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TASK 1

1.0 DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE TERMS

1.1 TENSES

a. PAST TENSE

 Simple Past Tense


A verb tense that is used to show a completed action at a certain
time in the past, describe a habit which stopped in the past,
describe past facts or generalization which are no longer true aside
from express a desire or an action that had no possibility of
happening. The simple past tense of regular verbs is marked by
the ending -d, -ed, or –t while irregular verbs have a variety of
endings. The simple past is not accompanied by helping verb.

 Past Continuous Tense


A tense that is made up of a past form of the verb “to be” ("was" or
"were") plus a present participle to describe interrupted action in the
past, express an action at a particular moment in the past which
started before that moment but has not finished at that moment,
show two things happening at the same time or express the idea of
repetition and irritation which often happened in the past.
 Past Perfect Tense
A verb tense that is formed with the auxiliary had and the past
participle of a verb to express the idea that is something occurred
before another action in the past or show that something started in
the past and continued up until another action in the past.

b. PRESENT TENSE

 Simple Present Tense


A verb tense that expresses action in the present time, habitual
actions or general truths.

 Present Continuous Tense

A verb construction made up of a present form of the verb “to be”


plus a present participle that conveys a sense of ongoing action at
the present time. The present continuous tense may also be used
to refer to things that are planned for the future (for example, "I am
resigning tomorrow").

 Present Perfect Tense

An aspect of the verb expressing an action that began in the past


and which has recently been completed or continues into the
present. The present perfect is formed by combining has or have
with a past participle (usually a verb ending in -d, -ed, or -n).

c. FUTURE TENSE

 Simple Future Tense


A verb tense that is formed with the auxiliary will or shall in front of
the base form of a verb to express actions which will be done in
future or show the idea of a general prediction about the future.
 Future Continuous Tense
A verb construction made up of the verb phrase "will be" or "shall
be" plus a present participle that conveys a sense of ongoing action
in the future.

 Future Perfect Tense

A verb form that expresses action completed by a specified time in


the future and it is formed by combining will have or shall have with
a past participle.

1.2 QUESTION FORMS

a. ‘WH’ – QUESTION WORDS

Who – Whom – Whose


‘Who’ (subject) and ‘Whom’ (object) are used to ask about people
while ‘Whose’ is used to ask about possession.

Which
A question word that is used to find out about people or things from
a limited choice.

What
A question word that is used to get details about people or things.

Where
A question word that is used to get details about places.

When
A question word that is used to get details about time.

Why
A question word that is used to ask about reason.
How
A question word that is used to ask about the manner something is
done or the condition of something.

b. YES OR NO QUESTION

An interrogative construction that expects an answer of “yes” or “no”. Usually


the question will use ‘do’ (to find out information or fact about person, places
or things), ‘have’ (to find out if something happened or took place) or modal
verbs such as can, could, should, would, may and will (to find out information
that is uncertain or unsure).

c. QUESTION TAG
A question added to a declarative sentence, usually at the end, to engage
the listener, verify that something has been understood, or confirm that an
action has occurred. Common tags include won't you? wasn't it? don't
you? haven't you? okay? and right?

1.3 IDIOMATIC AND FIGURATIVE SPEECH

a. IDIOMATIC
A set expression of two or more words that means something other than
the literal meanings of its individual words. The context can help people
understand what an idiom means. For example: "Put a lid on it". Our
teacher tells us to put a lid on it. She's not really telling us to put a lid on
something but to be quiet and pay attention.

b. FIGURATIVE SPEECH
A figurative speech is where a word or words are used to create an effect,
often where they do not have their original or literal meaning.
 Simile
A simile is a comparison between two different things, designed to
create an unusual, interesting, emotional or other effect often using
words such as 'like' or 'as ... as'.

 Metaphor
A metaphor is a word or phrase that describes one thing being used
to describe another; on a simple level a phrase such as 'the heart of
the matter' is a metaphor as matters do not actually have hearts.

 Personification
A figure of speech in which human characteristics are given to an
animal or an object.

 Alliteration
The repetition of the same initial letter, sound, or group of sounds in
a series of words. Alliteration includes tongue twisters.

 Onomatopoeia
The use of a word to describe or imitate a natural sound or the
sound made by an object or an action.

 Hyperbole
An exaggeration that is so dramatic that no one would believe the
statement is true.
2.0 FINDING LANGUAGE ITEMS IN THE RELEVANT TEXTS