3, JUNE 1986
R. MORROW
AbstractA compilation of the available data on some of the basic The values in the range 100 < E/N < 300 Td have
transport properties of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is presented. The been taken from the extensive review by Gallagher et al.
properties considered are a) electron ionization, attachment, detach
ment and diffusion coefficients, and electron drift velocity; b) positive [13]. We have also drawn on the more recent theoretical
and negative ion mobilities, negative ion diffusion, and ionion recom work of Novak and Frechette [12] and experimental work
bination coefficients; and c) secondary ionization coefficients. Approx of Aschwanden [14]. For higher values of E/N we have
imate analytical representations of the data are also given. taken results from Teich and Sangi [9] and UrquijoCar
mona [10], which extend the range of values up to 650
I. INTRODUCTION Td. Such high values of E/N are often reached in non
uniform field calculations.
HE INERT GAS sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely Most of the results agree to within 10 percent and give
used in the electrical power industry as an insulator considerable confidence in the value of a at all E/N val
for gasinsulated equipment in power stations. Recently ues. However, the results of Maller and Naidu [8] dis
we have had occasion to solve the continuity equations agree with those of two other experiments and with the
describing electrical corona and streamer propagation in theoretical results of Kline et al. [5] and consequently
SF6. The calculations follow the lines of those performed have been neglected when fitting the analytical curve.
by Morrow and Lowke [1] and Morrow [2] for corona in The data may be represented by the equations
oxygen, and by Davies et al. [3] for streamers in nitrogen.
The computations require a knowledge of the numerical azIN  3.4473 x 1034(E/N)2 m985m2
values of a number of basic transport parameters of the E/N < 4.6 x 10'9 V * m2 (1)
gas.
 11.269(E/N)'159 m2,
An uptodate compilation of the available data on these
parameters has been made. This is likely to be of value to E/N > 4.6 x 10'9 V m2 (2)
people working on a wide range of problems involving
the behavior of SF6. For this reason we have decided to shown by the dashed line in Fig. 1.
publish the compilation in the form of a number of con
venient graphs and tables. The particular properties con III. ELECTRON ATTACHMENT COEFFICIENT 71
sidered are: a) ionization coefficient a; b) attachment coef The available data on the attachment coefficient Ti are
ficient q; c) electron drift velocity w; d) longitudinal plotted in Fig. 2 over the range 10 < E/N < 800 Td [4]
electron diffusion coefficient DL; e) electron detachment [8], [111[161.
coefficient 6; f) ion mobilities /t+; g) ionvolume recom These results have been reviewed critically by Gal
bination coefficient Kr; h) negative ion diffusion coeffi lagher et al. [131 and we have also drawn from the more
cient Di; i) photoionization parameters; and j) total sec recent work of Novak and Frechette [12] and Aschwan
ondary ionization coefficient 6T. Approximate analytical den [14].
representations of the data are also given. The data on Ti are evidently more scattered than those
on the ionization coefficient. The recent results of Novak
II. ELECTRON IONIZATION COEFFICIENT a
and Frechette [12] are in good agreement with those de
The available data on the ionization coefficient a are rived from the experiments of Geballe and Harrison [6]
plotted in Fig. I over the ranged 100 < E/N < 700 Td and from the theory of Yoshizawa et al. [11], whereas the
(where E is the electric field (V m ), N is the neutral theoretical values given by Kline et al. [5] are generally
gas number density (m3), and 1 Td 1 21 V m lower than these by a factor of 2 for E/N > 500 Td.
[1][14]. At high E/N values (> 200 Td) the fitted curve lies close
to the experimental values of Aschwanden [14] and mid
Manuscript received July 30, 1985; revised December 16, 1985. This way between the theoretical results of Novak and Fre
work was supported by the Canadian Electrical Association. chette [12] and Kline et al. [5].
