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energies

Review
Installation of XLPE-Insulated 400 kV Submarine AC
Power Cables under the Dardanelles Strait: A 4 GW
Turkish Grid Reinforcement
Roberto Benato 1, * ID , İbrahim Balanuye 2 , Fatih Köksal 2 , Nurhan Ozan 2
and Ercüment Özdemirci 2
1 Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
2 Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation (TEIAŞ), 06520 Ankara, Turkey;
ibrahim.balanuye@teias.gov.tr (İ.B.); fatih.koksal@teias.gov.tr (F.K.); nurhan.ozan@teias.gov.tr (N.O.);
ercument.ozdemici@teias.gov.tr (E.Ö.)
* Correspondence: roberto.benato@unipd.it; Tel.: +39-04-9827-7532

Received: 20 December 2017; Accepted: 8 January 2018; Published: 10 January 2018

Abstract: This paper describes the 400 kV AC submarine link under the Dardanelles Strait composed
of 12 submarine armoured single-core cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)-insulated cables (plus
a back-up power cable). The link consists of two parallel-operated double-circuit links named
Lâpseki–Sütlüce I and Lâpseki–Sütlüce II. The transmissible power is 4000 MW (1000 MW per circuit)
and the average length for a single-core cable is about 4.6 km: the submarine cables are part of overhead
lines. This paper gives a wide account of the cable installations and, chiefly, of the cable protections on
the seabed: different protection choices were extensively used (i.e., water jetting and mattressing).

Keywords: submarine single-core armoured cables; submarine cross-linked polyethylene insulated


cables; cable protections

1. Introduction
The Turkish high voltage (HV) transmission grid is highly modern. In the first years of HV
electrification (around 1968), the Turkish grid was constituted by 154 kV overhead lines supplying only
the most important cities: in those years, the load peak was about 1.5 GW. Nowadays, the load peak is
about 47.5 GW with an energy demand of about 250 TWh. The modernization and reinforcement of
the Turkish grid have been witnessed by Professor Francesco Iliceto in his consultant activity and in
his papers [1–4].
The transmission network is composed of about 21,000 km of Extra High Voltage (EHV) lines
(400 kV) and 39,000 of HV lines (154 kV). The power plants have a rated power of about 81 GW
(almost equally shared between hydroelectric, coal thermoelectric, and turbo-gas plants). A great
achievement of the Turkish transmission system operator (TEIAŞ) is the interconnection with the
ENTSO-E grid. Turkey is interconnected with the Bulgarian and Greek grids by means of three 400 kV
A.C. overhead interties. The synchronous parallel is strongly helped by the use of Special Protection
Systems (with acronym SPSs) also called System Integrity Protection Schemes. These SPSs are installed
in the two Turkish interconnection substations (with the aforementioned Greek and Bulgarian grids).
The active powers flowing through these three interties are measured and updated every 50 ms.
These measurements are then sent to the SPS computing system which sums them and computes
the time derivative and its average value every 1.5 s. If this average value and the above-mentioned
algebraic sum exceed prefixed thresholds (expressed in MW/s and in MW) along with a sign indicating
that the power import is increasing, SPSs control the load shedding of 12 substations (154/34.5 kV) for
a total of 1200 MW.

Energies 2018, 11, 164; doi:10.3390/en11010164 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies


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2.
2. Description
Description of
of the
the Link
Link
In
In this
this scenario,
scenario, thethe installation
installation of of the
the cable
cable systems
systems and and the
the erection
erection of of the
the associated
associated 400 400 kVkV
overhead
overhead lines were economically justified in order to transmit a large power amount generated by
lines were economically justified in order to transmit a large power amount generated by
the power plants (located along the Southern coast of the Marmara Sea)
the power plants (located along the Southern coast of the Marmara Sea) to Istanbul, via the Western to Istanbul, via the Western
corridor
corridor (Trakya)
(Trakya)[5].
(Trakya) [5].The
[5]. Thecable
The cable
cable systems
systems
systems link
link
linkthe Lâpseki
thethe
Lâpseki
Lâpseki substation
substation
substation(Asian
(Asian
(Asian side)
side) with the
the Sütlüce
withwith
side) Sütlüce
the Sütlüceone
one
(European
(European
one (Europeanside) across
side)side) the
acrossacross Dardanelles
the Dardanelles Strait.
the Dardanelles The
Strait. Strait.land
The land The and
and submarine
submarine
land cables
cables are
and submarine are shown
shown
cables in Figure
areinshown
Figure in 1,
1,
whereas
whereas
Figure Table
1, Table
whereas1 gives
1 gives all their
Tableall1 their geometrical
givesgeometrical characteristics.
characteristics.
all their geometrical With regard
With regard
characteristics. With to Lâpseki–Sütlüce
toregard
Lâpseki–Sütlüce I [5], the
I [5], the
to Lâpseki–Sütlüce
cable
Icable system
system
[5], the consists
cableconsists
system of aa proper
ofconsists
properof submarine
a proper part
submarine part (about 3850
(about part
submarine m)
m) and
3850(about two
two land
and3850 landand
m) stretches
stretches
two land(the Lâpseki
(thestretches
Lâpseki
part
part about
(the about
Lâpseki600 m
m and
600part and
aboutthe Sütlüce
the600
Sütlüce
m and part
theabout
part about
Sütlüce 150 m).
m). The
150part The submarine
about submarine
150 m). The part
part is
is operated
operated
submarine in
in solid
part solid bonding
bonding
is operated in
(with
solid acronym
(with bonding
acronym(withSB), whereas
SB), whereas
acronymthe the two
two
SB), land parts
land parts
whereas are operated
are operated
the two land parts in single-point
inare
single-point
operated in bonding
bonding (with acronym
(with acronym
single-point bonding
SPB)
SPB) as
(with as shown
shown in
acronym in Figure
SPB)Figure 2.
2.
as shown in Figure 2.
As
As already
already mentioned,
mentioned, the the cable
cable lines
lines are
are part
part ofof aa mixed
mixed or or hybrid
hybrid line
line (cascade
(cascade connections
connections of of
overhead–cable–overhead
overhead–cable–overheadlines),
overhead–cable–overhead lines), as
lines),as as
shownshown
shown in Figure
in Figure
in Figure 3, which3, which
3, renders renders
which renders
these links these
these links extremely
links interesting
extremely extremely
interesting
interesting
from from
from an
an electrical an electrical
electrical engineering
engineering engineering research
research standpoint
research standpoint standpoint [6–21].
[6–21]. [6–21].

