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QUALITY DEPARTMENT

Sep - 2014
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

CONTENTS:
1. INTRODUCTION
2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs Page
2.1 Piping basic Page 5
2.1.2. Materials
2.1.2. Standards
2.1.4. Pipe system classes by DNV
2.1.3. System Diagrams – P&IDs
2.1.4. Piping drawings
2.1.5. SFI System
2.2. System Diagram Introduction – P&ID Page 8
2.2.1. Going through one typical P&ID
2.2.2. Pipeline components
2.2.3. Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.1. Cargo systems
2.2.3.2 Machinery Systems & Other Systems
2.2.4. Special equipment and Expressions
2.2.5. Corrosion protection
3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1. Fabrication of PT-pipes Page 30
3.1.1 Planning
3.1.2. Measuring of the pipes
3.1.3. Make an ISO drawing of your pipe (hand sketch)
3.1.4. Bending with the bending machine
3.1.4.1. Installing of the sealing
3.1.5. Cleaning of the pipe
3.1.6. Installation of supports
3.1.7. Working on board
3.2. Fabrication of Steel pipes Page 39
3.2.1. Planning
3.2.2. Building of ISO pipes
3.2.3. Pipe building on board
3.2.4. Make an ISO drawing of your pipe
3.2.5. Calculation
3.2.6. Building of pipes
3.2.7. Preparing
3.2.8. Start the work
3.2.9. Tag welding of flanges
3.2.10. Working on board
3.2.11. Site run of last spool before equipment

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

CONTENTS:

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1. Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.2. Fabrication of Steel pipes
3.3. Some common routing problems to be aware of (for all pipe fitters)
3.4. Pipe erection by block Page 48
3.4.1. Pre-outfitting
3.4.2. Pipe erection by module
3.4.3. Pipe erection with isometric drawing (ISO) and P&ID drawing
3.4.4. Setting of supports
3.5. Cleaning, testing and coating of piping systems Page 58
3.5.1. Pipe cleaning inside
3.5.2. Pipe coating/preservation
3.5.3. Pressure testing
3.5.4. NDT testing (Non Destructive Testing)
3.5.5. Flow coding
3.6. Yard standard for piping components Page 60
3.6.1. Bulkhead and deck penetration
3.6.2. Overboard pipes
3.6.2.1. Overboard pipes and sleeves
3.6.3. Bended pipes and Elbows
3.6.4. Branch line connection with "saddle" or "T-pipe"
3.6.5. Reducers
3.6.6. Drains
3.6.6.1. External drains
3.6.6.2. Internal drains
3.6.7. Pipe supports / Clamps
3.6.8. Pipe joint methods
3.6.8.1. Pipe to flange with slip-on flange
3.6.8.2. Pipe to flange with welding neck flange
3.6.8.3. Pipe to flange with welding collar in combination with a slip-on flange
3.6.8.4. Pipe to pipe joint with Straub Grip coupling
3.7. Tank accessories Page 68
3.7.1. Tank sounding
3.7.2. Level alarm
3.7.3. Heating coils
3.7.4. Steam injection
3.7.5. Temperature sensor
3.7.6. Sampling point
4. TYPICAL DRAWING SYMBOL Page 74

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

1. General introduction
- This handbook is developed with the aim to be a support for the worker/pipe fitter, for the
foreman and also for the engineer. The handbook is on the whole fairly elementary, being a
reference guide with methods, solutions, key points and alternatives.
- It is the base handbook for a training program for pipe fitters and alternatively for the
engineers.
- Not many standards, etc. are included in the manual, although there are some in the
appendix. To include all common standards for the pipe fitter the handbook would be quite
comprehensive. Please refer to the catalogue from Brodrene Dahl or other relevant
handbooks
2. containing
PIPING THEORY andstandards etc. TO P&IDs
INTRODUCTION
2.1 Piping basic
2.1.2. Materials
• Piping material to be used is decided in the building specification for the ship.
• Piping material with information about standards and dimensions are given on the
different Pipe system diagrams.
• The common types are as follows:
- Steel, St. 37, Seamless. Galvanized or not galvanized.
+ Main cargo systems
+ Fresh water cooling
+ Bilge system
+ Fire system
+ Drain system
+ And others….
- Stainless steel, type Blucher
+ Sanitary discharge
- Copper Nickel, CuNi10Fe
+ For SW cooling
- Copper, plastic coated
+ Sanitary supply pipes (small dimensions)
- Stainless steel, AISI 316
+ For methanol system
+ For remote sounding inside tanks
+ For hydraulic system wet area SW exposed (=<ND25)
- Precision steel tubes, DIN 2391 (various materials)
+ Hydraulic piping (small diameters)
+ Compressed air (small diameters)
+ FO system (small diameters)
+ LO system (small diameters)
+ and other systems

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.1 Piping basic
2.1.2. Standards
• A pipe standard is a fixed specification for pipes describing in detail diameter,
wall thickness, strength, material specification, fabrication method and so on.
• The normal standards used in VARD Group are as follows:
- NS Norwegian Standard
- DIN Deutsches Institut for Normung = German National Standard
- EN European Standard
- ISO International Organization for Standardization
- NS 2501 (DIN 17177) Normal steel pipes
- DIN 2391 Precision steel tubes
- Traditionally in VARD Norway Offshore the NS and DIN standards have been
dominating. It is a natural development to change more over to the international
ISO standard, specially for VARD Vietnam as an international yard. ISO and NS have
a lot of similarities but for some areas the NS standard is somewhat stricter.
- It has also been developed an International Shipbuilding Standard. For now
this is not a standard that we take into consideration when building a ship in VARD
Vietnam. It is possible that this will be a more important standard in the future.

2.1.3. Pipe system classes by DNV


• For the purpose of testing, type of joint to be adopted, heat treatment and
welding procedures, piping is subdivided into three classes by DNV, class I, class II
and class III. Criteria are pressure, temperature and flow media.
• Ref. DNV Pt. 4, Ch. 6, Sec. 1B, Table B1.
• Ref. chapter 3.5 and appendix 4.2, Drawings, "Pipe systems, Test, Cleaning and
Coating" for a closer description.
2.1.4. System Diagrams – P&IDs
• P&ID is short for "Piping and Instrumentation Diagram"
• A P&ID is designed for each system onboard the ship and is the central drawing
in the whole process from designing the piping system/routing, building the pipes
and testing, until delivery.
• P&ID is defined by the "Institute of Instrumentation and Control" as follows:
1. A diagram which shows the interconnection of process equipment and the
instrumentation used to control the process. In the process industry, a standard
set of symbols is used to prepare drawings of processes. The instrument symbols
used in these drawings are generally based on "Instrumentation, Systems, and
Automation Society" (ISA) Standard S5. 1.
2. The primary schematic drawing used for laying out a process control
installation.
• The set of P&IDs are checked very carefully at the beginning of each project.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.1 Piping basic
2.1.5. Piping drawings
• 3D model of ship including equipment and piping
- All steel pipes in the ship are drawn in 3D. The program used for 3D modelling in
VARD Vietnam for the first 6 vessels is Nupas Cad Matic
- To model the ship piping system in a 3D program gives the designer good
control and overview of the piping system. In the building process, easy to see and
modify, where necessary because of changes or conflicts.
- With a 3D picture it is easy to understand how the piping shall be conducted for
the pipe fitter.
- Also data as pipe length or pipe weight can easily be taken out from the 3D
program.
- 3D model is a tool for the designer.
• ISO drawings are generated directly from the 3D program. ISO drawings are
describing in detail how every pipe shall be built and where it shall be mounted.
Issued for use in the production.
• Piping arrangement drawing is a 2D drawing of a room or a section showing all
pipes in this area with notification of pipe reference (pipe number) for each pipe.
Issued for use in the production.
(Piping arrangement can also be a 3D drawing.)
• 3D view or isometric view of each system is a 3D drawing of all piping belonging to
one system. Issued for use in the production. (Optional)
2.1.6. SFI system
• SFI System (SFI – Skipsteknisk Forsknings Institutt – Ship Research Institute of
Norway)
- SFI system is an international acknowledged code system for overview and filing
of information which is widely used in the maritime industry. Main activities often
organized according to SIF system are:
+ Procurement
+ Production plan
+ Drawings (drawing numbers)
+ Component identification
+ Documentation.
• Example of SFI use on drawings:
- Drawing number example:
+ 001-357-060 - Liquid Mud System (vessel no. 1 – VARD Vietnam)
• First number is vessel no. 001
• Second number is main SFI group. Main group 352 stands for
"Loading/discharging systems for liquid cargo".
• Third number is drawing no. 60 within this main group

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.1 Piping basic
2.1.6. SFI system
• Example of SFI use on drawings:
- Component number example (on this drawing):
+ 357.013.10 - Liquid mud pump no. 1
• The first number is the main SFI group for this component.
• The second number is component number 13 for this system
• The third number is used to identify for example:
o If there are identical components, 10, 20, 30, 40, etc.
o Can be used for identifying minor parts belonging to a bigger part,
such as 01, 02, 03, 04, etc, for throwing nozzles to FiFi system.
o Various use for these numbers on various shipyards. Can identify
starter cabinets belonging to the main components,
351.013.11 (ref. Liq. mud pump)
- Line number example (on this drawing):
+ 357-614-125
• First number is the main SFI group
• Second number is line number 614 for this system
• Third number is the nominal dimension of the pipe, ND125.
- Valve number example (on this drawing):
+ 357.6361
• First number is the main SFI group
• Second number is valve number within this system
• Component identification
- There is a huge number of components on board the ship. It is essential to have
a system for numbering and identifying of these.
- All components on board are identified and marked according to the SFI system.
• It is very important that the components are marked and labeled correctly on
board the ship. For example are all valves belonging to the SW cooling system
starting with 721.xxxx. When the crew is operating the ship they are operating
valves based on the SFI number marked on the valve, which shall of course
correspond to the P & ID system. If this is not correct, the system will not work
correctly.
• The correct marking of any part on board will immediately give information to
crew what system the component is belonging to.
• A piping system is not complete before the marking of all components are
complete and checked to be correct.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.1 Going through one typical P&ID
• Ref. Liquid Mud System for STX Vietnam b. no. 1.
(see appendix 1 for drawing)
• It is very important that the system drawing is followed accurately. Although a
lot of effort is put into producing the system drawings and checking them at the
beginning of each project it is possible that a system drawing has some errors. If
there is reason to believe so a person in charge and/or the technical coordinator
has to be informed
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Pumps
- Electrical driven
- Hydraulic driven
- Centrifugal pumps
- Screw pumps
+ 2-spindle or 3-spindle screw pump
+ Eccentric screw pump

