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FAKULTI ALAM BINA

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA


SKUDAI, JOHOR.

IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA SAINS (PEMBINAAN)


SBEC - 2015/2016

SBEC 3613 – CONSTRUCTION SITE MANAGEMENT

GROUP MEMBERS:

NO. NAME ID NUMBER


1 MALIKI BIN MUSTAFA SX150009BECS04
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TABLE CONTENTS PAGES

A GENERAL PROJECT INFORMATION 4


A.1 Site Information 4
A.2 Organization Structure 6
A.3 Organization Analysis 7
A.3.1 Problem and issues 7
A.3.2 Improvement and advices 9
B DOCUMENTION SITE RECORD & DATA 10
B.1 Site Record 10
B.2 Schedule & Procurement 10
B.3 Quality Management Control 10
C SITE LAYOUT 11
C.1 Site Layout Planning 11
C.2 Observation and Analysis 12
D PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT & PRODUCTIVITY 13
D.1 Work Planning and Monitoring 13
D.1.1 Site Planning & Fortnightly Work 13
D.1.2 Construction Method & Technologies (Equipment and Machinery) 16
D.2 Quality Control and Monitoring 17
D.3 Site Productivity Analysis 18
D.4 Improvement of Productivity 20
TABLE LIST PAGES

Table 1: Example from casting works (concreting) by using two different machinery 16

FIGURE LIST PAGES

Figure 1: Organization chart of site team...................................................................................................... 6


Figure 2: Organization chart review ............................................................................................................. 8
Figure 3: New form organization structure ................................................................................................... 9
Figure 4: Site layout of project for contractor planning their work ............................................................ 11
Figure 5: Site view nearest with existing buidling ...................................................................................... 12
Figure 6: Sample fortnightly target from contractor for every two (2) weeks ............................................ 14
Figure 7: Project master programmer can help contractor monitor closely their work .............................. 15
Figure 8: By using technology give advantages to contractor complete in less time ................................. 16
Figure 9: The practice for make sure of quality of the project of both picture ........................................... 17
Figure 10: Unproper material storage and acces ......................................................................................... 18
Figure 11: Sufficient of material and manpower can making work smoothly ............................................ 19

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A GENERAL PROJECT INFORMATION

Construction site management is the science of organizing, planning and managing resources to
complete a construction project. A successful site management is measured in terms of its
capacity to meet targets in the three most important categories: costs, schedules, and quality.
Based on this situation, from five listed company we choose a company Wira Syukur (M) Sdn
Bhd from Petaling Jaya. Incorporated in Malaysia on 2nd September 1996. From a humble
beginning, Wira Syukur has created a niche for itself in the construction industry and built
impressive track record of the years. This company is incorporated with an Authorized Capital of
RM5, 000,000.00 and Paid up Capital of RM2, 500,000.00

Registration of company:

 Sijil Perakuan Pendaftaran Syarikat Sendirian Berhad (Form 9)


 Pusat Khidmat Kontraktor - PKK Class A
 Construction Industry Development Board - CIDB G7
 Master Builder Association Malaysia (MBAM)
 Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN)
 The International Organization For Standardization – ISO9001:2008

A.1 Site Information

Cadangan Membina Sebuah Kilang Dan Gudang 1 Tingkat Serta Pejabat 2 Tingkat Dengan 1
Unit Pondok Pengawal, 1 Unit Kebuk Sampah, 1 Unit Pencawang Elektrik, 1 Unit Loji
Pengolahan Effluen, 1 Unit Tangki Lpg, 1 Unit Tangki Air Proses, 2 Unit Bilik Pam Serta, 1
Unit Tangki Pencegah Kebakaran Di Atas Lot 3802, Jalan Klinik Batu 6 1/2, Seksyen 32, 40460
Shah Alam, Mukim Klang, Daerah Klang Untuk Tetuan Gardenia Bakeries (Kl) Sdn.Bhd.

