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DATE : 10:02:19

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC DESIGN :

PHOTOVOLTAIC(PV) :

Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using


semiconducting
materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in
physics,
photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

SOURCE OF ENERGY :

1.THERMAL,2.SOLAR,3.WIND,4.TIDAL,5.HYDRO,6.NECLEAR,7.GEOTHERMAL

MAJOR SWITCH YARD EQIUPMENTS :

1.CIRCUIT BREAKER

2.ISOLATOR

3.EARTH SWITCH

4.TRANSFORMER

5.ICT,CT,PT.

IED'S :

It is an electronic devices,which is working on the basis of


MICROPROCESSOR & DSP-DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING.

BCU :BAY CONTROL UNIT :

BCU IS A ELECTRONIC DEVICE AND SOFT INTELLIGENCE IN IT.WHICH IS USED TO


GIVE THE STATUS AND CONTROL OF A SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS IN A PARTICULAR BAY.

TYPES OF CARDS USED IN BCU:

1. DIGITAL INPUT UNIT (DIU) FOR DIGITAL INPUT STATUS


2. DIGITAL OUTPUT UNIT (DOU) FOR GIVING O/P COMMANDS (CONTROLS)
3. ANALOG INPUT UNIT (AIU) FOR ANALOG INPUT VALUES.
4. TRANSDUCERLESS MEASUREMENT UNIT (TMU)
5. BUS INTERFACE UNIT (BIU)
6. PROCESSOR CARD WE ARE USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR IN OUR BCU TO
PROCESS IN I/P,O/P,AI VALUES,.......

A SINGLE BCU CAN SUPPORT,


CARDS CONTACTS
DI 16
DO 10(8NO CONTACTS & 2NC CONTACTS)
TMU 5VT COIL,4CT COIL.
AI 8
LIMITATIONS OF CARDS IN OUR BCU ARE 15 DI,15 DO,6 AI& 1TMU
INTER CONNECTED TRANSFORMER (ICT):

It is a transformer which is allowing the power transfer from both end,


primary to secondary as well as secondary to primary.

CIRCUIT BREAKER :

It is a mechanical device,which is used to break the electric


circuit in live condition.(process of discharge/breaking the circuit called
as breaker.

(i.e)Instantaneous time to break the current).

We can operate the breaker in both live and dead condition.Because it has the
medium to ionizing the break current.

DEPENDING UPON THE MEDIUM USED IN CIRCUIT BREAKER HAS CLASSIFIED AS,
1.AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER
2.VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
3.SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER.

TYPES OF BREAKER USED IN HIGH POWER STATION :

1.GCB-GENERATING CIRCUIT BREAKER,


2.DCB-DISCONNECTING CIRCUIT BREAKER,
3.HVDC CB-HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUIT BREAKER.

ISOLATOR :

It is a mechanical device,which is used to isolate the circuit.


we cannot operate this device in live(running) condition,because it cannot contain

any medium to quinch the spark produced during the live condition.

TYPES OF ISOLATOR USED IN HIGH POWER STATION :

1.SINGLE BREAK ISOLATOR(HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL MOVEMENT),


2.DOUBLE BREAK ISOLATOR,
3.KNEE TYPE ISOLATOR.

CT'S & PT'S :Current Transformer & Potential Transformer :

It is an instrument transformer,which is used for measurement purpose in


an high power electrical system.

FUTURE SAS :

1.PROCESS LEVEL,
2.BAY LEVEL,
3.STATION LEVEL.
1.PROCESS LEVEL :

It contains SCU,CMU,AMU devices in switch yard end.


These devices are used to reduces the hardwire from switchyard to kiosk control
panel.Due to this single communication cable will give the details of full
switch yard instances.

1.SCU-SWITCHGEAR CONTROL UNIT(CONTROL & STATUS OF BREAKER,ISOLATOR),


2.AMU-ANALOG MERGING UNIT.(MEASUREMENT USING-CT,PT),
3.CONDITIONAL MONITORING UNIT.