2-spindle or 3-spindle screw pump Centrifugal pump

Eccentric screw pump

• Ejectors
- Same function as a pump
+ Creates a vacuum pressure
+ Cheap and simple construction
+ Powered by waterflow or by airflow.
+ Used for emptying cofferdams for water
+ Used for emptying BHS tanks

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Cooler
- A cooler is cooling down the hot water from engines and other heat producing
components.
- There are different types of coolers:
+ Plate coolers
+ Tube coolers
+ Box coolers (no SW cooling pipe system needed)
- Ref. explanation further down regarding FW and SW cooling systems
- The hot and cold water have opposite flow direction in the cooler. Check drawings
and instruc ons carefully before connec ng.
Plate type cooler Box cooler

• Heat exchanger
- A heat exchanger is transferring heat from one medium to another.
- In principle the same as a cooler.
• Filters
- Threaded or flanged?
+ Basic rule is to use flanged for sizes from ND50 and up
+ Threaded connection for sizes below ND50
+ For fuel oil it is restriction from class to use threaded connection
- Y-filters
+ Used for fluids which requires fine filtering such as FW water, fuel oil,
compressed air and more.
+ Normally to be mounted in horizontal pipeline with filter/bonnet down
+ Important to prepare space below for filter changing and access to the filter.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Filters
- Mudbox
+ Used for fluids and media which requires more coarse filtering such as mud,
brine, SW cooling intake, bilge water and more.
+ Advantage that filter basket is taken upwards, leads to easier maintenance and
less spill.
+ Fine mesh on filter basket is available upon request.
+ Comes in straight and angular version
+ Special types of mudboxes are often made by shipyard

Mudbox Bilge
Straight type

Mudbox Bilge
Angle type

Mudbox for
Mud, Brine
system

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Valves
In the following overview of valves, be aware of that there are a lot of different
types of valves on the market and it is only the most common types used on STX
ships that are mentioned below.

- Ball valve
+ Open/close valve. Simple and practical.
+ Mostly used for dimensions below ND40. Threaded type.
- Butterfly valve
+ Open/close valve.
+ Mostly used for dimensions from
ND40 and up. Flanged type.
+ LUG type. Bolted to flanges on both
sides of the valve.
• Very common valve on cargo
systems
• Can be used as dead-end flange. Butterfly
+ Wafer type. To be mounted between Butterfly valve,
valve, LUG
flanges. Wafer type
type

- Non Return valve (NR valve):


+ Non Return valve is permanently open in flow direction of pipe and blocking
any flow in the opposite direction.
+ Some of the NR valves have to be mounted in vertical or horizontal direction.
+ Most types requires a small pressure to open. Despite of this they are
sometimes used in drain system causing some problems

NR valve, NR valve, NR valve,


Swing check Check valve Duo check valve
valve

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Valves
- Blind flange valve:
This is normally mounted in a piping system
where it is necessary to segregate two different
media. Many of the tanks are combined tanks, f. ex.
for fuel oil and brine. When the tank is filled with
fuel oil, the blind flange valve is closed against the
brine piping system. It is very important that
different tank media are not mixed and a blind
flange valve is a very safe valve for 100% blocking
which is approved by the main classification
societies for this purpose.
- 3-way valve thermostatic:
+ Valve having 1 inlet and 2 outlets or 2
inlets and 1 outlet.
+ Thermostatic type automatic and self
regulating. The temperature control
power is created by the expansion of a
wax/copper mixture which is highly
sensitive to temperature changes. No external
power source is needed.

- 3-way valve temperature control valve:


+ Valve having 1 inlet and 2 outlets or 2
inlets and 1 outlet.
+ External temp. sensor on the pipeline
+ Electric or pneumatic actuator is
opening/closing the valve

- 3-way valve lever operated


+ Valve having 1 inlet and 2 outlets or 2
inlets and 1 outlet.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Valves
- Ventilation valve
+ Tank vent valve type Aero
• Ventilation of tanks. Air can come out, water can not come in.
• To be mounted outside in open air

• On tanks containing fuel oil, base oil or lub oil and is ventilated directly to
open air, a vent valve with flame screen is required. Flame screen is a
perforated steel plate designed to prevent fire to pass through the
screen.
• On ventilation of mud and brine tanks a special type of vent. valve is
necessary to use. If mud is overflowing in the tank, a normal vent. valve
does not have enough opening for mud to escape and the tank can be
deformed because of high pressure, and eventually start leaking.
• This valve has built in a non-return flap valve, see drawing below.

+ P/V valve – High velocity valve


• Used for methanol and special products tanks (LFL
tanks)
• Valve preventing pressure or vacuum to build up in the
tank
• Preventing passage of flames through the valve
• The air out from tank is blowing in high velocity,
straight up. This is done because the gas is LFL (Low
Flammable Limit) and it is important to get this away

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Valves
- Safety relief valve:
+ Limiting max. pressure in a system according to a preset
limit.
+ Works on any media

- Volume regulating valve:


+ The types shown below are regulating and measuring the flow, and are
designed for use in sanitary supply systems and heating and cooling systems.
+ Flow direction is recommended to follow.
+ Globe valve can also be used as volume reg. valve.

TA valve,
TACO Setter valve
Incl. Shut-off
function

- Globe valve:
+ Open/close valve but normally used
where there is need for some
regulating of the flow.
+ If fine regulating is necessary, a
conical shape of the "plug" can be
used.
+ Not suitable where full opening is

- Gate valve:
+ Open/close valve that is suitable where full opening is necessary.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Valves
- Storm flap valve
+ Is used as "overboard" valve for
grey water applications.
+ Is preventing seawater flow back
into the pipes.
+ Closeable

- Fire valve / Fire hydrant:


+ A type of globe valve developed
for fire valve purpose. Is
prepared for direct
connec on of re hoses.

- Pressure regulating valve:


+ Output pressure can be adjusted.
+ Normally a manometer is to be mounted in
combination with this valve. The
manometer can be mounted on the
valve itself, or on pipeline near the
valve

- Quick closing valve


+ All fuel pipes on tank bulkheads/TT in engine room (or penetrating from pump
room) must have a quick closing valve mounted on or as near the bulkhead
as possible. This is a DNV requirement. In an emergency situation it shall be
possible to close off all fuel lines to and from the engine room from a
position outside the engine room.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Valves
- Combination valve:
+ One valve can have the function of two
valves.
+ Non Return Stop valve (NR Stop
valve),has the function of a NR valve
and a stop valve.
- Self closing valve:
+ A valve that requires that a handle is operated manually to be open.
+ When operator is not present, the valve is always closed.
+ Spring operated.

- Sounding valve:
+ A type of self closing valve
developed for use on manual
sounding pipes.
+ Normally delivered with a pedal so
that the valve can be opened
with the foot.
+ A counterweight is closing the
valve.

- Solenoid valve:
+ A magnet operated
valve. An electrical
signal is activating
a magnet that is
opening or closing the
solenoid valve.
+ Used f. ex. on all valve
actuators.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Valves
- Bilge chest:
+ A bilge chest is a valve central for several bilge points. Some bilge wells can
be almost inaccessible.
+ Be aware of that the dimensioning of a bilge chest is according to the
smaller cell inlets and not according to the greater main bilge line.

• Safety components:
- Pressure alarm and Temperature alarm
+ This is constantly feeling the pressure or temperature in a piping system and
giving an alarm signal when preset limit (high or low) is exceeded. Alarm
signal is normally to ship's alarm and monitoring system
- An overflow pot can be mounted to an overflow system (on FO and LO system).
When one of the tanks connected to this system goes in overflow, fluid will go
through the overflow piping and overflow pot, and create an alarm signal.
- High level alarm is mounted on most of the tanks.
• Components for measuring and controlling:
- Temperature sensors
+ Thermometer
• Thermometer is a device for local indication of the temperature.
• Normally mounted before and after a cooler or heat exchanger.
+ Digital temp. sensor
• Sensor that gives an electric signal when reaching a set limit.
Signal can be used for alarm, for autostart of other
equipment or other.
+ Analog temp. sensor
• Sensor for accurate temp. reading.
Normally 4-20 mA signal for remote reading/controlling.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• Components for measuring and controlling:
- Pressure sensors:
+ Manometer:
• Manometer is a device for local reading of the pressure.
• It is recommended to mount a small ball valve before the manometer to
make mounting/demounting easier.
• Normally mounted before and after a pump.
+ Presostat = Pressure switch = Digital pressure sensor:
• Sensor that gives an electric signal when reaching a set limit. Signal can
be used for alarm, for autostart of other equipment or other.
+ Analog pressure sensor
• Sensor for accurate pressure reading.
Normally 4-20 mA signal for
remote reading/controlling.
• Working pressure range.
EX: WP of system = 5 bar
=> Range of gaugse = 0 bar ÷ 6 bar

• Actuator:
- An actuator is mounted on a valve for remote operation of
the valve.
- All actuators are connected to the ships control and
monitoring system so that the operator in Engine Control
Room can see the position of all valves connected to the
system and can open/close them remotely.
- Pneumatic or Electric type

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2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.2 Pipeline components
• See glass or control glass:
- Control glass mounted on the pipeline so that a person can see visually if media is flowing
through the pipe.
- Be aware of that the glass is not mounted face down because this makes it very difficult to see
if media is flowing through. Ok to mount horizontally as shown or with see-glass in
vertical position.
- Normally used on FO supply system.

