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Scheme of work

A-level Biology 7402


v1.2

Introduction
This draft Scheme of work has been prepared by teachers for teachers. We hope you will find it a
useful starting point for producing your own schemes; it is available in Word for ease of editing.

The Scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium-term plan for the teaching of content and
development of the skills that will be assessed. It covers the required content of the second year of
the specification for A-level Biology 7402 together with opportunities that could be used to develop
skills that teachers might wish to use.

The teaching of investigative and practical skills is embedded within the specification. We have
produced a Practical Handbook that provides further guidance on this. There are also opportunities
in this Scheme of work, such as the inclusion of rich questions.

We have provided links to some resources. These are illustrative and in no way an exhaustive list.
We would encourage teachers to make use of any existing resources, as well as resources
provided by AQA and new textbooks written to support the specification.

GCSE prior knowledge comprises knowledge from the 2011 Core and Additional Science AQA
GCSE specifications. Students who studied the separate science GCSE courses can be expected
to have this knowledge but may also have been introduced to other topics which are relevant to the
A-level content. Topics only found in separate sciences are not included in the prior knowledge
section.

We know that teaching times vary across schools and colleges. In this scheme of work we have
made the assumption that it will be taught over about 30 weeks with 4.5 to 5 hours of contact time
per week. In this Scheme of work, there are some extension opportunities which have not been
included in the total teaching time. Teachers will need to fine tune the timings to suit their own
students and the time available. It could also be taught by one teacher or by more than one
teacher with topics being taught concurrently.

Assessment opportunities detail past questions that can be used with students as teacher or
pupil self-assessments of your students’ knowledge and understanding. You may also use
Exampro and the specimen assessment materials that are available via our website.

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Contents
3.5 Energy transfers in and between organisms (A-level only)................................................... 3
3.5.1 Photosynthesis................................................................................................................ 3
3.5.2 Respiration .................................................................................................................... 11
3.5.3 Energy and Ecosystems ............................................................................................... 15
3.5.4 Nutrient cycles .............................................................................................................. 20
3.6 Organisms respond to changes in their internal and external environments (A-level only) .. 24
3.6.1 Stimuli, both internal and external are detected and lead to a response ........................ 24
3.6.2 Nervous coordination. ................................................................................................... 36
3.6.3 Skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract by nerves and act as effectors .................. 45
3.6.4 Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment. ............................... 50
3.7 Genetics, populations, evolution and ecosystems (A-level only) .......................................... 64
3.7.1 Inheritance .................................................................................................................... 65
3.7.2 Populations ................................................................................................................... 76
3.7.4 Populations in ecosystems ............................................................................................ 85
3.8 The control of gene expression (A-level only) .................................................................... 94
3.8.1 Alteration of the sequence of bases in DNA can alter the structure of proteins.............. 95
3.8.2 Gene expression is controlled by a number of features. ................................................ 96
3.8.3 Using genome projects ............................................................................................... 102
3.8.4 Gene technologies allow the study and alteration of gene function allowing a better
understanding of organism function and the design of new industrial and medical processes.
............................................................................................................................................ 104

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Scheme of work
3.5 Energy transfers in and between organisms (A-level only)
This unit can be taught concurrently with unit 3.6, 3.7, or 3.8 if two teachers are delivering the course.
Unit description
Life depends on continuous transfers of energy.
In photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll and this is linked to the production of ATP.
In respiration, various substances are used as respiratory substrates. The hydrolysis of these respiratory substrates is linked to the production of
ATP.
In both respiration and photosynthesis, ATP production occurs when protons diffuse down an electrochemical gradient through molecules of the
enzyme ATP synthase, embedded in the membranes of cellular organelles.
The process of photosynthesis is common in all photoautotrophic organisms and the process of respiration is common in all organisms, providing
indirect evidence for evolution.

3.5.1 Photosynthesis
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Additional Science
 During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll and used to convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen.
 The rate of photosynthesis may be limited by shortage of light, carbon dioxide or low/high temperature.
 Graphs can be interpreted showing how factors affect the rate of photosynthesis.
 There are benefits to artificially manipulating the environment in which plants are grown but these must be evaluated.

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Required practical 7: 0.4  Explain how to Learning activities: Students could saps.org.uk/secondary/t
weeks extract undertake eaching-resources/181-
Use of chromatography  questioning to recall the purpose of
to investigate the photosynthetic BIO6T P12 ISA. student-sheet-10-thin-
doing chromatography
pigments from leaves layer-chromatography-
pigments isolated from  students work through the
leaves of different and separate them for-photosynthetic-
chromatography practical
plants, eg leaves from using pigments
 as extension work, students could
shade-tolerant and chromatography.
then go on to calculate Rf values cleapss.org.uk
shade-intolerant plants  Identify
and compare them to published
or leaves of different photosynthetic
data to identify pigments
colours. pigments found in
 discussion and conclusions about Rich question:
leaves of different
the differences found in plant leaves What is
plants.
of different colour and from different chromatography used
environments. for?

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO1 – development of knowledge
of a scientific technique
 AO2 /AO3 – apply knowledge of
scientific techniques and draw
conclusions as to the pigments
present
 AT g and b
 MS 1.9 – use an appropriate
statistical test (eg to compare mean
distances moved by different

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pigments)
 PS 1.2 – apply scientific knowledge
to practical contexts
 Practical competency –
8.4.2.1/8.4.2.2/8.4.2.3/8.4.2.4

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The light-dependent 0.2  Describe the Learning activities: Past exam uic.edu/classes/bios/bio
reaction of weeks structure of paper material: s100/lectures/light_reac
 questioning to recall GCSE
photosynthesis chloroplasts. tion.htm
knowledge BIOL4 Jan 2013
including:  Explain where,
 teacher led explanation of the – Q8a
 chlorophyll and specifically, the light-
structure of a chloroplast BIOL4 Jan 2010 Rich questions:
dependent reaction
photoionisation  ask students to sketch a graph of – Q8a
 some of the energy occurs.  What roles does
how energised they felt throughout
from electrons  Explain the role of light play in this
a typical day (most will show boosts
released during light in photolysis and process?
every time they eat)
photoionisation is photoionisation. 
 teacher explanation of process of How is ATP
conserved in the  Explain how produced?
light-dependent reaction of
production of ATP photoexcited  How is reduced
photosynthesis (using animations
and reduced NADP electrons move along NADP produced?
and videos). As an extension,
 the production of the electron transfer
students interpret energy level  Explain the role of
ATP involves chain, and how ATP
diagrams during electron transfer - water in the light-
electron transfer and reduced NADP
linking energy level diagram to their dependent reaction.
and the passage of are produced.
graph to aid understanding
protons across  Explain
 card sort – order the statements
chloroplast chemiosmosis and
 exam questions.
membranes the role of ATP
(chemiosmotic synthase in
theory) producing ATP. Skills developed by learning

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 photolysis of water activities:
produces protons,
 AO1/AO2 – development of
electrons and
understanding of the light
oxygen.
dependent reactions of
photosynthesis and application of
knowledge to the context of exam
questions
 AO3 – interpret scientific ideas and
information from energy level
diagrams
 extended exam answers.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The light-independent 0.4  Explain where the Learning activities: Past exam uic.edu/classes/bios/bio
reaction including: weeks light-independent paper material: s100/lectures/calvin.ht
 ask which parts of the
reaction occurs. m
 carbon dioxide photosynthesis equation remain BIOL4 Jan 2013
 Describe the Calvin
reacts with RuBP to unaccounted for – Q5 wps.prenhall.com/wps/
cycle.
form two molecules  provide a synopsis of Calvin’s media/objects/1109/11
of glycerate 3-  Explain the roles of BIOL4 June
lollipop experiment, along with 35896/8_3.html
phosphate (GP). reduced NADP and 2012 –Q4
results from the chromatograms as
This reaction is ATP.
to which substances were present BIOL4 June
catalysed by the  Interpret at different times. Ask pupils to 2013 – Q5 Rich questions:
enzyme Rubisco experimental data suggest a reaction sequence
 about the light BIOL4 June  What role does
ATP and reduced  teacher explanation of process of
NADP are used to independent reaction. 2010 – Q8a–8b reduced NADP play
light-independent reaction (using
reduce GP to triose in this process?
animations and videos). Link to role BIOL4 June
phosphate (TP) of ATP and reduced NADP 2011 – Q8c  What role does ATP
 some of the TP is  analysis of data eg varying carbon play in this
BIOL4 June

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used to regenerate dioxide levels of the concentrations 2014 – Q8 process?
RuBP in the Calvin of RuBP and GP  How many carbon
cycle  exam questions. atoms do RuBP,
 some of the triose GP and TP have?
phosphate is  How is the
converted to useful Skills developed by learning chloroplast adapted
organic activities: to maximising the
substances. rate of
 AO1/AO2 – development of
understanding of the light- photosynthesis in
independent reaction the stroma?
 AO2/AO3 – application of
knowledge to exam questions and
experimental data
 extended exam answers.

Extension Students could produce a video


podcast to summarise the whole
process of photosynthesis.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Required practical 8: 1  Design an Learning activities: BIO6T P11 ISA cleapss.org.uk


Investigation into the week experiment to
Students design an experiment to nuffieldfoundation.org/p
effect of a named investigate the effect
investigate the effect of a named ractical-
factor on the rate of of a named factor on
variable, eg temperature, on biology/investigating-
dehydrogenase activity the rate of the
dehydrogenase activity in extracts of light-dependent-
in extracts of reaction catalysed by
chloroplasts. This could include: reaction-photosynthesis
chloroplasts. dehydrogenase.
 Process data to  researching and designing a scribd.com/doc/646847
calculate rates. suitable method 1/Teaching-A2-Biology-
 Represent raw and  risk assessment Practical-Skills
processed data  carrying out (subject to teacher
aqa.org.uk
clearly using tables approval)
and graphs.  processing and presentation of data
 Explain why  selection and use of appropriate
scientists carry out statistical tests
statistical tests.  drawing conclusion and evaluating
 Calculate an results.
appropriate statistical
test and interpret
values in terms of Skills developed by learning
probability and activities:
chance.
 AO2 /AO3 – apply knowledge of
 Apply knowledge to
scientific techniques and interpret
draw and explain
data to draw conclusions
conclusions.
 AT g and b
 Evaluate the results
conclusions.  MS 1.9 – select (and use) an
appropriate statistical test
 MS 3.1 and MS 3.2 – transfer

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information between tables and
graphs, and plot 2 variables on a
graph
 MS 3.5/MS 3.6 – calculate rate or
work out rate from the slope of a
tangent to a curve
 PS 1.2 – apply scientific knowledge
to practical contexts
 PS 2.4 – consider key variables
 PS 2.2/PS 3.1/MS 3.2/MS 1.3 – plot
the experimental data in an
appropriate format
 PS 2.3/MS3.3 – evaluate data for
errors and uncertainties, and
consider margins of accuracy
 8.4.2.1/8.4.2.2/8.4.2.3/8.4.2.4/8.4.2.
5

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Light, temperature 0.6-  Explain what is Learning activities: Students could nuffieldfoundation.org/p
carbon dioxide (and 0.8 meant by limiting undertake ractical-
 students could undertake an
mineral/ magnesium weeks factors. BIO6T P10, biology/investigating-
investigation of a named factor on
levels) can limit the  Identify BIO6X 2013 or factors-affecting-rate-
the rate of photosynthesis using
rate of photosynthesis. environmental factors HBI6T P10 ISA photosynthesis
algal beads, algae or an aquatic
Farmers seek to that limit the rate of
plant nuffieldfoundation.org/p
photosynthesis.
overcome limiting  jigsaw tasks: in groups of three, ractical-
factors in order to  Interpret graphs Specimen
each student goes off to access biology/investigating-
increase the showing the rate of assessment
information about one of the named photosynthesis-using-

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productivity of land and photosynthesis and factors and the trends in rate graphs material: immobilised-algae
maximise profits. explain graphs in  group feedback and completion of
A-level Paper 2 cleapss.org.uk
terms of which an explanation table
(set 1) – Q8
factors are rate  teacher assessment and teaching of
limiting. areas of weakness Rich question:
 Explain how farmers  exam questions/past ISA paper Past exam
seek to maximise  teacher led explanation of paper material:
Show graphs and ask
crop growth through agricultural practices to maximise students to explain
knowledge of rate rate BIOL4 Jan 2011 what the limiting factors
limiting factors, and  data evaluation task relating to – Q5 are.
how this is a balance agriculture.
between cost vs BIOL4 June
profit. 2014 – Q3c
 Evaluate data Skills developed by learning BIO6X 2013
relating to common activities: EMPA
agricultural practices
used to overcome the  AO1 – knowledge of rate limiting
effect of these factors
limiting factors.  AO2 /AO3 – apply knowledge to
trends in scientific data to make
judgements
 AT a – devise and carry out
experiments to investigate the effect
of named variables on the rate of
photosynthesis
 MS 1.9 – use an appropriate
statistical test
 MS 1.4 – understand simple
probability
 MS 3.4 – determine the
compensation point in plants by
reading off the intercept point
 PS 1.2 – apply scientific knowledge

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to practical contexts
 8.4.2.1/8.4.2.2/8.4.2.3/8.4.2.4

3.5.2 Respiration

Prior knowledge:

GCSE Additional Science


 Respiration is an enzyme catalysed process.
 Aerobic respiration is mainly carried out within the mitochondria.
 During aerobic respiration, glucose and oxygen react to produce carbon dioxide and water. Energy is released in this process.
 The energy released during respiration is used to synthesise larger molecules, contract muscles (in animals), maintain a constant body
temperature (birds and mammals) and produce amino acids (in plants).
 Anaerobic respiration releases less energy and is used when insufficient oxygen reaches the muscles.
 Glucose is not completely broken down and produces lactic acid. This causes muscle fatigue. An oxygen debt has to be repaid in order to oxidise
the lactic acid into glucose and water.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Respiration produces 0.6  Know where the Learning activities: Past exam sumanasinc.com/webc
ATP. weeks different stages of paper material: ontent/animations/conte
 questioning to recall GCSE
Aerobic respiration aerobic respiration nt/cellularrespiration.ht
knowledge and AS knowledge of BIOL4 Jan 2012
occur. ml
involves: ATP – Q8b
 Explain the
 glycolysis  teacher led explanation of the highered.mheducation.
significance of the BIOL4 June
stages involved in aerobic com/sites/0072507470/
 active transport of oxidation reactions 2013 – Q4
respiration (using animations and student_view0/chapter2
pyruvate into the involved in glycolysis,
videos) BIOL4 June 5/animation__electron_
mitochondrial the link reaction and
 card sort – order the

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matrix the Krebs cycle. stages/molecules 2010 – Q6 transport_system_and_
 oxidation of  Explain the roles of  exam questions. Include exam formation_of_atp__quiz
BIOL5 Jun 2014
pyruvate to acetate coenzymes and questions which focus on _1_.html
– Q9
 production of acetyl reduced NAD in interpreting and explaining data.
highered.mheducation.
CoA respiration.
com/sites/0072507470/
 the Krebs cycle  Describe the process
student_view0/chapter2
 oxidative of electron transfer Skills developed by learning
5/animation__how_glyc
phosphorylation, associated with activities:
oxidative olysis_works.html
associated with  AO1/AO2 – development of
electron transfer phosphorylation. highered.mheducation.
understanding of aerobic respiration
and chemiosmosis,  Explain com/sites/0072507470/
 AO2/AO3 – application of
to synthesise ATP. chemiosmosis and student_view0/chapter2
knowledge to exam questions
the role of ATP 5/animation__how_the
synthase in  extended exam answers.
_krebs_cycle_works__
producing ATP. quiz_1_.html
 Apply knowledge to
explain trends in
data. Rich question:
Provide statements and
ask students whether
they apply to glycolysis,
the Krebs cycle or
oxidative
phosphorylation (or
more than one).

Extension Students could write an essay on the


processes involved in aerobic
respiration.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Glycolysis is the first 0.4  Describe the process Learning activities: Past exam sumanasinc.com/webc
stage of anaerobic and weeks of anaerobic paper material: ontent/animations/conte
 Teacher led explanation of the
aerobic respiration. respiration in animals nt/cellularrespiration.ht
stages involved in anaerobic BIOL4 Jan 2013
and some ml
If respiration is only respiration (using animations and – Q6
anaerobic, pyruvate microorganisms.
videos) and the benefit of oxidising highered.mheducation.
can be converted to  Explain the BIOL4 June
reduced NAD to produce ethanol or com/sites/0072507470/
ethanol or lactate using advantage of 2011 – Q1
lactate student_view0/chapter2
producing ethanol or
reduced NAD. The  students draw a table comparing BIOL4 Jan 2010 5/animation__electron_
oxidised NAD lactate using reduced
and contrasting aerobic and – Q5. transport_system_and_
produced in this way NAD.
anaerobic respiration eg maximum formation_of_atp__quiz
can be used in further  Compare and
number of ATP molecules _1_.html
glycolysis. contrast aerobic and
generated
anaerobic respiration. Rich questions:
Other respiratory  exam questions.
 Interpret
substrates include the information/data  Show students
breakdown products of about anaerobic statements and ask
lipids and amino acids, Skills developed by learning them whether they
respiration and apply
which enter the Krebs activities: apply to
knowledge.
cycle.  AO1/AO2 – development of photosynthesis,
anaerobic or
understanding of anaerobic
respiration aerobic respiration.
 AO2/AO3 – application of  How do aerobic and
knowledge to exam questions. anaerobic
respiration differ?
 Reduced NAD is
used to produce
lactate or ethanol
from pyruvate.
What is the

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advantage of this?