Bil Company Position


1 Gardenia Bakeries (KL) Sdn Bhd Developer
2 Jong Kit Architect Architect
3 Azman Lim & Associates Sdn Bhd C&S consultant
4 Dynamic Engineering Consultant M&E consultant
5 Perunding Ukur Bahan TSY Quantity Surveyor
6 Wira Syukur (M) Sdn Bhd Main Contractor

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Main Building Works :
Date of Commencement : 25th July 2017
Completion Date : 30th April 2018
Construction Period : 40 weeks
Revised Completion Date (EOT: 00 ) : N/A
LD Imposed Per Day : RM8000.00

Contract Information :
Form of Contract :
Contract Amount : RM56,918,014.40
Defect Liability Period : 12 Months

Insurance – Contractor’s All Risk :


Policy No. : CCX/04214066/90/04/RKR
Issue Date : 25th July 2017
Expired Date : 14th June 2019

Insurance – Workmen’s Compensation :


Policy No. : LWX/04214111/RKR
Issue Date : 25th July 2017
Expired Date : 14th June 2019

CIDB Registration No. :


Registration No. :1970702-WP038700
Levy Reference No. : WP038700-25
Performance Bond : RM71,147.50

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A.2 Organization Structure

Organization structure is a framework within which an Organization arranges its lines of


authorities and communications and allocates right and duties. All organization have a
management structure that determines the relationships between functions and position and
subdivides and delegates roles, responsibilities and authority to carry out defined tasks.
Based on our observation from this project we find that The Role Culture implementation is an
option for this project.

The work of the pillars and interaction between them are clearly defined by rules and procedures.
Pillars are only joined at the top by a pediment of senior managers. The role is more important
than the individual.

Figure 1: Organization chart of site team

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From the Site Organization Chart we find Tall organizational structure forms being chosen of
organize this project. An organization grows, the number of management levels increases and the
structure grows taller. In a tall structure, managers form many ranks and each has a small area of
control. Large, complex organization often requires a taller hierarchy.

The type of organization structure used is according to the function of the respective task so it’s
mean Functional organization applied to organize the people. This structures derives from the
assumption that each unit should specialize in a specific functional area and perform all the tasks
requiring its expertise within its specialization. This form of structure works well in repetitive,
stable environments, because there is little change in the work to be carried out.

To get the work done usually requires a relatively low level of integration because of a chain of
command structure, and documented rules and procedures. The functional organization offers the
most fundamental and stabilizing arrangement for large companies.
The Organization of The Subsystem used is the type of Management. In these subsystems, the
contractor will coordinate subcontractor involved in this work according to the field work each.

A.3 Organization Analysis

Organization analysis is the process of reviewing the development, work environment, personnel
and operation. There are an environment that will influence an organization: Government,
financial resources, general economic conditions, Human resources, technology, culture, markets,
industry and raw materials.

A.3.1 Problem and issues

Based on the observation on site, the problem faced is at the Site Supervisor level where each
task area is not divided equally. Structure is the skeleton of the business. It creates enough
standardization of roles and procedures to allow work to be performed economically and to keep
the organization in tune with the procedures of the firms it does business with. It facilitates
control by creating a communications network of instructions and feedback. Hence, the purpose
of organization structure are;

 to ensure that work is allocated rationally


 there are effective links between roles, and the employees are properly supervised and
coordinated

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When designing or improving an organization, senior managers must ensure that the tasks and
responsibilities are allocated to groups and individuals, including discretion over work methods
and resources; individuals are grouped into sections or larger units and the units integrated into
the total organization; formal relationships are set up, spans of control specified and the number
of managerial levels decided;
 jobs are clearly defined, but are not too rigid or specialized;
 authority is delegated and procedures are set up for monitoring its use;
 communication systems are created, improving information flow and co-ordination;
procedures are developed for performance appraisal and reward

Figure 2: Organization chart review

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A.3.2 Improvement and advices

Most organizations have introduced specialization in the belief that it leads to better use of people and
resources, but it has drawbacks too. It leads to fragmentation and the need to control and integrate tasks
more tightly. Specialization leads to isolation and can cause co-ordination problems.

