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Calculations of pipeline are carried out in order to determine the head necessary for

overcoming hydraulic resistance which, in its turn, is necessary for correct selection of
machines for liquid or gaseous media pumping.

In the general case drop of pipe pressure can be calculated by the following formula:

p= ·(l/d1)·( /2)·v²

p – pressure drop on a pipe section, Pa


l – length of pipe section, m
- friction coefficient
d1 – pipe diameter, m
– density of pumped medium, kg/m3
v – flow rate, m/s

Hydraulic resistance may occur due to different factors, and two major groups are
distinguished: friction resistances and local resistances.

Friction resistance is caused by all sorts of unevenness and roughness on pipeline surface
being in contact with the pumped medium. Friction, having braking effect and requiring
additional energy consumption for its overcoming, occurs during fluid flow between it and
pipeline walls. Created resistance to a great extent depends on the mode of pumped medium
flow.

With laminar flow and small values of Reynolds number (Re) corresponding to it, characterized
by uniformity and absence of mixing between fluid or gas adjacent layers, influence of
roughness is minor. It is explained by the fact that extreme viscous underlayer is often thicker
than the layer formed by unevenness and bulges on the pipeline surface. Under such
conditions the pipeline is regarded as hydraulically smooth.

With the increase of Reynolds number thickness of viscous underlayer reduces, and interrupts
overlap of irregularities by underlayer, and influence of roughness on hydraulic resistance
increases and becomes dependent on both Reynolds number and average height of bulges
on the pipeline surface.

Further increase of Reynolds number converts the pumped medium into turbulent flow mode,
in which viscous underlayer is completely destroyed and created friction depends only on the
degree of roughness.

Calculation of friction loss is made by formula:

H =[( ·l)/d ]·[w2/(2g)]

H – head losses due to friction resistance, m


[w2/(2g)] – velocity head, m
– friction coefficient
l – pipeline length, m
d – pipeline equivalent diameter, m
w – flow rate, m/s
g – gravity acceleration, m/s2

Flow range Range of Reynolds number Formula of friction coefficient

Smooth flow 2,320<Re<10/e =(0,316/Re0,25)

Mixed flow 10/e<Re<560/e =0,11·[e+(68/Re)]0,25

Turbulent flow Re>560/e =0,11·e0,25

In table:

e – pipe relative roughness


– pipe absolute roughness (mm)
– pipe equivalent diameter (mm)
Re – Reynolds number
w – flow rate (m/s)
d – pipe equivalent diameter (mm)
– medium density (kg/m3)
– dynamic viscosity (Pa·s)
Equivalent diameter in calculations of pipelines

Equivalent diameter is used in calculations of non-cylindrically shaped pipelines (oval,


rectangular), and corresponds to the diameter of the round pipeline which creates friction
losses similar to that of non-cylindrically shaped pipeline with the similar length. There are
various formulae for calculation of pipelines having different geometrical shapes, but in the
general case the following formula is used:

d = 4F/P

d – pipeline equivalent diameter, m


F – pipeline cross-sectional area, m2
– inside perimeter of pipeline cross-sectional area, m

For cylindrically shaped pipelines equivalent and inside diameters will evidently coincide. In the
case of open conduits the formula for equivalent diameter calculation is another:

d = 4F/P

d – conduit equivalent diameter, m


F – cross-sectional area of fluid flow, m
c – wetted perimeter, m

Wetted perimeter is a length of line of flow contact with conduit or pipe walls that restrain this
flow.
Local resistances are created by different pipeline elements in which flow of the pumped
medium is subjected to sudden deformations with change of direction, velocity or vortex
effects. These can be gates, valves, pipeline turns, junctions, etc.

Head losses in local resistance are calculated in the following way:

H ·[w2/(2g)]

H – losses of head in local resistance, m


w2/(2g) – velocity head, m
– local resistance coefficient
w – flow rate, m/s
g – gravity acceleration, m/s2

As can be seen from the formula, head losses in local resistance depend not only on the rate
and local resistance coefficient, values of which are summarized in the table for different types
of local resistances to simplify calculations.