• Couplings:
- Very often a standard type of coupling is described to be mounted on the end of a pipe.
- All cargo systems have specified couplings prepared on pipe ends in cargorail/outside which
will fit directly to the hose coupling standard on platforms/rigs.
- There is a large variety of different couplings.

Non spill Quick


coupling, coupling,
MannTek Hammer
Lug Union

• Sockets / muffs:
- Equipment mounted to the pipeline such as pressure sensors, temperature
sensors, etc. need a socket/muff (f. ex. ½" with internal threads) on the main
line to be mounted to.
- It is important that the sockets are included in the ISO drawings from the beginning
so that it is ready for the outfitter onboard to mount the sensor. If not it will be
welding on the pipe after mounting onboard. Specially on galvanized pipes this shall
be avoided.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
• The following introduction and key points for each system is not complete and
should only be used for reference. When designing a system the ships building
specification and rules and regulations are important guidelines to follow.
• There are different variations of the system diagrams (P&ID). The following
introduction is based on the first 6 newbuildings at VARD Vietnam, with some
extra systems and info.
• For the builder it is always advisable to read the building specification for each
system before building.

2.2.3.1 Cargo system


• Bulk Handling System – BHS System (SFI: 326)
- The BHS system consists of BHS tanks, BHS compressors, coolers, air dryers and
an ejector.
- BHS is dry bulk like cement and barite.
- Barite is used as weighting material and a barite plug is placed at the bottom of
the wellbore which puts pressure on the drillbit. The alternative would be to apply
more pressure from top which would require stronger, bigger and more expensive
drilling equipment.
- Cement is used to seal the drillhole or to plug a well so that it may be abandoned
or similar.
- The BHS compressor is pressurizing the BHS tanks and forcing the cargo to flow
through the pipes. To empty the last part from the tanks the ejector is used.

• Fresh Water Cargo System (SFI: 352)


- The FW cargo system consists of FW cargo tanks and 2 pumps, arranged for
transfer between tanks and discharge to deck.
- The purpose of the system is to supply fresh water to oil rigs and platforms. Also
FW to ships internal FW system is taken from these tanks.

• Fuel Oil Cargo System (SFI: 351 )


- The FO cargo system consists of FO cargo tanks, pump and backup pump. Backup
pump can be combined with base oil pump. System also includes a FO flowmeter
to control how much fuel is received and delivered.
- The purpose of the system is to supply fuel oil to oil rigs and platforms. Also FO
for own consump on is taken from these tanks.

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2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.1 Cargo system
• Base Oil System: (SFI: 359 )
- The BO cargo system consists of BO cargo tanks, pump and backup pump. Backup
pump can be combined with FO cargo pump.
- The purpose of the system is to supply base oil to oil rigs and platforms.
- Base oil is used as a component in oil-based drilling fluid consisting of an emulsion
of water and base oil. This is resulting in less environmental impact.
- Mineral base oil is a result of a long and complex distillation and refining process.

• Ballast/Drillwater System: (SFI: 801)


- The main components of the ballast/drillwater system are pump, backup pump
and BW/DW tanks.
- The purpose of the ballast water system is to trim the boat when cargo is
loaded/offloaded.
- Ballast water is normally seawater.
- Drillwater is used as lubrication water for the drilling process and is transported
from land facilities to offshore sites in the BW/DW tanks. No problem that SW and
DW is mixed.
- New rules are in the process of being implemented that requires a BW treatment
unit to be installed in the ship. Purpose of this is to hinder that microbes and
small living organisms are moved from their normal habitat to other
places in the world where they may disturb the normal microbiology, by means of
BW water exchange. BW treatment unit is killing nearly 100% of living organisms in
the BW water, f. ex. by means of UV radiation.

• Brine System: (SFI: 358 )


- The main components of the brine system are brine tanks, pump and backup
pump.
- The purpose of the brine system is to supply brine to oil rigs and platforms.
- Brine is saline water containing more dissolved inorganic salt than typical
seawater.
- Brine is used as a well control fluid in completion and workover phases of well
operations. It is used because it has higher density than fresh water and it has no
solid particles that might damage producible formations.
- Brine is very corrosive and it must be avoided to spill brine in the ship.

Page 21
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.1 Cargo system
• Liquid Mud System: (SFI: 357 )
- Main components are pump and backup pump together with liquid mud tanks and
mud agitators.
- Liquid mud is a water/mud solution used for lubricating the drill bit, stabilize and
cooling the well bore, carry the cuttings to the surface and to control subsurface
pressures.
• ORO System: (SFI: 489 )
- Oil Recovery Operation (ORO) is the class nomination for a vessel that is outfitted
to collect oil spill from the surface of the sea. This is in case of an oil
pollution incident.
- If boat is assigned to go in ORO operation it will be outfitted with oil skimmer and
transrec and prepared by the crew within 48 hours to be ready.
+ Oil skimmer is equipment for pumping oil from the sea surface.
+ Transrec is handling equipment for hose and skimmer.
- The regulations for this system are quite comprehensive such as:
+ Extended gas zones and stricter regulations for ventilating of tanks and rooms.
+ All areas where equipment for pumping oil are located and deck above tanks,
are defined as EX area – Explosion hazardous area. All electrical
components and sensors in this area must be EX proof.
+ Heating of ORO tanks with steam which makes it necessary to install a steam
generator/steam system.
+ Reg. for crane, MOB, radar, tanks, blindflange valves, steam outlet, etc.
• Methanol System: (SFI: 355 )
- Methanol System consists of 1 pump for each methanol tank, methanol tanks,
cofferdam around methanol tanks and inert gas system for safety/purging.
- Pipes and tanks are to be produced in acidproof steel, AISI316.
- Methanol is extremely flammable and is defined as LFL – Low Flashpoint Liquid by
DNV.
- LFL is a class notation by DNV. LFL has flashpoint 60°C and LFL* has flashpoint 43°C.
- Pumps are normally hydraulically operated and seal and lubricating tanks for the
pumps will be needed on main deck.
- Special P/V valves (pressure/vacuum valves) are needed for ventilation.
• Tank Washing System: (SFI: 382 )
- System consists of pump, tankwashing machines for each tank, duplex filter, small
tank for soap/chemicals, chemical dosing pump and hot water tank.
- Purpose is to clean typ. mud and brine tanks.

Page 22
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.2 Machinery Systems & Other Systems
• AHT Winch Servo System: ( SFI: 437 )
- Anchor Handling / Towing Winch Servo System.
- High pressure servo system (up to above 300 bar) for having control with AHT
Winches.
- Including lever controls for winches, brake controls, tension controls and
couplings.

• LP Hydraulic System for AHT Winches: (SFI: 438 )


- Low Pressure Hydraulic System for AHT Winches.
- Low pressure (up to about 60 bar) hydraulic system for operating the AHT
winches.
- Including AHT winches, windlass/mooring winches, tugger winches, hydr. oil
storage tanks, hydr. oil expansion tanks and pumps.

• Sanitary Water Supply & Hydrophore System: ( SFI: 581 )


- Fresh water supply system used for sanitary purposes and other.
- Including main pump, backup pump, fresh water generator, hot water boiler,
• Hot Water Boiler System: ( SFI: 648 )
- Provides hot water for the ship. For sanitary purposes, for AC units (heating), for
high pressure washer, etc.
- Including hot water boiler, circulation pump and expansion tank.
- Most often the main heating source for hot water boiler is fuel oil burning. In
addition there are electrical heating coils.
- If there is a steam generator on the ship, then steam is normally used as heating
source for the hot water boiler. In addition there are electrical heating coils.

• Steam System: (SFI: 641 )


- For offshore supply ships with ORO system according to NOFO (national
authorities) it is required to have steam heating of ORO tanks. This is to keep
the collected oil hot and liquefied so it can be pumped out to land facility quite
easily.
- Steam system consists of steam generator, hotwell tank, boosterpumps,
waterpump, steam collector, condensate cooler, etc.
- When dividing the steam system in main parts the system consists of a steam
part, a condensate part and a feedwater part.

Page 23
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.2 Machinery Systems & Other Systems
• Wheelhouse Windows Washing System: ( SFI: 581 )
- This is the water circuit for washing of wheelhouse windows.
- Supply water normally from the hydrophore system.
- Including water spray nozzles for windows.

• Sanitary Water Discharge System (incl. sewage system): (SFI: 582 )


- This is the sanitary water discharge system incl. sewage system.
- Including toilets, sinks and grease trap.
- The sewage system is including sewage tank, sewage treatment plant and sewage
transfer pump.

• Fuel Oil Supply System (domestic system): ( SFI: 703 )


- This is the fuel oil system for engines and all fuel consumers on the ship.
- Includes FO service tanks, FO settling tank, FO transfer pumps (main/backup),
duplex filters, FO separators, separator feeder pumps and additional FO
feeder pumps if necessary
• Lub Oil Systems: ( SFI: 711 )
- Lubrication system for engines and separators
- Lubrication system for gears and propulsion
- Lubrication system for thrusters, winches and steering gear
- Including lub oil tanks, LO separators, LO transfer pumps, gravity tanks, etc.