Located foreman by trade of


supervisor / in charge

Figure 3: New form organization structure

In professional and technical jobs, specialization can create challenge; in clerical and manual jobs it can
lead to boredom. Highly routine jobs, requiring little learning, are not a humane use of people because
their full potential cannot be tapped. Through our observation, we recommend specialization is best way
to realize a more organized for project site management. After Improvement the scope of work for
Site Supervisors Should be distributed according to working groups such as Structural Work,
Architectural work and Mechanical & Electrical work.

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B DOCUMENTION SITE RECORD & DATA

B.1 Site Record

Record are most important thing in construction stage especially to all party that involve money and time.
In our technical visit, some of observation we make from the main contractor about the documentation
and site record. The documentation and record is important for any purpose like;

 Variation Order (VO)


 Extension Of time (EOT)
 Day work claim
 Interim progress claim (IPC)

With many and different of document need to keep and filing, main contractor have using their own
system that verified by ISO. That very important because they can keep and save document separately
without any congested issue in filing system. Contractor separate their file such as:

i. Site Diary
ii. Material summary record
iii. Delivery Order record
iv. Progress record (report)
v. Variation Order record
vi. Weather record

B.2 Schedule & Procurement

In order to make a good record and good management, contractor has do schedule of every subject that
related with site such as:

i. Material delivery and fabrication schedule


ii. Subcontractor and supplier procurement schedule

B.3 Quality Management Control

i. Audit
ii. Filing system
iii. Material control

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C SITE LAYOUT

C.1 Site Layout Planning

Site layout is important especially for contractor to make sure their activity can be on going smooth
without double handling activity. The site layout make by take some of consideration factors such as:

i. Construction phase and operation;


Contractor analyses their sequences of work and operation need to be done from their work programed to
archive target of deliver date

ii. Access to site


Access to site mean any access must be done to deliver raw material and goods. The good access will
expedite the loading either unloading material. This also give effectiveness of site productivity.
Contractor must ensure that access can be used in peak time (casting time) and did not disturb any other
work. Contractor also proposes the alternative access for site productivity.

iii. Material storages area and fabrication yard


For large material, large quantities like a sand, gravel, brick have prepare storage to make sure the
material in good condition to be use. Person in charge for material storage must be alert from weather and
make sure cover the material with suitable element. Fabrication yard for steel bar and formwork also
located on big area for easy installation and handling when fabricate.

Figure 4: Site layout of project for contractor planning their work

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iv. Temporary building
For temporary building such as site office, toilet and also guard house, usually nearest on main entrance.
Its because for safety and accommodation for workers on site. For store provide close working area.

v. Fencing and hoarding


One reason that fencing is erected around construction sites is to create a barrier to confine any risk
during demolition, excavation of the site, and when construction’s underway. Its also to fulfill the
requirement from authority, Majlis Daerah Shah Alam (MBSA).

C.2 Observation and Analysis

i. Design constraint

In our visit, we can see that design of this project are:

 Located with nearly other building


 Road access to site using small road and within village area
 Site boundary to near with other building (located in middle)

Nearest Building 2
Nearest Building 1

Nearest Building 3

Small road to site

Figure 5: Site view nearest with existing buidling

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D PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT & PRODUCTIVITY

This project can be categories as fast track project because total period of construction only nine (9)
month. So, the main-contractor have made plans as a stated below to maintain their progress and also
productivity to archive client satisfaction and target:

a. Works planning
b. Quality Control
c. Subcontractor control
d. Schedule of procurement materials

D.1 Work Planning and Monitoring

D.1.1 Site Planning & Fortnightly Work

Planning is most important in construction field. This because to void any delay or any double handling
work and also keep activity goes smooth without any delay. Without proper planning can give big
problem to site production especially for critical activity such as concreting and infrastructure work. To
make sure project can on time, the main contractor also require work schedule from their subcontractor
(Nominated and Domestic). It is easy to monitor and analysis any work or schedule of their subcontractor.