The author is with the Division of Applied Physics, Commonwealth In the range 50 < E/N < 200 Td a curve has been fitted
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Lindfield, N.S.W., Aus
tralia. which reflects the sharp upward trend in the theoretical
IEEE Log Number 8608117. curves of Yoshizawa et al. [11] and Novak and Frechette
1000
.0
N
100
NE
N
_ LI
/
1 ~~~~~~ .f lll
100 1000 10 000
[12] and the experimental data of McAffe and Edelson 1016 m3 * s 1. (The attachment rate coefficient Kat is
[16]. This upward trend is indicative of the very high at related to the attachment frequency Pv0, and 1 by the equa
tachment frequency at very low values of E/N discussed tion Kat vat,N = w * q/N.)
=
in the solution of the continuity equations [1][3]. At zero 5.0 X 1020 < E/N < 2.0 X 10l9 V * m2
electric field, the thermal electron attachment rate con
stant Kat has been determined to be 2.27 + 0.07 (3)
(1013 m3 * s1) by Crompton and Haddad [33]. As E/N 7.0 x 1021 exp ( 2.25 x 10'8(E/N)) m2,
=
0
0 Kline et.al. (5]T
x Kline et.al. [5] E
0 Yoshizawa et.al. [1 1] T
Geballe & Harrison [6] E
9 Balla & Craggs[4IlE
.6 Novak &FrechetteC12]T
0 Aschwanden [14]E
6 McAffee & Edelson[1 6] E
0 Mailer & Naidu[8]E
E
_W
a Boyd & Crichton[7]E
N
0 Siddagangappa et.al.
[1 5] E
Fitted curve

z C]
PI
10 1
0 200 400 600 800
E/N (102 1 Vm2) 0 200 400 600 800
Fig. 2. Available data on the attachment coefficient j as a function of E/N (10o21 Vm2)
E/N, together with the fitted curve (dashed line).
Fig. 4. Available data on the ratio of electron diffusion to electron mobil
ity Dl,u as a function of E/N, together with the fitted curve (dashed
line).
100
I
E
0
For our present discharge calculations we require only
the value of DL, the longitudinal diffusion constant [11
[3]. However, most experimental and theoretical results
give DT, the transverse diffusion coefficient, which may
0 differ from DL by as much as a factor of 2. Only the recent
J
w
10 Fitted curve
work of Aschwanden [14] provides experimentally mea
>
LU
O Kline et.al. [5]T sured values of DL. The fitted curve passes through these
LL  Yoshizawa etal. [11] T experimental values and then approaches zero as E/N
4 Novak & Frechette[1:8T
0
z * Novak & Frechette[1 2]T
tends to zero, consistent with the fact that DIpA tends to
0 + Harris & Jones [17]E the thermal energy of the electrons at low E/N.
o Naidu & Prasad [18]E The data may be represented by the equation
A Teich & Sangi [9]E
J
LU * Aschwanden [14]E DL/U = 8.6488 x 109(E/N)"2 V,
1 L 111I,
I 1 I,,,,
D 100 1000 E/N < 6.5 x 10'9 V * I" (6)
E/N (102 Vm2) 1
shown by the dashed line in Fig. 4.
Fig. 3. Available data on the electron drift velocity w as a function of
E/N, together with the fitted curve (dashed line). VI. ELECTRON DETACHMENT COEFF1CIENT 6
The electron detachment coefficient results of O'Neill
[11], [12], [14], [17], [18]. In the range 100 < E/N <
and Craggs [19], plotted in Fig. 5, cover E/N values from
1000 Td, all the results agree. At lower values of E/N 400 to 464 Td and densities I x 1023m3to 6 x 1023 m.
they diverge and, here, the fitted curve lies between the The measurements of Teich and Sangi [9] are about 100
results of Kline et al. [5] and Yoshizawa et al. [11]. The times larger than those of O'Neill and Craggs, but the
data may be represented by the equation cause of this disparity is unknown. Fig. 6 gives the results
w = 1.027 1019(E/N)0.7414 ms
x
I
of Teich and Sangi in their original form, in which the
1020 < E/N < 2 X 1018V m2 (5)
lifetime of the negative ions T is plotted against E/N.
(1 1)
cn
shown by the dashed line in Fig. 8.
0
z
6.