• SW Cooling System: ( SFI: 721 )


- SW Cooling System is taking cold water from the sea to the main coolers and
heated water back to overboard. Transporting heat away from the
machinery systems.
- Including sea chests, crossover tank, SW pumps, (SW/FW coolers,) main
mudboxes/filters on inlet side and chemical dosing system.
- Normally CuNi pipes (Copper/Nickel) because this is very resistant to seawater.
- The cooler is an essential part of this system. The cooler can be mounted inside
the vessel as plate type cooler or tube cooler. An interesting alternative is the box
cooler where the cooling part is an open seachest. There will always be plenty of
cold and fresh water and no SW cooling pipe system is necessary.

Page 24
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.2 Machinery Systems & Other Systems
• FW Cooling System: (SFI: 722 )
- FW cooling systems are transporting cold water around to all machinery parts
that need to be cooled and hot water back to the main SW/FW coolers.
- Including main SW/FW coolers, smaller coolers, pumps, FW expansion tanks and
3-way valves.

• Compressed Air System (Starting air and Instrument air): ( SFI: 731 )
- Compressed air system is generating compressed air and distributing air at 30 bar
or less to consumers.
- Main consumers for starting air (30 bar) are starting air for main engines,
typhoons, quick closing valves and purge system for wheelhouse windows
washing system.
- Main consumers for instrument air (7 bar) are instrument air for main engines,
separators for FO/LO/bilge, pneumatic actuators (for valves), expansion tanks
and tank sounding system.
- Instrument air must be dried in air dryers otherwise fine consumers can be
damaged from moisture.
- Main components are starting air compressors, starting air receivers (bottles), air
dryers, instrument air receiver and pressure reduction station.
• Working Air System: ( SFI: 732 )
- Working Air System is generating air and distributing air at 7 bar to consumers.
- Main consumers are many working air outlets, air ejectors for pumps, blowing air
in sea chest, incinerator and possibly others.
- Main components are working air compressor and working air receiver,

• Exhaust Pipe System: ( SFI: 740 )


- Exhaust Pipe System is the exhaust pipeline from the engines to top of funnel
with components.
- Main components are silencers. Pipeline is including flexible rubber
compensators for minimizing vibration and noise. Spark arrestor is
mounted if recommended by subsupplier.

• HVAC System: ( SFI: 570 )


- Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning System
- HVAC System is a description of the entire HVAC system for all rooms in the
vessel. Also it shows the specific gas zones.
- Including AC units, coolers, fans, louvers and goose necks.

Page 25
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.2 Machinery Systems & Other Systems
• UREA System: ( SFI: 746 )
- UREA system is a system for cleaning the exhaust gases, to reduce the NOx
emissions, in a Selective Catalytic Reaction, SCR.
- Main components for UREA System is UREA tank, catalyzers, pump/filter unit,
UREA injection unit, injection air distribution unit, control metering unit, gas
washer, NO-analyzer and more.
- UREA used on vessels is produced from ammoniac and carbon dioxide. Natural
UREA is an ingredient of urine.
• Bilge System incl. Oily Bilge and Sludge system: ( SFI: 803 )
- The main components of the bilge system consists of main pump and backup
pump, bilge wells, mud boxes and oily water/bilge water separator
- This system is pumping bilge water overboard from bilge wells around the ship.
- The system is automatic with float switches in each bilge well.
- Oily water and sludge water is being filtered and separated in the bilge water
separator. "Clean" water is going overboard, the rest is either burned in an
incinerator or being delivered to land as special disposal.
- System is often connected to Fire System.
• Fire System: ( SFI: 813 )
- Fire system consists of main fire pump, backup pump and emergency fire pump,
valves and fire hydrants. Fire water is taken from seachest forward
and seachest aft.
- Fire pump no. 2 (backup) is often used as backup pump also for bilge system.
- Included in the complete fire system is also: (see below)
+ Overall fire extinction system for engine room
+ Local Application Fire Fighting - LAFF
+ If required foam fire extinction system for main deck if boat is carrying LFL.
+ FiFi system, if specified by the ship owner.
• Fire Extinguishing System - Total flooding based on CO2 ( SFI: 815 )
- It is a requirement from authorities to have a fixed fire extinguishing system for
engine room and some other crucial areas like switchboard room and casing.
- CO2 system is a fire extinguishing system based on decreasing the level of oxygen
gas (O2) in the burning area to a level where the fire is suppressed and extinguished.
This is done by spraying CO2 into the area until it reaches minimum 30% of the net
volume.
- When O2 content is reduced to this level, there is not enough O2 for human beings
to survive.
- Main components are CO2 cylinders, CO2 nozzles and release panel.
- System can not be released before ensuring that area is evacuated.
- Watermist can also be used as main fire extinguishing system.
Page 26
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.2 Machinery Systems & Other Systems
• Fire Extinguishing System - Local Application Fire Fighting system based on
watermist:
( SFI: 815 )
- It is a requirement from authorities to have Local Application Fire Fighting (LAFF)
system on main components like main engines, generator, FO & LO
separators, incinerator, boiler and steam generator.
- Watermist system is a fire extinguishing system that is reducing the heat on the
fire and burning objects until the fire is extinguished.
- Watermist system can be high pressure type or low pressure type.
- System consists of FW and/or SW supply, pump, watermist nozzles and control
system.
- System can be released as soon as fire is discovered.
• FiFi system: ( SFI: 814 )
- FiFi system consists of 2 big fire pumps and water monitors (canons) normally on
top of wheelhouse and control system. The pumps require very high
effect and it is normal to have extra PTO (Power Take Out) on the main engines for
this purpose.
- Water spray system for self protection of ship, deluge system.
- FiFi is a DNV class notation.
+ FiFi 1 requires 2 x 1500 m3/h pumps (or equivalent)
+ FiFi 2 requires 2 x 2400 m3/h pumps (or equivalent)
+ Throwing length 120 m and 150 m from ship front
• Drain Pipe System: ( SFI: 804 )
- Drain pipe system is a description of the drain system in the ship. One part for
external drains and one part for internal drains.

• Vent Pipe System: ( SFI: 821 )


- Each tank has tank vent valve ventilated to open air.
- There are different heights of vent valves (type Aero) from deck based on the rules.
- FO tanks often have their own ventilation system, see below.

• FO Overflow System: ( SFI: 821 )


- There are restrictions on venting of FO tanks and it is quite common to create a FO
overflow system. Leads to less ventilation valves on main deck.
- The fuel tanks connected to the system have a common ring pipe, normally 2
drain/storage tanks for fuel oil and normal ventilation of these tanks. FO overflow
pots are giving alarm if any of the tanks goes in overflow.

Page 27
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.3 Introduction to main system diagrams - System by system
2.2.3.2 Machinery Systems & Other Systems
• Tank Sounding System: (SFI: 821 )
- A system describing type of tank sounding outfitting on each tank.
- Different types of tank sounding equipment are for manual sounding, local reading
and remote reading.

• Dispersant System: ( SFI: 489 )


- The purpose of this system is to clean up oil spill at sea.
- The operation is by spraying a dispersant on oil spill in order to dissipate oil slicks.
There is a chemical process and oil is broken up into smaller parts and
finally diluted with water.
- The system consists of dispersant tank, spraying booms, dispersant pump,
dispersant transfer pump (to platforms) and flowmeter.

2.2.4 Special equipment and Expressions


• EX: Explosion hazardous area
• ORO: Oil Recovery Operation
• LFL: Low Flammable Liquid
- See further description under ORO System, Methanol System and Steam System.
• Mud agitator:
- Mud agitator is agitating, stirring the mud so it is in constant movement inside the
tanks. If not the mud can become stiff and hard inside the tank and there will be
problems when pumping out.
- Mud agitator is mounted inside each mud tank and can be hydraulically or
electrically driven.
• Hydraulic Powerpack:
- Hydraulic Powerpack, often called HPU, is a pump central producing the necessary
hydraulic power to operate hydraulic driven pumps, cranes and other
equipment.
• Incinerator:
- Burning of waste oil, sludge and garbage is carried out using the incinerator.
Incinerator can be powered by fuel oil or electrical type.
• Sampling:
- Expression for taking a sample from any tank or media. To prepare for sampling
normally includes to prepare a 1" socket with a ball valve.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

2. PIPING THEORY and INTRODUCTION TO P&IDs


2.2 System Diagram Introduction – P&ID
2.2.4 Special equipment and Expressions

• Purging:
- Purging is an expression used f. ex. for methanol system. Methanol is extremely
fire hazardous. After methanol has been pumped through the pipes it is
necessary to empty the pipes for methanol damp. Then an inert gas is used,
normally nitrogen, to blow the pipes clean. When pipes are filled with nitrogen
gas it is safe.
• E0 list:
- E0 is a DNV class notation meaning unattended machinery space.
- E0 list is a listing of all alarms, surveillances, requirements, etc. necessary to have
to be able to operate the ship with unattended machinery space.
• Torsional vibration calculations:
- When having a classical propulsion arrangement with engine, propeller shaft,
sterntube, propeller and perhaps intermediate shaft and gearbox, a complex
calculation is necessary to hinder that any part in the system is coming
into its own natural frequency vibration. If this is not done it is a high possibility
that a part in the propulsion system will vibrate to a level that is not
acceptable. Vibration, noise, excessive wear and breakdown of parts will
be the result.
- The calculation can be done by engine supplier or supplier of the elastic coupling
(between engine and gearbox).
- The calculation has to be checked and approved by DNV.
• Pressure drop calculations:
- When a liquid is pumped through a pipeline, there is resistance to the flow from
the friction inside the pipe, from each bend and if the liquid is lifted to a
higher elevation. The longer and thinner the pipe is, the more pressure drop.
- A pressure drop calculation is a calculation of how much pressure is lost through
the pipe. From tanktop level up to cargo station on main deck, the pressure
can easily drop 2-3 bar.
• See also DNV Rules, Part. 5, Ch. 3, Sec. 1, B100 for useful definitions.