Figure 1. (a) Land Milliken-type cable; (b) Submarine armoured single-core cable [5].
Figure
Figure 1.
1. (a)
(a) Land
Land Milliken-type
Milliken-type cable;
cable; (b)
(b) Submarine
Submarine armoured
armoured single-core
single-core cable
cable [5].
[5].

SPB
SPB SB
SB SPB
SPB
∼600
∼600 m ∼3850
∼3850 m ∼150
m m ∼150 m
m

Figure
Figure 2. Screen bonding arrangements for the Lâpseki–Sütlüce
Lâpseki–Sütlüce III cable
cable system.
Figure 2.
2. Screen
Screen bonding
bonding arrangements
arrangements for
for the
the Lâpseki–Sütlüce cable system.
system.
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Energies 2018, 11, 164 3 of 15

Table1.1. Land
Table Land and submarine
submarine cable
cablegeometrical
geometricalcharacteristics
characteristics(XLPE: cross-linked
(XLPE: polyethylene;
cross-linked PE:
polyethylene;
PE: polyethylene).
polyethylene).

Land Cable Submarine Cable


Land Cable Submarine Cable
Nominal Nominal
N Description N
Nominal Description Nominal
N Description Diameter mm
Diameter mm
N Description Diameter mm
Diameter mm
Copper conductor M-type Copper conductor with aluminium
1 58 1 Copper conductor with 52.6
Copper conductor M-type
watertight
1 58 1 centralaluminium
rod watertight
central rod 52.6
2 watertight
Conductor Screen 61.6 2 Conductorwatertight
Screen 55.6
3 2 Conductor Screen
XLPE insulation 116.7 61.6 3 2 XLPE Conductor
insulationScreen 55.6112.6
4 3 XLPE insulation
Insulation Screen 119.8 116.7 4 3 XLPE
Insulation insulation
Screen 112.6115.6
4 Insulation Screen 119.8 4 Insulation Screen 115.6
Longitudinally
5
Welded Al
Longitudinally Welded Al screen124 124 5 5 Extruded lead screen 124.1
5 Extruded lead screen 124.1
6 screenPE outer sheath 137.4 6 PE sheath 131.1
6 PE outer sheath 137.4 6 7 PE sheath
Bedding 133.1131.1
- 7 8 Copper round wires armour
Bedding 144.9133.1
9 Serving 153
- 8 Copper round wires armour 144.9
9 Serving 153

Figure 3.3. Single-line


Figure Single-linediagram
diagram of the Southern
of the Marmara
Southern Sea 400
Marmara SeakV400
network (hybrid lines
kV network Gelibolu–
(hybrid lines
Berkili are highlighted
Gelibolu–Berkili in red). in red).
are highlighted

3.3.AABrief
BriefOverview
Overviewof
ofthe
theSubmarine
SubmarineCable
CableProtection
ProtectionTechniques
Techniques

ItItisisworth
worthmentioning
mentioningthatthatthe
thefirst
firstsubmarine
submarinecablecablefor
fortelegraphic
telegraphicpurpose,
purpose,installed
installedbetween
between
England and France in 1850, was inadvertently cut by a French fisherman
England and France in 1850, was inadvertently cut by a French fisherman within the first 24 within the first 24hhofof
operation [22]. In 1858, the first transatlantic cable (always for telegraphic purposes)
operation [22]. In 1858, the first transatlantic cable (always for telegraphic purposes) between Ireland between Ireland
andNewfoundland
and Newfoundlandwas wasjust
justaalittle
littlebit
bitluckier
luckierand
andfailed
failedafter
after2626days
daysofofoperation.
operation.Many
Manysubmarine
submarine
cables were installed unprotected on the seabed in shallow water stretches
cables were installed unprotected on the seabed in shallow water stretches until the 1980s and until the 1980s and1990s.
1990s.
Withoutcable
Without cable protections,
protections, third-party
third-party damages
damages areare a frequent
a frequent reality.
reality. The The engineering
engineering community
community has
has always felt this issue so strongly that a paper [23] dated 1938 and emblematically
always felt this issue so strongly that a paper [23] dated 1938 and emblematically entitled “Protection entitled
of“Protection
SubmarineofCable Submarine Cable by
by Placement Placement Underground”
Underground” stated that: stated that:

“a
“a plow
plow has
has been
been devised
devisedbybyengineers
engineersofofthe
theWestern
WesternUnion
UnionTelegraph
TelegraphCompany
Companywhich
whichwhen
whenpulled
pulled
along the ocean bottom is expected to cut a furrow, drop the cable into it, and back fill over the cable”.
along the ocean bottom is expected to cut a furrow, drop the cable into it, and back fill over the cable".
When suitable subsea burial tools (e.g., jetting, trenching, and dredging machines) became
When suitable subsea burial tools (e.g., jetting, trenching, and dredging machines) became
available in the 1980s, the burial and covering protections of more and more longer cable stretches
available in the 1980s, the burial and covering protections of more and more longer cable stretches
became a common engineering practice. However, in 1986, only a small portion of submarine power
Energies 2018, 11, 164 4 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 4 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 4 of 15

cables wasa common


became externallyengineering
protected practice.
[24]. Today, almostin all
However, submarine
1986, power
only a small cables
portion are externally
of submarine power
cables was externally protected [24]. Today, almost all submarine power cables are externally
protected by burial
cables was or covering
externally protected(e.g.,
[24].by means
Today, of mattresses
almost or tubular
all submarine powerproducts,
cables areor rock dumping)
externally protected
protected by burial or covering (e.g., by means of mattresses or tubular products, or rock dumping)
(see
byFigures 4 and
burial or 5). (e.g., by means of mattresses or tubular products, or rock dumping) (see Figures 4
covering
(see Figures 4 and 5).
and 5).

Figure 4. Protection
Figure of cable
4. Protection through
of cable burial:
through (a) jetting
burial: andand
(a) jetting fluidification; (b) (b)
fluidification; ploughing; (c) mechanical
ploughing; (c) mechanical
Figure 4. Protection of cable through burial: (a) jetting and fluidification; (b) ploughing; (c) mechanical
cutting; (d)(d)
cutting; open-trench
open-trenchdredging.
dredging.
cutting; (d) open-trench dredging.

Split pipe e.g., URADUCT


Split pipe e.g., URADUCT
Power cable
Power cable

a)
a)
Concrete blocks
Concrete blocks Rope
Rope

Rope
Rope Power cable pipe
Power cable pipe
b)
b)
Cover stone
Cover stone

Filter stone Power cable pipe


Filter stone c) Power cable pipe
c)
Figure 5. Special
Figure cable
5. Special protections:
cable (a) (a)
protections: tubular product;
tubular (b)(b)
product; mattress covering;
mattress (c) (c)
covering; rock dumping.
rock dumping.
Figure 5. Special cable protections: (a) tubular product; (b) mattress covering; (c) rock dumping.
It is worth remembering that these protections play also a key role in in
order to to
avoid possible
ItIt isis worth
worth remembering
remembering that
that these
these protections
protections play
play also
also aakey
key role
role order
in order avoid
to avoid possible
possible
sabotages.
sabotages. Figure 6
Figure shows
6 showsthe suitability
the suitability of different
of burial
different techniques
burial techniquesdepending
depending on the
on seabed
the seabed
sabotages. Figure 6 shows the suitability of different burial techniques depending on the seabed
conditions
conditions [25]. The
[25]. Thescales for
scales cohesive
for cohesive and
and cohesionless
cohesionless soils
soils are
are approximatelyreported
approximately reportedon onthe
thex-axis.
x-
conditions [25]. The scales for cohesive and cohesionless soils are approximately reported on the x-
axis.
TheThe suitability
suitability of the
of the different tools is reportedon on the y-axis.
axis. The suitability ofdifferent tools
the different is reported
tools is reportedthe
ony-axis.
the y-axis.
Table 2 reports a comparison among different burial techniques [25], and the text highlighted in
Table 2 reports a comparison among different burial techniques [25], and the text highlighted in
grey regards situations of a certain importance for the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.
grey regards situations of a certain importance for the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.
Energies 2018, 11, 164 5 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 5 of 15

Figure 6. Indicative burial tool suitability in different ground conditions.


Figure 6. Indicative burial tool suitability in different ground conditions.

Table 2 reports a comparison


Table 2. Comparisonamong different
of Burial burial[25]
Techniques techniques [25], and the
(for the assessment text
see (1) ). highlighted in
grey regards situations of a certain importance for the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.
Hydro Mechanical
Factor Ploughing
Table 2. Comparison of Burial Techniques [25] (for the assessment see ). Cutting
Jetting (1)

Range of suitable soil conditions M H M


Uneven bathymetry HydroH M L
Mechanical
Factor Ploughing
High currents Jetting
L H Cutting
H
Range Low underwater
of suitable visibility, high turbidity
soil conditions ML HH LM
UnevenVerybathymetry
shallow water HL (2) MH ML
High currents L H
Simultaneous lay and burial (SLB) M H LH
Low underwater visibility, high turbidity L H L
VeryPost-lay
shallow burial
water (PLB) H HL MM
(3) (3)
L (2)
Manoeuvrability
Simultaneous lay and burial (SLB) MH HL ML
Multipass
Post-lay capability
burial (PLB) HH LL (3) (4) MM(4) (3)