2.BAY LEVEL :

BCU-BAY CONTROL UNIT,KNEUMATIC RELAYS FOR PROTECTION PURPOSE,MFT-


MEASUREMENT.

3.STATION LEVEL :

OI SERVER,SMT,GATEWAY.

DATE : 27.08.13

INTRO ABOUT SCE-SYSTEM CONFIGURATION EDITOR :

DATE : 28.08.13

COMMUNICATION :

COMMUNICATION IS A PHENOMENA,WHICH IS USED FOR TRANSFORMING INFORMATION


FROM ONE TO OTHER.

PARAMETERS FOR ESTABLISH A COMMUNICATION :

1.PHYSICAL MEDIUM,
2.CONNECTING PORT,
3.PROTOCOL,
4.NETWORK FORMATION.

1.PHYSICAL MEDIUM :

A COMMUNICATION BETWEEN A TWO DEVICES MUST REQUIRE A MEDIUM FOR


COMMUNICATION.

THE FOLLOWING MEDIUM ARE GENERALLY USED FOR ESTABLISH A COMMUNICATION :

1.ETHERNET CABLE,2.FIBRE OPTIC CABLE,3.OPGW


1.ETHERNET CABLE :

CAT-5,CAT-6...CAT-5 CABLES USED ONLY UPTO 15 METERS.BECAUSE IT


DOESN'T HAVE MECHANICAL STRENGTH.BUT IN CAT-6 CABLE IT HAS A PLASTIC AT CENTRE
FOR IMPROVING MECHANICAL STRENGTH,AND ALSO REDUCES THE INTERFERENCES BETWEEN
THE CORES.DUE TO THIS IT WILL SUPPORT UPTO 100MTRS.

2.FIBRE OPTIC CABLES :

IT IS WORK ON THE PRINCIPLE OF SINGLE MODE & MULTIMODE


TRANSMISSION.
IN SIGNLEMODE TRANSMISSION,INFORMATION CARRYING BY A SINGLE BEAM OF LIGHT.BUT IT
IS
REQUIRE A REPEATERS TO IMPROVE IT'S TRANSMISSION CAPABILITY.BUT IT SUPPORTS UPTO
"15 KMS".

BUT IN A MULTI MODE TRANSMISSION,INFORMATION CARRYING BY MULTIPLE WAY OF LIGHT.


IT SUPPORTS UPTO 2 KMS (FOR 100MPBS DATA TRANSMISSION).

3.OPGW-OPTICAL FIBRE GROUNDWIRE :

IT IS ALSO A SINGLE MODE OF TRANSMISSION,BUT IN THIS INFORMATION


CARRYING IN FORM OF DIGITAL SIGNAL.

2.CONNECTING PORT :

1.RJ-45,2.RJ-11,3.RS-232 SERIAL,4.ST,LC,SC,5.USB,6.MTRJ THESE ALL


ARE THE PORTS USED FOR CONNECTING A MEDIUM WITH A DEVICE.

HUB :

IT RECEIVE THE INFORMATION FROM ONE PORT AND DISTRIBUTE THE INFORMATION TO
OTHER PORTS.

SWITCHES :

SWITCHES ARE USED TO ROUTE THE PACKETS.IT HAS AN INTELLIGENCE IN IT.


DUE TO THIS,IT CAN IDENTIFY THE DEVICE CORRESPONDING WITH ITS ADDRESS &
THE INFORMATION HAS PASSING TO THAT DEVICE IS EASILY.

ROUTER :

IT CAN TRANSMIT THE INFORMATION FROM ONE FORM OF INTERNET PROTOCOL


ADDRESS TO OTHER FORM OF SERIES.
(FOR EXAMBLE - INFORMATION FROM 10.22.91.1 TO 192.168.0.1)

3.PROTOCOL :

IT MEANS SET OF RULES FOR TRANSFER A INFORMATION FROM


ONE TO OTHER.PROTOCOL PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN A COMMUNICATION.THERE ARE SEVERAL
PROTOCOLS IN A NETWORK.
ETHERNET SWITCHES WORKING ON THE PRINCIBLE OF OF RSTP.