Page 29
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.1 Planing
• Check the drawings and plan where you want to erect the pipes
• PT pipes do not have ISO drawings, all routing must be planned by yourself
• Planning of routing for many or all systems is recommended
• Check what is recommended for this system (size, material, routing, pressure)
EXAMPLE:
FW cooling System
-all pipes in steel
-pipes to be cleaned by blowing with air
-all valves to have easy access
-de-airing to have a upward gradient to the
expansion tank and no air pocket
-Work pressure = 6bar
-test medium = air or water

• Check also how many pipes you will run in this area and take it into the planning
DO NOT GOOD

Pipes blocking ventilation pipe routing acceptable

Page 30
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.1 Planing
• Check that you are not blocking main entrance, valve handles or further
DO NOT GOOD

Pipes blocking handle Pipe are routed away from the handle

DO NOT GOOD

Pipes blocking ventilation pipe routing acceptable

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.2 Measuring of the pipes
• Pipes have to be routed straight and close together other pipes
NOT GOOD OK

The pipe left from the pillar is not Here are all pipes in a block
together with the other pipes
• Take a good measuring
• Use a minimum of fittings
• Do not lay coupling side by side

DO NOT GOOD

Coupling are side by side and can not Couplings can be easily reached with
be reached with a key tools

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.2 Measuring of the pipes
• The supports are to be planned in the same time
• It is always easier to bend a pipe instead of building long and difficult supports

PT Standard for supports


Pt8-12 between 600 - 800mm
Pt15-18 between 1000-1200mm
Pt20-25 between 1200-1400mm
Pt28-42 between 1500-1700mm

• Use this standard for setting of supports


• Also should every bend have a support
• Check the pipe on vibrating if the pipe vibrates too much, install an extra support

3.1.3 Make an ISO drawing of your pipe ( 3.1.4 Bending with the bending
hand sketch ) machine
- make a small iso with a wire

Note! this pipe can only be bended


with the start from one side!!
Try to find out.

Page 33
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.4 Bending with the bending machine
• Control the pipe of cuts and dents
• Calculate the length of the pipe

- 439+1355+500+1200+ ~500 = 3994mm


- You need a pipe over 4 m.

• Try to use rest pipes


• The pipe have to be burr free, inside and outside
• Use the burr removing machine not the grinding machine

• Change the parts from the machine to the size of your pipe
• Take the pipe inside and measure the first length

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.4 Bending with the bending machine

• Set on the bending radius on the digital pad (90) +the extra radius (2.3) (list from the

• Measure the second bend and take the pipe on level

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.4 Bending with the bending machine
3.1.4.1 Installing of the sealing
! Before you go to this step, the ends of the pipes must be clean and
• There are two different types of connections at STX Vietnam Offshore:
1. Cutting ring
The ring is pressed on the pipe with big pressure and must be pressed on with the
Bending machine

Set on pressure of cutting ring press Finished pipe

2. Walform
A machine form a ring on the pipe with very high pressure must be pressed on with
the Walform machine.

Pipe is ready for be pressed Finished pipe

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.5 Cleaning of the pipe.

• Every pipe must be cleaned by air and oily pipes additional by a sponge (see 000-

blow air in 10s and do not forget to wear safety glasses

• Blinding every pipe with a tape after


• Tighten so much fitting you can in the
cleaning and remove it only on
workshop and mark them with a
board before you connect the
cross
pipe

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.1 Fabrication of PT-pipes
3.1.6 Installation of supports.
• Support always together if possible
• Small pipes can be supported on big pipes (not reverse)

DO NOT GOOD

Too many double supports and pipes


The pipes have a clean design
are not in a straight block
3.1.6 Working on board.

• Never leave a pipe open !!!


• Tightening always every fitting/support immediately after installation
• Mark the tightened fitting with a cross
• Stainless steel and copper pipes have to be covered with fire blanket after
and during installation and welding
• Check your work one more time
• Clean always your working space after you are finished and keep it clean!!

Before After

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.1 Planning
• Check the drawings and plan the erecting of the pipes
• Check what is recommended for this system (size, material, routing, pressure)

EXAMPLE:
a) Planning:
- check the drawings and plan the erecting of the pipes
- Check what is recommended for this system (size, material, routing,
pressure)

EXAMPLE:

Fire System (example from 003-813-001)

PIPES SPECIFICATION.
PIPING SYSTEM CLASS: |||
PIPE PRESSURE CLASS: PN16.
DESIGN WORKING PRESSURE: 7 BAR
TEST PRESSURE: 10, 5 BAR.
PIPE TYPE ACC. PIPE DIM.: ND < 40:
DIN 2391 PRECISION STEEL TUBES. St. 37.4 (On weather deck to be of
stainless steel).
ND =<150:`` DIN 2501 SEAMLESS STEEL PIPES St. 37.0/St. 35.8.1 (w/3.1 B.
cert,)
ND =>200: DIN 2501 SEAMLESS STEEL PIPES St. 37.0/St. 35.8.1 (w/3.1 B.
cert,)

DNV product certificate for all overboard valves and valves on collision
bulkhead according to
DNV Pt.4 Ch.6 Sec 2 and Pt.4 Ch.6 Sec. 6 C300.

FLANGES/THREADS SPECIFICATION.
FLANGE CONNECTIONS TO BE USED FOR PIPE DIMENSION DN >= 40 AND
UPWARDS,
FITTINGS WITH THREADS, PRESS OR CUT RING TO BE USED FOR PIPES LESS
THAN ND < 40.
FLANGES FOR PIPE DIM. ND =<150: NS 2527 PRESSURE RATING PN16.

Page
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.1 Planning
• Check the drawings and plan the erecting of the pipes
• Check what is recommended for this system (size, material, routing, pressure)
EXAMPLE:
NOTES.
1. RECIRCULATION LINE TO BE POSITIONED AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE
TOP OF THE TANK AND TO END AGAINST THE BULKHEAD.
2. FILLING/DISCHARGE STATIONS TO BE EQUIPPED WITH 5" COUPLINGS,
WECO / BEST.
3. HORIZONTAL PUMP SUCTION LINE.
4. THE GALVANIZING OF THE PIPING ARE TO BE EXECUTED AFTER ALL
FABRICATION (WORKING UP
AND WELDING) ARE FINISHED.
5.TANKS ABOVE SHELL TO BE FITTED WITH SUCTION BILGE WELLS (see
"SUCTION IN WELLS" detail). SUCTION PIPE IN SHELL TANKS TO BE ENDED
WITH SUCTION BELLMOUTH.
6. ALL VALVES, COCKS AND CONNECTIONS SHALL BE READILY ACCESSIBLE
FOR MAINTENANCE AND
OPERATION. PIPES RUNS SHALL BE DESIGNED FOR EASY REMOVAL.
7. CARGO PIPELINES ABOVE MAIN DECK TO BE ARRANGED IN A WAY TO
ACHIEVE AS GOOD DRAINAGE
AS PRACTICABLE BACK TO TANK. THE HOSE CONNECTION END SHALL NOT
HAVE ITS FACING
DOWNWARDS.
8. PIPELINES GENERALLY TO HAVE SUFFICIENT DRAIN PLUGS.
9. PUMPS TO HAVE LIQUID FILLED PRESSURE GAUGES ON SUCTION AND
DISCHARGE.
10. THE CARGO SYSTEMS TO BE REMOTE OPERATED AND CONTROLLED
FROM BRIDGE AND CONTROL
ROOM.
In case you have a DN 50 pipe to build:
-pipe is 60.3mm x 4.5mm
-pressure rating is PN 16
-the pipe must be send to galvanizing
-when the pipe have a water trap on weather deck, a drain socket have
to be installed
-all valves should have easy access

Page 40
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.2 Building of ISO pipes
How to calculate the correct cutting length of pipe from spool length on the ISO
drawing.
• You will find all information in the drawing

Example: Pipe Nr. 3001_8131_125004

In the right upper corner are the part and quantity


In the lower right corner are information about vessel no., coating, galvanizing and
the pipe no.

Spool No.1

The Spool is 3135mm long from middle of the gasket to middle of the gasket

3135mm – 3mm = 3132mm

pipe = 3125 – 3mm = 3122mm

So, you have to cut a pipe of 3122mm

Spool No. 3

The first length is 400mm from the middle of gasket to middle of elbow

Elbow = 18*
the pipe is 383mm – 1.5mm for the half gasket and 2mm for the welding gap
= 379,5mm

You have to cut a pipe of 380mm

- Do not forget to subtract the welding gap and the gasket


A normal gasket at STX Vietnam Offshore is 3mm!!!