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Required practical 9: 1  Design an Learning activities: BIO6T Q12 ISA aqa.org.uk


Investigation into the week experiment to
Students design an experiment to HBI6T P11 ISA
effect of a named investigate the effect
investigate the effect of a named
of a named factor on HIBI6X 2013
variable on the rate of variable eg temperature on the rate of
respiration of cultures a culture of single- EMPA
respiration of yeast/bacteria. This could
of single-celled celled organisms.
include:
organisms.  Process data to
calculate rates.  working through key aspects of
 Represent raw and experimental design eg key
processed data variables
clearly using tables  carrying out (subject to teacher
and graphs. approval)
 Calculate an  processing and presentation of data
appropriate statistical  selection and use of appropriate
test and interpret statistical tests (eg comparison of
values in terms of mean rates at two different
probability and temperatures
chance.  BIO6T Q12 ISA or HBI6T P11 ISA.
 Apply knowledge to
draw and explain
conclusions. Skills developed by learning
 Evaluate the results activities:
and conclusions.
 ATb – use a redox indicator to
investigate dehydrogenase activity
 PS 1.2 – apply scientific knowledge

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to practical contexts
 PS 2.2/PS 3.1/MS 3.2/MS 1.3 – plot
the experimental data in an
appropriate format
 PS 2.3/MS3.3 – evaluate data for
errors and uncertainties and
consider margins of accuracy
 AO1/AO2 – application of
knowledge to explain trends
 AO3 – develop and refine practical
design
 MS 1.9 – use an appropriate
statistical test
 MS 1.4 – understand simple
probability
 8.4.2.1/8.4.2.2/8.4.2.3/8.4.2.4/8.4.2.
5.

3.5.3 Energy and Ecosystems


Prior knowledge:
GCSE Science A
 Green plants and algae absorb a small amount of the light that reaches them. The transfer from light energy to chemical energy occurs during
photosynthesis. This energy is stored in the substances that make up the cells of the plants.
 The amount of material and energy contained with the biomass decreases at each successive stage in a food chain. This can be represented
using a pyramid of biomass. This reduction is due to energy losses through waste and processes linked to respiration eg movement. Much of this
energy is eventually transferred to the surroundings.
GCSE Additional Science
 The glucose from photosynthesis is used to produce fat, protein and cellulose, as well as being used in respiration and stored as starch.
 Some of the glucose is used for respiration.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Plants synthesise 0.4  Explain how plants Learning activities: Specimen Rich questions:
organic compounds weeks utilise the sugars assessment
 set students a diagnostic question  Explain the
from carbon dioxide. from photosynthesis. material:
eg ‘where does an oak tree get the relationship
Most of the sugars are  Explain what is
used as respiratory materials it needs to grow from?’. A-level Paper 3 between
meant by biomass
substrates. See if students relate glucose (set 1) – Q5.4 photosynthesis,
and how it can be
production from photosynthesis to and 5.6 respiration and
The rest are used to measured.
biomass biomass.
 Suggest units for
make other biological  comprehension exercise on the  Explain how you
molecules, which form biomass.
uses of sugars produced during Past exam could ensure that
the biomass of the  Explain the process photosynthesis. Get students to biomass was
paper material:
plants. of calorimetry. read this and produce a concept completely dry
 Evaluate the map
BIOL4 June
before weighing.
Biomass can be accuracy of results 2014 – Q7ci
measured in terms of  revisit diagnostic question
from simple
mass of carbon or dry  teacher led explanation of the
calorimetry.
mass of tissue per measurement of biomass (including
given area per given units) and how the energy within it
time. can be estimated
 exam questions.
The chemical energy
stored in dry biomass
can be estimated using Skills developed by learning
calorimetry. activities:
 AO1 – knowledge of biomass
 AO1/PS 4.1 – understand
calorimetry
 MS 0.1 – recognise and make use
of appropriate units
 MS3.3 – consider margins of error/

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accuracy.

Extension Students could conduct calorimetry Questions from


experiments by burning dried plant/food the BIO6T Q13
samples and calculating energy ISA
released.
Skills developed by learning
activities:
 AT a - investigations to find the dry
mass of plant samples or the
energy released by samples of plant
biomass
 8.4.2.2/8.4.2.3 – use apparatus
safely.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The concept of gross 0.4  Explain the concepts Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
primary production and weeks of gross primary paper material:
net primary production  provide food webs for students to  What do the arrows
production and net
interpret and ask questions for them BIOL4 Jan 2012 in food chains
and their mathematical primary production.
to answer – Q2 represent?
relationship ie  Understand the
 introduce terminology eg trophic  Why do humans
NPP = GPP – R mathematical BIOL4 Jan 2013
level tend to rear
relationship between – Q8b
NPP is available for the two and use it to  show energy/biomass losses along herbivores as their
growth and a food chain and how they occur. BIOL4 June source of meat?
calculate values
reproduction and for when supplied with Teacher led explanation of the 2010 – Q4  How is energy lost
other trophic levels. concepts of GPP and NPP and their along a food chain?
data. BIOL4 June
mathematical relationship. Then
The net production of  Explain the reduction 2011 – Q2
discuss how net production is

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consumers, such as in energy/biomass calculated BIOL4 Jan 2010
animals, can be along a food chain.  provide data for students about food – Q8b
calculated as:  Explain the concept chains and ask them to calculate
N = I –(F + R) of net production in NPP from appropriate data. They
consumers, linked to could also calculate % efficiency of
how energy losses the food chains
occur along food  exam questions.
chains.
 Apply knowledge to
the context of exam Skills developed by learning
questions. activities:
 MS0.2 – convert and carry out
calculations of energy transfer using
numbers in standard and ordinary
form
 MS0.3 – calculation of percentage
efficiency and percentage yield
 MS 2.3/MS 2.4 – substitute
numerical values into, and solve,
algebraic equations using
appropriate units
 extended exam answers.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The ways in which 0.2  Explain the ways in Learning activities: Past exam ciwf.org.uk/education
production is affected weeks which production is paper material:
 Teacher led explanation of how
by farming practices affected by
farmers can improve production by BIOL4 Jun 2012
designed to increase simplifying food Rich questions:
the efficiency of energy simplifying food webs and reducing – Q8a
webs.
respiratory losses. Question  How could farmers
transfer.  Explain the ways in BIOL4 Jun 2013
students about why this would improve efficiency?
which farmers are – Q8c
reducing respiratory
provide more food for us  Evaluate the
 debate: give students different BIOL4 Jan 2010 advantages and
losses within a
viewpoints and ask them to debate – Q8 disadvantages of
human food chain.
whether it is ethical to use these using these
 Interpret and BIOL5 June
farming practices methods.
calculate data on 2014 – Q10b
 continuum – students place
efficiency when
themselves on a continuum line
provided with
based on their opinion from the
appropriate
debate
information.
 exam questions.
 Evaluate the ethics of
some of these
farming practices.
Skills developed by learning
activities:
 MS0.2 – convert and carry out
calculations of energy transfer using
numbers in standard and ordinary
form
 MS0.3 – calculation of percentage
efficiency
 essay writing skills.

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3.5.4 Nutrient cycles
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Science A
The carbon cycle involves the cycling of carbon through stages including: photosynthesis; consumption; respiration; death and decomposition;
fossilisation and combustion.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Nutrients are recycled 0.2  Describe the stages Learning activities: sumanasinc.com/webc
within natural weeks of the phosphorus ontent/animations/conte
 introduce the importance of nutrient
ecosystems, cycle, and the ions at nt/phosphorouscycle.ht
recycling within ecosystems
exemplified by the each stage. ml
 brainstorm why phosphorus is a
phosphorous cycle, to  Explain the role of
include: useful element in nature eg in ATP,
saprobionts and
DNA, phospholipds etc
 mycorrhizae in the Rich questions:
the role of
phosphorus cycle.  teacher led explanation of the
saprobionts in phosphorus cycle using videos and  Explain the
decomposition  Interpret
animations significance of
 information/data
the role of  card sort of the stages phosphorus to living
about the
mycorrhizae in
phosphorus cycle  exam questions. things.
facilitating the  What role do
uptake of water and and apply
saprobionts and
inorganic ions by knowledge.
Skills developed by learning mycorrhizae play?
plants. activities:
AO1 – development of knowledge and
understanding of the phosphorus cycle.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Nutrients are recycled 0.4  Describe the stages Learning activities: Specimen tes.co.uk/teaching-
within natural weeks of the nitrogen cycle, assessment resource/nitrogen-
 brainstorm how nitrogen is used eg
ecosystems, and the ions/ material: cycle-game-6079926
in DNA, amino acids
exemplified by the molecules at each
nitrogen cycle, to stage.  students read comprehension on A-level Paper 3 mhhe.com/biosci/genbi
the nitrogen cycle (set 1) – Q5 o/tlw3/eBridge/Chp29/a
include:  Explain the
processes of  nitrogen cycle game – get students nimations/ch29/1_nitrog
 the role of bacteria to model the movement of an atom en_cycle.swf
in the nitrogen saprobiotic nutrition,
of nitrogen Past exam
ammonification,
cycle in the
nitrification, nitrogen  students generate questions they paper material:
processes of still have Rich questions:
saprobiotic fixation and BIOL4 Jan 2013
denitrification within  teacher-led explanation of the – Q1  Explain the
nutrition, nitrogen cycle, to address questions
ammonification, the nitrogen cycle. significance of
and reinforce BIOL4 Jun 2012
nitrification,  Explain the role of nitrogen to living
 card sort of the stages – Q8b
nitrogen fixation saprobionts and things.
mycorrhizae in the  exam questions. BIOL4 June  Write an equation
and denitrification.
nitrogen cycle. 2011 – Q8a for the conversions
 Interpret which occur during:
Skills developed by learning BIOL4 June
information/data ammonification;
activities: 2014 – Q2
about the nitrogen nitrogen fixation;
cycle and apply  AO1 – development of knowledge denitrification;
knowledge. and understanding of the nitrogen nitrification.
cycle
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
the context set in exam questions
 extended exam answers.

Extension  Culture nitrogen-fixing bacteria from nuffieldfoundation.org/p


root nodules of leguminous plants. ractical-

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 8.4.2.1/8.4.2.3 – follow biology/nitrogen-fixing-
instructions/work safely bacteria-root-nodules-
 AT i/PS 4.1 – use aseptic leguminous-plants
techniques to culture bacteria on
streak plates

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The use of natural and 0.4  Explain why farmers Learning activities: Past exam nroc.mpls.k12.mn.us/E
artificial fertilisers to weeks utilise natural and paper material: nvironmental%20Scien
 introduce the rationale behind using
replace the nitrates and artificial fertilisers. ce/course%20files/multi
fertilisers on agricultural land BIOL4 Jan 2012
phosphates lost by  Explain how media/lesson78/animati
harvesting plants and  DARTS task: provide students with – Q6
eutrophication is ons/5a_Lake_Eutrophic
removing livestock. a comprehension on leaching and
caused, and what the BIOL4 June ation.html
eutrophication which they must
The environmental impact is on the 2013 – Q8b
convert into diagrams and present
issues arising from the ecosystem in which it
to the class BIOL4 Jan 2011
happens. Rich questions:
use of fertilisers  class peer evaluation of – Q3
 Interpret
including leaching and presentations  Explain how
eutrophication. information/data BIOL4 June
 work through some exemplar data eutrophication
about eutrophication 2011 – Q3b.
about leaching and eutrophication occurs.
and apply
knowledge.  discussion/debate: should farmers  Suggest steps that
use fertilisers? Students argue the could be taken to
case from different perspectives reduce
 exam questions. eutrophication from
farmland.

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO1 – development of

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understanding of eutrophication
through the use of fertilisers
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
the context set in exam questions.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Extension: 0.2-  Recall the key Learning activities: Marking of nuffieldfoundation.org/p


design an investigation 0.4 features of good
 questioning about what constitutes
experimental ractical-
into the effect of named weeks experimental design. plans. biology/investigating-
good experimental design
 Apply knowledge to effect-minerals-plant-
mineral ions on plants.  provide students with an equipment
design a valid growth
list of available apparatus and
experiment to test the
chemicals
effect of named
 students write up a method for their
mineral ions on plant Rich questions:
growth. proposed experiment.
What are the key
features/principles of
Skills developed by learning good experimental
activities: design?
 MS 1.9 – select an appropriate
statistical test
 PS 1.1/1.2 – solve problems set in,
and apply scientific knowledge to,
practical contexts.

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3.6 Organisms respond to changes in their internal and external environments (A-level only)
This unit can be taught concurrently with unit 3.5, 3.7, or 3.8, if two teachers are delivering the course.
Unit description
A stimulus is a change in the internal or external environment. A receptor detects a stimulus. A coordinator formulates a suitable response to a
stimulus. An effector produces a response.
Receptors are specific to one type of stimulus.
Nerve cells pass electrical impulses along their length. A nerve impulse is specific to a target cell only because it releases a chemical messenger
directly onto it, producing a response that is usually rapid, short-lived and localised.
In contrast, mammalian hormones stimulate their target cells via the blood system. They are specific to the tertiary structure of receptors on their
target cells and produce responses that are usually slow, long-lasting and widespread.
Plants control their response using hormone-like growth substances.
3.6.1 Stimuli, both internal and external are detected and lead to a response
3.6.1.1 Survival and response
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Science A
 The nervous system enables humans to react to their surroundings and coordinate their behaviour.
 Reflex actions are automatic and rapid. They often involve sensory, relay and motor neurones.
 Plants are sensitive to light, moisture and gravity. Their shoots grow towards light and against the force of gravity. Their roots grow towards
moisture and in the direction of the force of gravity.
 Plants produce hormones to coordinate and control growth. Auxin controls phototropism and gravitropism (geotropism).
 The responses of plant roots and shoots to light, gravity and moisture are the result of unequal distribution of hormones, causing unequal growth
rates.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Organisms increase 0.6-  Explain what is Learning activities: Past exam nuffieldfoundation.org/p
their chance of survival 0.8 meant by paper material: ractical-
 teacher introduction to responses to
by responding to weeks phototropism and biology/interpreting-
change in environment linked to BIOL5 June
changes in their gravitropism, and by investigation-plant-
environment. survival 2012 – Q7
positive and negative hormones
tropisms.  questioning to assess GCSE
In flowering plants, BIOL5 June
knowledge of tropisms
 Describe where IAA 2013 – Q3
specific growth factors
is produced.  introduce IAA in plants
move from growing Rich questions:
 Describe the effect of  interpret and process results and BIOL5 June
regions to other plot on graph 2011 – Q3  Describe the
tissues, where they different IAA
concentrations on  ask students to interpret data on the differences in how
regulate growth in effect that different IAA plant growth factors
response to directional root/shoot growth.
concentrations have on root/shoot Exampro: are produced and
stimuli.  Explain how IAA act, compared to
growth Specimen paper
causes positive
The effect of different phototropism in  provide information/pictures on the Unit 5 Q10
hormones in
concentrations of work done by Darwin, Boysen- animals.
shoots.
indoleacetic acid (IAA) Jensen, Paal, Went and Briggs and  Explain
 Explain how IAA
on cell elongation in ask students to suggest phototropism in
causes positive
the roots and shoots of explanations stems.
gravitropism in roots.
flowering plants as an  teacher explanation and summary  Explain
 Apply knowledge of
explanation of of tropisms linked to IAA production gravitropism in
IAA to interpret
gravitropism and and distribution roots.
results and draw
phototropism in conclusions.  exam questions.
flowering plants.

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO1 – development of knowledge
relating to IAA and tropisms in

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plants
 AO2/AO3 – interpret scientific data
and apply knowledge of the effects
of IAA to explain it
 MS 0.2 – use/conversion of IAA
concentrations in ordinary and
standard form
 MS 0.3 – calculation of percentage
inhibition/stimulation
 MS 2.3 – plot 2 variables from
experimental data
 AT h – carry out investigations into
the effect of IAA on root growth in
seedlings.

Extension Students investigate the effect of IAA nationalstemcentre.org.


on root growth in seedlings. uk/elibrary/resource/72
59/the-effects-of-iaa-
on-root-growth

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Taxes and kineses as 0.2-  Explain what is Learning activities: Past exam nuffieldfoundation.org/p
simple responses that 0.4 meant by taxes and paper material: ractical-
 teacher explanation of taxes and
can maintain a mobile weeks kineses and how they biology/investigating-
kineses BIOL5 – June
organism in a differ. response-calliphora-
 activity circus with different 2010 Q1
favourable  Explain how taxes larvae-light
environment. experiments for students to trial and
and kineses aid BIO6X June
draw conclusions from, eg udel.edu/MERL/Outrea
survival. 2014 EMPA
earthworm taxis away from light by ch/Teacher's%20Guide
having a textbook over half a tray; /3.%20Phototaxis%20T
woodlice kineses in dishes E.pdf
containing dry and moist paper
towel; response of Calliphora larvae
to light; positive phototaxis of algae. Rich questions:
Ask them which taxis or kinesis is
being displayed, how they know and  Explain how a taxis
whether it is a positive or negative and a kinesis differ.
response How might each
 exam questions. manifest itself in the
movement of the
animal?
Skills developed by learning  Provide examples
activities: of taxes and
kineses for student
 AO1 – development of knowledge to categorise as
and understanding of kineses and positive/negative
taxes taxes or kineses.
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
explain observations from activity
circus
 AT h – carry out investigations into

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taxes and kineses using living
organisms.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Required practical 10: 0.8  Represent raw and Learning activities: BIO6X 2011 nuffieldfoundation.org/p
Investigation into the weeks processed data EMPA ractical-biology/using-
Students investigate the effect of a
effect of an clearly using tables. choice-chamber-
named variable, eg light intensity, on
environmental variable  Calculate an investigate-animal-
animal movement using a maze or
on the movement of an appropriate statistical Exampro: responses-stimuli
choice chamber
animal using either a test and interpret
BYB9 June nuffieldfoundation.org/p
values in terms of  carrying out (subject to teacher
choice chamber or a 2005 – Q2 ractical-
maze. probability and approval)
biology/investigating-
chance.  processing and presentation of data BYB9 Jan 2005
turn-alternation-
 Apply knowledge of  calculation and interpretation of a – Q2
kineses to draw and behaviour-woodlice
stats test
explain conclusions.  drawing conclusion and evaluating cleapss.org.uk
results
 undertaking the BIO6X 2011 EMPA
paper.

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO2 – application of knowledge of
kinesis and stats tests to explain
and interpret observations
 AT h – investigation of kineses in
organisms
 MS 1.9 – use an appropriate

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statistical test
 PS 1.2 – apply scientific knowledge
to practical contexts
 8.4.2.1/8.4.2.2/8.4.2.3/8.4.2.4.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The protective effect of 0.2  Explain the role of Learning activities: Exampro: sumanasinc.com/webc
a simple reflex, weeks reflexes and why BYB4 June ontent/animations/conte
 questioning to assess recall from
exemplified by a three they are important. 2004 – Q1 nt/reflexarcs.html
GCSE and to recap key terms eg
neurone simple reflex.  Explain the role of
stimulus, effector
sensory, intermediate
 introduce the protective role of
and motor neurones Rich question:
reflex actions
in a reflex arc.
 students could investigate reflex Why are reflex actions
 For a given context, much quicker than
actions and suggest how they are
explain the sequence
protective, eg the ankle or knee jerk voluntary responses?
of events which
reaction, shining low power torch
brings about a reflex
near eyes to observe pupillary light
action (from stimulus
reflex, clicking fingers near eyes to
to response).
observe blinking
 teacher explanation using diagrams
and animations
 provide scenarios for students, eg
withdrawal from touching a hot
surface, and ask them to explain
them. Generate a model answer
 teach explanation of why reflex
actions are so important
 exam questions.