RSTP-RAPID SPANNING TREE PROTOCOL :

IN A RING FORM OF NETWORK,ALL IED'S HAVE 2 PATH'S TO SEND A


INFORMATION FROM ONE DEVICE TO OTHER.BUT IT CANNOT TRANSMIT AT A TIME USING
A 2 PATH.
IF IT SELECT A TWO PATH AT A TIME,THEN DATA CLOUDING WILL HAPPEN.TO AVOID
THIS IT WILL SELECT ONLY ONE PATH AT A TIME,DURING THIS TIME THE OTHER PATH
HAS BEEN BLOCKED BY THE SWITCHES.BECAUSE SWITCHES HAS INTELLIGENCE IN IT.

WHENEVER A COMMUNICATIOIN BREAK UP IN A RING NETWORK,DUE TO CABLE FAILURE,


THE BLOCKED PATH HAS UNBLOCKED BY ITSELF.THIS IS CALLED AS SPANNING TREE
ALGORITHM.

TIME FOR TRANSMITTING AN INFORMATION IN RING NETWORK IN THIS PRINCIPLE IS '10'ms.


THIS TIME IS CALLED AS FOLLOWER TIME.

BUT ALSTOM USES THE "PARALLEL REDUNDANCY PROTOCOL",BECAUSE IN THIS INFORMATION


TRANSMIT IN '0'ms.SO THE FOLLOWER TIME HAS REDUCED IN THIS PROTOCOL.

1.MASTER SLAVE PRINCIPLE, 2.CLIENT SERVER PRINCIPLE.

1.MASTER SLAVE PRINCIPLE :

IN A MASTER SLAVE PRINCIPLE,WHENEVER A QUERY RECEIVED FROM


MASTER TO THE SLAVE THAT TIME ONLY THE SLAVE WILL REPORT TO THE MASTER.

2.CLIENT SERVER PRINCIPLE :

IN A CLIENT SERVER PRINCIPLE,ALWAYS SERVER WILL REPORT TO


THE CLIENT ANY STATE OF CHANGES IN IT.

ALSTOM USES THE PRINCIPLE OF CLIENT SERVER COMMUNICATION.

SERVER'S ARE 1.BCU'S,


2.NUEMATIC RELAYS. &

THE CLIENTS ARE 1.OI SERVER-OI CLIENT,


2.SMT,
3.GATEWAY.

HERE THE OI CLIENT GET THE INFORMATION FROM OI SERVER.OI CLIENT IS A IEC CLIENT.

MASTER SLAVE PROTOCOL :

A MASTER SLAVE PRINCIPLE,IEC 61850 AS A SERVER AND THE OTHER

PROTOCOL LIKE,T101,T103,T104 ACT AS A SLAVE.SO IN A GATEWAY WORK ON THE PRINCIPLE


OF MASTER SLAVE PROTOCOL.

BECAUSE,WHENEVER A QUERY RECEIVED FROM REMOTE END,THAT TIME ONLY THE RESPONSE WILL
TRANSMIT FROM GATEWAY TO REMOTE HMI.

DATE : 30.08.13

IEC-61850 :

IEC-61850 IS A STANDARD.IT IS WORKING ON THE BASIS OF OOPS.


(OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE)LANGUAGE.

APPLICATIONS :

1.INTER OPERABILITY-ABILITY TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION FROM ONE IED'S.


(OUR MANUFACTURING DEVICE).DEVICES TO THIRD PARTY MANUFACTURER DEVICES.
2.FREE OF CONFIGURATION-CONFIGURATION IS EASY.
3.LONG TERM STABILITY.

IN IEC-61850 A COMMUNICATION PROCESS DEFINES AS FOLLOWS :

1.PHYSICAL DEVICE,2.LOGICAL DEVICE,3.LOGICAL NODE,4.DATA CLASSES,5.DATA

PHYSICAL DEVICE :

A DEVICE WHICH PERFORM A LOGICAL FUNCTIONS IS CALLED AS PHYSICAL DEVICE.