………….(please calculate the rest by your own)

Page 41
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.3 Pipe biulding on board
Some times you have to reroute pipes because of pipe touching or to erect the
last spool before equipment (pump).
• Measure the pipe on board
• Take a good measuring
• Use a minimum of elbows
• Do not block valve handles
• Be aware for pipe touching

3.2.4 Make an ISO drawing of your pipe


3.2.5 Calculation
• The first pipe is 100mm from end of the
flange on board to the 90* elbow

100mm
– 5mm (flange)
– 3mm (gasket)
– 76mm (elbow), Check relevant table to
find the building length of an elbow DN 50

= 76mm
– 2mm (welding)
= 14mm 60.3mm pipe

• The second length is 1000mm from the middle of flange to middle of the elbow

You calculate the elbow radius for a 60mm (see appendix 4.4 "bending pipe chart" )
= 36*

The building length you must measure by your self = 81mm

1000mm
-106mm (building length of elbow +36* elbow
-2mm (welding gap)
-2mm (welding gap)
-76mm (elbow) = 814mm

Page 42
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.5 Calculation
• The third length is 600mm from middle of the bend, to end of the offset

The offset can be calculated (see appendix 4.5 "Bends offset chart" ).
= 48* so you need 2 elbows of 48*
The building length must be measured and is = 113mm
600mm
- 113mm
- 2mm (welding gap)
- 2mm (welding gap)
- 76mm (elbow) = 407mm

• The last length is 500mm

500mm
- 2mm(welding gap)
- 5mm(flange)
- 3mm (gasket) =490mm

To build this pipe we will need:

2 flanges DN 50 PN 16

1 elbow 36*
2 elbow 48*
2 elbow 90*
1 pipe = 14mm 60.3mmx4,5mm
1 pipe =814mm 60.3mmx4,5mm
1 pipe =407mm 60.3mmx4,5mm
1 pipe =490mm 60.3mmx4,5mm

Note:
By building a pipe to connect equipment, the flanges must be point welded on
board.

Page 43
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.6 Building of pipes
• Build all pipes in the workshop
• All hot work should be done in the workshop
• Work clean and safety
All fitting must be cut before you start to built the pipe

3.2.7 Preparing

All parts must be cut exactly Elbows have to be cut with the elbow

3.2.8 Start the work

Prepare a clean working


condition

Page 44
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.8 Start the working
Grind the pipe and elbows, also the first
25mm By the side of the welding it must be Start to weld the offset together
oil and rust free

• Always use a wire for the welding gap.


• Use always a water level and check often.
• The pipe must always be tag welded with minimum 3 points.

the other Offset now the two pipes on the second


offset

Page 45
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.8 Start of working
• Be always as precise as you can

The 90* elbow The first offset with pipe 1 and 2

• Keep your working place clean

• Check our tools every time


before you start the work

• When grinding and welding be sure


not to harm other workers

3.2.9 Tag welding of flanges The finished pipe

Take the pipe in level, then use a Check always all sides with a water
water level to get the flange holes level and flange angle tool.

Note!!: To build a pipe that is connecting to equipment,

• After measuring, control and cleaning of the pipe, the pipe can be sent to welding
and galvanizing (painting)
Page 46
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.2 Fabrication of steel pipes
3.2.10 Working on board
NOTE!! NEVER LEAVE A PIPE OPEN!!!!
• Tightening always every bolt/support immediately after installation
• Mark the tightened bolts with a cross
• Check your work one more time
• Clean always your working place after you are finished and, keep it clean!!
• Take only the material on board which you will install on the same day!
• Take care of other workers

Before After
3.2.11 Site run of last spool before equipment
• The last spool of pipe before equipment shall not be produced according to ISO
drawing in the workshop, but be made on site after that the equipment is mounted.
There are always building tolerances on board the ship and if pipes are prefabricated
according to ISO drawing (with theoretical dimensions) this will not fit precisely to
the flange on the pump etc.
• If pipes are prefabricated and forced in place, high stress will be present in the
system, with high risk for breakage some place and problems with
moun ng/demoun ng.

Page 47
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.3 Some common routing problems to be aware of (for all pipe fitters)
Although the steel pipes are built according to ISO drawings and the routing is by
that decided, the piping erector should always bear in mind some important areas:
• There shall be sufficient space around the pipe:
- Below the pipe there shall perhaps be a drip tray. Is there space for this?
- Remember to keep sufficient distance to points where the pipe shall be clamped.
- Shall the pipe be insulated? This requires extra space around the pipe.
- In general the pipes routed along a bulkhead/deck have flanges and the distance
between the flange and the bulkhead should be 1-2 cm. Enough space so that it is
possible to paint underneath.
• To keep in mind and allow space for operation of valve handles. This is important
for the pipe being built and also for pipes located below or behind. Some types of
valve handles have a movement.
• To keep in mind and allow space for mounting of valve actuators. Be conscious to
find the best rotation position for the valve.
• There shall be adequate access to flanges located behind or below the pipe being
built. It must be possible to connect and disconnect all flanges on board after all the
pipes are built.
• The pipe shall not block the way through manholes, hatches or ladders.
• The pipe shall not block the opening of cabinet doors (electro or other).
• Care should be taken if pipes are routed in service spaces for components. It can
be accepted in some cases provided that essential areas are not blocked.
• If a pipe is obviously routed in passage way or escape way, this should be fixed or
reported to a person in charge.
• Any other point that an experienced pipe fitter can think of will be a problem,
should be taken care of or reported to a person in charge.
• It is always better to rectify such bad piping practices in an early stage than to
build the pipe and wait for that somebody else is taking responsibility.

3.4 Pipe erection by block


3.4.1 Pre-outfitting

• The vessels are constructed as blocks/units in Hull Factory. Pre-outfitting for piping
is to install pipes and the system components belonging to the block at the block
fabrication stage.

• The benefit of Pre-outfitting is that we can save many man-hours in comparison


with erecting pipes in a closed area when the blocks have been connected together.

• The blocks are numbered from B1 to B7 in example drawing below.

Page 48
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.1 Pre-outfitting
• 3D zone concept is 3D area on the vessel where all piping of designed systems go
through.

• In order to erect pipes with pre-outfitting, the below steps are being followed to
define which spools are erected on what block:
- Define the limit of the block by Frame to Frame with Block/Unit Arrangement
Drawings.
- Define the block containing which 3D zones with Arrangement Drawings.
- Use Piping arrangement drawings of defined 3D zones to know which pipes located
in that 3D zones.
- Take the Isometric drawings of defined spools for construction.

Block/Unit Arrangement Drawing

Piping Arrangement Drawing

Page 49
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.1 Pre-outfitting

Block under pre-outfitting stage


3.4.2 Pipe erection by module
• Piping Module is a group of pipes and components which can be fitted together in
the workshop and the whole piping group (assembled together), is lifted onboard
the vessel and fitted. This is more effective than erecting one by one spool on the
vessel.

Module of piping in Upper cement room

Page 50
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.2 Pipe erection by module
• The benefit of piping erection by module is saving many man-hours and lifting
equipment. We also can save time for scaffolding building and manual piping
transportation means as using chain block.

• In order to erect piping by module, the below steps are followed:


- Study Piping arrangement drawing of each 3D zone to know how the pipe spools
are arranged at completion of that zone/area.
- Study Room layout drawing to know how the equipments are arranged in that
zone/area.
- Define which piping spools and components can be built as module.
- Define which spools and components belonging to that module as per spool
number.
- Collect spools and components to erect the module on the ground. Some supports
can be attached to the module at this stage.
- When the area is ready with hull condition, we board the piping module on vessel
at the correct co-ordinate location.
- Install sufficiently pipe supports and complete tightening.
- Have focus on proper alignment of the pipes, flanges should be parallel to each
other before tightening with bolts, minimum stress between the flanges is
important.

002 – 352 – 253 Piping arrangement in Upper Cement Room

Page 51
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.3 Pipe erection with isometric drawing (ISO) and P&ID drawing
• Before erecting spools, make sure that you follow the below steps:

- Prepare all ISO drawings of the 3D zone or area of the system you are going to
erect.
- Put all those ISOs together, connect them together following drawing, then you
know the complete line you are going to erect.
- Make a list for all components on that line (valves, pressure indicator,
thermometer …) following the ISO drawings.
- Study the P&ID drawing to define where that line is located in P&ID.
- Compare your component list with P&ID to make sure there is not any component
missing in your list. For pressure indicator and thermometer, you don’t need to
install them at the beginning, but the sockets for them have to be on the spools.
- Prepare all spools following these ISOs.
- Prepare all valves and other components (if any) according to the component list.
To remind, all sockets for pressure indicators and thermometer have to be on
spools. If you find any sockets missing, please make it just after mounting the spool
on vessel.
- All the sockets and other open ends always to be blinded during and after being
erected.
• Example of ISO preparation: 2002 – 3524 – 401002 (Base Oil system):

- At the end of the spool in this drawing, you see the connection to ISO 2002 – 3524
– 404002
- Take ISO 2002 – 3524 – 404002 you see the connection back to 2002 – 3524 –
401002 and another connecting point to 2002 – 3524 – 404003

- On the ISO 2002 –


3524 – 404002 at below
sketch, you see that we
have 02 valves
numbered 352.4041
and 352.4042. We have
to prepare these two
valves before erecting
the spools.

2002 – 3524 – 401002

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.3 Pipe erection with isometric drawing (ISO) and P&ID drawing
• Example of ISO preparation: 2002 – 3524 – 401002 (Base Oil system):
- At the other end of ISO
2002 – 3524 – 404002,
we see one socket ½”
and a connecting point to
the components
numbered 351.009.10.
- This socket has to be on
the spool before erecting
and plugged properly. If
not, you make it, either
making a socket or
plugging it.
- By learning P&ID
drawing of Base Oil
system, we will know
that 351.009.10 is the 2002 – 3524 – 404002
Pump. FW ( eld weld)
will be only welded when the spool is properly aligned and connected to the pump.

2002 – 3524 – 404002 Base Oil system

Page 53
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.3 Pipe erection with isometric drawing (ISO) and P&ID drawing
• During erecting piping spools and components:
- Make sure that you erect the spool exactly with the co-ordinate location and
direction showing on ISO. Ex: Fr45 – 130, CL –> PS 1254, Base + 1880 is the co-
ordinate location on 2002 – 3524 – 404002.
- Make sure that there is not any spools and pipes collision.

Not like this After repair - a small gap => OK

• For flange connection, make sure that all gaskets have to be greased to prevent
leaking before tightening flanges together.
- Make sure that all the bolts of each flange connection are fitted sufficiently and
properly tightened before you leave this spool to other ones.