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Skills developed by learning
activities:
 AO1 – development of knowledge
of the reflex arc and the protective
effects of reflexes
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
explain scenarios involving reflex
actions.

3.6.1.2 Receptors
Prior knowledge:

GCSE Science A
 Cells called receptors detect stimuli (changes in the environment).
 Receptors and the stimuli they detect include light receptors in the eyes; sound receptors in the ears; receptors for balance in our ears; chemical
receptors on the tongue and in the nose which enable us to taste and smell; touch, pressure, pain and temperature receptors in the skill.
 Light receptor cells, like most animal cells, have a nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Receptors only 0.4  Explain the features Learning activities: Specimen nuffieldfoundation.org/p
respond to specific weeks of sensory reception assessment ractical-
stimuli. Stimulation of  students could conduct a practical
which are common to material: biology/assessing-skin-
the receptor in the to determine the resolution of touch
all receptors. sensitivity-
receptors in the skin, the A-level Paper 2
Pacinian corpuscle  Describe the %E2%80%93-touch-
leads to the
temperature sensitivity of (set 1) – Q4.2
structure of a temperature receptors in the skin, or discrimination
establishment of a Pacinian corpuscle.

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generator potential.  Explain the stimulus the habituation of touch receptors in nuffieldfoundation.org/p
which Pacinian skin ractical-
The basic structure of a
Pacinian corpuscle. corpuscles respond  teacher explanation of the features biology/assessing-skin-
to. of sensory reception which are sensitivity-
Deformation of stretch-  Explain how a common to all receptors. Exemplify %E2%80%93-
mediated sodium ion Pacinian corpsule this with discussion of the structure temperature-receptors
channels in a Pacinian produces a generator of a Pacinian corpuscle and how it
corpuscle leads to the potential in response produces a generator potential
establishment of a to a specific stimulus.  exam questions.
generator potential.

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO1 – development of knowledge
and understanding of how Pacinian
corpuscles work.
 AT h – carry out investigations into
receptors within the skin.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The human retina in 0.2  Identify the pigments Learning activities: Past exam nuffieldfoundation.org/p
sufficient detail to show weeks in rod and cone cells. paper material: ractical-
 provide information
how differences in  Explain how rod cells’ biology/investigating-
sheets/comprehensions on rod and HBIO4 Jan
sensitivity to light, visual acuity, how-we-see-colour
sensitivity to colour and cone cells around the room, and 2013 – Q5
sensitivity to light and
visual acuity are provide students with a question childrensuniversity.man
sensitivity to colour HBIO4 June
sheet to find the answers to chester.ac.uk/interactiv
explained by are accounted for by 2012 – Q1b
differences in the  accept feedback and reinforce with es/science/brainandsen
the presence of
optical pigments of teacher explanation. Include the HBIO4 June ses/eye
rhodopsin and
rods and cones and the concept of threshold level 2013 – Q1a–1bi
connections to the psych.colorado.edu/~d
connections rods and stimulation
optic nerve. HBIO4 Jan barth/PDFs/4052/4052
 students summarise differences
cones make in the  Explain how cone 2011 – Q1a %20Manual%20Chapte
optic nerve. between rods and cones in a table
cells’ visual acuity, rs/Vision.pdf
sensitivity to light and  provide data on trichromatic theory HBIO4 June
and ask students to interpret 2010 – Q2
sensitivity to colour
are accounted for by  exam questions. HBIO4 June Rich questions:
the presence of 2011 – Q7a–7b
different forms of  Why are rods able
iodopsin and Skills developed by learning to respond to low
connections to the activities: light intensity?
 Why do we see in
optic nerve.  AO1 – development of
greater detail when
understanding of rods and cones
the image is
 AO2/AO3 – application of
focussed on the
knowledge to observations and to
fovea?
explain experimental data
 What is the
(trichromatric theory).
advantage to
having cells which
can respond to low

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and high light
intensity?

Extension Students can carry out the investigation


as to how we see colour and apply
knowledge to explain their findings.
They can also map the distribution of
rods and cones in the retina.

3.6.1.3 Control of heart rate

Prior knowledge:

GCSE Additional Science


During exercise, the heart rate increases to increase blood flow to the muscles, ensuring increased supply of glucose and oxygen and increased rate
of removal of carbon dioxide.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Myogenic stimulation of 0.2  Describe, and locate Learning activities: Past exam highered.mheducation.
the heart and weeks on a diagram, the paper material: com/sites/0072495855/
 questioning to recap the structure
transmission of a structures, which are student_view0/chapter2
and function of the heart BIOL1 Jan 2010
subsequent wave of responsible for 2/animation__conductin
electrical activity. events during the  teacher explanation of how a heart – Q7a
g_system_of_the_heart
cardiac beat is initiated and transmitted, and
The roles of the BIOL1 June .html
the roles of the SAN, AVN and
sinoatrial node (SAN), cycle. 2009 – Q2a
bundle of His
 Explain the events
atrioventricular node
which take place  exam questions. BIOL1 Jan 2011
(AVN) and Purkyne Rich questions:
– Q3c
during the cardiac
tissue in the bundle of
cycle to produce and  What is meant by
His. BIOL1 June
Skills developed by learning the term

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transmit a wave of activities: 2013 – Q8a ‘myogenic’?
electrical activity to  What is the role of
 AO1 – development of BIOL1 June
make the heart beat the SAN, AVN and
understanding of the roles of the 2012 – Q8a
 Explain the roles of bundle of His?
SAN, AVN and Purkinje fibres in
the SAN, AVN and  What would happen
generating and transmitting
bundle of His. if the ring of non-
electrical activity to cause a
conducting tissue
heartbeat
was not present?
 extended exam answers.

Extension  Students could design and carry out


an investigation into the effect of a
named variable on pulse rate.
 Students could carry out
calculations using CO=SV × HR (as
3.3.4.1).

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The roles and locations 0.2  Describe the location Learning activities: Past exam highered.mheducation.
of chemoreceptors and weeks of, and the role paper material: com/sites/0072943696/
 questioning to students to ask how
pressure receptors and played by, student_view0/chapter1
the heart would respond to exercise BIOL5 June
the roles of the chemoreceptors and 3/animation__chemore
autonomic nervous or fight, flight or fright situations. 2012 – Q4
pressure receptors ceptor_reflex_control_o
system and effectors in Ask students what the stimulus
involved in detecting HBIO4 June f_blood_pressure.html
would be in response to exercise
controlling heart rate. changes which lead 2013 – Q2
 elaborate on this by pointing out
to changes in heart
that the stimulus is a change in
rate. Rich questions:
blood pH and blood pressure
 Explain what is Exampro:
 teacher explanation of how heart  What is the
meant by the
rate is controlled, linking receptors BYA6 Jan 2005 difference between
sympathetic and
to the medulla oblongata and the – Q7 the sympathetic and
parasympathetic
role of the autonomic nervous parasympathetic
nervous system. BYA6 June
system nervous system?
 Explain the role of 2005 – Q5
 exam questions.  What could act as a
the autonomic
nervous system stimulus to change
(sympathetic and the heart rate?
parasympathetic) in
Skills developed by learning  Where are
controlling heart rate. activities: chemoreceptors
 Explain the role of AO1 – development of knowledge and and pressure
the medulla understanding of how heart rate is receptors located?
oblongata. controlled.  How does the
medulla oblongata
increase/reduce
heart rate?

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3.6.2 Nervous coordination.

3.6.2.1 Nerve impulses

Prior knowledge – nothing explicitly relevant.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The structure of a 0.6  Describe and explain Learning activities: Specimen sites.sinauer.com/neuro
myelinated motor weeks the structure of a assessment science5e/animations0
 back to back: provide labelled
neurone. myelinated motor material: 2.01.html
diagram of a myelinated motor
neurone.
The establishment of a neurone – pairs of students sit back A-level Paper 2 sites.sinauer.com/neuro
 Explain what is
resting potential in to back and one student describes (set 1) – Q4.1 science5e/animations0
terms of differential meant by a resting
the structure to another who and 4.3 2.03.html
membrane and an action
recreates it on paper
potential. highered.mheducation.
permeability,  questioning to recap membrane
electrochemical  Explain the events in com/sites/0072495855/
structure and the role of proteins Past exam
gradients and the establishing a resting student_view0/chapter1
from section 3.2.3 paper material:
potential. 4/animation__the_nerv
movement of sodium  teacher explanation of resting
ions and potassium  Explain the events in BIOL5 June e_impulse.html
potentials and action potentials and
ions. generating an action 2013 – Q10a
the all or nothing principle. Use outreach.mcb.harvard.e
potential.
Changes in membrane interactive animation to check BIOL5 June du/animations/actionpot
 Explain what is
permeability lead to understanding 2010 – Q3 ential_short.swf
meant by the all or
depolarisation and the  give cards showing stages involved
nothing principle. HBIO4 June Rich questions:
generation of an action in resting and action potential and
2011 – Q3
potential. get students to sequence them  How is a resting
 provide an A3 oscilloscope trace HBIO4 Jan potential
The all-or-nothing showing time against axon 2010 – Q5 established?
principle. membrane potential (with resting  How is the
potential and action potential membrane potential

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shown. Get students to match each reversed during an
description on the earlier card sort action potential?
to the part of the graph  What is the all or
 exam questions. nothing principle?

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO1 – development of
understanding of motor neurone
structure, resting potentials and
action potentials
 AO2/AO3 – interpret scientific data
and apply knowledge of the resting
and action potentials to explain the
data.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The passage of an 0.6  Explain how action Learning activities: Specimen blackwellpublishing.co
action potential along weeks potentials pass along assessment m/patestas/animations/
 teacher explanation of how action
non-myelinated and unmyelinated material: actionp.html
potentials pass along an
myelinated axons, neurones.
unmyelinated neurone by A-level Paper 2
resulting in nerve  Describe what nodes
impulses. stimulating the depolarisation of the (set 1) – Q4.1
of Ranvier are. Rich questions:
next region along the neurone and 4.4
 Describe how action
Saltatory conduction  explain how myelinated neurones  What are nodes of
affects the speed of potentials pass along
have nodes of Ranvier in the myelin Ranvier?
myelinated neurones
conductance. sheath, and how action potentials  Why is conduction
by saltatory pass between along nodes by along myelinated
conduction, and why

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this is faster than saltatory conduction neurones quicker
conductance along  exam questions. than along
unmyelinated unmyelinated ones?
neurones.
Skills developed by learning
activities:
AO1 – development of understanding of
how action potentials pass along
myelinated and unmyelinated
neurones.

Extension  Students could produce a video


podcast or presentation of the
whole process of a nerve impulse
being generated and passing along
an axon.
 Presentation of work and peer
evaluation and feedback.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The nature and 0.2  Explain what is Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
importance of the weeks meant by the paper material:
 teacher explanation of refractory  Give three reasons
refractory period in refractory period and
producing discrete periods and why they are important BIOL5 June why the refractory
why action potentials
impulses and in limiting  provide data of an oscilloscope 2013 – Q4b period is important.
are prevented.
trace with the refractory period  Why are nerve
the frequency of  Explain the HBIO4 June
marked on. Ask students to work impulses
impulse transmission. importance of the 2012 – Q7
out the maximum number of action unidirectional?
refractory period.
potentials that could be generated HBIO4 June
 Apply knowledge of

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action potentials and per second 2010 – Q10
refractory period to  exam questions.
the context of exam
questions.
Skills developed by learning
activities:
 AO1 – development of
understanding of the refractory
period and its importance
 AO2/AO3 – interpret scientific data
and apply knowledge about
refractory period in limiting the
frequency of action potentials.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Factors affecting the 0.6  Explain the factors Learning activities: BIO6T P14 ISA aqa.org.uk
speed of conductance: weeks which affect the
 highlighting exercise – what factors
myelination and speed of nerve
saltatory conduction; affect the speed of conductance?
impulse
Accept feedback and discuss
axon diameter; conductance.
 students could undertake the BIO6T
temperature.  Calculate an
P14 ISA practical and exam.
appropriate statistical
test and interpret
values in terms of
Skills developed by learning
probability and
activities:
chance (eg mean
speed of  AO1 – knowledge of the factors
conductance at 2 affecting speed of conductance
different  AO2/AO3 – application of

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temperatures). knowledge to practical results
 Apply knowledge to  AO3 – evaluation of the
draw and explain methodology and results of other
conclusions/answer people’s investigations
questions.  MS 2.3/MS 2.4 – substitute
numbers into an algebraic equation
to convert distance fallen into
reaction time
 MS 1.2 – calculate the mean
 MS 1.9 – select an appropriate
statistical test (student’s t-test)
 MS 1.4 – interpret stats test in terms
of probability and chance, and
whether to accept or reject H0.

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3.6.2.2 Synaptic transmission

Prior knowledge:

GCSE Science A
At a junction between neurones (synapse), a chemical is released that causes an impulse to be sent along the next neurone in the reflex arc.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The detailed structure 0.4  Explain the functions Learning activities: Past exam highered.mheducation.co
of a synapse. weeks of synapses. paper m/sites/0072495855/stud
 teacher explanation of the functions
The sequence of  Describe the detailed material: ent_view0/chapter14/ani
of synapses between neurones
structure of a mation__chemical_syna
events involved in  back to back: provide labelled BIOL5 June
synapse. pse__quiz_1_.html
transmission across a diagram of a synapse – pairs of 2013 – Q7a–
cholinergic synapse in  Explain the sequence
students sit back to back and one 7b mind.ilstu.edu/flash/syna
sufficient detail to of events involved in student describes the structure to pse_1.swf
transmission of an BIOL5 June
explain: another who draws it ‘blind’
action potential from 2011 – Q2b
 unidirectionality  teacher explanation of the stages
one neurone to
 temporal and involved in transmission across a HBIO4 Jan Rich questions:
another.
cholinergic synapse 2012 – Q1
spatial summation  Explain why synaptic  Explain how the
 inhibition by  card sort – sequence the stages
transmission is synapse structure
inhibitory synapses.  provide definitions of and events involved
unidirectional.
unidirectionality, temporal and
 Explain temporal, in synaptic
spatial summation and inhibition by transmission allow for
spatial summation,
inhibitory synapses. Ask pupils to unidirectionality,
and inhibition by
suggest how the structure of a spatial and temporal
inhibitory synapses.
synapse and the sequence events summation and
achieves each one inhibition by
 teacher explanation of summation, inihibitory synapses.
inhibition and unidirectionality  Why is it important

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 exam questions. that
acetylcholinesterase
hydrolyse
Skills developed by learning acetylcholine?
activities:  Explain the role
played by ATP after
 AO1 – development of knowledge synaptic
of synapses and synaptic transmission.
transmission
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
explain features of synapses.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The effects of specific 0.2 Use information provided Learning activities: Past exam outreach.mcb.harvard.e
drugs on a synapse. weeks to predict and explain the paper material: du/animations/synapse.
 stimulus: provide some drug names
NB recall of names and effects of specific drugs swf
on cards and ask students to HBIO4 Jan
on a synapse.
modes of action of categorise them in a way they feel 2011 – Q5 biologymad.com/nervou
individual drugs are not is appropriate, eg by legal ssystem/synapses.htm
HBIO4 Jan
expected. classification, effect of drug etc
2010 – Q7a and thirteen.org/closetohom
 introduce the idea that many drugs
7c e/science/html/animatio
(both recreational and some
ns.html
medicinal) work by affecting BIOL5 June
synapses 2013 – Q7c users.rcn.com/jkimball.
 provide information/data about ma.ultranet/BiologyPag
some types of drugs (eg heroin, es/D/Drugs.html
cocaine, atropine, curare), namely
the characteristic effects of the
drug, and the effect the drug has on
synapses eg mimicking a

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neurotransmitter. Ask students to
work in groups to explain the effect
that the drug has.

NB recall of names and modes of


action of individual drugs are not
expected.

 accept feedback and discuss


 exam questions.

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO1 – development of
understanding that recreational and
medicinal drugs often affect
synapses
 AO2/AO3 – interpret information
and experimental data, and apply
knowledge to explain the specific
effects of drugs on a synapse.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The detailed structure 0.2  Explain what a Learning activities: Exampro: Rich questions:
of a neuromuscular weeks neuromuscular
junction.  teacher introduction to what a BYA7 June  How does an action
junction is.
neuromuscular junction is 2004 – Q7 potential arriving at
A comparison of  Describe and explain

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transmission across a the detailed structure  provide students with a diagram of a neuromuscular
cholinergic synapse of a neuromuscular the structure of a neuromuscular junction, trigger the
and across a junction. junction and ask them to compare release of
neuromuscular  Explain transmission to a synapse acetylcholine?
junction. across a  teacher explanation of transmission  What effect does
neuromuscular across a neuromuscular junction. acetylcholine have
junction by release of Ask them to compare this to the on the postsynaptic
acetylcholine and transmission across a synapse membrane?
compare this to  exam questions from Exampro.  In what ways is the
synaptic transmission across
transmission. a neuromuscular
 Explain how muscle Skills developed by learning junction similar to
fibres stimulated to activities: transmission across
contract by one a (excitatory)
AO1 – development of knowledge of
motor neurone act as cholinergic
a motor unit. neuromuscular junctions and synapse?
transmission across neuromuscular
junctions.

Extension Students could be provided with mock


answers to questions on nerves,
synapses, and neuromuscular junctions
and evaluate/improve the answers to
complete this section.