LOGICAL DEVICE :

AREA OF FUNCTIONALITY-A DEVICE CAN PERFORM GROUP OF FUNCTIONALITIES,


IT IS DEFINED AS LOGICAL DEVICES.

FUNCTIONALITY OF A DEVICE :

1.PROTECTION,2.CONTROL,3.MEASUREMENTS,4.RECORDS,5.SYSTEM

LOGICAL NODE :

THE FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS ARE THE SMALLEST PARTS OF A FUNCTION CAN EXCHANGE
THE DATA IS CALLED AS LOGICAL NODES.

MCL-MICOM CONFIGURATION LANGUAGE :

MICOM-MODULAR INTEGRATED COMMUNICATION.

DATASET :

GROUP/LIST OF PARAMETERS ARE GOING TO TRANSFER TO A CLIENT IS CALLED AS


DATASET.
TWO TYPE OF DATASETS :
1.REPORT DATASET
2.GOOSE DATASET

REPORT CONTROL BLOCKS :

TWO TYPES OF REPORTING : 1.BUFFERED


2.UNBUFFERED.

1.BUFFERED REPORT CONTROL BLOCK :

WHENEVER A COMMUNICATION BREAK UP HAPPENED IN A SERVER-CLIENT SYSTEM,


INFORMATION REGARDING SUBSTATION EVENTS ARE NOT AFFECTED.IT WILL STORED IN A
MEMORY LOCATION,SO THAT WE CAN VIEW THE EVENTS,WHENEVER A COMMUNICATION BREAKUP
BETWEEN A SERVER-CLIENT SYSTEM.SO,THERE IS NO LOSS OF DATA'S.

DISADVANTAGE : IT CONSUMES MORE MEMORY SPACES.MAY BE WHOLE SYSTEM CAN AFFECT.

2.UNBUFFERED REPORT CONTROL BLOCK :

WHENEVER A COMMUNICATION BREAK UP HAPPENED IN A SERVER-CLIENT SYSTEM,


INFORMATION ON THE SUBSTATION EVENTS ARE AFFECTED.BECAUSE,IT WILL NOT STORED IN
ANY SPECIFIC MEMORY LOCATION.

ADVANTAGE : 1.THERE IS NO NEED FOR MEMORY TO STORE THE EVENTS,WHENEVER A


COMMUNICATION BREAKUP.
2.SYSTEM RELIABILITY.

DISADVANTAGE : DATA LOSSES.

GOOSE : GENERIC OBJECT ORIENTED SYSTEM :

PREDEFINED DATA'S ARE TRANSMIT FROM ONE IED TO OTHER IED IS CALLED
GOOSE.

GOOSE CONTROL BLOCK :

PREDEFINED DATA'S ARE IDENTIFIED BY SPECIFIC ADDRESS.


IN ORDER TO TRANSFER A SIGNAL FROM A ONE IED TO OTHER IED WITHOUT WIRING,
GOOSE CONTROL BLOCKS ARE USED.

GOOSE SIGNALS ARE NOT REQUIRED A TIME STAMP.THESE SIGNALS ARE ONLY USED FOR
LOGIC PURPOSE.

DIFFERENCE B/W REPORT & GOOSE CONTROL BLOCKS :

1.GOOSE PACKETS ARE VERY LESSOR SIZE THAN REPORT PACKETS.


SO IT IS REPORTED QUICKLIER THAN REPORT PACKETS.

2.REPORT CONTROL BLOCKS DATA'S ARE REQUIRE TIME STAMP,


BUT GOOSE CONTROL BLOCKS DATA'S ARE NOT REQUIE A TIME STAMP TO
A PARTICULAR SIGNAL.

3.ONE REPORT CONTROL BLOCK WILL REPORT TO ONLY ONE CLIENT AT A TIME,
BUT ONE GOOSE CONTROL BLOCK WILL REPORT TO MANY DEVICES AT A TIME.