Not like this Like this

Page 54
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.3 Pipe erection with isometric drawing (ISO) and P&ID drawing
• For valves mounting, the below notes have to be followed:

- Make sure that the valve handles can be operated properly. Any collisions are not
acceptable.
- Make sure that the valve handles are not sticking out to the walkway
- All bolts have to be fitted sufficiently and properly tightened.
- After finish mounting a valve, make sure that you try to open and close that valve
one time. All valves have to be 100% opened/closed before you move to other
locations.

Before repair - Not like this After repair - OK

Before repair - Not like this After repair - OK

Page 55
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.4 Setting of support
Supports "supporting" the pipes and taking vibration and stress from the pipe.
All support must be welded complete
You can find a list of minimum distances for steeel pipes in the appendix 4.4
Also every bend should have a support.
Be aware to not build support with a
like this the water can flow away
water pot/trap

Always cut angels or grind them smooth:

The upper support is good/ the lower is


The support is grinded smooth
not grinded

Page 56
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.4 Pipe erection by block
3.4.4 Setting of support

By welding on a bulkhead outside or


tank a doubling must be used. -Two holes (or more) in the angle bar
Do not weld to the outside or under the by the use of the stamping machine
floor use other solutions.

3.5 Cleaning, testing and coating of piping systems


• Ref. diagram "PIPE SYSTEMS, TEST, CLEANING AND COATING", diagram no. 000-
104-004 (attached in appendix 4.2) for information and details about the following:
3.5.1 Pipe cleaning inside
• It is important that the pipes are treated correctly in the cleaning and preparation
process in order to prevent corrosion and dirt in the piping systems.
3.5.2 Pipe coating/preservation
• It is very important that the pipes are protected in the best possible way in order
to withstand corrosion and wear from weather and cargo/chemicals.
• Always refer to the System Diagram for the specific system or to the drawing "Pipe
Systems, Test and Inspections". Ship owner can have special requests that are
varying from yard standard.
• Fuel oil, base oil and lub. oil are reacting with the zinc in the galvanizing and these
pipes are in general not to be galvanized. The parts of these pipes that are located
outside exposed to seawater, are not well protected against corrosion. A proper
solution is to galvanize only on the outside, the parts that are in wet area. An
alterna ve is to metallize these pipes on the outside.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.5 Cleaning, testing and coating of piping systems
3.5.3 Pressure testing
• Class (DNV or other) has requirements for pressure testing of each piping systems.
This is to verify the quality of the materials, welding and work of the shipyard in
order to ensure that there are no leakages in the piping systems.
• Always refer to the System Diagram for the specific system or to the drawing "Pipe
Systems, Test and Inspections". Test levels can differ from the levels given in this
diagram, from project to project.
• See drawing No: xxx - 104 - 001 / "Piping system, test & inspection".
3.5.4 NDT testing (Non Destructive Testing)
• Class (DNV or other) has requirements for NDT / X-ray testing of a group of welds
belonging to pipe classes I and II. This is to verify the quality of the welding work
done by the shipyard in order to hinder leakages or fractures in the welds.
3.5.5 Flow coding
• Colour flow code marking for the cargo pipes and main machinery pipes gives
information about the flow direction and which system it is. This is for all pipes
over DN 40. Makes it much easier for the crew to get the overview and have
control.
• The main rule is a distance of
about 3 meters between the
markings which have to be in the
correct colour.
The pipe must be cleaned before
gluing the name tag to the pipe.
After this the colour flow tape must
be glued on the pipe.

The tape must always have a overlap

The arrow must be shown in the right


direction (flow direction).

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.5 Cleaning, testing and coating of piping systems
3.5.5 Flow coding
Flow code colours (possible with some variations in colours from one ship to the
next, depending on the ship operator):

Steam = silver
Bulk handling = black
Bilge = green
Purge Air = blue
Fresh Water = blue
Sea Water = green
Fire = red
Sanitary discharge = black
Fuel Oil = Brown
Liquid Mud = brown
Ballast drill water = green
Oro = brown
Brine = green

3.6 Yard standard for piping components


3.6.1 Bulkhead and deck penetration
• The 2 main penetration methods are by using a sleeve or using a bulkhead flange.
• To use a sleeve penetration is less expensive and safer regarding leakage from the
pipe.
There are single side sleeves, connec ng sleeves and penetra on sleeves.
Single side sleeve Connecting sleeve

Penetration sleeve

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.1 Bulkhead and deck penetration
• To use a bulkhead flange leaves the pipes demountable, which normally is an
advantage.
• Single bulkhead flange (set-on flange) is used when needed to have flange
connection on one side of bkhd and not on the other side (f. ex. with demountable
pipe connection to a tank)

• Double bulkhead flange is used when needed to have flange connection on both
sides of a bkhd or deck, with demountable pipe connections on both sides.

• For higher pressure


flanges above 40 bar
( f.ex. hydraulic
pipes) MFAS flange
(single or double
bulkhead flange) with
o-ring sealing is used.
The o-ring (rubber
gasket) is allowing for
higher pressure.

Page 60
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.1 Bulkhead and deck penetration
• Roxtec sealings are DNV accepted for ues in penetration through the deck and
bulkheads that requires watertight or gastight penetration. Roxtec is also used on
chilled water system for thermal insulation between pipe and bulkhead.
Note: Roxtec parts are
expensive, so avoid
using water - or gastight
penetration throught
the beams/deck which
is not require water or
gastight
3.6.2 Overboard pipes
• Special attention is necessary for overboard pipes. This is the pipe going from the
(DNV) classified overboard valve to overboard.
• It is very serious if this pipe is breaking because then seawater can enter
uncontrolled into the vessel.
• The overboard pipe is continuously exposed to a harsh corrosive environment
because:
- Seawater is a salt and corrosive fluid
- The water in the overboard pipe can remain in the pipe for a long time and not
being refreshed with new water, which makes it more acid and corrosive.
- When sleeves are used it is a risk for that seawater is coming into very small
gaps/spaces between pipe and sleeve and becoming more aggressive regarding
corrosion.
• Overboard pipes to have a thickness of min. 11 mm according to DNV.
• After finished welding the overboard pipes, MPI (magnetic particle inspection)
testing should be applied.
• Overboard pipes to be galvanized unless otherwise is specified.
• Supporting brackets to be used between overboard pipe and hull.
3.6.2.1 Overboard pipes and sleeves
• Only penetration sleeves to be used, no
connecting sleeves. To connect an
overboard pipe inside a sleeve is not
accepted by class.
• Overboard pipe to be built completely,
including sleeve, before sending to
galvanizing.
• Thickness of sleeves to be about 10mm.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.3 Bended pipes and elbows
• Elbow standard (commercial type)
- Standard elbow with bending rad. = 1,5 x dia. is the standard method used for
bending a pipe at STX Vietnam.
- Are delivered in 22,5 / 45 / 90 / 180 degrees and other angles can be made out
from these.

• Elbow short radius:


- Elbow short radius with
rad. = 1 x dia. is available
from supplier.
- Can be used when necessary
for making installation easier,
etc.

• Elbow big radius:


- Elbow big radius with rad. = 5 x dia. is available from supplier.
- For BHS system it is a requirement from owner to use such big radius for making
loading/offloading of BHS cargo smoother.
• Bended pipe:
- To use bended pipe method a special bending machine for pipes is necessary.
- STX Vietnam has a bending machine for small pipes (precision steel tubes) but not
for the bigger cargo pipes.
3.6.4 Branch line connection with "saddle" or "T-pipe"
• Saddle connection
- To make a branch line from a main pipeline with "saddle" connection is the normal
method used in STX Vietnam.

- The diameter
of the branch
line can be
equal to or
smaller than the
main line.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.4 Branch line connection with "saddle" or "T-pipe"
• T-pipe connection
- An alternative method of making a branch line is with a "T-pipe" connection.
- The diameter of the branch line can be equal to or smaller than the main line.
- This connection can be used when necessary for making installation easier, etc.

3.6.5 Reducers
• Reducers are used when making a diameter change on a pipeline. Normally
delivered in to 1, 2 or 3 steps below main diameter.
• The 2 types used are concentric type and eccentric type, where concentric is the
most normal.
3.6.6 Drains
• Drain pipes shall not be
routed horizontally, always
with inclination (min. 2%).

3.6.6.1 External drains


• The function of the external
drain system is to lead away
water (or oily water or
equivalent) from outside decks and areas where otherwise will have some level of
water when raining, in rough sea, etc. All drains are described on the external drain
pipe system drawing.
• Drain can be placed in 4 corners to ensure that all water from this area is drained
away. Alternatively drains are placed in forward end, if the boat normally has
forward trim, or the opposite.
• There are drains from each deck to deck below, to overboard or connected to
another drain line.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.6 Drains
3.6.6.1 External drains
• Where possible, external drains from one deck to be routed directly above the
drain down to next level.
• All drain pipes to be hot galvanized

3.6.6.1 External drains


• It is also necessary to have an internal drain system because of water from
condensation and washing/flushing. All internal drains are described on the internal
drain pipe system.
• If a drainpipe is going from one watertight area to another it is required to have a
selfclosing valve on the outlet. Otherwise the 2 sections are not watertight and can
be a possible risk in an emergency situation.
• To make a gutter is quite normal in order to
collect all condensation water from the inner side
of bulkhead and
to make a drain
pipe system
from the gutters
to bilge tank or
to overboard.
See drawings
beside:

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.7 Pipe supports / Clamps
• There is a lot of vibration on board the ship and pipes need to be supported. If this
job is not done properly it is a high risk of that fractures in the piping system will
occur. Pipes that are vibrating are also creating excessive noise.
• All pipes must be evaluated if they need to be clamped. Thick pipes over a short
distance do not need extra support, but most pipes onboard have to be clamped.
Below are shown the most common types of clamps to be used.
- Flat bar pipe clamps (NS 5553):

- U-bolt clamps (NS 5550):

- Clamp support (NS 6007 A):

- Clamps
with
insulation
(because of
heat or
coldness):

Page 65
PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.7 Pipe supports / Clamps
• The piping designer should always do the routing so that clamping is possible. To
route the pipe in the middle of a room is not good. The pipe fitter will sometimes
have to build extra support for the pipe clamp.
• The pipe should not be routed in close proximity to bulkhead or deck in order to
allow adequate space for the pipe support.
• When pipes are insulated, the pipe support should be in contact only with the
insulation, if possible. Ref. illustration above.
3.6.8 Pipe joint methods
• There are many ways how to joint a pipe to a flange or to another pipe. Some of
the methods used in STX are shown below.
3.6.8.1 Pipe to flange with slip-on flange
• A very common way is to weld a pipe to a slip-on flange. The pipe is welded 2
places to the flange. Distance from pipe end to flange end should be 10 mm as a
standard (the same for all pipe thicknesses. See appendix 4.6 for length adjustments
on cutting length for spool, valid for vessel 03 – 06 on STX Vietnam.