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3.6.3 Skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract by nerves and act as effectors

Prior knowledge – nothing explicitly relevant.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Muscles act in 0.2  Explain the role of Learning activities: Past exam wonderstruck.co.uk/file
antagonistic pairs weeks skeletal muscle, paper material: s/KS3-Lesson-Plan-1-
against an  teacher introduction to skeletal
linked to the role of Muscles-and-Bones.pdf
muscle in terms of it moving bones HBIO4 June
incompressible tendons and joints.
at a joint. Emphasise that this is 2012 – Q3a.
skeleton.  Explain how muscles
related to muscle contraction which
which move bones Rich questions:
pulls the bones
that form part of a
 students could produce working  What are the three
joint work as
models of the arm, using balloons types of muscle in
antagonistic pairs. To
or elastic bands to represent the the body and what
produce movement
biceps and triceps. They could are their roles?
as they contract,
muscles work
investigate what each one does as  Muscles can pull as
the arm raises or lowers they contract, but
against/are attached
 demonstration of antagonistic pairs they cannot push.
to an incompressible
skeleton/bones. by using forceps to pull on tendons What would happen
in a dissected chicken leg (the pull to a bone if muscles
of the forceps representing the did not work in
muscle contraction) antagonistic pairs?
 teacher explanation that muscles  Evaluate this
can only generate force as they statement: ‘in an
contract/shorten – they can only pull antagonistic pair of
and not push muscles, one
 exam question. muscle contracts
whilst the other
Skills developed by learning
relaxes’.

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activities:
AO1 – development of knowledge of
antagonistic pairs of muscles.

Extension Highlighting exercise covering the


different types of muscle and their role.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

Gross and microscopic 0.4  Describe the gross Learning activities: Past exam cleapss.org.uk
structure of skeletal weeks structure of skeletal paper material:
 teacher explanation of the gross
muscle. muscles.
structure of skeletal muscle HBIO4 Jan
 Explain what is Rich questions:
The ultrastructure of a  students undertake microscopy of 2013 – Q9a–9b
meant by a myofibril.
myofibril. skeletal tissue. This using prepared  What is a myofibril?
 Describe the HBIO4 Jun
slides of longitudinal and transverse  In which
microscopic structure 2012 – Q3b
sections of skeletal muscle. (It could bands/zone would
of skeletal muscle.
also be done by them isolating and HBIO4 Jan you find:
 Explain what is preparing slides of muscle fibres 2011 – Q10a– a) Myosin?
meant by a from the muscle on shin meat) b) Actin?
10b
sarcomere.
 get them to draw observations  How would you
 Explain how actin HBIO4 June
 show low powered electron work out the length
and myosin are 2010 – Q4a–4b
micrographs showing the detailed of one sarcomere?
arranged within a
structure of a myofibril. Ask  Explain the
myofibril to produce students to interpret and relate back presence of large
contraction of a
to their observations amounts of
sarcomere.
 teacher explanation of the mitochondria and
 Interpret diagrams to endoplasmic
microscopic structure of skeletal
identify I bands, A reticulum in the
muscle and the ultrastructure of a
bands, the H zone sarcoplasm.
myofibril
and the Z line on a

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diagram.  exam questions.

Skills developed by learning


activities:
 AO1 – development of knowledge
and understanding of the structure
of skeletal muscle, and the
ultrastructure of myofibrils.
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
the context given in exam
questions.
 AT d/At e – examine prepared
slides of skeletal muscle, and make
drawings, using an optical
microscope.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to Assessment Resources
taken develop skills opportunities

The roles of actin, 0.4  Recall how the Learning activities: Past exam nuffieldfoundation.org/p
myosin, calcium ions weeks release of paper material: ractical-
and ATP in myofibril  provide students with two string
acetylcholine across biology/modelling-
lines – one containing drawing pins BIOL5 June
contraction. neuromuscular sliding-filament-
and the other containing bungs 2012 – Q2
The roles of calcium junctions, triggers the hypothesis
attached periodically. Challenge
ions and tropomyosin release of calcium BIOL5 June
them to make the string of bungs bcs.whfreeman.com/the
in the cycle of ions. 2013 – Q2a
move along the bench without lifewire/content/chp47/4
actinomyosin bridge  Explain the directly pulling it, and only pulling BIOL5 June 702001.html
formation. importance of the
the string of pins a maximum of 5 2010 – Q6
release of calcium cm. Ask them to write down how blackwellpublishing.co
The roles of ATP and ions leading to a BIOL5 June m/patestas/animations/

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phosphocreatine in conformational they did it in as much detail as 2011 – Q10b myosin.html
muscle contraction. change in possible
HBIO4 Jan
tropomyosin.  teacher explanation of sliding
2012 – Q3
 Explain the sliding filament theory. Link into their Rich questions:
theory filament of explanation of the string lines HBIO4 June
 Evaluate this
myofibril contraction.  card sort – sequence the stages of 2013 – Q5
statement: ‘during
 Explain the roles of myofibril contraction
HBIO4 June contraction of a
key molecules  teacher explanation of the role of
2010 – Q4c muscle, actin and
myosin, actin, phosphocreatine in regenerating myosin filaments
calcium and ATP in ATP in some muscle fibres HBIO4 June
contract and get
causing myofibril  exam questions. 2011 – Q2 shorter’.
contraction.
HBIO4 Jan  Explain the roles of
 Explain the role of
2010 – Q2 tropomyosin, ATP
phosphocreatine in Skills developed by learning and Ca2+ ions in
muscle fibres. activities: muscle contraction.
AO1 – development of knowledge and
understanding of the mechanism of
myofibril contraction.

Extension  Students produce a model of the


sliding filament mechanism,
representing the actin, myosin,
tropomyosin, ATP and calcium ions
using modelling materials. They
could then take time lapse photos of
their model and put them together
as a narrated film.
 Presentation of model/film to the
rest of the group.
 Peer evaluation.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The structure, 0.2  Describe the Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
location and weeks locations of slow paper material:
 jigsaw task: working in pairs, one Provide students with
general properties and fast skeletal
student researches slow muscles and BIOL5 June statement cards and
of slow and fast muscle fibres.
the other fast muscles, using information 2013 – Q2b ask them to categorise
skeletal muscle  Describe
fibres. and resources provided eg websites, them as relating to fast
differences in the BIOL5 June
comprehensions, textbooks etc or slow muscle fibres.
structure of slow 2010 – Q7
 accept feedback and reinforce using
and fast skeletal
teacher explanation HBIO4 Jan
muscle fibres.
 students produce a summary table 2013 – Q9c
 Explain differences
comparing and contrasting
in the properties of
 exam questions.
slow and fast
Exampro:
skeletal muscle
fibres. BYA7 Jan 2004
Skills developed by learning activities:
– Q7
 AO1 – development of knowledge
relating to the structure, location and
properties of slow and fast skeletal
muscle
 AO2 – application of knowledge to exam
questions.

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3.6.4 Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment.

3.6.4.1 Principles of homeostasis and negative feedback

Prior knowledge:

GCSE Science A
 Internal conditions that are controlled include:
 the water content of the body – water leaves the body via the lungs when we breathe out and via the skin when we sweat to cool us down and
excess water is lost via the kidneys in the urine
 the ion content of the body – ions are lost via the skin when we sweat and excess ions are lost via the kidneys in the urine
 temperature – to maintain the temperature at which enzymes work best
 blood sugar levels – to provide the cells with a constant supply of energy
 Many processes in the body are controlled by hormones, which are secreted by glands and are usually transported to their target organs by the
bloodstream.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Homeostasis in 0.2  Define what Learning activities: Exampro: Rich questions:


mammals involves weeks homeostasis is. Specimen paper
 questioning to recall knowledge from  Explain how blood
physiological  Explain why it is Unit 5 – Q8
GCSE. Lead this onto a definition of pH might fall and
control systems important that core
that maintain the homeostasis BYA6 June how the body would
temperature, blood
internal  jigsaw task: in groups, students assign 2005 – Q2 rectify this.
pH, blood glucose
environment within roles to gather information on the  Explain the
concentration and BYB6 June
importance of one factor, eg consequence to
restricted limits. blood water 2005 – Q5
temperature being maintained. They enzymes of
The importance of potential are
then each go to their respective BYA6 Jan 2005 a) a fall in body
maintaining a maintained within
information stations to research that – Q3 temperature
stable core restricted limits and
factor (eg using websites, textbooks, b) a rise in body
temperature and the consequences
videos etc.) temperature.
of not doing so.
stable blood pH in  give students time to feedback and  Suggest the effect
relation to enzyme discuss on cells if blood
activity.  quiz: students work in teams to answer sugar concentration
The importance of questions based on the knowledge they were to rise,
maintaining a have accumulated (including data resulting in a fall in
stable blood questions). the water potential.
glucose
concentration in
terms of availability Skills developed by learning activities:
of respiratory  AO1 – development of knowledge
substrate and of relating to homeostasis and some of the
the water potential key factors which the body maintains
of blood. within restricted limits
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to
explain trends in data.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Negative feedback 0.2  Explain what is Learning activities: Past exam wps.aw.com/bc_goode
restores systems weeks meant by negative paper material: nough_boh_3/104/2672
 provide students with card statements of
to their original and positive 0/6840414.cw/content/i
processes involved in a homeostatic BIOL5 June
level. feedback. ndex.html
mechanism covered at GCSE eg 2013 – Q4a and
The possession of  Explain the general
thermoregulation. Ask students to 4c
separate stages involved in
assemble them into a flow diagram in a
mechanisms negative feedback, HBIO4 Jan Rich questions:
way they feel is logical.
and why these are 2013 – Q1a
involving negative  teacher-led explanation of how  How do the
feedback, controls used in homeostatic
homeostasis relies on negative HBIO4 Jan principles of
departures in mechanisms.
feedback with support of animation 2011 – Q6 positive and
different directions  Explain the benefit
examples. Go through the stages, and negative feedback
from the original of having separate
get students to construct a template for differ?
mechanisms for
state, giving a a model answer (departure from Exampro:  What is the benefit
different departures
greater degree of normalreceptor co-ordinator  of having separate
control. from the original BYA6 June
effector response return to normal) negative feedback
level. 2004 – Q9
 go back to the card sort on mechanisms
 Interpret information
thermoregulation and ask what the controlling
relating to examples
benefit is of having separate departures in
of negative and mechanisms for departures in difference different direction
positive feedback.
directions from the original
 ask students to suggest what positive state?
feedback would entail. Show rest of the
animation showing positive feedback in
labour
 exam questions.

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Skills developed by learning activities:
 AO1 – development of knowledge
relating to positive and negative
feedback and the use of negative
feedback in homeostatic processes
 AO2 – application of knowledge of
positive and negative feedback to
unfamiliar examples, when presented
with appropriate information.

3.6.4.2 Control of blood glucose concentration

Prior knowledge: nothing explicitly relevant from Science A or Additional Science.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The factors that 0.2  Explain the factors Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
influence blood weeks which can influence paper material:
glucose  questioning to assess recall from GCSE  What roles do the α
blood glucose
concentration.  teacher introduction to the action of BIOL1 June cells of the Islets of
concentration.
hormones 2013 – Q6 Langerhans play in
 Explain how
 provide information posters on the Specimen paper
regulating blood
hormones work to glucose
topics of: the actions of hormones;
bring about a Unit 5 – Q3a
factors which influence blood glucose; concentration?
response. and 3b
the response to a reduction in blood  What roles do the β
 Explain the role of
glucose concentration; the response to cells of the Islets of
the pancreas,
an increase in blood glucose level. (NB Langerhans play in
specifically the α
These sheets should be an introduction regulating blood
and β cells of the
to blood glucose regulation in the glucose
Islets of
context of negative feedback and should concentration?
Langerhans, in

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regulating blood be kept as overviews – the mechanisms  What factors
glucose of insulin/glucagon action will be influence blood
concentration. explored in more detail in subsequent glucose
 Explain what is lessons) concentration and
meant by the terms  accept feedback and reinforce how do they
glycogenesis,  students could produce negative influence it?
glycogenolysis and feedback diagrams for blood glucose  How do the
gluconeogenesis. rise and fall hormones involved
 Apply knowledge to  students could produce a concept map, in bringing about
explain the stages with space to add to in further lessons. adjustments to
involved in negative blood glucose
feedback in concentration travel
response to Skills developed by learning activities: to their target
changes in blood organ?
AO1 – development of knowledge relating
glucose
to negative feedback in the context of blood
concentration.
glucose regulation.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The action of 0.2  Explain what Learning activities: Past exam bcs.whfreeman.com/the
insulin by: weeks triggers the release paper material: lifewire/content/chp50/5
 questioning on the overview that
of insulin. 002s.swf
 attaching to students learnt previously HBIO4 Jan
 Explain how insulin
receptors on  provide cards with statements on which 2012 – Q10a dnatube.com/video/834
the surfaces of acts at the cellular
students could categorise as would 9/Animation-in-3D-of-
level to lower blood HBIO4 June
target cells increase blood glucose concentration/ the--Insulin-processes-
glucose 2010 – Q11a
 controlling the would decrease blood glucose mechanism
concentration.
uptake of concentration eg exercise, excitement, HBIO4 Jan
 Explain the role of
glucose by eating a bowl of pasta 2010 – Q3a
the liver in
regulating the  teacher explanation of the action of Rich questions:

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inclusion of glycogenesis. insulin after it is released, and the role  Which cells produce
channel that this plays in promoting increased insulin?
Exampro:
proteins in the absorption, increased respiration,  What are the three
surface increased glycogenesis and increased BYB4 Jan 2004 actions which
membranes of conversion to fat – Q4a insulin binding to
target cells  students add to their concept map which insulin receptors
 activating they began in previous lessons brings about?
enzymes  students could interpret blood glucose  Which cells are
involved in the concentration data relating to the impact especially affected
conversion of of high GI and low GI foods in terms of
glucose to  exam questions. increasing the rate
glycogen. of glucose
The role of the absorption?
liver in Skills developed by learning activities:  What role does the
glycogenesis. AO1 – development of knowledge relating liver play?
to the mechanisms of action by insulin, and
how it results in a decrease in blood glucose
concentration.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The action of 0.2  Explain what Learning activities: Past exam bcs.whfreeman.com/the
glucagon by: weeks triggers the release paper material: lifewire/content/chp50/5
 questioning on the overview that
of glucagon. 002s.swf
 attaching to students learnt previously BIOL5 June
 Explain how
receptors on  teacher explanation of the action of 2010 – Q8
the surfaces of glucagon acts at the
glucagon on liver cells after it is
cellular level to HBIO4 June Rich questions:
target cells released, in terms of promoting
raise blood glucose 2013 – Q9bii
 activating conversion of glycogen, amino acids  When is glucagon
concentration
enzymes and glycerol into glucose released?
 Explain the role of

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involved in the the liver in  students add to their concept map which  Which cells produce
conversion of glycogenolysis and they began in previous lessons glucagon?
glycogen to gluconeogenesis.  exam questions.  Which cells are the
glucose only cells that have
 activating glucagon
enzymes Skills developed by learning activities: receptors?
involved in the
AO1 – development of knowledge relating
conversion of
to the mechanisms of action by glucagon,
glycerol and
and how it results in an increase in blood
amino acids
glucose concentration.
into glucose.
The role of the
liver in
glycogenolysis and
gluconeogenesis.

Extension Students could produce an explanation of


the process glucagon action (and insulin
action) in the style of a fully annotated
cartoon strip or piece of extended writing.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The role of 0.2  Explain what Learning activities: Past exam highered.mheducation.
adrenaline by: weeks triggers the release paper material: com/sites/0072507470/
 provide students with the opportunity to
of adrenaline. student_view0/chapter1
 attaching to generate questions on the processes BIOL5 June
 Explain how 7/animation__second_
receptors on discussed so far 2012 – Q6a
adrenaline acts at messenger__camp.htm
the surfaces of  think, pair, share: when would
target cells the cellular level to l
adrenaline be released? Based on your
control blood

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 activating glucose answer what effect would you predict it
enzymes concentration. to have and why?
Rich questions:
involved in the  Explain the second  teacher explanation of the role of
conversion of messenger model adrenaline in binding to receptors and  When is adrenaline
glycogen to related to activating enzymes in the liver to released?
glucose. adrenaline and breakdown glycogen to glucose  Suggest how the
glucagon action.  think, pair, share: both glucagon and binding of glucagon
 Describe the role of adrenaline involve activating cellular and adrenaline to
The second adenylate cyclase, enzymes to breakdown glycogen to liver cell surface
messenger model cyclic AMP and glucose, yet both bind to cell surface receptors is able to
of adrenaline and protein kinase in the receptors outside the cell. Suggest how activate enzymes
glucagon action, second message they activate enzymes inside the cell inside the cells of
involving adenylate model.  teacher explanation of the second the liver.
cyclase, cAMP and messenger model
protein kinase.  students complete their concept map.

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of knowledge
relating to the mechanism of action by
adrenaline and the second messenger
model
 AO2 – application of knowledge to think-
pair-share tasks.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The causes of 0.4-0.6  Explain the causes Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
types I and II weeks of type I and II paper material:
 think, pair, share: provide students with  Explain the causes
diabetes and their diabetes.
data from a glucose tolerance test for a HBIO4 Jan of types I and II
control by insulin  Explain how type 1
and/or diabetic and non-diabetic and ask them 2012 – Q10b– diabetes.
and type 2 diabetes
manipulation of the to suggest an explanation 10f  Why do diabetics
can be controlled.
 students can use the web to research have to manage
diet.  Apply knowledge of HBIO4 June
types I and II diabetes (causes and their carbohydrate
blood sugar 2013 – Q9a–9bi
methods of control) and produce an intake?
regulation and
information pamphlet or presentation HBIO4 June  Why do diabetics
diabetes to interpret
 teacher explanation to reinforce key 2010 – Q11b– have to be mindful
data.
messages 11g about how much
 Evaluate the
 section B of the BIO6T Q13 ISA exercise they do?
positions of health HBIO4 June
 exam questions  What are the
advisers and the 2011 – Q6
food industry in  show data on the increasing incidence arguments for and
of type II diabetes HBIO4 Jan against the banning
relation to the
 students could be provided with some 2010 – Q3b of advertising for
increased incidence
stimulus material and then conduct a certain types of
of type II diabetes. HBIO4 June
class debate on the increasing food and drink in
2013 – Q8
incidence of type II diabetes, taking on order to lower the
the roles of health advisers and BIO6T – Q13 incidence of type II
representatives of food companies. ISA Section B diabetes?