4.REPORT CONTROL BLOCK-UNICOST,GOOSE CONTROL BLOCK-MULTICOST.

SERVER INSTALLATION :

FOR THE FIRST TIME OF INSTALL A OI SERVER IN A PC :

1.MUST CHANGE THE COMPUTER NAME AS NETWORK NAME OF A SERVER.

2.DISABLE ALL THE USERS EXCEPT ADMINISTRATOR,

RIGHT CLICK ON COMPUTER-->MANAGE-->LOCAL USERS & GROUPS-->ACCOUNTS


-->RIGHT CLICK ON USERS-->PROPERTIES-->DISABLE BY UNCHECK THE LAST BOX.

3.CREATE A TEAM FOR ETHERNET PORTS,SO THAT 2 PORTS CAN WORK AS A SINGLE IP ADDRESS.
IF WE HAVE THE INTEL DRIVER IN A PC MEANS,WE CAN MANUALLY CREATE A TEAM FOR THE
ETHERNET PORT.

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER-->MANAGE-->NETWORK ADAPTER-->SELECT INTEL ADAPTER-->


RIGHT CLICK ON IT-->GO TO PROPERTIES-->SELECT TEAM TOOL-->GIVE A NAME FOR THE
TEAMING--->CHECK TEAM WITH OTHER PORT-->APPLY--->OK.

4.DISABLE THE AUTOMATIC WINDOWS UPDATE,ERROR REPORTING,SECURITY CENTRE & FIREWALL.

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER-->PROPERTIES-->AUTOMATIC UPDATES-->TURNOFF

SELECT REMOTE-->ALLOW USERS TO CONNECT REMOTELY TO THIS COMPUTER.

OTHER FUNCTIONS CAN DONE IN DCOM SETTINGS.

5.DURING THE SQL INSTALLATION THINGS NEED TO NOTE :


1.DON'T CHECK THE REPORTING SERVICES.(UNCHECK/VANISHED ALWAYS)
2.USERS AS LOCAL SYSTEM.
3.SELECT MIXED MODE FOR AUTHENTICATION.
4.PROVIDE PASSWORD FOR USER "Sa".(PASSWORD IS Alstom2006/Areva2006)
5.SELECT SQL BROWSER,DON'T SELECT SQL SERVER AGENT.

6.AFTER INSTALLATION COMPLETED,GO TO

START-->ALL PROGRAMS-->SQL SERVER 2005-->SQL SERVER MANAGER EDITOR

HERE,WE HAVE TO START THE SQL SERVER AGENT AUTOMATICALLY,BECAUSE IT IS THE


ONE APPLICATION FOR SAVE THE EVENTS FROM OI SERVER TO SQL SERVER.IF IT IS NOT
RUNNING MEANS,DATA'S ARE NOT STORED IN HISTORIAN.

RIGHT CLICK ON SQL SERVER AGENT-->PROPERTIES-->START-->MODE-->SELECT AUTOMATIC

7.AFTER COMPLETED ABOVE,WE HAVE TO CREATE HISTORIAN DATABASE FOR STORE THE EVENTS
FROM THE OI SERVER.

START-->ALL PROGRAMS-->SQL SERVER MANAGEMENT STUDIO-->CONNECT SERVER-->

RIGHT CLICK ON DATABASE-->SELEC CREATE DATABASE-->GIVE NAME AS "Historian"

GIVE THE MEMORY FOR DATA STORAGE FILE & LOG FILE.20% & 10000MB FOR DATA FILE,

10 % & 5000MB FOR LOG FILE. AFTER DID THIS,FINISH IT WILL CREATE A HISTORIAN
DATABASE.

8.START--->CONTROL PANEL-->ADMINISTRATIVE TOOLS-->DOUBLE CLICK ODBC,DO THE SETTINGS

GIVEN IN PDF.THIS IS FOR CONNECTING THE SQL WITH OI SERVER.

