanisms for more information about defining reaction mechanisms.

You can also model unresolved surface washcoats, which greatly increase the catalytic surface area, by specifying the Surface Area
Washcoat Factor. The surface washcoat increases the area available for surface reaction.

6.3.14.4.1. Reaction Boundary Conditions for Walls

If you have enabled the modeling of wall surface reactions in the Species Model Dialog Box, you can indicate whether or not surface
reactions should be activated for the wall. In the Species tab of the Wall dialog box ( Figure 6.43: The Wall Dialog Box for Species
Boundary Condition Input ), turn the Surface Reactions option on or off.

Note that a zero-gradient condition is assumed at the wall for species that do not participate in any surface reactions.
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6.3.14.5. Radiation Boundary Conditions for Walls

If you are using the gray P-1 radiation model, the DTRM, the gray DO model, or the surface-to-surface model, you will need to set the
emissivity of the wall (Internal Emissivity) in the Thermal tab of the Wall dialog box. If you are using the Rosseland model you do
not need to set the emissivity, because ANSYS Fluent assumes the emissivity is 1.

For the non-gray P–1 and the non-gray DO model, specify a constant Internal Emissivity for each wavelength band in the Radiation
tab of the Wall dialog box (the default value in each band is 1). Alternatively, you can specify the internal emissivity using a boundary
condition parameter (see Creating a New Parameter
). If you are using the non-gray DO model, you will also need to define the wall as
opaque or semi-transparent in the Radiation tab. See Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation
for details.

6.3.14.6. Discrete Phase Model (DPM) Boundary Conditions for Walls

If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles, you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the wall in the DPM section of the Wall
dialog box. See Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase
for details.

6.3.14.6.1. Wall Adhesion Contact Angle for VOF Model

If you are using the VOF model and you are modeling wall adhesion, you can specify the contact angle for each pair of phases at the
wall in the Momentum tab of the Wall dialog box. See Steps for Setting Boundary Conditions
for details.

6.3.14.7. User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Boundary Conditions for Walls

If you have defined UDS transport equations in your model, you can specify boundary conditions for each equation in the UDS section
of the Wall dialog box. See Setting Up UDS Equations in ANSYS Fluent
for details.

6.3.14.8. Wall Film Conditions for Walls

If you are using the Eulerian Wall Film model (see Modeling Eulerian Wall Films
for details), you can set liquid film conditions at the wall
in the Wall Film tab of the Wall dialog box. This tab is available only if you have enabled the Eulerian Wall Film model in the Models
Task Page .

For details, see Setting Eulerian Wall Film Solution Controls.


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6.3.14.9. Default Settings at Wall Boundaries

The default thermal boundary condition is a fixed heat flux of zero. Walls are, by default, not moving.

6.3.14.10. Shear-Stress Calculation Procedure at Wall Boundaries

For no-slip wall conditions, ANSYS Fluent uses the properties of the flow adjacent to the wall/fluid boundary to predict the shear stress
on the fluid at the wall. In laminar flows this calculation simply depends on the velocity gradient at the wall, while in turbulent flows one
of the approaches described in Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows
in the Theory Guide is used.

For specified-shear walls, ANSYS Fluent will compute the tangential velocity at the boundary.

If you are modeling inviscid flow with ANSYS Fluent, all walls use a slip condition, so they are frictionless and exert no shear stress on
the adjacent fluid.

6.3.14.10.1. Shear-Stress Calculation in Laminar Flow

In a laminar flow, the wall shear stress is defined by the normal velocity gradient at the wall as

(6–105)

When there is a steep velocity gradient at the wall, you must be sure that the mesh is sufficiently fine to accurately resolve the
boundary layer. Guidelines for the appropriate placement of the near-wall node in laminar flows are provided in Mesh Element
Distribution
.

6.3.14.10.2. Shear-Stress Calculation in Turbulent Flows

Wall treatments for turbulent flows are described in Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows in the Theory Guide.
6.3.14.11. Heat Transfer Calculations at Wall Boundaries

6.3.14.11.1. Temperature Boundary Conditions


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When a fixed temperature condition is applied at the wall, the heat flux to the wall from a fluid cell is computed as

(6–106)

where
= fluid-side local heat transfer coefficient
= wall surface temperature
= local fluid temperature
= radiative heat flux

Note that the fluid-side heat transfer coefficient is computed based on the local flow-field conditions (for example, turbulence level,
temperature, and velocity profiles), as described by . Equation 6–113
Heat transfer to the wall boundary from a solid cell is computed as

(6–107)

where
= thermal conductivity of the solid
= local solid temperature
= distance between wall surface and the solid cell center

6.3.14.11.2. Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

When you define a heat flux boundary condition at a wall, you specify the heat flux at the wall surface. ANSYS Fluent uses Equation 6–
106and your input of heat flux to determine the wall surface temperature adjacent to a fluid cell as

(6–108)

where, as noted above, the fluid-side heat transfer coefficient is computed based on the local flow-field conditions. When the wall
borders a solid region, the wall surface temperature is computed as

(6–109)

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6.3.14.11.3. Convective Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions

When you specify a convective heat transfer coefficient boundary condition at a wall, ANSYS Fluent uses your inputs of the external
heat transfer coefficient and external heat sink temperature to compute the heat flux to the wall as

(6–110)

where
= external heat transfer coefficient defined by you
= external heat-sink temperature defined by you
= radiative heat flux

Equation 6–110 assumes a wall of zero-thickness.


6.3.14.11.4. External Radiation Boundary Conditions

When the external radiation boundary condition is used in ANSYS Fluent, the heat flux to the wall is computed as

(6–111)

where
= emissivity of the external wall surface defined by you
= Stefan-Boltzmann constant
= surface temperature of the wall

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= temperature of the radiation source or sink on the exterior of the domain, defined by you
= radiative heat flux to the wall from within the domain

Equation 6–111 assumes a wall of zero-thickness.


6.3.14.11.5. Combined External Convection and Radiation Boundary Conditions

When you choose the combined external heat transfer condition, the heat flux to the wall is computed as

(6–112)

where the variables are as defined above. Equation 6–112 assumes a wall of zero-thickness.
6.3.14.11.6. Calculation of the Fluid-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient

In laminar flows, the fluid side heat transfer at walls is computed using Fourier’s law applied at the walls. ANSYS Fluent uses its discrete
form:

(6–113)

where is the local coordinate normal to the wall.

For turbulent flows, ANSYS Fluent uses the law-of-the-wall for temperature derived using the analogy between heat and momentum
transfer [55]. See Standard Wall Functions
in the separate Theory Guide for details.

Release 16.2 - © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.

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