i. Works and site activity

Location and works arrangements within the site also affect production because irregular planning will
result in delays and wastage. The appropriate location will speed up an activity to be implemented. To
avoid any delay and problem, contractor has make proper planning for their work such

 Target start and finish for casting work (structural work)


 Target completed for every zone
 Type of works need to start early
 Sequence and work arrangement
 Estimate duration of every trade of work to be complete

ii. Material, machinery and manpower

From the target date, contractor can prepare all material, equipment and also labor for the particular
activity. As an example from our site study, before contractor start casting for their ground slab structure,
the have already planning two or four days (2 or 4 days) before. This is because they are forced to do
restructuring for access, volume of concrete from supplier and also takes care of the constraints that will
be faced such as:

 Weather
 Time peak
 Road access for concrete truck
 Machinery availability

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Contractor also shall planning for their machinery and man power for every particular activity. Machinery
and manpower must balance to avoid any waste cost. For material, contractor also planning in delivery by
given delivery schedule to their supplier. All material will come regarding schedule and quantity will be
control by site instruction (person in charge).

Raw material planning needs to be planned effectively so as not to delay the order and delivery to the site
as well as to slow down the work plan that has been implemented. Good planning is when orders are
made available at the time required. Human resource planning also plays an important role in production
as the workforce is the driving force for all activities. Trained and adequate workforce is required to
obtain good working quality and schedule completion as planned. Control of machinery in production is
an important factor to be taken into account in addition to raw materials and labor. Machines and
machinery can facilitate and accelerate the process of an activity to be implemented.

Figure 6: Sample fortnightly target from contractor for every two (2) weeks

The planning of labor resources whether skilled or semi-skilled labor is important to avoid the lack of
labor in a project. Assessment of the needs of labor resources should be done from time to time in
accordance with the planning work schedule. This plan aims to balance the needs of the workforce with
ongoing activities. The reduced number of workforce will cause work activity to move slowly, if
excessive workforce will result in waste cost to the contractor.

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Proper division of work and in accordance with specific areas can streamline activities and be able to
control the hiring of graduates in stages. If this work is done, the workforce problem can be controlled
and mitigated when the activities are decreased. This planning means hiring gradually from the start of
the project to one end and reducing the workforce gradually until the project is completed.

Figure 7: Project master programmer can help contractor monitor closely their work

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D.1.2 Construction Method & Technologies (Equipment and Machinery)

Construction method and technologies play a big role in site productivity. Some works still using
conversional construction method. That happened because to minimize rental of machinery, manpower or
hire specialist subcontractor. For that project, the technologies can be seen on type of machinery use
which they use several of technologies machine. The selection of machinery depends on a few factors
such as:

 Type of work (work requirement)


 Area and volume
 Duration for particular jobs to complete

Technologies of machinery can be save time especially to some work that takes a long time and needs to
be done as quickly as possible such a concreting and installation of pre-cast structure. Any delay of
installation can effect of other work. Selection of technologies also related with any method of
construction purpose by contractor or any special project requirement

Type Of Machinery Speed Advantage Disadvantage


More suitable for large area casting Concrete truck cannot wait too long
: for each other.
Concrete Pump - 28.00 – 35.00 m3 concrete per hour  Slab
Lorry  Beam
Need more workers.
Fast and take less time
Mobile Crane 8.00 – 15.00 m3 concrete per hour Suitable for small space structure Take long time for casting works
 Column
 Staircase Machinery need transfer from other
to another side / place
Use less workers

Table 1: Example from casting works (concreting) by using two different machinery

Figure 8: By using technology give advantages to contractor complete in less time

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D.2 Quality Control and Monitoring