9.AFTER COMPLETED THIS,INSTALL S-BUS AGENCY.

10.THEN,INSTALL THE S2K SERVER AFTER THAT INSTALL THE OI SERVER AND DO THE
DCOM(DISTRIBUTED COMMUNICATION) SETTINGS FOR ALL.DCOM SETTINGS USED FOR ALARM
INDICATIONS & SERVICES.

IN DCOMCNFG-->S2K.OPC SERVER-->GIVES THE DATA TO REMOTE AS WELL AS LOCAL HMI.

DCOMCNFG FOR S2K ALARM SERVER,S2K TREND,NEW CLUSTER MANAGEMENT,

USDATASOURCE-->GIVE ALLOW PERMISSIONS TO ALL,& ALSO CHECK INTERACTIVE USERS


FOR USDATASOURCE ONLY.

SQL SERVER :

WORKING PRINCIPLE :

IN A SQL SERVER MANAGEMENT,BCU AS A SERVER,AND IT WILL REPORT TO OI SERVER.


(OI SERVER FETCH THE DATA'S FROM S-BUS.).THE ACQUISITION DATA'S FROM S-BUS AGENCY
WILL REPORTED TO OI SERVER IN FORM OF,MIMIC ANIMATION,STATE VIEWER,ALARM VIEWER.
THEN THESE DATA'S ARE STORED IN THE SQL SERVER THROUGH S2K SERVER RUNNING.
WHICH WILL STORED THE DATA'S IN A SPECIFIED FILE CALLED AS HISTORIAN.

IN THAT HISTORIAN,

EVENTS ARE STORED IN ---------------> 1.VTQ_EVENTS_TABLE.

ANALOG VALUES ARE STORED IN, ---------------> 2.VTQ_TIME TABLE.

THE OBJECT ID OF ALL SIGNALS ARE STORED IN ---> 3.VTQ_DICTIONARY TABLE.


(S-BUS) (MIMICS&STATE VIEWER) (S2K SERVER)
BCU------------->OI/DS-AGILE SERVER------------------->SQL SERVER------>HISTORIAN

IF THE DATA'S ARE STORED CONTINUOUSLY THEN THE MEMORY OF HISTORIAN WILL INCREASES
NORMALLY.SO IT WILL CONSUME THE WHOLE MEMORY OF HARD DISK.TO AVOID THIS,JOBS
ARE CREATED.THESE JOBS WILL PURGE THE EVENTS & VALUES IN A SPECIFIED PERIOD AS
WE ASSIGNING.

FOR DELETING THE EVENTS, 1.PURGE_VTQ_EVENTS TABLE

&FOR ANALOG VALUES, 2.PURGE_VTQ_TIME TABLE JOBS ARE CREATED.

HISTORIAN DATABASE HAVE DATA'S FILE & THE LOG FILE.HISTORIAN LOG FILE
CONSISTS OF WHAT ARE THE TRANSACTIONS HAPPENED IN THE SERVER,THAT WILL STORED IN
THIS FILE.

TO DELETE THIS FILE,WE HAVE THE "CLEAN HISTORIAN LOG" (.BAT) FILE.IF WE RUN THIS
FILE IT WILL CREATED A JOBS FOR DELETING THE LOG FILE CREATED BY HISTORIAN.

BACKUP OF THE HISTORIAN WILL STORED IN :

SHARED WORKSPACE-->ARCHIVE DS-AGILE/PACIS-->(.CSV FILE)

PC HEALTHY STATUS :

DS-AGILE OI SERVER FETCH THE DATA FROM S-BUS AS " < 100BPS " (BITS PER SECOND).

BUT MAXIMUM OF REPORTS FLOW IS "300 BPS"..

IF IT WILL INCREASES THIS LIMIT,THE HEALTHY STATUS OF A PC WILL AFFECT.


WE CAN VIEW THE STATUS OF DATA FLOW IN OI SERVER PC.

THE PATH IS, DISK C -->TEMP-->TRACE-->DATAFLOW.LOG

IN THIS FILE WE CAN VIEW THE STATUS OF DATA FLOW.