Manoeuvrability
Ability to bury bundled cables H H L M MM
Multipass capability H L (4) M (4)
Ability to bury loops or repair joints M - -
Ability to bury bundled cables H M M
Safety
Ability of cable
to bury loopsduring burial
or repair jointsoperation MH -L
(5) M-
SafetySuitability in close
of cable during proximity
burial to
operation H L (5) M
H L M
infrastructure
Suitability in close proximity to infrastructure H L M
Backfill quality
Backfill quality MM HH LL
Environmental benignity M H M
Environmental benignity M H M
Rate of progress M H L
Rate of of
Availability progress
suitable vessels HM H
M (6) LH
Availability
Mobilisation layoutof flexibility
suitable vessels HH M (6)
L HM
EaseMobilisation
of catenary/tow line management
layout flexibility HH ML MH
(1) Assessment: H = High/more favourable, M = Medium/neutral, L = Low/less favourable, - = not applicable;
Ease of catenary/tow line management H M H
(2) water supply. Typical minimum water depths are 5 to 10 m for ROV based systems; (3) Requires subsea
(1) Requires
Assessment: H = High/more favourable, M = Medium/neutral, L = Low/less favourable, - = not
loading of cable if start and end points are offshore; (4) Single pass only, except for pre-lay trenching operations;
applicable;
(5)
(2) Requires
A cable manufacturer water
may supply.
recommend notTypical minimum
using ploughing as awater
burial depths are(6)5Large
technique; to 10bollard
m forpull
ROV based
required.
systems;
Due to size (3)
andRequires
weight ofsubsea
plough,loading oflaunched
generally cable if over
startstern,
and end points are offshore; (4) Single pass only,
not side.
except for pre-lay trenching operations; (5) A cable manufacturer may recommend not using
ploughing
Of as areal
course, the burial technique;or
installation (6) Large bollard pull required. Due to size and weight of plough,
laying phase is only the last step of a long and precise process,
whichgenerally
foresees,launched
at least, over stern, not side.
the following milestones:

â A Ofroute cable
course, thesurvey comprising
real installation orof geophysical
laying phase isand
onlygeotechnical
the last stepportions;
of a long and precise process,
â A marine
which foresees,survey, which
at least, could include
the following an extraction of samples from the seabed.
milestones:
 The milestones
A route are notcomprising
cable survey sequential,ofe.g., information
geophysical and will have to be
geotechnical gathered so the route can
portions;
 evaluated,
be A marinebut a tentative
survey, whichroute
couldmust be chosen
include beforeofa samples
an extraction submarine survey
from can be done [26–33].
the seabed.
In any case, geotechnical investigations (meant as a direct measurement of the seabed and subsoil
The milestones are not sequential, e.g., information will have to be gathered so the route can be
physical properties, e.g., by in situ sampling with laboratory analysis [29]) and ground ones (commonly
evaluated, but a tentative route must be chosen before a submarine survey can be done [26–33]. In
including geotechnical investigations, geological studies, and geophysical surveys) must be performed
any case, geotechnical investigations (meant as a direct measurement of the seabed and subsoil
before the installation begins. It is worth noting that, as wholly demonstrated by the Cigré technical
physical properties, e.g., by in situ sampling with laboratory analysis [29]) and ground ones
(commonly including geotechnical investigations, geological studies, and geophysical surveys) must
Energies 2018, 11, 164 6 of 15

brochure # 398 [26], mechanical damages by human activities (cables damaged by natural events, e.g.,
landslides and earthquakes are less than 9% of cable faults) are the most common cause of cable failure.
The chief causes of submarine cable failure are:

â Fishing activity;
â Ship anchoring (chiefly in shallow water).

In general, relatively a small depth of cover is adequate for protection from fishing activities (for
many years the standard burial depth was 0.6 m). Fishing activities, which pose a threat, include
trawling by both beam and otter boards (there are other fishing techniques which can be dangerous for
cable integrity, like shellfish dredging and stow net fishing).
It is now common practice to bury cables up to a water depth of 1 km, however, cable damage
associated with fishing has been reported at depths of 1.2 km. In order to take this fact into account,
the cable industry is now being asked to achieve, on some projects, burial in water depths up to 1.5 km.
This is not the case of Lâpseki–Sütlüce I and II, since the maximum depth of the Dardanelles Strait
reaches about 0.1 km. Therefore, burial and protection of the 13 single-core cables were mandatory.

4. Assessment of Lâpseki–Sütlüce Optimal Burial Depth


The nature of the seabed soils clearly plays an important role in the depth into which anchors and
fishing gear could penetrate. Figure 7 shows that, with regard to fishing gears, a cover depth equal to
0.6 m gives good guarantees, even in soft soil, to avoid cable damages [26].
With regard to the anchor penetration depth into the seabed, it depends upon both the seabed
type and the anchor weight. It is rather impressive [26] that in soft seabed a 30 t anchor (see Figure 8)
can penetrate 5 m inside the seabed! With regard to the Lâpseki–Sütlüce I and II installations in the
Dardanelles Strait, an optimal burial depth hopt = 1.5 m (brown line in Figures 7 and 8) is a very good
measure to avoid anchor and fishing gear damages (with a minimum cover depth hmin = 1 m).
In order to compare this choice with other meaningful submarine installations [33], in the Oslofjord
project [34], the cables were mostly buried 1 m below the seabed in order to provide general cable
protection. This target was particularly important in the trawling areas. Cable and Wireless Global
Marine have developed the concept of a Burial Protection Index (BPI) [29], as shown in Figure 9.
This recognises the resistance of different seabed soils to penetration by anchors and fishing gears. It is
based on typical soil types encountered during cable installations; however, it must be remembered
that such soil mechanics is not an exact science.
The meaning of the BPI is:

â BPI = 0 Assumes that the cable is surface laid;


â BPI = 1 Depth of burial consistent with protecting a cable from normal fishing gear only;
â BPI = 2 Depth of burial gives protection from anchors up to approximately 2 t. This may be suitable
for normal fishing activity, but would not be for larger ships (e.g., large container ships, tankers);
â BPI = 3 Depth of burial sufficient to protect from anchors of all but the largest ships.

It is worth noting that this approach is not general, and consequently it must be used with
due care.
In any case, if the majority of the seabed in the part of Dardanelles Strait where the cables have
been laid is “coarse sand with gravels and cobbles” and the depth of cover ranges between hmin = 1 m
and hopt = 1.5 m, the BPI ranges between about 1.5 and 2: this should guarantee from fishing activities
and anchors up to 2 t. Subsequently, where it was not possible to reach hmin , the use of further
protections has been necessary.
Energies 2018, 11, 164 7 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 7 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 7 of 15

Figure
Figure 7. Penetration
7. Penetration of of smaller
smaller anchors
anchors andand fishing
fishing gears
gears versus
versus soilsoil hardness.
hardness.
Figure 7. Penetration of smaller anchors and fishing gears versus soil hardness.

Figure 8. Anchor penetration versus soil hardness.


Figure8.8.Anchor
Figure Anchorpenetration
penetrationversus
versussoil
soilhardness.
hardness.
Energies 2018, 11, 164 8 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 8 of 15

Figure
Figure 9. Burial
Burial protection
protection index
index as a function of burial depth for different seabed types [29].

5.
5. Verification of the
Verification of the Consistency
Consistency of
of the
the Installation
Installation Choices
Choicesof
ofLâpseki–Sütlüce
Lâpseki–Sütlüce
The marine survey
The marine surveyconducted
conductedby byPrsymian
Prsymianand
andTeiaş
Teiaşin in order
order to define
to define the the
finalfinal cable
cable routes
routes and
and to gather information for the burial assessment survey (BAS) was wide, detailed,
to gather information for the burial assessment survey (BAS) was wide, detailed, and comprehensive. and
comprehensive.
The work consisted of:
The work consisted of:
â A desktop study;
 A desktop study;
â A topographic survey at both landings from the shoreline to the sea/land joint bay area;
 A topographic survey at both landings from the shoreline to the sea/land joint bay area;
â A near-shore bathymetric survey;
 A near-shore bathymetric survey;
â AN offshore marine survey.
 AN offshore marine survey.
Moreover, it
Moreover, it was
was decided
decided to to enlarge
enlarge the
the marine
marine survey
survey toto 55 additional
additional vibrocoring
vibrocoringandandto to3.5 km
3.5 km
offshore marine survey by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) for additional
offshore marine survey by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) for additional route development. route development.
Ambient
Ambient conditions
conditions (like
(like seawater
seawater temperature
temperature and and salinity)
salinity) ought
ought to to be
be taken
taken into
into account.
account. OneOne ofof
the route
the route objectives
objectives isis to
to avoid
avoid possible
possible abrasion
abrasion and
and damage
damage caused
caused by by waves,
waves, tide,
tide, sea
sea current,
current,
moving sea bottom, etc. As fully demonstrated by the Sorgente–Rizziconi submarine
moving sea bottom, etc. As fully demonstrated by the Sorgente–Rizziconi submarine part [11], it part [11], it is
is
often necessary
often necessary toto select
select aa cable
cable route
route that
that may
may not
not bebe the
the shortest
shortest alternative.
alternative. A A distance
distance between
between
parallel single-core cables (or multiple three-core ones) of 100–200 m (or twice
parallel single-core cables (or multiple three-core ones) of 100–200 m (or twice the water depth) the water depth) will
will
significantly lower the risk of damage to more than one cable due to one accident. In
significantly lower the risk of damage to more than one cable due to one accident. In fact, the choice fact, the choice of
maximum
of maximum spacing
spacing ininLâpseki–Sütlüce
Lâpseki–SütlüceI between
I betweenthetheseven
sevensingle-core
single-corecables
cables(meant
(meant asas the
the spacing
spacing
between two adjacent cables) is about 250 m in correspondence to the maximum
between two adjacent cables) is about 250 m in correspondence to the maximum water depth water depth of of
100100m
(spacing/water depth ∼ 2.5). This should reduce the risk of multiple cable damage and guarantee
m (spacing/water depth=≅ 2.5). This should reduce the risk of multiple cable damage and guarantee
some available
some available room
roomfor forpossible
possiblecable
cablerepair.
repair.The
Thetarget is to
target is find
to finda seabed as smooth
a seabed as possible
as smooth and
as possible
to avoid:
and to avoid:
1.
1. Rough sea
Rough sea bottom,
bottom, which
which may
may cause
cause free
free spans,
spans, abrasion,
abrasion, or
or sidewall
sidewall pressure
pressure on
on the
the cable;
cable;
2. Steep slopes
Steep slopes (less
(less than
than 15–20%
15–20% isis recommended);
recommended);
3. Natural
Natural obstacles
obstacles likelike boulders
boulders oror even
even human
human past
past activities
activities as
as wrecks,
wrecks, scrap, etc;
4. Areas
Areas where
where waves,
waves, high
high water
water currents,
currents, high
high tidal
tidal range,
range, soil
soil movements,
movements, or or ice may cause
problems
problems (it(it is
is not
not the
the case
case of
of the
the Lâpseki–Sütlüce
Lâpseki–Sütlüce submarine link);
5. Cable crossings and other cables or services nearby (as it is the case of the Lâpseki–Sütlüce
submarine cables);
Energies 2018, 11, 164 9 of 15