• For PN40 a
variation of this slip-
on flange is used;

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.8 Pipe joint methods
3.6.8.2 Pipe to flange with welding neck flange
• To butt-weld a pipe to a welding neck flange is similar to the connection above but
this flange connection is stronger and more solid. The strength ratio is about 2/3 in
favour of the welding neck flange.
• Also recommended for dimensions less than DN40 instead of slip-on flanges.

3.6.8.3 Pipe to flange with welding collar in combination with a slip-on flange
• On SW cooling system there are CuNi pipes in combination with steel flanges, two
different materials which can not be welded together. The way to solve this is to
weld the CuNi pipe on to a prefabricated welding collar of CuNi. A loose flange of
steel, a "slip-on" flange is combined with the collar. Then the pipe end with flange is
ready to be connected to a pump flange or similar.

Welding collar

Slip-on flange

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.6 Yard standard for piping components
3.6.8 Pipe joint methods
3.6.8.4 Pipe to pipe joint with Straub Grip coupling
• It is a method for quick and easy connection and disconnection.
• Can be used for black steel and galvanized steel without damaging the galvanizing
layer.
• Is normally used on the BHS system. Can also be used on other systems.
• Is allowing for some flexibility in pipe alignment.

3.7 Tank accessories


3.7.1 Tank sounding

• For almost all structural tanks on


board it is required by class to have
2 independent possibilities of
checking the tank level. The
exception is for a CD which is not
intended to carry any media.
• Tank sounding devices are divided
in 3 main types:

- Remote sounding
+ For most of the tanks on board it is required by class to have sounding
sensorsgiving a continuous signal/information to the alarm and monitoring system
for the ship.
+ There are different types of remote sounding of the level in a tank, The main
types used for STX ships are:

• The level sensor is a float with electric signal transmittal.


• Hydrostatic level transmitter is measuring the gravitational pressure of
the liquid in the tank using a capacitive ceramic sensor. Electric signal
transmittal.
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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.7 Tank accessories
3.7.1 Tank sounding
+ There are different types of remote sounding of the level in a tank, The
main types used for STX ships are:
• A pneumatic type with pneumatic signal transmittal is measuring the
gravitational pressure in the bottom of the tank.
• An electric sensor with electric signal transmittal.
o Example below is from a mud tank. 2 sensors are installed at
1000mm distance in between. This type is measuring variations
in density of mud and can because of this give a more correct
level indicating at any time.

- Local sounding:
+ This is based on a local system for
reading of the level in the tank. The
main types are:
• Sight glasses mounted on
outside bulkhead of the tank.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.7 Tank accessories
3.7.1 Tank sounding
- Local sounding
+ This is based on a local system for
reading of the level in the tank. The
main types are:

• Sounding clock mounted on


outside bulkhead of the tank
based on the gravitational
pressure from the media.

- Manual sounding
This is based on that a sounding
pipe/dipstick or similar is dipped
manually directly down in the tank and
the reading is done when pulling the
dipstick out. A cap has to be removed
from the tank. The 2 types alternatives
are: • Manual screwed cap.
• Sounding cock/valve with
pedal. This is a type of self
closing valve.
3.7.2 Level alarm
• For many of the tanks on board the ship
it is required to have level alarm. It can be
alarm on high level, on low level or for
both high and low level.
• Type of level alarms are:
- Float switch. A float is giving signal when
liquid level is reaching the float. See
different installation alternatives below.

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3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.7 Tank accessories
3.7.2 Level alarm
• Type of level alarms are:
- Electric sensor that is sensing when
liquid is coming into contact.

Lidec L20D
Typ. mud tanks

Lidec
L20-70 DW
Typ. mud tanks
Encl. by other
tanks

- An alarm signal can be taken from the analog signal from the level indicator. But
in many cases class is requirement an signal from an independent sensor/switch.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.7 Tank accessories
3.7.2 Level alarm
• Below is a list of the normal requirements for level alarms for the most common
tanks. The list below is added only for reference, do always check the system
drawings or IO/E0 list for the specific project.

SFI System Alarm Remarks


326 Bulk Handling tanks No requirement Ref. supplier P&ID
352 BW/DW tanks No requirement
352 FW cargor tanks No requirement
352 FO cargo tanks High When Clean notation
352 BO Cargo tanlks High When Clean notation
352 Brine tanks High
352 Liquid Mud Tanks High
352 Alarm also on
Methanol tanks High surrounding
CD, if liquid is entering.
382 Hot water tanks for tankwash No requirement
581 Sewage tank High
701 Conn. to overflow
FO settling tank High and low
system
701 Conn. to overflow
FO service tank Low system
Also LCH and LCL
701 FO drain tank High
711 Conn. to overflow
LO tank
system
803 Dirty oil tank High
803 Bilge tank High
803 Sludge tank High

3.7.3 Heating coil


• For some tanks it is needed to have heating. This is done by means of heating
coils where hot water or hot steam is flowing in pipes inside the tank to be
heated.
3.7.4 Steam injection

• For ORO tanks it can be a requirement to have steam injection directly into the
tank for heating the collected oil. This is to keep the oil hot and liquefied so that it
will be possible to pump the oil out from the tanks.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

3. PIPING ON BOARD
3.7 Tank accessories
3.7.5 Temperature sensor
• For some tanks a temperature sensor is mounted. This is normally done first
mounting a temp. pocket in the tank. Then the temp. sensor is mounted in this.
Advantage with this solution is that it is possible to change sensor without
emptying the tank.

3.7.6 Sampling point

• For some tanks it shall be prepared a possibility to take a sample of the media
from a position outside of the tank.
• This can be done by mounting a 1" socket in the tank near the bottom and
mounting a ball valve directly to this.
• The bulkhead penetration can for some reason be higher up from tank bottom,
then a small pipe on the inside of the tank (to near the bottom) should be
mounted.

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

4.TYPICAL DRAWING SYMBOL

Centrifugal pump Screw pump Gear pump W/EL. Propeller pump Diaphragm pump
W/EL. Pump W/EL. Pump Pump W/EL. Pump air driven

Flow meter Heat exchanger Bucket Box cooler Ejector

2-cell, double valve chest, remote 2-cell, NR. Bilge


operation w/Pneumatic actuator chest

Butterfly valve
Butterfly valve Butterfly valve w/Pneum.
Butterfly valve w/Pneum.
w/EL actuator Actuator&spring
Actuator

Butterfly valve
Globe valve NR check valve NR Globe valve Solenoid valve
w/Hydr. Actuator

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

4.TYPICAL DRAWING SYMBOL

Relief valve angle


Storm Flap valve NR relief valve Relief valve Self closing valve
type

Spectacle blind - Spectacle blind - Blind flange valve Blind flange valve 3-way motor
open (Blind flange) close (Blind flange) NC NO operated valve

Temp. reg. valve 3-way thermostat 3-way thermostat


mixing valve 3-way valve Ball valve
pilot operated valve, WAX type

Ball valve Ball valve W/Hydr.


Solenoid ball valve 3-way valve L-type 3-way valve T-type
W/Pneu. Actuator Actuator

3-way solenoid Quick openning Flow regulating


Regulating valve Quick closing valve
valve (L-type) valve valve

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

4.TYPICAL DRAWING SYMBOL

Pressure reduction Self-regulating Fire valve


Diaphragm valve Gate valve
valve valve (Hydrant)

Rubber
Orifice Orifice adjustable Flexible coupling Filter
compensator

Mud box Sight glass Liquid seperator Steam trap Hose coupling

Cargo hose Break away


Amature number Hand pump Deaerator
coupling coupling

Suction piece
Funnel Reducer Blind cover Agitator
( Bell mounth )

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

4.TYPICAL DRAWING SYMBOL

Low level Alarm


1/4" socket for
tag
Tank washing Pressure indicator Temp. Indicator DPI-
( Test by pin down)
instrumentation

Ball valve for


Pipe up Orifice adjustable Flexible coupling Insulation for pipe
instrument

Flow direction
Corrosion piece Hose Bilge well Scupper
arrow

LAH

High level Alarm


tag
Exhaust fan Spark arrestor Flue gas damper Expansion joint
( Test by pin up)

Air vent valve


Air vent valve
Air vent valve venting through Blind cover Agitator
W/flame screen
ship side

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PIPING INSTRUCTION * SHIPBUILDING

4.TYPICAL DRAWING SYMBOL

Air vent valve


Air vent valve
Air vent valve W/Flame screen
Air vent valve venting through Air vent for Mud
W/flame screen venting through
ship side
ship side

Water trap Goose neck PV vavle

Page 78