IF THE DATAFLOW INCREASES THE LIMIT IT WILL CREATE AN ERROR AS "Q-OVERFLOW"

Q-OVERFLOW :

TO AVOID THIS ERROR,WE HAVE TO CHANGE THE ANALOG PARAMETERS ATTRIBUTES VALUE.
BECAUSE THIS IS THE EASIEST WAY TO OVERCOME THE LIMIT.SPS & DPS DATA'S ARE NOT
CONTINOUSLY REPORTING TO OI.BECAUSE THESE ARE "EVENT DRIVEN".WHENEVER A STATE
CHANGES OCCUR IN A SUBSTATION AT THAT TIME ONLY IT WILL REPORTED TO A OI SERVER.
BUT ANALOG PARAMETERS ARE MEMORY DRIVEN.IT WILL UPDATED CONTINUOUSLY.

STEPS TO CHANGE THE ATTRIBUTES VALUE :


SELECT ANALOG DATAPOINT-->PARAMETERS ATTRIBUTES--->DATA TRANSMISSION-->

CURRENT VALUE--->(%DEADBAND)-->INCREASES AS HIGHER VALUE.BY DEFAULT IT WILL BE

"5%" DEADBAND.

DATE :04:09:13

SYNCHROCHECK :

TO SAFE A BREAKER,WE USE THE FUNCTION CALLED SYNCHROCHECK.

GENERALLY SYNCHROCHECK ARE TWO TYPES :

1.SYNCHRO LOCKING

2.SYNCHRO COUPLING

1.SYNCHRO LOCKING :
IN SYNCHRO LOCKING ONLY 2 PARAMETERS ARE TAKEN AS REFERENCE TO
CHARGING A LINE WITH BUS.

1.VOLTAGE 2.PHASE ANGLE

2.SYNCHRO COUPLING :
IN SYNCHRO COUPLING 3 PARAMETERES ARE TAKEN AS REFERENCE TO
CHARGING A LINE WITH BUS IN A SUBSTAION.

1.VOLTAGE 2.PHASE ANGLE 3.FREQUENCY.

HERE WE USES THE SYNCHRO LOCKING TYPE,BECAUSE IN NORTHERN GRID'S,LINES ARE


ALREADY IN SYNCH CONDITION.SO ALWAYS,FREQUENCY OF THE LINE WITH IN THE LIMIT,
SYNCH FREQUENCY.

OUR BCU CAN SUPPORT FOR SYNCHROCHECK FUNCTION.


IN OUR BCU,ONE TMU(TRANSDUCERLESS MEASUREMENT UNIT) CARD IS THERE.
BY USING THIS,

WE CAN CHECK THE SYNCHROCHECK FUNCTION IN A SUBSTATION.

ONE TMU CARD HAVE 5 VT'S.(VOLTAGE TERMINAL)

IN THIS 5 VT'S,

TERMINAL 19,20-->INCOMING 2 (REFERENCE VOLTAGE) (BUSBAR VOLTAGE CHOICE)

TERMINAL 21,22-->R PH
23,24-->Y PH RUNNING VOLTAGE (PRESENCE VOLTAGE)
25,26-->B PH

TERMINAL 27,28-->INCOMING 1 (REFERENCE VOLTAGE)

GENERAL SETTINGS FOR SYNCHROCHECK FUNCTION IN DATABASE :


1.VOLTAGE DIFFERENCE =(+/- 20% OF VOLTAGE)

2.FREQUENCY DIFFERENCE =+/-0.2Hz.

3.PHASE ANGLE DIFFERENCE =+/-25DEG.

S-BUS AGENCY :

PROCESS OF CREATING A IEC-61850 STRUCTURE IS CALLED S-BUS ADDRESSING.