5. Cable crossings and other cables or services nearby (as it is the case of the Lâpseki–Sütlüce
Energies 2018, 11, 164cables);
submarine 9 of 15

6. Too shallow water depth for cable laying, protection, and repair;
6. Too shallow water depth for cable laying, protection, and repair;
7. Too hard or too soft seabed;
7. Too hard or too soft seabed;
8. Areas of existing and future marine activities like shipping channels, fishing areas.
8. Areas of existing and future marine activities like shipping channels, fishing areas.
Another merit
Another merit of
of this
this detailed
detailed survey
survey has
has been
been that
that the
the final
final selected routes were
selected routes were shorter than
shorter than
the reference routes with a saving in the project costs. Seabed shows a terraced morphology
the reference routes with a saving in the project costs. Seabed shows a terraced morphology with few with
few morphological
morphological stepssteps
with with
a slopea slope
locallylocally greater
greater than
than 15°. 15◦ .regard
With With regard to theassessment
to the burial burial assessment
survey
(BAS), the typologies of the seabed were categorized as in Table 3. It is worth noting that inthat
survey (BAS), the typologies of the seabed were categorized as in Table 3. It is worth noting the in
P
the P category seabed only surgical or micro trenching was foreseen. These seabed
category seabed only surgical or micro trenching was foreseen. These seabed categories are also categories are also
shown in
shown in Figure
Figure 10
10 without
without reference
reference toto A,
A, B,
B, C,
C, D,
D, and
and PP letters
letters of
of Table
Table3.3.

Figure 10. Seabed categories encountered by the cables of Lâpseki–Sütlüce I.


Figure 10. Seabed categories encountered by the cables of Lâpseki–Sütlüce I.

Table 3. Seabed categories encountered in the cable route.


Table 3. Seabed categories encountered in the cable route.
Category Cover Depth (m) Seabed Conditions Protection
Category Cover Depth (m) fine sediments Seabed
(softConditions
clay/silt) and/or coarse Protection

A >1.50 fine sediments (soft


sediments clay/silt)
(loose and/or
to dense coarse
sand) sediments
with
A >1.50
(loose to dense sand) with thickness >1.65 m
thickness >1.65m
fine sediments (soft to firm clay/silt) and/or coarse
B 1.00–1.50 fine sediments
sediments (softsand/fine
(loose to dense to firm clay/silt)
gravel) withand/or jetting
B 1.00–1.50 coarse1.15–1.65
thickness sediments m (loose to dense sand/fine jetting
gravel)
fine with
sediments thickness
(soft 1.15–1.65
to firm clay/silt) m coarse
and/or
C 0.75–1.00 sediments (loose to dense
fine sediments (softsand/fine gravel) withand/or
to firm clay/silt)
thickness 0.90–1.15 m
C 0.75–1.00 coarse sediments (loose to dense sand/fine
Subcropping/outcropping very coarse sediments (loose jetting attempt +
D variable gravel) with thickness
gravel/pebbles/cobbles/possible 0.90–1.15 m
boulders) other protection
P approx. 0.50 Subcropping/outcropping
Cymodocea nodosa prairie very coarse sediments jetting attempt +
microtrenching
D variable
(loose gravel/pebbles/cobbles/possible boulders) other protection
P approx. 0.50 Cymodocea nodosa prairie microtrenching
The spare cable route encounters the D category seabed (whose definition is “veneer
of loose coarse sediments, SAND/fine, GRAVEL over loose very coarse sediments, coarse
The spare cable route encounters the D category seabed (whose definition is “veneer of loose
coarse sediments, SAND/fine, GRAVEL over loose very coarse sediments, coarse
GRAVEL/PEBBLES/COBBLES/possible boulders, subcropping/outcropping very coarse sediments”)
for a total length of 200 m. The D soil category is visible in orange in Figure 11 and it intersects the
two circuits for an almost equal length (for the northern circuit, including the spare phase, from 200
Energies 2018, 11, 164 10 of 15

GRAVEL/PEBBLES/COBBLES/possible boulders, subcropping/outcropping very coarse sediments”)


for a total length of 200 m. The D soil category is visible in orange in Figure 11 and it intersects
Energies 2018, 11, 164
the
10 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164
two circuits for an almost equal length (for the northern circuit, including the spare phase, from 200 10 of 15
to 250
to 250 m,m, and
and forfor southern
southern circuit
circuit from
from 110
110 m
m to
to 160
160 m). For this
m). For this D
D category
category seabed,
seabed, aa given number
given number
to
of 250 m, andsamples
vibrocore for southern
were circuit from
extracted 110the
from m to 160 m).
seabed ForFigure
(see this D12).
category
The seabed, of
position a given
the number
vibrocore
of vibrocore samples were extracted from the seabed (see Figure 12). The position of the vibrocore
of vibrocore
sample samples wereisextracted
with code from the orange
seabed (see and
Figure 12). The position of theFigure
vibrocore
sample with code VBC_27
VBC_27 is visible
visible inside
inside the
the orange zone
zone and besides
besides the
the spare
spare cable
cable in
in Figure 11.
11.
sample with code VBC_27 is visible inside the orange zone and besides the spare cable in Figure 11.