Values of the ionvolume recombination coefficient are
plotted in Fig. 9 over the pressure range 13000 kPa. They
are taken from the experimental measurements of Schmidt
1 n, et al. [25] and Wilson et al. [26] and from the theoretical
360 370 380 390 400 curve of Natanson [27].
E/N (1021 Vm2)
The data may be represented by the equations
Fig. 6. Lifetime of negative ions as a function cof E/N [9]. Kr = 2.0 x 1013(P)0.6336 M3 . SI
1 < P c 39 kPa (12)
mobility. The actual mobility is given by
= 2.28 x 1011(P)0659 m3 . s
0 Po T
39 . P c 270 kPa
P To (7) (13)
= 6.867 x 10 0(p) l279 m3 . s I
where P0 = 101.325 kPa and To = 273.16 K.
270 . P c 2000 kPa (14)
A. Positive Ion Mobility ,t+
shown by the dashed curves in Fig. 9.
Fig. 7 gives experimental values of the reduced posi
tion ion mobility of SF+ [9], [10], [21], [22]. The dot IX. NEGATIVE ION DIFFUSION Di
dashed line is the value of E/N at which the ionization The only measurements of ion diffusion are those for
rate equals the attachment rate. SF6 negative ions by Naidu and Prasad [28] over the range
For E/N < 120 Td, the fitted curve gives a constant 30 < E/N < 220 Td for gas pressures ranging from 0. 13
value for ,u°, in agreement with the result of Fleming and to 1.33 kPa. Their results are presented in Table I in terms
Rees [21]. Over the range 120 < E/N < 335 Td, the of Townsend's energy factor kT, which is related to the
curve is fitted to the results of Fleming and Rees, neglect diffusion coefficient by the equation [28]
ing the more scattered values of Aschwanden [22]. For
E/N > 335 Td the curve passes midway between the re D kT V.
sults of Teich and Sangi [9] and UriquijoCarmona [10]. (15)
A 39.6
238 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. PS14, NO. 3, JUNE 1986
11
co
o Fleming & Rees [21]E
O Teich & Sangi f9]E
o UrquijoCarmona [10]E
E
a Aschwanden [22]E
 Fitted curve
0n 10 
8k
m
0
0
6
Li
0
0
:D 4
cc
z
0 2
LL
C') oL 11 1
0 it: 100 1000 10 000
a.
1%
'I
10.0
O Fleming & Rees [21]E E
0
N
X Patterson [23]E
>2 c Naidu & Prasad [18]E 0
Un
O Teich & Sangi [9]E
0 + Crichton& Dougin Leet24]E I..
0
10 * Aschwanden 122JE jq/
0  Fitted curve LU
0
8 0
2
j z
0 0
0 6 z
0
0
LU
4
cc
S 10 100 1000
LL 2
I PRESSURE (kPa)
0 I _1 11 l11l
1 11 Fig. 9. Available data on the ionrecombination coefficient as a function
z 0 100 1 000 of pressure, together with the fitted curve (dashed line).
E/N (10o21 Vm2)
Fig. 8. Available data on the negative ion reduced mobility as a function TABLE I
of E/N, together with the fitted curve (dashed line). MEAN VALUES OF kT AND DIl/ OF NEGATIVE IONS IN SF6
TABLE II REFERENCES
TOTAL SECONDARY IONIZATION COEFFICIENT
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p. 816, 1971.
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107, 1984.
XI. TOTAL SECONDARY IONIZATION COEFFICIENT 6T [13] J. W. Gallagher, E. C. Beaty, J. Dutton, and L. C. Pitchford, J.
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J. Phys. D., vol. 15, p. L83, 1982.
2 x 107 This strong pressure dependence is due to pho
.
[16] K. B. McAffee and D. Edelson, Proc. Phys. Soc., vol. 81, p. 382,
ton absorption and quenching, while at higher E/N, values 1963.
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[18] M. S. Naidu and A. N. Prasad, J. Phys. D., vol. 5, p. 1090, 1972.
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1969.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT [30] L. E. Kline, private communication, 1982.
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