BCU---->TOP-DOWN APPROACH
RELAY-->DOWN-TOP APPROACH

TOP-DOWN APPROACH :

WHAT ARE THE THINGS WE NEED,THAT WE CAN CREATE AND ASSIGNED


IN DATABASE(SCE) AND SEND TO THE BCU,THEN IT WILL REPORTED TO OI SERVER.THIS
APPROACH IS CALLED AS TOP-DOWN APPROACH.

DATE:06:09:13

AUTO RECLOSER :

TO SAVE A LINE DURING CHARGED,FROM A UNWANTED TRANSIENT FAULTS


WE USE THE FUNCTION CALLED AUTO RECLOSER.

AUTO RECLOSER FUNCTION HAS PERFORMED BY OUR BCU.WE HAVE TO GIVEN A LOGIC TO
SATISFIES THE CONDITION,DEPENDING UPON THE BCU CAN PERFORM.

IN A SUBSTATION TIME TAKEN FOR TRIPPING/OPENING OF A BREAKER IS "20ms".


AUTO RECLOSER FUNCTION HAS BASED ON TIME DEPENDENT.

CONDITION FOR PERFORMING AUTORECLOSER :

1.AUTO RECLOSE IN/OUT OF SERVICE.(i.e.-AR ON/OFF STATUS)

2.CB HEALTHY.(i.e.-SPRING CHARGED IN SET & SF6 LOCKOUT IS RESET CONDITION).

3.CB POSITION.

4.TRIP INITIATION STATUS IS MUST.(R,Y,B PH TRIP INITIATION)

5.ALL RELAYS(86A,86B,86LO) SHOULD BE INTIAL STATUS,(i.e.RESET CONDITION).


CARRIER CHANNEL MUST BE HEALTHY CONDITION.

AUTO RECLOSER HAVE 4 SHOTS,4 CYCLE OF CHECKING.


GENERALLY,WE USE THE SINGLE SHOT OPERATION.IN SINGLE SHOT,TIME TAKEN FOR 1P CYCLE
IS 1 SEC.

GENERAL RECLAIM TIMER IS 25 SEC.DURING THIS PERIOD,IF ANY FAULT PERSISTING,THEN


AUTO RECLOSER HAS BLOCKED.IT WILL GOING TO AUTO RECLOSE LOCKOUT.
THERE ARE SEVEN STATES FOR PERFORMING THE AUTO RECLOSER FUNCTION.

STATE 0 : A/R IN SERVICE.


STATE 1 : A/R WAITING FOR CB OPEN.
STATE 2 : FIRST 1P CYCLE IN PROGRESS.
STATE 3 : FIRST 3P CYCLE IN PROGRESS.
STATE 4 : SECOND 3P CYCLE IN PROGRESS.
STATE 5 : THIRD 3P CYCLE IN PROGRESS.
STATE 6: FOURTH 3P CYCLE IN PROGRESS.
STATE 7 : A/R WAITING FOR CB CLOSE (AR SUCCESS).

THESE STATES ARE ALL SATISFIES ONLY TRUE CONDITION.

STATE 9 & 10 : A/R FAIL STATUS (AR MAX SHOT & AR LOCKOUT)

A/R MAXIMUM SHOT MEANS,DURING THE RECLAIMER TIME,IF ANY FAULT CONSIST BCU MEETS,
REPEATED CYCLE FOR AUTO RECLOSE CHECKING.IF IT CROSS THE LIMIT,BCU WILL GIVE THE
A/R LOCKOUT.

A/R FAULT STATES :

STATE 0 : FAIL SYNCHROCHECK (i.e.IF AUTORECLOSER ENABLE WITH SYNCHROCHECK,THIS


CONDITION HAS BEEN CHECKED BY BCU).
STATE 1 : HARDWARE LOCK/FAIL (i.e.IF ANY CB RELATED HARDWIRING STATUS MISSING
THIS STATUS WILL COME).
STATE 2 : FAIL INTERLOCK (i.e.IF ANY CB INTERLOCK FUNCTIONS NOT SATISFIED
DURING AUTORECLOSER,THIS STATUS WILL COME).
STATE 3 : NO FAILIURE