Figure
Figure 11.
11. Shallow
Shallow geology
geology model,
model, Asia
Asia Side
Side for
for Lâpseki–Sütlüce I.
Lâpseki–Sütlüce I.
Figure 11. Shallow geology model, Asia Side for Lâpseki–Sütlüce I.

Figure 12. Very coarse gravel in VBC_27 sample.


Figure 12. Very coarse gravel in VBC_27 sample.
Figure 12. Very coarse gravel in VBC_27 sample.
Seabed samples collected in the D area show the occurrence of thick levels of very coarse gravel
Seabed samples collected in the D area show the occurrence of thick levels of very coarse gravel
with Seabed
cobblessamples
(see Figure 12), in
collected in some casesshow
the D area accompanied by levels
the occurrence of clayey
of thick and
levels of verysilty sands.
coarse The
gravel
with cobbles (see Figure 12), in some cases accompanied by levels of clayey and silty sands. The
gravel
with is, at places,
cobbles outcropping,
(see Figure as revealed
12), in some by the ROV by
cases accompanied video inspection
levels of clayeyofand Figure
silty13. The submarine
sands. The gravel
gravel is, at places, outcropping, as revealed by the ROV video inspection of Figure 13. The submarine
survey document
is, at places, reportsas
outcropping, that in D area
revealed boulders
by the and blocks
ROV video are present.
inspection of FigureThe 13. nature of the category
The submarine survey
survey document reports that in D area boulders and blocks are present. The nature of the category
D seabed isreports
document also confirmed by other
that in D area vibrocore
boulders samples
and blocks areextracted in the
present. The sameofarea.
nature the category D seabed
D seabed is also confirmed by other vibrocore samples extracted in the same area.
The
is also intersection
confirmed of thevibrocore
by other two circuits in theextracted
samples D category seabed
in the sameoccurs
area. at the crossing with the in-
The intersection of the two circuits in the D category seabed occurs at the crossing with the in-
service (with acronym IS) telecommunication cable [35] named
The intersection of the two circuits in the D category seabed occurs ITUR (see Figure
at the14).
crossing with the
service (with acronym IS) telecommunication cable [35] named ITUR (see Figure 14).
The common
in-service practice
(with acronym IS)oftelecommunication
submarine cable installation considers
cable [35] named ITUR a minimum
(see Figuresafe 14).distance from
The common practice of submarine cable installation considers a minimum safe distance from
IS cable
Thecrossings
commonof 100 m on
practice both sides, cable
of submarine while,installation
for jetting works,
considersthisa safe distance
minimum is reduced
safe distance up to
from
IS cable crossings of 100 m on both sides, while, for jetting works, this safe distance is reduced up to
20 m, if the
IS cable soils and
crossings cable
of 100 configuration
m on both sides, allow.
while, The unlucky
for jetting occurrence
works, this safe that the category
distance D seabed
is reduced up to
20 m, if the soils and cable configuration allow. The unlucky occurrence that the category D seabed
is in correspondence to the IS ITUR and Mednautilus cables rendered the cable protection extremely
is in correspondence to the IS ITUR and Mednautilus cables rendered the cable protection extremely
delicate and difficult.
delicate and difficult.
Energies 2018, 11, 164 11 of 15

20 m, if the soils and cable configuration allow. The unlucky occurrence that the category D seabed
is in correspondence to the IS ITUR and Mednautilus cables rendered the cable protection extremely
delicate and2018,
Energies difficult.
11, 164 11 of 15

Energies 2018, 11, 164 11 of 15

Figure 13. Very coarse gravel in the D category seabed.


Figure 13. Very coarse gravel in the D category seabed.
Figure 13. Very coarse gravel in the D category seabed.

