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Contents

Types of Propulsion Systems :


• Jet Propulsion
• Rocket Propulsion
• Outer Space Propulsion
Jet Propulsion

History
• Jet propulsion uses may be traced back to 50-70 AD when a popular toy
was made using this technology.

• But originally Jets came into use in 13th century to make Rocket Fireworks
and weapons later in 17th century. China , Arabs and Indians used Jet
propelled rockets for war.

• But for an airplane to be propelled by Jet , world had to wait till World
War – II .
What is a Jet Engine ?
• A jet engine is a machine that
uses the velocity of air to produce
Thrust. It works on Sir Isaac
Newton’s discovery. I.e. To every
action there is an equal and
opposite reaction.

• Jet Engines are further classified


in 3 types :
1. Turboprop or Turbofan
2. Turbojet
3. Ramjet
Parts of a Jet Engine
• Fan - The fan is the first component in a turbofan.
• Compressor - The compressor squeezes the air that enters it into
progressively smaller areas, resulting in an increase in the air
pressure. This results in an increase in the energy potential of the
air.
• Combustor - In the combustor the air is mixed with fuel and then
ignited.
• Turbine - The high-energy airflow coming out of the combustor goes
into the turbine, causing the turbine blades to rotate.
• Nozzle - The nozzle is the exhaust duct of the engine. This is the
engine part which actually produces the thrust for the plane
Rocket Propulsion
• A rocket is a
missile, spacecraft,
aircraft or other
vehicle that obtains
thrust
from rocket engine.
Rocket engine
exhaust is formed
entirely from
propellants carried
within
the rocket before
use.
Design
• The main difficulties in Rocket Design.

1. Cooling of Combustion Chamber (Solved by


Regenerative Cooling )

2. Pumping the fuel ( Rocket Turbopump)

3. Controling Direction ( 3D thrust vectoring )

4. Weight Restrictions ( Lightweight Material)


Regenerative Cooling
Rocket Turbopump
• It is a type of centrifugal pump
with very high output pressure
of the propellant. It has 2 main
components. A rotodynamic
pump and a gas turbine fitted
on same shaft or sometimes
geared togethor.
Thrust Vectoring
• In rocketry and ballistic missiles that fly outside the atmosphere,
aerodynamic control surfaces are ineffective, so thrust vectoring is
the primary means of control.
Outer Space Propulsion
• Two types of propulsions can be used in the outer space.
1. Rocket Propulsion (Creates pollution in space )
2. Electric Propulsion ( Pollution Free )
Few types of electric Propulsions

• Electrostatic Propulsion
• Electrothermal Propulsion
• ElectroMagnetic Propulsion
• ElectroDynamic Propulsion
Interplanetary
Journey
Bibliography
• Personal Knowledge
• Wikipedia
• MIT Courseware etc.