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of knowledge
relating to types I and II diabetes, in
terms of causes and control
 AO2/AO3 – interpretation of

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experimentally derived data in exam
questions and from the glucose
tolerance test, and application of
knowledge to explain/evaluate the data
and evaluate societal arguments around
particular types of food/drink
 MS 1.10 – understand standard
deviation in the context of diabetes
studies contained within suggested
exam questions.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Required 0.4  Apply knowledge of Learning activities: Marking of cleapss.org.uk


practical 11: weeks diabetes and accuracy of
Production of a  show students some fake urine samples
biochemical tests, concentration
dilution series of a (water and yellow food dye) and tell
to design an determined by Rich question:
them that at least one is from a diabetic
glucose solution experiment to reading from
(contains glucose) Why can glucose
and use of identify the calibration
colorimetric  provide opportunity for students to work concentration in urine
concentration of curve.
in small groups to design a method for be used as a means of
techniques to glucose in a ‘urine’
produce a identifying the concentration of glucose diagnosing diabetes?
sample.
in urine samples using the knowledge
calibration curve  Explain how to use
with which to they have from unit 3.1
colorimetry of
identify the known  accept feedback to jointly arrive at a
concentration of concentrations, method
glucose in an alongside  students then conduct the practical
unknown ‘urine’ calibration curves to  students plot a calibration curve and
sample. identify unknown read off the value for the unknown urine
concentrations. sample.

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 Explain the
usefulness of
Skills developed by learning activities:
calibration curves or
standards.  AO2 – application of knowledge of
biochemical tests, colorimetry and
calibration curves
 AT b and c – production of a dilution
series from a stock glucose
concentration. Use colorimetric
techniques to produce a
 calibration curve
 PS 1.1/1.2 – apply knowledge to solve
problems in a practical context
 MS 0.2 – convert concentrations
between standard and ordinary form
 PS 4.1 – use colorimetry/calibration
curves
 PS 3.1/MS 1.3/3.2 – plot a calibration
curve and read off an unknown
concentration.

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3.6.4.3 Control of blood water potential

Prior knowledge:

GCSE Science A
 Water and ions enter the body when we eat and drink.
 Water leaves the body via the lungs when we breathe out. Water and ions are lost via the skin when we sweat and excess water and ions are lost
via the kidneys in the urine.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The structure of 0.4  Describe the Learning activities: Specimen bcs.whfreeman.com/the


the nephron and weeks structure of a assessment lifewire/content/chp51/5
 questioning to assess recall from GCSE
its role in: nephron. material: 101s.swf
 think, pair, share: provide data showing
 the formation  Explain the process
the concentrations of molecules/ions in A-level Paper 2
of ultrafiltration and
of glomerular the blood plasma and the glomerular (set 1) – Q7.4
where it occurs. Rich questions:
filtrate filtrate. Ask pupils to suggest an
  Explain the process
reabsorption of explanation.  Explain what
of selective
glucose and  introduce the concept of a nephron, as Exampro: causes some
water by the reabsorption, where
well as the medulla and cortex of the molecules to be
it occurs along a BYB4 Jan 2008
proximal kidney filtered into the
nephron and the – Q2
convoluted
transport processes  provide a series of information stations filtrate and others
tubule for students to circulate round (videos, BYB4 June not.
involved.
 maintaining a animations, suitable webpages, 2004 – Q6  Which molecules
gradient of  Explain the
textbooks, comprehensions) are selective
adaptations of cells BYB4 June
sodium ions in  in groups, provide an unlabelled 2006 – Q5
reabsorbed? By
the medulla by of the proximal
diagram of a nephron and ask students which processes
the loop of convoluted tubule.
to work in pairs to use their knowledge does this occur?
 Explain the
Henle to label and explain what is happening  Explain the
 reabsorption of importance of
at different places countercurrent
maintaining a

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water by the sodium ion gradient  teacher explanation/reinforcement of the multiplier
distal in the medulla, and process of ultrafiltration and selective mechanism and
convoluted how this is reabsorption why it is important
tubule and achieved.  exam question for water
collecting  Explain the reabsorption.
ducts. reabsorption of
water from the Skills developed by learning activities:
distal convoluted
tubule and  AO1 – development of
collecting ducts. knowledge/understanding relating to the
structure of a nephron, and the events
which occur at different points along the
nephron
 AO2/AO3 – interpretation of data and
application of knowledge to explain it.

Extension Interpret data relating the thickness of the


medulla to the maximum urine
concentration produced by a range of
animals, including desert animals.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Osmoregulation as 0.2  Explain the role of Learning activities: Specimen Rich questions:
control of the water weeks the hypothalamus assessment
 think, pair, share: provide data about  Where are
potential of the and posterior material:
water gains and losses. Provide osmoreceptors
blood. pituitary gland in
scenarios and ask students what would A-level Paper 2 located?
osmoregulation.
The roles of the happen within the body as a result eg ‘it (set 1) – Q7.1 to  Where is ADH
hypothalamus,  Explain the
is a hot day and you sweat more than 7.3 released from?
responses which
posterior pituitary
are brought about
normal’  What effect does
and ADH in  ask students to suggest how the body ADH have on the
osmoregulation. by the release of
could adjust the water losses to balance Past exam distal convoluted
ADH.
out changes to water gains paper material: tubule and
 Apply knowledge to
 teacher explanation of ADH and its role collecting duct (in
explain the stages BYB4 June
in osmoregulation. Explain the action of the medulla)? What
involved in negative 2008 – Q5
ADH on the kidneys happens as a
feedback in
response to  students could produce negative consequence of
feedback diagrams for when blood has this?
changes in blood
a lower water potential than normal and
water potential.
a higher water potential than normal
 exam question.
Skills developed by learning activities:
 AO1 – development of knowledge
relating to negative feedback in the
context of osmoregulation and the role
of ADH.
 AO2/AO3 – interpretation of data and
application of knowledge to think-pair-
share tasks.
 MS 1.3 – interpret pie charts.

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3.7 Genetics, populations, evolution and ecosystems (A-level only)
This unit can be taught concurrently with unit 3.5, or 3.6 if two teachers are delivering the course. However, it would be useful if section 3.7.1 on
inheritance was covered prior to aspects of unit 3.8 (eg 3.8.4.3 on genetic screening counselling).
Unit description
The theory of evolution underpins modern Biology. All new species arise from an existing species. This results in different species sharing a common
ancestry, as represented in phylogenetic classification. Common ancestry can explain the similarities between all living organisms, such as common
chemistry (eg all proteins made from the same 20 or so amino acids), physiological pathways (eg anaerobic respiration), cell structure, DNA as the
genetic material and a ‘universal’ genetic code.
The individuals of a species share the same genes but (usually) different combinations of alleles of these genes. An individual inherits alleles from
their parent or parents.
A species exists as one or more populations. There is variation in the phenotypes of organisms in a population, due to genetic and environmental
factors. Two forces affect genetic variation in populations: genetic drift and natural selection. Genetic drift can cause changes in allele frequency in
small populations. Natural selection occurs when alleles that enhance the fitness of the individuals that carry them rise in frequency. A change in the
allele frequency of a population is evolution.
If a population becomes isolated from other populations of the same species, there will be no gene flow between the isolated population and the
others. This may lead to the accumulation of genetic differences in the isolated population, compared with the other populations. These differences
may ultimately lead to organisms in the isolated population becoming unable to breed and produce fertile offspring with organisms from the other
populations. This reproductive isolation means that a new species has evolved.
Populations of different species live in communities. Competition occurs within and between these populations for the means of survival. Within a
single community, one population is affected by other populations, the biotic factors, in its environment. Populations within communities are also
affected by, and in turn affect, the abiotic (physicochemical) factors in an ecosystem.

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3.7.1 Inheritance

Prior knowledge:

GCSE Additional Science


 When gametes join, one of each allele in a pair comes from each parent.
 Some characteristics are controlled by one gene, which might have different alleles.
 The allele which controls the development of a characteristic even if they are only present on one chromosome is called the dominant allele.
 The allele which controls the development of a characteristic only when the dominant allele is not present is called the recessive allele.
 Some disorders are inherited. These include polydactyly, which is caused by a dominant allele, and cystic fibrosis which is a recessive disorder.
 Genetic diagrams are biological models which can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The genotype is 0.2-0.4 Explain the meaning of Learning activities: Rich question:
the genetic weeks the key terms:
constitution of an  diagnostic question to assess GCSE What is wrong with this
organism.  gene understanding – is it possible for two statement: “he had two
 allele brown eyed parents to have a blue eyed blue eyed genes which
The phenotype is  genotype child? Explain your answer meant he had blue
the expression of  phenotype  teacher-led explanation of the concepts eyes”?
this genetic  homozygous of genes and alleles and the key terms
constitution and its  heterozygous. required in the specification
interaction with the  card match – terms to definitions
environment.  exam questions.
There may be
many alleles of a
single gene. Skills developed by learning activities:
In a diploid  AO1 – development of knowledge and
organism, the understanding of key terms and
concepts relating to inheritance

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alleles at a specific  ATh – ethical and safe use of
locus may be organisms.
either homozygous
or heterozygous.

Extension Students could set up an experiment to


study Drosophila crosses and investigate
ratios from genetic crosses eg dihybrid
ratios. NB This will take about 3 weeks
before adult offspring can be observed, but
the results could be used in later
experiments.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Alleles may be 0.2  Define what is Learning activities: Past exam kscience.co.uk/animatio
dominant or weeks meant by dominant paper material: ns/drosophila2.htm
 stimulus: survey those in the class who
recessive. and recessive
can roll their tongue. Introduce the idea BIOL4 June kscience.co.uk/animatio
alleles and describe
The use of fully of this being controlled by two alleles of 2013 – Q3a–b ns/inheritance.htm
how to represent
labelled genetic one gene – a dominant and a recessive
diagrams to these. HBIO4 June
one
 Draw genetic 2013 – Q4
interpret, or  teacher explanation of the principle of Rich questions:
predict, the results diagrams of
dominant and recessive alleles (related HBIO4 June
of monohybrid dominant/recessive  Define what is
back to protein synthesis) and how 2010 – Q6
crosses involving monohybrid crosses meant by dominant
these are symbolically represented
to predict offspring and recessive
dominant and  work through some examples, using
recessive alleles. genotypes and alleles.
Punnet squares to represent the
phenotypes.  Why is it not correct
inheritance of characteristics. Relate
 Apply knowledge to to think of a cell
back to meiosis
calculate the ignoring the
 students work through further examples

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predicted ratios of independently recessive allele if a
genotypes and  teacher-led explanation of how to dominant one is
phenotype of interpret pedigree analysis diagrams to present?
offspring when prove whether a characteristic is  Two heterozygous
supplied with dominant or recessive. parents who can roll
appropriate their tongue have 3
information. children. All 3
Skills developed by learning activities: offspring can roll
their tongue. They
 AO1 – development of understanding of
then fall pregnant
dominant and recessive alleles, and
with a 4th child.
their inheritance
Does this mean that
 AO2 – application of knowledge to this one will be
unfamiliar contexts unable to roll their
 MS 0.3 – use information to represent tongue?
phenotypic ratios in monohybrid crosses
 MS 1.4 – understand simple probability
associated with inheritance.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Use of the chi- 0.2  Explain what the Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
squared (χ2) test to weeks chi-squared test is paper material:
 ask pupils to do a genetic cross of  Why should you
compare the used for.
heterozygous peas eg for colour and to BYA5 Jan 2003 use chi-squared for
goodness of fit of  Set a null
work out the 3:1 ratio. Provide numbers – Q8a–8b inheritance
observed hypothesis.
of pea plants which don’t exactly match investigations?
phenotypic ratios  Use the chi-squared
with expected
this ratio and ask students what  What is the null
test to compared possibilities exist to explain this
ratios. hypothesis for this?
observed values difference in observed values  How many degrees
against those
 discuss the nature of probability and of freedom?
predicted from

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genetic crosses. fertilisation events being unlinked and  Interpret your
 Interpret chi- random results in terms of
squared tests in  lead through students through a couple chance and
terms of probability of worked examples of the chi-squared probability.
and chance. tests and how to interpret values – NB in
written papers, students will not be
expected to calculate a test statistic or
find the value of P corresponding to the
test statistic. They will be expected to
interpret a value of P
 provide further examples using simple
dominant/recessive monohybrid
crosses.

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of knowledge and
understanding of the chi-squared test
and how it is used
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
interpret chi-squared outcomes
 MS 1.9 – use the χ2 test to investigate
the significance of differences between
expected and observed phenotypic
ratios.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Alleles may also 0.2  Define what is Learning activities: Past exam Rich question:
be codominant. weeks meant by paper material:
 teacher explanation of the principle of Ask students to
The use of fully codominant alleles,
co-dominant alleles and how these are BIOL4 June interpret or predict the
and describe how to
labelled genetic symbolically represented 2014 – Q4c offspring when provided
represent these.
diagrams to  work through some examples, using with parental genotypes
interpret, or  Draw genetic
Punnet squares to represent the for examples involving
predict, the results diagrams of
inheritance of characteristics. Relate codominance eg pink
of monohybrid codominant
back to meiosis snapdragons, Tabby
monohybrid crosses
crosses involving  students work through further examples cats, Palamino horses,
codominant to predict offspring
independently, including chi-squared Human haemoglobin,
alleles. genotypes and
questions as well. orange moths.
phenotypes.
 Apply knowledge to
calculate the
Skills developed by learning activities:
predicted ratios of
genotypes and  AO1 – development of understanding of
phenotype of co-dominant alleles, and their
offspring, using fully inheritance.
labelled diagrams,  AO2 – application of knowledge to
when supplied with unfamiliar contexts.
appropriate  MS 0.3 – use information to represent
information. phenotypic ratios in monohybrid
 Use the chi-squared crosses.
test to compare  MS 1.4 – understand simple probability
observed values associated with inheritance.
against those  MS 1.9 – use the χ2 test to investigate
predicted from the significance of differences between
genetic crosses. expected and observed phenotypic
 Interpret P values

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from chi-squared ratios.
tests in terms of
probability and
chance.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The use of fully 0.2  Describe how to Learning activities: Past exam Rich question:
labelled genetic weeks represent alleles in paper material:
 introduce the concept of blood Ask students to
diagrams to crosses involving
groupings. Ask students to do a simple BIOL4 June interpret or predict the
interpret, or multiple alleles.
monohybrid cross for Rhesus blood 2012 – Q2a–c offspring when provided
predict, the results  Draw genetic
groupings (antigen D gene) as a recap with parental genotypes
of multiple allele diagrams to predict BIOL4 Jan 2011
of dominant/recessive crosses) for examples involving
crosses. offspring genotypes – Q2a–b
 introduce the ABO blood grouping multiple alleles eg ABO
and phenotypes.
system and the fact it is controlled by BIOL4 June blood groups, coat
 Apply knowledge to
one gene. Ask students to suggest how 2011 – Q5 colour in rabbits.
calculate the this is possible
predicted ratios of
 teacher explanation of the principle
genotypes and
multiple allele inheritance and how Exampro:
phenotype of
these alleles are symbolically
offspring, using fully BYA5 Jan 2007
represented
labelled diagrams, – Q3
when supplied with  work through some examples, using
Punnet squares to represent the BYA5 June
appropriate
inheritance of characteristics 2006 – Q7
information.
 students work through further examples
 Use the chi-squared
independently, including chi-squared
test to compared
observed values questions.
against those
predicted from

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
genetic crosses. Skills developed by learning activities:
 Interpret P values
 AO1 – development of understanding of
from chi-squared
multiple alleles and their inheritance
tests in terms of
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
probability and
unfamiliar contexts
chance.
 MS 0.3 – use information to represent
phenotypic ratios in monohybrid crosses
 MS 1.4 – understand simple probability
associated with inheritance
 MS 1.9 – use the χ2 test to investigate
the significance of differences between
expected and observed phenotypic
ratios.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The use of fully 0.2  Explain what is Learning activities: Past exam kscience.co.uk/animatio
labelled genetic weeks meant by sex-linked paper material: ns/drosophila2.htm
 ask students to suggest why some
diagrams to genes, and BIOL4 Jan 2012
characteristics eg red-green colour
interpret, or describe how to – Q5
predict, the results blindness, DMD are more common in
represent these. Rich question:
men BIOL4 Jan 2013
of crosses  Draw genetic
involving sex  teacher explanation of the principle sex – Q3 Ask students to
diagrams of sex- interpret or predict the
linkage. linkage and how these alleles are
linked crosses to BIOL4 June offspring when provided
symbolically represented
predict offspring 2013 – Q3bii
 work through some examples, using with parental genotypes
genotypes and for examples involving
Punnet squares to represent the BIOL4 June
phenotypes.
inheritance of characteristics 2014 – Q4a-4b sex linkage eg
 Apply knowledge to
 students work through further examples Duchenne muscular
calculate the BYA5 June dystrophy,
predicted ratios of independently, including chi-squared

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
genotypes and questions as well. 2008 – Q6 Haemophilia,
phenotype of Red/green colour
BYA5 June
offspring, using fully blindness.
labelled diagrams, Skills developed by learning activities: 2009 – Q4
when supplied with
 AO1 – development of understanding of
appropriate
co-dominant alleles, and their Exampro:
information.
inheritance
 Use the chi-squared BYB4 Jan 2004
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
test to compared – Q5
unfamiliar contexts
observed values
against those  MS 0.3 – use information to represent BYB4 June
predicted from phenotypic ratios in monohybrid crosses 2004 – Q5
genetic crosses.  MS 1.4 – understand simple probability BYB4 June
 associated with inheritance
Interpret P values 2006 – Q6
from chi-squared  MS 1.9 – use the χ2 test to investigate
the significance of differences between BYB4 June
tests in terms of
probability and expected and observed phenotypic 2005 – Q4
chance. ratios.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The use of fully 0.4  Draw genetic Learning activities: Exampro: kscience.co.uk/animatio
labelled genetic weeks diagrams of ns/drosophila2.htm
diagrams to  teacher explanation of dihybrid crosses BYA5 Jan 2005
dihybrid crosses to
as looking at the inheritance of two – Q7
interpret, or predict offspring
predict, the results characteristics controlled by two
genotypes and BYA5 Jan 2009 Rich question:
unlinked genes, which are inherited
of dihybrid crosses phenotypes. – Q6
independently of each other Ask students to
involving  Apply knowledge to
dominant,  work through some examples, using BYB4 June interpret or predict the
calculate the
recessive and Punnet squares to represent the 2006 – Q6 offspring when provided
predicted ratios of
codominant inheritance of characteristics with parental genotypes

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
alleles. genotypes and  students work through further examples BYB4 June for examples involving
phenotype of independently, including chi-squared 2007 – Q5 dihyrbid inheritance eg
offspring, using fully questions as well. coat colour and hair
labelled diagrams, BYB4 June
length in guinea pigs,
when supplied with 2009 – Q3
wing size and body
appropriate Skills developed by learning activities: colour in Drosophila.
information.
 AT h – ethical and safe use of
 Use the chi-squared
organisms
test to compare
observed values  AO1 – development of understanding of
against those dihybrid crosses
predicted from  AO2 – application of knowledge to
genetic crosses. unfamiliar contexts
 Interpret P values  MS 0.3 – use information to represent
from chi-squared phenotypic ratios in dihybrid crosses
tests in terms of  MS 1.4 – understand simple probability
probability and associated with inheritance
chance.  MS 1.9 – use the χ2 test to investigate
the significance of differences between
expected and observed phenotypic
ratios.