Figure 14. Plan view of cable crossings due to the in-service telecommunication cables (ITUR,
MEDNAUTILUS, TURMEOS, and MEDTURK).
Figure 14. Plan view of cable crossings due to the in-service telecommunication cables (ITUR,
Figure 14. Plan view of cable crossings due to the in-service telecommunication cables (ITUR,
Prysmian tried several
MEDNAUTILUS, jetting
TURMEOS, passes
and (see Figure 15 for the employed jetting machine) and used
MEDTURK).
MEDNAUTILUS, TURMEOS, and MEDTURK).
mattress covering when the cover depth was less than hmin. All the installation steps are summarized
in thePrysmian
flowcharttried several
of Figure 16.jetting passes (see Figure 15 for the employed jetting machine) and used
mattress
Prysmian
In thecovering
tried when the
several
Lâpseki–Sütlüce cover
jetting depth was
passes
installation, (see less
ASSOMAT thanII15
Figure hwas . All
for
min the
usedtheemployed
toinstallation steps are
perform jetting
mattress summarized
machine)
covering and
(see used
in the
Figure flowchart
17). AssoMatof Figure
II is a 16.
self-propelled autonomous installation frame.
mattress covering when the cover depth was less than hmin . All the installation steps are summarized
In the
Due
in the flowchart to Lâpseki–Sütlüce
its
of dimensions
Figure 16. (5.5 installation,
m × 2.9 m)ASSOMAT
along withIIfour wasthrusters,
used to perform
AssoMatmattress covering
II can operate (see
at high
Figure
water 17). AssoMat II is a self-propelled autonomous installation frame.
In thedepths with adverseinstallation,
Lâpseki–Sütlüce local conditions like high currents.
ASSOMAT II was used Its control systemmattress
to perform allows ancovering
accurate (see
Due to of
positioning its the
dimensions
mattresses (5.5along
m × 2.9
them) along with
protected routefourand thrusters,
a properAssoMat
alignment II can operate
of the at high
sequence of
Figure 17). AssoMat II is a self-propelled autonomous installation frame.
water depths
mattresses. with adverse local conditions like high currents. Its control system allows an accurate
Due to its dimensions
positioning of the mattresses
(5.5 m × 2.9 m) along with four thrusters, AssoMat of II can operate at high
In Lâpseki–Sütlüce, it wasalong the protected
used when routenot
the hmin had and a proper
reached 1 malignment
after several the sequence
passes of
of jetting
wateractivity
depthsinwith
mattresses. adverse local conditions like high currents. Its control system allows an accurate
the stony seabed.
positioning of the mattresses
In Lâpseki–Sütlüce, it wasalong
usedthe
whenprotected
the hmin hadroute and a proper
not reached 1 m afteralignment of the
several passes sequence
of jetting
of mattresses.
activity in the stony seabed.
Energies 2018, 11, 164 12 of 15

In Lâpseki–Sütlüce, it was used when the hmin had not reached 1 m after several passes of jetting
activity in the stony seabed.
Energies 2018, 11, 164 12 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 12 of 15

Figure 15. Some photos of the real jetting ROV used in the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.
Figure 15. Some photos of the real jetting ROV used in the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.
Figure 15. Some photos of the real jetting ROV used in the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.
Decision of installing four circuits of submarine armoured
Decision of installing
single-core fourunder
cables circuits
theofDardanelles
submarine Strait
armoured

single-core cables under the Dardanelles Strait


Route cable and marine survey (extraction of seabed samples)
Route cable and marine survey (extraction of seabed samples)

(Prysmian) Giulio Verne cable laying


(Prysmian) Giulio Verne cable laying

Protection of the cables in the


Protection of the
seabed bycables
jettingin the
seabed by jetting
if hmin ≥ 1 m if hmin < 1 m
if hmin ≥ 1 m if hmin < 1 m

Protection Matressing
Protection
completed Matressing
protection
completed protection
Figure 16. Flow-chart of the installation steps.
Figure 16. Flow-chart of the installation steps.
Figure 16. Flow-chart of the installation steps.
Energies 2018, 11, 164 13 of 15
Energies 2018, 11, 164 13 of 15

Figure 17. Assomat II used in the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.


Figure 17. Assomat II used in the Lâpseki–Sütlüce installation.

6. Conclusions
6. Conclusions
This paper presents some technical features and installation characteristics of the 4 GW AC EHV
This paper
submarine linkpresents some
under the technical features
Dardanelles andlink
Strait. This installation
is one ofcharacteristics
the very few EHV of theAC4 GW AC EHV
submarine
submarine link under the Dardanelles Strait. This link is one of the very few EHV
cable systems with extruded insulation worldwide. Special attention was paid to the cable protection AC submarine
cable
on systems with extruded
seabed against insulation
third-party injuriesworldwide. Special
due to the high attention
maritime was on
traffic paidthetoDardanelles
the cable protection
Strait.
onProtection
seabed against third-party
of the 400 kV cablesinjuries due toby
was achieved thewater
highjetting
maritime
burialtraffic
at 1.5 on
m inthemost
Dardanelles Strait.
of the routes.
Protection of the 400 kV cables was achieved by water jetting burial at 1.5 m in most
The 13 single-core cables have overcrossed four pre-existing in-service fibre optic cables laid on the of the routes.
Thesea13bottom along cables
single-core the Strait.
haveAtovercrossed
the crossings,
fourplastic separation
pre-existing sleeves fibre
in-service were optic
placed over laid
cables the fibre
on the
seaoptic
bottomcables,
alongand concrete
the mattresses
Strait. At over the
the crossings, power
plastic cables. sleeves were placed over the fibre optic
separation
cables, and concrete mattresses over the power cables.
Author Contributions: Roberto Benato conceived and wrote the paper. İbrahim Balanuye, Fatih Köksal, Nurhan
Ozan Contributions:
Author and Ercüment Özdemirci
Roberto contributed information
Benato conceived andonwrote
the installations.
the paper. İbrahim Balanuye, Fatih Köksal,
Nurhan Ozan
Conflicts of and Ercüment
Interest: Özdemirci
The authors contributed
declare no conflictinformation
of interest. on the installations.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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