Quality control starts from the invention of the raw material up to the quality control of the current and
after work. Continuous quality checks should be carried out to ensure the results obtained according to the
specification or as state under contract and materials approval by consultant. Quality control can be
control by making inspection before, during and after particular job done. This is important to avoid any
defects that be appear during or after construction stage. Main contractor to ensure that any material and
work are follow:

 Drawing
 Specification
 Requirement from client, consultant and authority

Figure 9: The practice for make sure of quality of the project of both picture

Contractor also always make a checking for their document especially on


 Engineer Instruction (EI)
 Architect Instruction (AI)
 Revised drawing

This checking very important because any revised of drawing or new requirement that require
contractor make a changes can affect their work schedule, budget and also quantity of any
material. With any charges, contractor can claim their VO and also extension of time for
particular work

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D.3 Site Productivity Analysis

From the production management, contractor can save some of:

 Budget for rental and hire for machinery, equipment and tool for long term period can save
 Planning can save money and time especially for critical work that use many man-power,
materials and special machinery.
 Can avoid any waste of materials and time (man-power and machinery)

The most common problems that occur are the management of raw materials and adequate workforce.
Both of these problems have greatly affected the project planning in case studies that we have done.
However, this problem can be overcome by the contractor but the time taken to solve this problem has
slightly affected the original planning of the project.

In our technical visit, we can see some of constraint, problem and issue that occur on site such as:

i. Access and Space for materials storage


Some of big problem is are area space for located materials (materials storage) and also access for any
materials delivery straight into workplace. Contractor usually must double handling for their work
especially for large or big materials. We can look on site layout where fabrication yard and carpenter yard
are located far from main building (work place). By this issue, contractor hire additional of machinery to
transport that materials from fabrication yard into main building area.

Not proper place for


materials
Bad access road

Figure 10: Unproper material storage and acces

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Figure 11: Sufficient of material and manpower can making work smoothly

ii. Time constraint


This project takes a short amount of time to complete because duration of completion only nine (9) month
only. Contractor need to work quickly to ensure that the project can be hand over on a specified date. To
avoid any delay, the contractor has appointed two (2) different sub-contractor for critical item such
structural work.

iii. Material and Manpower


This is probably the most important constraint of all. The most common problems that occur are the
management of raw materials and adequate workforce. Both of these problems have greatly affected the
project planning in case studies that we have done. However, this problem can be overcome by the
contractor but the time taken to solve this problem has slightly affected the original planning of the
project. To avoid any delay, building materials are very important and the quantity of workers needs must
be sufficient.

At some case, some materials a place without proper storage and that make a difficult to workers transfer
some of materials to working area. The unproper access also give an impact of site productivity.

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D.4 Improvement of Productivity

i. Material Quality and Management

Control of raw materials should be carefully planned to ensure the effectiveness and capabilities of the
project are in place. It can also control wastage or material shortage if stored too long. Efficient material
management should also take into account the following: -

a. Prioritizes the method of unloading raw materials from truck to storage.


b. Ample storage space.
c. Provides systematic material control records.
d. Fill up shortage of raw material stocks immediately
e. Appointment of Supervisor to manage raw materials.

Apart from that, wastage of raw material use should be effectively addressed. Waste of material if not
properly controlled will increase cost to contractors. The source of wastage needs to be identified and
addressed.

ii. Manpower and labor force

The planning of labor resources whether skilled or semi-skilled labor is important to avoid the lack of
labor in a project. Assessment of the needs of labor resources should be done from time to time in
accordance with the planning work schedule. This plan aims to balance the needs of the workforce with
ongoing activities. The reduced number of workforce will cause work activity to move slowly, if
excessive workforce will result in waste cost to the contractor.

Proper division of work and in accordance with specific areas can streamline activities and be able to
control the hiring of graduates in stages. If this work is done, the workforce problem can be controlled
and mitigated when the activities are decreased. This planning means hiring gradually from the start of
the project to one end and reducing the workforce gradually until the project is completed.

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