Extension Students look at the crosses undertaken


several weeks previously investigating
inheritance in Drosophila. Ask them to
propose an explanation for the ratio.

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The use of fully 0.2  Apply knowledge to Learning activities: Specimen kscience.co.uk/animatio
labelled genetic calculate the assessment ns/drosophila2.htm
weeks  provide data on the work of Bateson,
diagrams to predicted material:
Saunders and Punnet in 1905, showing
interpret, or frequencies of
predict, the results the F1 and F2 generation results. Ask A-level Paper 2
genotypes and Rich question:
of crosses phenotype of
them to apply chi-squared to this, (set 1) – Q3
assuming it was a simple dihybrid cross Ask students to
involving offspring, using fully
autosomal linkage. (ie 9:3:3:1) to prove there was a interpret or predict the
labelled diagrams,
significant difference between observed offspring when provided
when supplied with
and expected with parental genotypes
appropriate
 teacher explanation of autosomal for examples involving
information.
linkage. Make it clear that this is autosomal linkage eg
 Use the chi-squared
investigating two genes on the same linkage in flower colour
test to compared
chromosome pair, unlike other and type of pollen in
observed values
examples studied so far sweet peas, linkage of
against those
 work through some examples, using wing and eye colour.
predicted from
genetic crosses. Punnet squares to represent the
inheritance of characteristics when
 Interpret P values
supplied with the frequency of gametes
from chi-squared
with each combination of alleles
tests in terms of
 students work through further examples
probability and
independently.
chance.

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of understanding of
epistasis
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
unfamiliar contexts

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 MS 0.3 – use information to represent
phenotypic ratios in crosses involving
epistasis
 MS 1.4 – understand simple probability
associated with inheritance
 MS 1.9 – use the χ2 test.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The use of fully 0.2  Apply knowledge to Learning activities: Exampro: Rich questions:
labelled genetic weeks calculate the
diagrams to  teacher explanation of epistasis (the BYB4 June Ask students to
predicted ratios of
interpret, or interference of one gene’s expression of 2005 – Q7 interpret or predict the
genotypes and
predict, the results another) offspring when provided
phenotype of BYB4 Jan 2005
 work through some examples using with parental genotypes
of crosses offspring, using fully – Q5
involving epistasis. Punnet squares to represent the for examples involving
labelled diagrams,
inheritance of characteristics BYB4 Jan 2006 epistasis eg coat colour
when supplied with
appropriate  students work through further examples – Q6 in rodent, fruit colour in
information. independently. summer squashes,
BYA4 Jan 2006
 Use the chi-squared – Q6a flower colour in sweet
test to compare peas, comb shape in
observed values Skills developed by learning activities: chickens.
against those  AO1 – development of understanding of
predicted from epistasis
genetic crosses.  AO2 – application of knowledge to
 Interpret P values unfamiliar contexts
from chi-squared  MS 0.3 – use information to represent
tests in terms of phenotypic ratios in crosses involving
probability and epistasis
chance.  MS 1.4 – understand simple probability

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associated with inheritance.

3.7.2 Populations

Prior knowledge: nothing explicitly relevant.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Species exist as 0.2  Define what is Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
one or more weeks meant by the term paper material:
 ask students the rich questions to  Is the dominant
populations. ‘population’.
expose common misconceptions BYA5 Jan 2005 allele more
 Explain what is
A population as a  define the concept of a population. – Q8a common in a
group of meant when we population than the
Introduce the concept of gene pools
refer to allele BYA5 June
organisms of the and the limitations of Mendel’s crosses recessive allele?
frequencies and a 2003 – Q4a
same species  provide students with photocopied Explain your
occupying a gene pool.
pictures of animals with the genotypes answer.
 Explain why some
particular space at for one feature written on them (have a  Is it possible to
a particular time genotypes cannot
mixture of homozygous dominant, work out the
that can potentially be determined by
heterozygous and homozygous genotypes of
interbreed. looking at
recessive individuals). Ask students to everyone in a
phenotypes.
The concepts of work out the frequency of genotypes population for a
gene pool and and allele frequencies within the gene particular feature?
allele frequency. pool Explain your
 summarise their findings as p+q=1. answer.

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of understanding of

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
population and gene pools
 AO2/AO3 – analyse information and
apply knowledge to work out allele
frequencies
 MS 0.3 – use percentages and
decimals.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The Hardy- 0.4  Explain what the Learning activities: Specimen Rich questions:
Weinberg principle weeks Hardy-Weinberg assessment
 recap findings from last lesson that p +  What assumptions
provides a principle predicts. material:
q =1 does the Hardy-
mathematical  Explain the
model, which  teacher explanation of Hardy-Weinberg A-level Paper 2 Weinberg principle
conditions under
predicts that allele principle and the conditions under which (set 1) – Q6.1 make?
which Hardy-
frequencies will not it applies  Do these principles
Weinberg principle
change from  worked examples of calculations using apply in practice?
is valid.
the Hardy-Weinberg equation as a class Past exam  Why must both
generation to  Describe and
generation. The  students investigate the frequency of paper material: equations be equal
explain the
conditions under observable phenotypes within a to 1?
mathematical BIOL4 June
which the principle population:
equations used to 2012 – Q2d
applies. express allele and  make observations of observable
phenotypes BIOL4 June
The frequency of genotype
 select and calculate an appropriate 2013 – Q3c
alleles, genotypes frequencies.
 Apply knowledge of statistical test BIOL4 Jan 2011
and phenotypes in  interpret the results of the stats tests
a population can the Hardy- – Q2c
Weinberg equation to draw conclusions
be calculated
to the data given in  apply knowledge of inheritance and BIOL4 June
using the Hardy- 2010 – Q3
a question to Hardy-Weinberg to explain your
Weinberg
calculate the results and other data. BIOL4 June
 students follow the practical method

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
equation: frequency of an from BIO6T P13 ISA, carry out the stats 2011 – Q6a–bi
allele or genotype. test and then do the ISA paper
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
 exam questions.

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of understanding of
Hardy–Weinberg principle
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
unfamiliar contexts
 MS 0.3 – use percentages and decimals
 MS 2.4 – students should be able to
calculate allele, genotype and
phenotype frequencies from appropriate
data using the Hardy–Weinberg
equation
 MS 3.1 – translate information between
numerical and algebraic forms
 AT k – collect data about the frequency
of observable phenotypes within a
single population
 PS 3.2/MS 1.9 – select and use an
appropriate statistical test
 8.4.2.4.

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3.7.3 Evolution may lead to speciation
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Science A
 Differences between individuals may be due to the genes they have inherited, the environment or a combination of the two.
 Plants often compete for light, water, space and minerals. Animals often compete for food, mates and territory.
 Organisms have adaptations which enable them to survive in the conditions in which they normally live.
 Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection states that all life evolved from simple organisms that developed three billion years ago.
GCSE Additional Science
New species arise as a result of isolation, genetic variation, natural selection and speciation.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Individuals within a 0.2  Explain why Learning activities: Past exam learn.genetics.utah.edu
population may weeks individuals within a paper material: /content/variation/sourc
 students could measure variation within
show a wide range population of a es
the group HBIO4 Jan
of variation in species may show
phenotype. This is a wide range of  plot results using spreadsheets 2013 – Q3
due to genetic and variation in  teacher-led discussion of trends in data HBIO4 June Rich questions:
environmental phenotype. and the types/causes of variation. Link 2011 – Q4 and
genetic variation back to work done in  What do we mean
factors.  Describe variation Q10e
Year 1 on meiosis and mutation by continuous and
The primary based on trends in
discontinuous
source of genetic graphs and link this Skills developed by learning activities:
variation?
to the causes of
variation is  AT l – use software to process (eg  What causes
mutation. Meiosis variation.
calculate standard deviation) and plot discontinuous and
and the random data continuous
fertilisation of  MS 1.10 – understand and calculate variation?
gametes during standard deviation and range  Explain why
sexual siblings are so

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
reproduction  AO1 – development of knowledge of varied, even though
produce further variation and its causes they have the same
genetic variation.  AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to parents.
identify types of variation and causes
from experimentally derived data
 MS1.6 – calculate mean, median and
mode for measured values.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Predation, disease 0.2  Explain what is Learning activities: Specimen nuffieldfoundation.org/p


and competition for weeks meant by selection. assessment ractical-
 set up cards around the room with
the means of  Explain how natural material: biology/selection-
factors which animals might compete for
survival result in selection is linked action-%E2%80%93-
eg food. Make sure that some factors A-level Paper 2
differential survival to inheritance of peppered-moths
and reproduction, are in short supply and that they are (set 1) – Q6.2
alleles by the next
well hidden and inaccessible to some nuffieldfoundation.org/p
ie natural generation and
students ractical-
selection. adaptation.
 give students five minutes to collect a Past exam biology/selection-
Those organisms  Explain the concept
full set of cards paper material: action-%E2%80%93-
of differential
with phenotypes  discuss the principle of competition and banded-snails
providing selective reproductive BIOL4 Jan 2011
the fact that those without a full set
advantages are success. – Q4 peppermoths.weebly.co
would not have survived and
likely to produce  Apply your m
reproduced. You can also link the model
more offspring and knowledge to
into variation and adaptation eg tallest learn.genetics.utah.edu
pass on their explain data. reach the highest cards /content/selection
favourable alleles  teacher led explanation of predation,
to the next disease and competition linked to arkive.org/education/te
generation. survival. Link to Darwin’s observations. aching-resources-16-18
Contextualise with information on the
factors eg facial tumour disease in

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
Tazmanian devils
 students use peppered moths
simulation to model effects of natural
selection or work through peppered
moths student sheet (see resources)
 exam questions.

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1/AO2/AO3 – development of
knowledge of natural selection and
selection pressures, and application to
data
 AT l – use computer programs to model
the effects of natural selection.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The effect of 0.2  Recall what is Learning activities: Past exam wps.pearsoncustom.co
differential weeks meant by allele paper material: m/wps/media/objects/3
 questioning to recall directional and
reproductive frequency. 014/3087289/Web_Tut
stabilising selection from 3.4.4 BIOL4 June
success on the  Explain what is orials/17_A02.swf
allele frequencies  teacher-led explanation of disruptive 2011 – Q6bii;
meant by
within a gene pool. selection (alongside recap of other bcs.whfreeman.com/the
stabilising, BIOL4 Jan 2010
forms of selection if required). Use lifewire/content/chp23/2
The effects of directional and – Q1d;
animation of the selection of finches on 302001.html
stabilising, disruptive selection
the Galapagos islands BIOL4 June
in the context of the nortonbooks.com/colleg
directional and
effect that each has  card sort with examples of disruptive, 2014 – Q5.
disruptive e/biology/animations/ch
directional and stabilising selection
selection. on phenotypes and 16a02.htm
described. Students have to categorise

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Evolution as a allele frequencies.  ask students to work in groups to learn.genetics.utah.edu
change in the explain the evolution of characteristics /content/selection
allele frequencies in a species eg a single hoof in horses,
in a population. long necks in giraffes including the type
of selection and reference to allele Rich question:
frequencies
What kind of selection
 presentation of explanation and peer
is shown in the
assessment
example of Biston
 exam questions.
betularia? Justify your
answer.
Skills developed by learning activities:
 AO1 – development of understanding
relating to forms of natural selection and
their effect on allele frequencies
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to
experimentally derived data (in exam
questions).

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Reproductive 0.4  Explain what is Learning activities: Past exam wps.pearsoncustom.co


separation of two weeks meant by allopatric paper material: m/wps/media/objects/3
populations can  teacher led explanation of the concept
and sympatric 014/3087289/Web_Tut
of reproductive separation preventing BIOL4 Jan 2013
result in the speciation. orials/18_A01.swf
gene flow as a precursor to speciation – Q8c Q4
accumulation of  Explain how natural
difference in their  provide information stations eg videos, media.hhmi.org/biointer
selection and BIOL4 June
animations, textbook, comprehensions active/films/OriginSpeci
gene pools. isolation may result 2013 – Q6
and websites for students to find out es-Lizards.html
New species arise in change in the
about allopatric and sympatric BIOL4 Jan 2011
allele and youtube.com/watch?v=

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
when these phenotype speciation – Q8c H6IrUUDboZo
genetic differences frequency and lead  accept feedback. Question students
lead to an inability to the formation of about the mechanisms of reproductive
of members of the a new species by isolation for sympatric speciation Rich questions:
populations to allopatric speciation  think, pair, share: what could constitute
 Explain what
interbreed and and sympatric a geographical barrier to some species,
produce fertile speciation. happens to cause
for allopatric speciation to occur?
speciation.
offspring, resulting  Explain possible  use knowledge and teacher input to
in speciation. mechanisms for  How do the
derive a model class answer
mechanisms of
Allopatric sympatric  apply that answer to an example as a reproductive
speciation and speciation. class separation differ in
sympatric  Apply knowledge to  exam questions allopatric and
speciation. unfamiliar contexts.  link speciation to species diversity and sympatric
 Explain how what is shown by fossils. An example speciation?
evolutionary could be the evolution of lizards or
change over a long whales.
period of time has
resulted in a great
diversity of species. Skills developed by learning activities:
 AO1 – development of understanding
relating to forms of natural selection and
their effect on allele frequencies and
species diversity
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
unfamiliar contexts in exam questions
 extended exam answers.

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The importance of 0.2  Explain the process Learning activities: Assessment of nortonbooks.com/colleg
genetic drift in weeks of genetic drift and students’ written e/biology/animations/ch
 provide students with photocopied
causing changes its impact on allele explanations. 16a01.htm
pictures of animals with the genotypes
in allele frequency frequencies.
for one feature written on them (used
in small  Explain how
populations. previously in the section 3.7.2) but limit
genetic drift differs Rich questions:
the number to 10 animals in total. Get
from natural
students to work out allele frequencies  How is genetic drift
selection.
in the gene pool. Then ask students to fundamentally
 Explain why close their eyes and randomly eliminate different to natural
genetic drift is 4 cards from the 10. Repeat calculation selection?
important only in of allele frequencies. Discuss findings,  Why does genetic
small populations. as chance should mean that some drift only have
groups have significantly reduced the noticeable effects
frequency of one allele in small
 teacher explanation of genetic drift populations?
using animation
 ask students to explain how this differs
to natural selection
 provide an example eg achromatopsia
on the island of Pinegelap. Ask students
to write a suggested explanation.

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of understanding of
genetic drift
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to
explain unfamiliar examples

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
 MS 1.5 – apply knowledge of sampling
to the concept of genetic drift
 AT l – use computer programs to model
the effects of genetic drift.

3.7.4 Populations in ecosystems

Prior knowledge:

GCSE Additional Science


 Physical factors which affect organisms include: light; temperature; water availability; nutrient availability; carbon dioxide and oxygen availability.
 Quantitative data on the distribution of organisms can be obtained by random sampling with quadrats or sampling along a transect.
 Evaluation of methods used to collect environmental data, including understanding of the terms mean, median and mode and understanding that
the sample size affects validity and reproducibility.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Populations of 0.2  Define the terms Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
different species weeks community, biotic, paper material:
 teacher-led explanation of ecosystems,  Why do no two
form a community. abiotic, ecosystem BIOL4 Jan 2012
populations and communities species have
and niche. – Q1a and Q1c
Within a habitat, a  ask pupils to brainstorm factors which exactly the same
species occupies a  Explain what is
could influence population sizes. Accept BIOL4 Jan 2012 niche?
meant by the
niche governed by feedback and categorise into biotic and – Q4  What happens
adaptation to both carrying capacity of
abiotic factors when niches
a population, and BIOL4 – June
abiotic and biotic  do a card sort matching abiotic factors overlap?
the biotic and 2012 – Q3
conditions. to the instruments/techniques used to  Why is it incorrect
abiotic factors
An ecosystem measure them (and the units if to say that no two
which determine
supports a certain appropriate) organisms have the
population size.
 teacher-led explanation of niches

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
size of population  Explain how some  use a past exam question to work same niche?
of a species, called common abiotic through data to determine an
the carrying factors could be organism’s niche
capacity. measured.  students attempt further exam
This population  Explain why no two questions.
size can vary as a species have
result of: exactly the same
niche. Skills developed by learning activities:
 the effect of
abiotic factors  AO1 – development of understanding
 interactions relating to forms of natural selection and
between their effect on allele frequencies
organisms:  AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to
interspecific experimentally derived data (in exam
and questions)
intraspecific  MS 0.1 – recognise and use appropriate
competition units for abiotic measurements.
and predation.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The size of a 0.6  Describe and Learning activities: Past exam nuffieldfoundation.org/p
population can be weeks explain the paper material: ractical-
 questioning about what students recall
estimated using techniques of biology/observing-
from GCSE BIOL4 Jan 2012
randomly placed sampling at random patterns-distribution-
quadrats, or using quadrats, and  teacher explanation of the basis of – Q3a
simple-plant
quadrats along a systematic sampling, how to conduct random and
BIOL4 June
systematic sampling and how to ensure nuffieldfoundation.org/p
belt transect, for sampling using 2013 – Q7
slow-moving or validity, reliability and eliminate bias ractical-
transects.
 students conduct practical sampling. BIOL4 June biology/biodiversity-
non-motile  Explain when it
organisms. They should do sampling at random 2010 – Q7 your-backyard
would be
using quadrats and systematic sampling
appropriate to use BIOL4 Jan 2010
using transects. This could be done on
each technique. – Q4
a school field or as part of a field trip.
 Describe the
BIOL4 Jan 2010
different measures
– Q7
of abundance that
Skills developed by learning activities:
can be measured. BIOL4 June
 Explain how  AO1/PS 4.1 – development of 2014 – Q8c
sampling at random understanding relating to sampling
can be done to using quadrats and transects
avoid bias.  AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to
 Explain how to experimentally derived data (in exam
ensure that questions)
estimates and  AT k – investigate the distribution of
conclusions are organisms in a named habitat using
reliable. randomly placed frame quadrats, or a
belt transect
 AT k/MS 0.3 – use both percentage
cover and frequency as measures of
abundance of a sessile species

