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TRANSPORTE

basket or nacelle that are released from sea level and generally attain a height between

18 and 37 km. The spherical envelope is usually ﬁlled with helium or hydrogen.

In this homework, you are to determine

1. the location of the balloon as a function of time and altitude above sea level, and

2. the stress on the latex envelope as a function of time and altitude above sea level,

if the balloon’s envelope does not change. (Is this a realistic assumption?) You may

assume that the balloon’s diameter is 2.5 m. Take into consideration that the temperature

and pressure of the air surrounding the balloon vary with altitude and that the speed of

the balloon is not constant.

In order to account for the variation of the external pressure and temperature condi-

tions in the atmosphere, troposphere and stratosphere, you have to use an “atmospheric”

model such as the US Standard Atmosphere Model. In order to account for the drag on

the balloon, you have to take into account the Reynolds number and the dependence of

the drag coeﬃcient on the Reynolds number.

As a balloon ascends, the atmospheric pressure decreases, and the balloon’s volume

increases, so the Archimedes force increases. However, the balloon’s diameter cannot

increase forever; the balloon may reach a maximum height where buoyancy exactly bal-

ances gravity and the stress on the envelope does not exceed the material’s (latex) ulti-

mate/failure stress, or the stress equals to or exceeds its ultimate value.

For the same conditions as above, determine

1. the location of the balloon as a function of time and altitude above sea level,

2. the stress on the latex envelope as a function of time and altitude above sea level,

and

3. whether the stress exceeds or does not exceed the envelope’s ultimate/failure stress.

1

Homework no. 2: Dynamics

PGH Industries, Inc., manufactures springs for the damping systems of cars and trucks

and has recently developed a spring where the force F and the length of the spring x have

been found experimentally to be related as

( ( ) )

KL x−L

F (x) = exp α −1 , (1)

α L

where K is the spring constant, α = 1, and L = 0.35 m denote the natural length of the

spring, i.e., F (L) = 0.

Experiments conducted by loading the spring with a mass m = 400 kg at one of its

ends in Paris (France) indicate that the spring’s length is 0.40 m, i.e., the spring has been

elongated 0.05 m.

Engineers at PGH are extremely happy and excited because the above expression

reduces to the well–known linear spring or linear Hooke’s expression

for |x − L| << L and think that the new spring oﬀers many advantages over a linear one.

However, the chief engineer of PGH does not believe so, and has asked his engineers to

convince him that they are right by determining

1. the elastic energy of the new spring and comparing it with that of a linear spring,

2. the response frequency of a mass-spring system consisting of a mass m = 400 kg

attached at one end of the spring when the spring is stretched to x(0) = 0.50 m and

then released, and how this frequency compares with that of a linear spring,

3. whether the new design is or is not subject to the resonance that a linear mass–spring

system experiences when it√ is excited with a force f (t) = A cos(ωt) of amplitude A

K

and frequency ω with ω = m

,

4. the length

√x(t) of the proposed mass–spring system for m = 400 kg, F = 30000 N

and ω = K m

, and

5. values of the inductance l, capacitance c and source voltage v(t) of a series LC–

circuit that has the same response for the current or intensity i(t) as x(t) as in item

4.

A non–technical manager of PGH thinks that the new spring has potential applications

not related with the damping systems developed at PGH. In particular, he thinks that

1. if the spring were stretched and kept so, it would store elastic energy that would be

released when the spring is left free. How would you recover or harvest this energy?

(Think about hydroelectrical plants where water is stored in dams and released to

generate electricity when needed and then pumped up to the dam at night when

there is not much electricity demand.) Is the manager’s idea reasonable and/or

plausible? What eﬃciency do you think one can obtain?

2

Homework no. 3: Stress analysis

A bridge is to be constructed over two pillars 60 m apart. The bridge has to support

two–lane traﬃc in the same direction, be 9 m wide and consist of only two longitudi-

nal beams between the two pillars and a number of transversal beams. Assume that

longitudinal and transversal beams are made of reinforced concrete.

Determine the cross–section of the longitudinal and transversal beams so that the

maximum stress on any component of the bridge is 275 % smaller than its corresponding

failure value, i.e., the safety factor is 2.75, and the bridge’s maximum deﬂection is less

than 2.5 degrees. HINT: you should account for the loads on the bridge due to cars,

trucks, etc., as well as those of the pavement, asphalt, etc.

Hot wires are well–known instruments for measuring the velocity of ﬂuids which are

based on the use of s highly conducting thin wires that are arms of a Wheastone bridge.

As a current ﬂows through the wire, heat is generated by Joule’s eﬀect and heat is lost

by convection and radiation with the ﬂuid. When steady state conditions are reached,

the heat generated by Joule’s eﬀect that depends on the current is balanced out by heat

losses that depend on the ﬂuid velocity; therefore, after calibration, one may obtain the

ﬂuid velocity from the current.

Usually, radiation eﬀects and heat conduction along the wire are neglected,

√ and, as a

consequence, a very simple relation known as King’s law, i.e., i2 = A + B |v|, where i is

the current, v is the ﬂuid’s velocity, and A and B are constants, is obtained.

In this homework, you are to determine the eﬀects of radiation and heat conduction

along the wire on hot wire anemometry and the conditions for which King’s law is not

applicable.

HINTS: you have to take into account that the electrical resistivity is a function

of temperature and, therefore, may change along the wire. Furthermore, if the wire’s

diameter–to–length ratio is not suﬃciently small (how small is small?), the temperature

is not uniform across the wire and, therefore, the electrical resistivity and Joule’s heat

generation are not constant across the wire. You are recommended to consult the web on

Wheastone’s bridge, hot wires, etc.

NOTES

1. You are to do three of the proposed homeworks. If you do the fourth one, extra

points will be added to your grade.

2. Homeworks nos. 1 and 2 are concerned with initial–value problems (IVP), while

Homeworks nos. 3 and 4 are concerned with boundary–value problems (BVP).

Since the ﬁrst part of the course deals with IVP, you can start solving HWs 1 and

2 from the third lecture or so, but you have to wait to the second part of the course

lectures on BVP for HWs 3 and 4.

3

3. You will learn quite a lot from the homeworks if you dedicate them time and do the

coding yourself. If you use available software, make sure that the results you report

make sense and are physically plausible.

4. The four homeworks but especially HWs 1, 3 and 4 are open–ended; this means

that your results will depend on how far you go or how much work you do. And,

the farther you go, the higher would be the greater you will get.

01/03/2019. (You have to deliver a typewritten report on each project and you

should include your MATLAB code if applicable, and the report should contain

your name and last name).

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