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 MS 0.4 – make estimates of percentage
cover
 MS 1.6 – calculate mean, median and
mode for measured values from
sampling
 MS 1.5 – understand the principles of
sampling
 MS 1.7 – use a scatter diagram to
identify a correlation between two
measured values from a belt transect eg
light intensity and percentage cover of
Dog’s mercury
 MS 1.9 – select and use an appropriate
statistical test
 PS 1.2/2.1 – understand how to design
experiments to avoid bias and ensure a
large enough sample size.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The size of a 0.2-0.4  Explain the Learning activities: Specimen Rich questions:
population can be weeks technique of mark- assessment
 teacher led explanation of mark-release  Why might it be
estimated using the release-recapture material:
recapture technique, the ethical issues inappropriate to put
mark-release- and when it would
surrounding marking, and the A-level Paper 3 a brightly coloured
recapture method be appropriate to
for motile assumptions/limitations of the technique (set 1) – Q1 mark on an animal?
use this technique.
 students conduct practical sampling  Predict the effect
organisms.  Use given data to
using humane animal traps. Care on the accuracy of
The assumptions calculate the size of
should be taken not to harm the Past exam your estimate if:
made when using a population
animals. This could be done on a school paper material: a) some marks
the mark-release- estimated using the
field or as part of a field trip were to rub off

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recapture method. mark-release-  alternatively, the technique could be BIOL4 June prior to
recapture method. modelled using matchsticks, or sweets. 2012 – Q1b recapture
 Explain why careful Sample 10 matchsticks and mark them, b) the second
BIOL4 June sample is
consideration must then reintroduce back into the box and
2013 – Q4a and conducted
be given to the shake well. Resample 20 matchsticks
4c within an hour
method used to and perform calculation as population
mark animals. estimate. Repeat using a different BIOL4 June of release.
 Explain the colour mark. Then count matchsticks to 2010 – Q2  Assuming that the
assumptions which gauge accuracy of estimate technique is done
must be made  exam questions. correctly, why
during mark- Questions from might all individuals
release-recapture. BIO6T Q14 still not be equally
Skills developed by learning activities: catchable?
 Could mark-
 AO1 – development of understanding
release-recapture
relating to mark-release-recapture, the
be used to sample
ethical issues surrounding it, and its
humans? Explain
assumptions/limitations
your answer.
 AO2 – application of knowledge, using
given data to calculate population
estimates cleapss.org.uk
 AT k/AT h – use the mark-release-
recapture method to investigate the
abundance of a motile species
 MS 2.3/2.4 – substitute numerical
values into the mark-release-recapture
equation to solve the equation.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Required 1 week  Propose a null Learning activities: Marking of cleapss.org.uk


practical 12: hypothesis to test. experimental
students design an experiment to
Investigation into  Design an write-up
investigate the effect of a named variable on
the effect of a experiment to
named the distribution of a given plant/animal
investigate the
environmental species eg light intensity of the percentage
effect of a named
factor on the cover of Dog’s mercury as you move away
factor on the
distribution of a from a tree. This could include:
distribution of a
given species. given species,  researching a method
taking into account  designing an experiment and risk
the need for data to assessing
be reliable.  carrying out (subject to teacher
 Suggest what you approval) – this could be done in school
will do for variables or as part of a field trip
which cannot be  processing and presentation of data
controlled.  calculation and interpretation of
 Represent raw and statistical tests
processed data  conclusion and evaluation.
clearly using tables
and graphs.
 Select and use an Skills developed by learning activities:
appropriate
statistical test and  AT a and k – use appropriate apparatus
interpret the P and sampling techniques in fieldwork
value that results in  PS 1.1/1.2/2.4 – apply scientific
terms of probability knowledge to design a sampling
and chance. investigation, identifying key variables
 Apply knowledge to  PS 2.2/PS 3.1/ MS 1.7 – plot the
draw and explain experimental data on a scatter graph

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conclusions.  MS 1.6 – calculate mean, median or
mode for measured values from
sampling
 MS 1.9 – use an appropriate statistical
test
 MS 1.4 – understand simple probability
 AO1/AO2 – application of knowledge to
explain trends
 8.4.2.1/8.4.2.2/8.4.2.3/8.4.2.4/8.4.2.5.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Primary 0.4  Explain what Learning activities: Past exam geowords.org/ensci/ima


succession from weeks succession is. paper material: gesbook/04_03_succes
 look at a family tree of royal family and
pioneer species to  Explain how sion.swf
the succession to the throne. Ask BIOL4 Jan 2012
climax community. succession causes
students to define the word – Q3b
changes to
At each stage,  provide students with some plant
certain species ecosystems over BIOL4 Jan 2013 Rich question:
species cards (eg mosses, lichens and
may be recognised time. – Q4a and 4b
algae, shallow rooted grasses, deep Why does succession
which change the  Explain the impact BIOL4 June begin with a pioneer
rooted shrubs, rowan trees and oak
environment so of environmental
trees), and some facts cards with 2012 – Q1 species?
that it becomes changes on information about each species. Ask
more suitable for biodiversity. BIOL4 June
them to try and put the cards in order of
other species.  Apply knowledge to succession from pioneer species to
2013 – Q2
unfamiliar contexts. climax community, with reasons
The new species BIOL4 Jan 2011
may change the  teacher led explanation with examples – Q8a
environment in  group discussion about data showing
BIOL4 Jan 2010
such a way that it biomass, species diversity and primary
– Q6
becomes less production during succession
BIOL4 June

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suitable for the  exam questions. 2014 – Q3a-3b
previous species.
Changes that
organisms produce Skills developed by learning activities:
in their abiotic  AO1 – development of understanding
environment can relating to succession
result in a less  AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to
hostile unfamiliar contexts and experimentally
environment and derived data
change  AT i – students could use turbidity
biodiversity. measurements to investigate the growth
rate of a broth culture of
microorganisms
 MS 2.5 – students could use logarithmic
scale in representing the growth of a
population of microorganisms
 extended exam answers.

Extension Students could study succession within hay cleapss.org.uk


infusions.
NB This will take longer than allowed for in
this scheme of work.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Conservation of 0.2  Use their Learning activities: Past exam beep.ac.uk/content/415


habitats frequently weeks knowledge and paper material: .0.html
 provide students with materials/web
involves understanding to
pages regarding conservation of habitat BIOL4 June rspb.org.uk/ourwork/co
management of present scientific
succession. projects. Ask them what they have in 2010 – Q5 nservation/advice/wetsc
arguments and
common (all managing succession) rub/managing.aspx
ideas relating to the
 teacher led explanation of why
conservation of
conservation frequently involves Exampro:
species and
managing succession Rich questions:
habitats. BYA5 Jan 2003
 students should be given evidence
 Evaluate evidence – Q9d  What is
(some of which should be conflicting)
and data conservation?
about conservation of habitats, and BYA5 Jan 2004
concerning issues  Why does
discuss the relative arguments – Q2
relating to the conservation often
conservation of  provide students with the role of BYB4 June involve managing
presenting to the environment agency
species and 2005 – Q4 succession?
habitats and for funding to manage succession. They
consider conflicting should present a reasoned, evidence- BYB6 June
evidence. based case 2005 – Q2a
 Know that  exam question. BYB6 Jan 2005
management of – Q2
succession can
involve preventing Skills developed by learning activities: BYB6 Jan –
2004 Q7c.
succession  AO1 – development of understanding
occurring to relating to conservation and succession
maintain a desired management
community.  AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to,
and interpretation of, scientific data and
evidence to form reasoned arguments.

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3.8 The control of gene expression (A-level only)
This unit can be taught concurrently with unit 3.5, or 3.6 if two teachers are delivering the course. However, it would be useful if section 3.7.1 on
inheritance was covered prior to teaching aspects of this unit (eg 3.8.4.3 on genetic screening counselling).
Unit description
Cells are able to control their metabolic activities by regulating the transcription and translation of their genome. Although the cells within an organism
carry the same code genetic information, they translate only part of it. In multicellular organisms, this control of translation enables cells to have
specialised functions, forming tissues and organs.
There are many factors that control the expression of genes and, thus, the phenotype of organisms. Some are external, environmental factors, others
are internal factors. The expression of genes is not as simple as once thought, with epigenetic regulation of transcription being increasingly
recognised as important.
Humans are learning how to control the expression of genes by altering the epigenome, and how to alter genomes and proteomes of organisms. This
has many medical and technological applications.
Consideration of cellular control mechanisms underpins the content of this section. Students who have studied it should develop an understanding of
the ways in which organisms and cells control their activities. This should lead to an appreciation of common ailments resulting from a breakdown of
these control mechanisms and the use of DNA technology in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases.

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3.8.1 Alteration of the sequence of bases in DNA can alter the structure of proteins.
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Science A
New forms of a gene are generated by mutation.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Gene mutations 0.2  Describe what Learning activities: Specimen Rich questions:
might arise weeks happens in assessment
 question students on what they recall  What is meant by a
spontaneously substitution, material:
from 3.4.3 on mutagenic agents and frame shift
during DNA addition, deletion,
deletion and substitution mutations A-level Paper 3 mutation?
replication. They inversion,
include addition,  provide students with a DNA sequence, (set 1) – Q10.3  Explain why some
duplication and
deletion, translocation a codon table and an instruction sheet types of mutation
substitution, on how to make one type of mutation to might not result in a
mutations.
the sequence (give different types of Past exam change to the
inversion,  Explain how
duplication and mutations to different groups). The paper material: structure of the
mutations can arise
translocation of groups then work out the amino acid polypeptide that is
spontaneously, and BIOL5 June
bases. sequence produced from the wild type produced.
the effect that
and mutated allele. Accept feedback 2012 – Q1a-1c
The mutation rate mutagenic agents
from each group as to how different the BIOL5 June
is increased by have on the rate of
mutation.
mutated version was 2014 – Q1
mutagenic agents.  teacher led explanation of mutations
 Relate the nature of HBIO4 Jan
Mutations affecting linked to protein structure and earlier
a gene mutation to 2013 – Q10b
one triplet and knowledge of degeneracy
its effect on the
those which cause  exam questions. HBIO4 June
encoded
frame shift. polypeptide. 2011 – Q10c

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of knowledge

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understanding of types of mutation and
its consequences
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
information/context of exam questions.

3.8.2 Gene expression is controlled by a number of features.


3.8.2.1 Most of a cell’s DNA is not translated.
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Additional Science
 Most types of animal cells differentiate at an early stage whereas many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate throughout life.
 Cells from human embryos and adult bone marrow, called stem cells, can be made to differentiate into many different types of cells, eg nerve
cells.
 Human stem cells have the ability to develop into any kind of human cell.
 Treatment with stem cells may be able to help conditions such as paralysis.
 There are social and ethical issues concerning the use of stem cells from embryos in medical research and treatments.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The characteristics 0.4-0.6  Define what a stem Learning activities: Past exam ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NC
and source of weeks cell is. paper material: BE/SAFETY/tissuesafet
 introduce the idea of some plant cells
totipotent,  Explain the y.html
being totipotent throughout their life (so BIOL5 June
pluripotent, characteristics of
multipotent and a cutting can give rise to a new plant). 2010 – Q6 earn.genetics.utah.edu/
totipotent,
unipotent stem Outline that this is not true with content/stemcells
pluripotent, BIOL5 June
differentiated mammalian cells.
cells. multipotent and Introduce stem cells 2011 – Q6a eurostemcell.org/factsh
unipotent stem eet/reprogramming-
The production of  provide information sheets on totipotent HBIO4 June
specialised cells cells, and the how-turn-any-cell-body-
(linking back to differentiation and

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from totipotent sources of each translating only some of the cell’s DNA), 2014 – Q4 pluripotent-stem-cell
cells requires only type. pluripotent, multipotent and unipotent
part of the cell’s  Explain how cells (exemplified by formation of
DNA to be induced pluripotent cardiomyocytes). Students circulate to Rich questions:
translated. cells can be find the answers to a series of questions
 How do plants and
Unipotent cells produced and why  teacher explanation to reinforce
mammals differ in
exemplified by they are of interest.  evaluation of use of stem cells in
relation to
formation of  Evaluate the use of treating human disorders. This could be
differentiation?
stem cells in done as a debate
cardiomyocytes.  Why is only a small
treating human  show students the video on IPS cells
Pluripotent cells proportion of a
disorders. and get them to research IPS cells
and their use in cell’s DNA
using selected websites. Ask them how
treating human translated when it
IPS cells are made and whether this
disorders. specialises?
overcomes ethical objections around
The production of pluripotent embryonic stem cells
Induced pluripotent  concept map
cells (IPS cells).  exam questions

Skills developed by learning activities:


 AO1 – development of understanding
relating to the properties and uses of
different types of stem cells
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge
and interpretation of, scientific data and
evidence to evaluate the use of stem
cells
 8.4.2.5 – Research IPS cells.

Extension  Practical activity to produce tissue saps.org.uk/secondary/t


culture from explants of cauliflower. eaching-resources/706-
 AT i – produce tissue cultures of cauliflower-cloning-

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explants of cauliflower (Brassica tissue-culture-and-
oleracea). micropropagation
cleapss.org.uk

3.8.2.2 Regulation of transcription and translation


Prior knowledge: nothing explicitly relevant.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

In eukaryotes, 0.2  Explain what a Learning activities: Past exam Rich questions:
transcription of weeks transcription factor paper material:
 teacher introduction of the concepts of  Why is oestrogen
target genes can is.
promoters and transcription factors BIOL5 June able to directly
be stimulated or  Describe the role of
inhibited when  show animation of the mechanism by 2010 – Q5 enter the cell?
transcription factors
specific which oestrogen initiates transcription  What is a
in gene expression. BIOL5 June
 card sort – sequence the stages transcriptional
transcriptional  Describe the 2011 – Q8a
factors move from  provide data from investigations into factor?
mechanism by
the cytoplasm into gene expression and oestrogen  How does
which oestrogen is
the nucleus. able to initiate  exam questions. oestrogen
stimulate/activate
The role of the transcription.
transcription
steroid hormone,  Interpret data
Skills developed by learning activities: factors?
oestrogen, in provided from
 Suggest why
initiating investigations into  AO1 – development of understanding of oestrogen only has
transcription. gene expression. how transcription factors can stimulate an effect in certain
or inhibit transcription tissues?
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to,
and interpretation of, scientific data from
investigations into gene expression

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Extension Students could undertake the beta- ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NC
galactosidase experiment (see resources) BE/PROTOCOLS/DNA/
as an introduction to gene regulation (in bgalactosidase.html
prokaryotes) if time permits.
cleapss.org.uk

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Epigenetic control 0.4  Explain what Learning activities: Past exam scientificamerican.com/
of gene expression weeks epigenetics is, and paper material: article/epigenetics-
 conduct a class vote on whether
in eukaryotes. what happens to explained
identical twins should have similar HBIO4 Jan
the DNA or histone
Epigenetics predispositions to diseases linked to 2012 – Q6 learn.genetics.utah.edu
involves heritable to modify gene
gene expression /content/epigenetics
expression. HBIO4 June
changes in gene  show video from the
function, caused  Interpret data 2013 – Q7
learn.genetics.utah.edu link (see
by changes in the provided from
resources). Follow this up with teacher Rich questions:
environment that investigations into
elaboration on how methylation and
inhibit transcription gene expression.  Why is studying
acetylation affect gene expression as
by:  Evaluate twins so useful
well as answering of any questions
appropriate data for when investigating
 increased  analyse data on the relative influences
the relative the environmental
methylation of of genetic and environmental factors on
influences of effects on
the DNA phenotype from twin studies, and draw
genetic and epigenetics?
 conclusions
decreased environmental  What effect does
acetylation of factors on  exam question
DNA methylation
associated phenotype.  teacher led explanation of epigenetic have on gene
histones.  Explain how causes of disease and epigenetic expression? Why?
therapy (with reference to cancer).
The relevance of epigenetic control  What effect does
epigenetics on the can cause disease, histone acetylation
development and and how it could be Skills developed by learning activities: have on gene

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
treatment of used to treat  AO1 – development of understanding expression. Why?
disease, especially diseases such as relating to epigenetics and its relevance
cancer. cancer. to developing and treating disease
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to
explain trends in scientific data from
studies of identical and fraternal twins.

Extension Students could be given time to research


the information and activities from the
learn.genetics.utah.edu website eg lick your
rats.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

In eukaryotes and 0.2  Explain how gene Learning activities: Past exam nature.com/nrg/multime
some prokaryotes, weeks expression can be paper material: dia/rnai/animation/index
translation of the  provide students with the materials
inhibited by RNA .html
(video and comprehension) from BIOL5 June
mRNA produced interference of
from target genes nature.com 2013 – Q6 nature.com/horizon/rna/
translation.
 get them to prepare a short presentation background/interferenc
can be inhibited by  Explain how siRNA BIOL5 June
e.html
on what they have researched
RNA interference interferes with 2011 – Q8b
(RNAi). translation.  peer evaluation of presentation and
teacher explanation to address
 Interpret data Rich questions:
weaknesses and reinforce key points
provided from
 provide data from investigations into  Why is RNA
investigations into
gene expression. RNAi and ask students to apply their interference
knowledge specific to mRNA
 exam questions. from a particular
gene?
Skills developed by learning activities:  How is RNAi

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
 AO1 – development of understanding of different from
how RNA interference can inhibit gene inhibition of gene
expression expression by
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to, transcription
and interpretation of, scientific data from factors?
investigations into gene expression.

3.8.2.3 Gene expression and cancer


Prior knowledge: nothing explicitly relevant.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The main 0.4-0.6  Describe the Learning activities: Specimen sanger.ac.uk/research/


characteristics of weeks characteristics of assessment projects/cancergenome
benign and  teacher explanation of the main
benign and material:
characteristics of benign and malignant yourgenome.org/teache
malignant tumours. malignant tumours.
tumours, and the role of tumour A-level Paper 3 rs/roleofcancergenes.s
 Explain the role of
The role of the suppressor genes and oncogenes in (set 1) – Q4 html
following in the oncogenes/tumour
cancer. The Nowgen video could
development of suppressor genes, A-level Paper 3 yourgenome.org/teache
support this but be aware that cancer
tumours: abnormal may be a sensitive issue for some (set 1) – Q9 rs/braf.shtml
methylation and
students
 tumour increased
suppressor  students could undertake the BRAF
oestrogen Past exam
genes and activity, identifying mutations in the
concentrations in paper material:
oncogenes BRAF proto-oncogene and compare
the development of
against the COSMIC online database BIOL5 June
 abnormal cancer.
 discuss how this information could be 2010 – Q10b
methylation of  Evaluate evidence
tumour used in the future to prevent, treat or
showing HBIO4 June
suppressor cure cancer
correlations 2014 – Q8
genes and  teacher explanation of the role of
between genetic

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
 oncogenes and environmental abnormal DNA methylation, and HBIO4 Jan
 increased factors and various increased oestrogen concentrations in 2013 – Q5
oestrogen forms of cancer. the role of cancer development
HBIO4 Jan
concentrations  Interpret  exam questions.
2012 – Q9
in the information relating
development to the way in which HBIO4 June
of some breast an understanding Skills developed by learning activities: 2011 – Q9
cancers. of the roles of
 AO1 – development of understanding of HBIO4 June
oncogenes and
tumour suppressor
tumours, and the possible reasons for 2010 – Q8
developing tumours
genes could be HBIO4 Jan
 AO2 – application of knowledge to
used in the 2010 – Q9d
prevention, exam questions
treatment and cure  AO3/AT I – evaluation of scientific data
of cancer. showing correlations and comparison of
data against bioinformatics database
 essay-writing skills.

3.8.3 Using genome projects


Prior knowledge: nothing explicitly relevant.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Sequencing 0.4  Explain the Learning activities: Past exam wellcome.ac.uk/Educati


projects have read weeks principles of gel paper material: on-
the genomes of a  teacher explanation of the technique of
electrophoresis in resources/Education-
electrophoresis BIOL5 June
wide range of separating DNA and-
organisms. fragments.  students could research the Human 2013 – Q8c
learning/Resources/Ani
Genome project (and other genome
Determining the  Explain how mation/WTDV026689.h
projects)
sequencing Exampro: tm
genome of simpler  show students the speed animation and

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organisms allows techniques have ask them to highlight points which have BYB2 June yourgenome.org/teache
the proteome to be become automated allowed sequencing methods to become 2005 – Q6 rs/sequencing.shtml
determined. This and faster. faster and more automated
yourgenome.org/teache
may have many  Explain why it is  exam questions.
applications, rs/speed.shtml
harder to translate
including the genomic yourgenome.org/teache
identification of sequences into the Skills developed by learning activities: rs/hgp.shtml
potential antigens proteome for
for use in vaccine  AO1 – development of understanding wellcome.ac.uk/Educati
complex organisms
production. relating DNA sequencing techniques on-
than for simpler
and genome projects resources/Education-
organisms.
In more complex  AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to, and-
organisms, the interpret sequences from gel patterns. learning/Resources/Ani
presence of non- mation/WTX056051.ht
coding DNA and of m
regulatory genes
means that
knowledge of the
genome cannot
easily be translated
into the proteome.
Sequencing
methods are
continuously
updated and have
become
automated.

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3.8.4 Gene technologies allow the study and alteration of gene function allowing a better understanding of organism function and the
design of new industrial and medical processes.
3.8.4.1 Recombinant DNA technology
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Science A
 In genetic engineering, genes from the chromosomes of humans and other organisms can be ‘cut out’ using enzymes and transferred to cells of
other organisms.
 Genes can also be transferred to the cells of animals, plants or microorganisms at an early stage in their development so that they develop with
desired characteristics.
 Genes transferred to crop plants are called genetically modified (GM) crops. Examples of these include crops that are resistant to insect attack or
herbicides. These crops generally show increased yield.
 Concerns about GM crops include the effect on populations of wild flowers and insects, and uncertainty about the effects of eating GM crops on
human health.
 There are economic, social and ethical arguments for and against genetic engineering, including GM crops.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Recombinant DNA 0.2  Explain what is Learning activities: Past exam highered.mheducation.
technology weeks meant by paper material: com/olcweb/cgi/pluginp
 teacher introduction to recombinant
involves the recombinant DNA op.cgi?it=swf::640::480:
DNA technology HBIO4 June
transfer of technology. :/sites/dl/free/00733830
 questioning to assess recall from GCSE 2014 – Q9bi
fragments of DNA  Explain how the 74/811328/restriction_e
from one methods given in  think, pair, share: how do we isolate a HBIO4 Jan ndonucleases.swf::Rest
gene from the rest of the DNA to
organism, or the specification 2011 – Q9a riction%20Endonucleas
species, to can be used to produce a DNA fragment?
es
another, resulting produce fragments  teacher led explanation on the three
in translation within of DNA containing methods required in the specification. Exampro:
the recipient a desired gene. Include an overview of how Type 2
BYA2 Jan 2005 Rich questions:
(transgenic restriction endonucleases cut to leave a

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organism) due to  Explain what is sticky end – Q2  What is cDNA?
the universal meant by a  provide students with palindromic  Why would it be
nature of the restriction sequences and recognition site inappropriate to
genetic code. endonuclease and information for different Type 2 produce cDNA of
Fragments of DNA how they work to restriction endonucleases and ask them the human insulin
can be produced leave sticky ends. to draw the two pieces which would gene by trying to
by several form when cut. This could be extended find mRNA in a
methods, to look at how many pieces would be small intestine
including: produced for an extended sequence epithelial cell?
with several restriction sites  What is meant by
 conversion of  exam questions. the term
mRNA to palindromic
cDNA, using recognition
reverse Skills developed by learning activities: sequence?
transcriptase
 using  AO1 – development of understanding
restriction relating to recombinant DNA technology
enzymes to cut and production of DNA fragments
a fragment  AO2 – application of knowledge of
containing the restriction endonuclease recognition
desired gene sites to work out sticky ends produced.
from DNA
 creating the
gene in a
‘gene
machine’.

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Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The principles of the 0.2  Describe the Learning activities: Specimen sumanasinc.com/webc
polymerase chain weeks process of PCR assessment ontent/animations/conte
 get students to use the Virtual PCR lab
reaction (PCR) as in amplifying material: nt/pcr.html
(see resources) to work through the
an in vitro method to DNA fragments.
laboratory technique of PCR A-level Paper 3 dnalc.org/view/15475-
amplify DNA  Explain the role
fragments.  teacher-led explanation of PCR and the (set 1) – Q10.5 The-cycles-of-the-
of primers and
stages involved. Use videos and polymerase-chain-
Taq polymerase
animations to support your explanation reaction-PCR-3D-
in PCR.
 ask students to compare and contrast PCR Past exam animation.html
 Explain the
to DNA replication paper material:
processes of dnalc.org/resources/ani
 ask students to work out the number of HBIO4 Jan
strand mations/pcr.html
copies you would have from one original
separation, 2013 – Q10c
DNA fragment after a specified number of earn.genetics.utah.edu/
primer
cycles HBIO4 Jan content/labs/pcr
annealing, and
strand synthesis.  card sort – order the stages and match up 2011 – Q9b
explanation cards to each
 Evaluate the
pros and cons of  exam questions. Rich questions:
using PCR to  What is the
clone DNA purpose of adding
fragments over Skills developed by learning activities:
DNA primers?
in vivo methods.  AO1/PS4.1 – development of  Why is Taq
understanding of the process of PCR and polymerase used in
its applications the PCR?
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to,  How many
and interpretation of, scientific data and fragments would
evidence to form reasoned arguments you have after 20
 AT l – computer modelling of PCR cycles of PCR?
 MS 0.5 and MS 2.5 – students could use
calculators with exponential functions and

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a logarithmic scale to represent the
increase in the number of copies of DNA
fragments present after multiple cycles of
PCR.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The culture of 0.8  Explain what Learning activities: Specimen dnalc.org/resources/ani


transformed host weeks gene cloning is assessment mations/restriction.html
 teacher explanation of how to clone in vivo
cells as an in vivo and why it is material:
(using videos and animations) dnalc.org/resources/ani
method to amplify important in a
DNA fragments,  card sort of the stages A-level Paper 3 mations/transformation
range of
involving: applications.  exam questions. (set 1) – Q5 1.html

 the addition of  Describe the highered.mheducation.


promoter and stages involved com/sites/0072556781/
Skills developed by learning activities: Past exam
terminator in in vivo gene student_view0/chapter1
paper material:
regions to the cloning.  AO1/PS 4.1 – development of 4/animation_quiz_1.htm
fragments of  Explain the understanding relating to the process of in BIOL5 June l
DNA importance of vivo gene cloning 2012 – Q5
 the use of the addition of  AO2/AO3 – interpretation of information in
restriction promoter and exam questions and application of Rich questions:
endonucleases terminator knowledge about in vivo gene cloning Past exam
Why is the percentage
and ligases to regions.  MS 0.3 – use percentages when paper material:
of cells successfully
insert fragments  Explain the discussing/working out the proportion of BIOL5 June transformed with
importance of cells which are successfully transformed.
of DNA into 2012 – Q1 recombinant DNA so
vectors the use of
restriction HBIO4 June low?
 transformation
of host cells enzymes and 2014 – Q9bi
using these sticky ends.
HBIO4 Jan
vectors  Explain the

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 the use of methods used 2013 – Q6
marker genes to for
HBIO4 June
detect transformation.
2010 – Q9
genetically  Explain the use
modified (GM) of marker genes
cells or and replica
organisms. plating.
 Interpret
information
provided in
exam questions,
to interpret
which colonies
have been
successfully
transformed with
recombinant
DNA.

Extension  Students could use the Lambda NCBE ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NC


protocol to use electrophoresis and BE/PROTOCOLS/PDF/
restriction endonuclease enzyme to LambdaSG.pdf
investigate restriction enzyme specificity.
ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NC
 Students could undertake a practical to
BE/PROTOCOLS/DNA/
transform bacteria with a recombinant
PDF/DNA08.pdf
plasmid (see NCBE protocol). Kits are
commercially available eg from NCBE, ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NC
Biorad. BE/SAFETY/dnasafety
1.html

Skills developed by learning activities: cleapss.org.uk

AT g – investigate the specificity of restriction

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enzymes using extracted DNA and
electrophoresis.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The applications 0.4  Interpret Learning activities: Past exam bionetonline.org/Englis


and implications of weeks information paper material: h/Content/ff_intro.htm
 continuum – who is in favour of
recombinant DNA relating to the use
transgenic/GM organisms? HBIO4 June
technology. of recombinant
 jigsaw task: students work in groups of 4, 2014 – Q9biii
Rich questions:
DNA technology.
with one going to become an expert in
 Evaluate the HBIO4 June
one of four areas. Provide materials on  What are the
ethical, financial 2010 – Q5
the use of recombinant DNA technology potential benefits to
and social issues
in agriculture, medicine, industry and the mankind of
associated with
environment. For each area, provide transgenic/GM
the use and
case studies/data of how recombinant organisms?
ownership of
DNA technology has been used eg Bt  What are the valid
recombinant DNA
Maize, pharming, GM mustard plants objections that
technology in
removing excessive selenium some people have
agriculture, in
 feedback and completion of summary to using
industry and in
table recombinant DNA
medicine.
 repetition of continuum – have opinions technology?
 Balance the
changed  Would your
humanitarian
aspects of  debate: should the UK allow the viewpoint depend
commercial growing of GM crops. Assign on your
recombinant DNA
students viewpoints to reflect those who circumstances?
technology with
the opposition would benefit from humanitarian aspects  Should companies
from against those who oppose GM. In be allowed to
environmentalists addition to researcher applications, patent genes?
and anti- provide further information relating to  Why has the UK
globalisation not approved

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activists. risks. widespread
commercial
growing of GM
Skills developed by learning activities: crops?
 AO1 – development of understanding of
how recombinant DNA technology is
used
 AO2/AO3 – application of knowledge to,
and interpretation/evaluation of, scientific
data and case studies to form reasoned
arguments
 8.4.2.5.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

Relate recombinant 0.2  Explain the Learning activities: Past exam learn.genetics.utah.edu
DNA technology to weeks principles of paper material: /content/genetherapy
 teacher-led explanation of gene therapy
gene therapy. gene therapy.
and the use of viruses and liposomes to BIOL5 June
 Explain the use
deliver the gene to cells 2012 – Q6
of liposomes Rich questions:
 students explore online gene therapy kit to
and viruses in
determine pros and cons of using  Why are viruses
delivering genes
liposomes and viruses. Accept feedback used in some forms
into cells.
and discuss of gene therapy?
 Explain the
 comprehension on possible applications of  Why does gene
difference
gene therapy in treating certain diseases therapy become
between somatic
 teacher-led explanation of the risks and less effective with
and germ line
issues surrounding effectiveness of successive
therapy, and
liposomes and viruses. treatments?
why germ line
 Describe a risk of
therapy is

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prohibited. - exam questions. using viruses?
(NB the first  What further
three bullet challenges would
Skills developed by learning activities: be faced in using
points are not
gene therapy to
required AO1  AO1 – development of understanding
specification cure genetic
relating to gene therapy, its effectiveness
knowledge but diseases caused by
and its risks
mutations in
used to develop  AO2 – application of knowledge to multiple genes?
ideas). evaluate gene therapy
 Evaluate the  MS 0.3 – use percentages when
effectiveness discussing/working out the proportion of
and risks of cells which take up and express the
gene therapy. therapeutic gene.

3.8.4.2 Differences in DNA between individuals of the same species can be exploited for identification and diagnosis of heritable
conditions.
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Additional Science
 Some disorders are inherited. These include polydactyly and cystic fibrosis.
 Embryos can be screened for the alleles which cause these disorders.
 There are ethical, economic and social arguments for and against embryo screening.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

The use of labelled 0.4  Explain how Learning activities: Specimen yourgenome.org/teache
DNA probes and weeks DNA probes and assessment rs/genomegeneration.s
DNA hybridisation to  ask students who would want to be
hybridisation are material: html
screened for a genetic disease. Inform
locate specific used to locate
them that they were all screened at birth

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alleles of genes. specific alleles. for PKU and why this was done A-level Paper 2 earn.genetics.utah.edu/
The use of labelled  Explain the  teacher explanation of DNA probes and (set 1) – Q10.5 content/disorders/couns
DNA probes that benefits of hybridisation to screen for heritable elors
can be used to screening for conditions, drug responses or health risks
bionetonline.org/Englis
screen patients for genetic  students could model this by being given a Past exam
h/content/gh_intro.htm
heritable conditions, diseases. “DNA probe” with a short sequence and paper material:
drug responses or  Explain some of some DNA sequences from people – they
BIOL5 June
the issues raised have to find if the probe would hybridise
health risks. 2012 – Q8 Rich questions:
by screening, and where
The use of this and the role of  continuum line – Is genetic testing a good BIOL5 June  Explain how a
information in genetic thing which we should all have done? 2013 – Q8a and radioactive DNA
genetic counselling counsellors.  genome generation card scenarios – 8b probe would be
and personalised  Evaluate Students discuss all or some of the used in screening?
medicine. BIOL5 June
information scenarios. Summarise the concerns eg  What is the value of
2014 – Q8
relating to should insurance companies have the right genetic screening?
screening to know? HBIO4 Jan  Why are some
individuals for  explanation of role of genetic counsellors 2013 – Q10e people concerned
genetically  repeat the continuum – have opinions HBIO4 Jan
about having
determined changed? screening for a
2011 – Q10
conditions and  exam questions. wide range of
drug responses. HBIO4 Jan genetic diseases
2010 – Q9a-c and
Skills developed by learning activities: predispositions?
 What can genetic
 AO1 – development of understanding counsellors provide
relating to genetic screening and advice on, and
counselling what can they not
 AO2 – application of knowledge to form advise on?
reasoned arguments.

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3.8.4.3 Genetic fingerprinting
Prior knowledge:
GCSE Additional Science
Each person (apart from identical twins) has unique DNA. This can be used to identify individuals in a process known as DNA fingerprinting.

Learning objective Time Learning outcome Learning activity with opportunity to develop Assessment Resources
taken skills opportunities

An organism’s 0.2  Describe the Learning activities: Past exam highered.mheducation.


genome contains weeks methodology paper material: com/sites/dl/free/00728
 questioning to establish recall from GCSE
many variable involved in 35125/126997/animatio
number tandem producing a  teacher explanation of VNTRs and how BIOL5 June
n40.html
repeats (VNTRs). they vary between people 2011 – Q10a
genetic
The probability of fingerprint.  students could use a computer model to pbslearningmedia.org/a
model DNA fingerprinting (see resources) sset/tdc02_int_createdn
two individuals  Explain what
having the same variable number  teacher explanation to elaborate on Exampro: afp2
VNTRs is very low. tandem repeats learning so far (using animation) BYA2 June
are, and how  information treasure hunt – find information 2005 – Q8
The technique of to set questions about the applications of Rich questions:
genetic these allow the
production of a genetic fingerprinting by visiting  Why might PCR be
fingerprinting in information stations
analysing DNA virtually unique used with DNA
genetic  accept feedback fingerprinting?
fragments that have  model how to interpret genetic fingerprints
been cloned by fingerprint.  Why are forensics
 Explain the eg in paternity cases and provide further officers so careful
PCR, and its use in examples for students to work through.
determining genetic applications of to avoid
relationships and in genetic contaminating a
determining the fingerprinting. crime scene?
 Interpret genetic Skills developed by learning activities:  What proportion of
genetic variability
within a population. fingerprint  AO1 – development of understanding bands would you
patterns and relating to genetic fingerprinting and its expect to match
draw applications between a child

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The use of genetic conclusions.  AO2/AO3 – interpretation of genetic and its father?
fingerprinting in the fingerprints to draw valid conclusions
fields of forensic  MS 1.4 – consider the probability of two
science, medical people (not identical twins) having the
diagnosis, animal same VNTRs
and plant breeding.  essay-writing skills.

Extension Identify examples of DNA fingerprinting in the


news. This may include the identification of
most suitable zoo animals for breeding
programmes, medical diagnosis, forensic
science.

Version (1.2)
First published (10/02/2015)
Last updated (26/07/17)

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