In the majority of cases local resistance coefficients do not depend on the flow rate of the
pumped fluid and are determined depending on characteristics of the local resistance. Values
of resistance coefficients for most wide-spread cases are given below:

Initial and end pipe sections

Pipe inlet Pipe outlet


Sharp edges Rounded edges

0.5 0.2 1

Pipe gradual branch

Resistance coefficient is obtained by multiplying two quantities K1 and 2

1 depends on the angle of flow change

Angle 20 30 45 60 90 110 130 150 180

1 0.31 0.45 0.60 0.78 1.00 1.13 1.20 1.28 1.40

2 depends on turn radius R and pipe inside diameter d

R/d 1 2 4 6 15 30 50

K2 0.21 0.15 0.11 0.09 0.06 0.04 0.03

Elbow (angle 90°)

Pipe diameter, mm 12,5 25 37 50 Over 50

Local resist. coefficient 2.2 2 1.6 1.1 1.1

Normal valve (full opening)

Pipe diameter, mm 13 20 40 80 100 150 200 250 350

Local resist. coefficient 10.8 8.0 4.9 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.5

Straight-through valve (full opening)


At Re > 3·105

Pipe diameter, mm 25 38 50 65 76 100 150 200 250

Local resist. coefficient 1.04 0.85 0.79 0.65 0.6 0.5 0.42 0.36 0.3

At Re < 3·105
(relevant local resistance coefficient is multiplied by coefficient k the value of which depends on the Reynolds number)

Re 5,000 10,000 20,000 50,000 100,000 200,000

k 1.4 1.07 0.94 0.88 0.91 0.93

Pipeline sudden expansion

Re F 1/F2

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

10 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1

100 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.8

1,000 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.05 0.9 0.6

3,000 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2

3,500 and over 0.81 0.64 0.5 0.36 0.25 0.16

In the table:
F1 – the smallest of pipeline cross-sections
F2 – the largest of pipeline cross-sections
Re – Reynolds number
Pipeline abrupt contraction

Re F1/F2

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

10 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

100 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8

1,000 0.64 0.5 0.44 0.35 0.3 0.24

10,000 0.5 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2

100,000 and over 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2

In the table:
F1 – the smallest of pipeline cross-sections
F2 – the largest of pipeline cross-sections
Re – Reynolds number

By summing up all the above given equations we obtain general equation for calculation of the
pump head:

H = H +H = ( ·l)/d ·[w2/(2g)]+ ·[w2/(2g)] = (( ·l)/d )·[w2/(2g)]

– sum of all coefficients of local resistances


Calculation of pipeline optimal diameter

Calculation of pipeline optimal diameter is a complicated problem, which requires technical


and economic assessments and consideration of numerous particular factors. This is
attributed to close interrelation between parameters of pipeline under design and
characteristics of flow of medium pumped through it. Increase of the pumped medium velocity
makes it possible to reduce pipeline diameter required to maintain set flow rate, thus reducing
consumption of materials and making system erection cheaper and easier. At the same time,
velocity increase inevitably involves losses of head, which requires additional energy
consumption for medium pumping. Excessive reduction of velocity also can result in unwanted
aftermath.

Formula for calculation of the pipeline optimal diameter is based on the flow rate formula (for
circular pipe):

Q = ( d²/4)·w

Q – flow rate of pumped fluid, m3/s


d – pipeline diameter, m
w – flow velocity, m/s

The flow rate is most often a set quantity in problems on pipeline design. In such case the
unknown quantities are only a pipeline diameter and flow velocity. Comprehensive technical
and economic calculation may be very labor-intensive and complicated, so optimal values of
pumped medium velocity, taken from reference materials, drawn up on the basis of
experimental findings, are used in practice:
Pumped medium Pipeline optimal velocity, m/s

FLUIDS Gravity flow:

Viscous fluids 0.1 – 0.5

Low-viscosity fluids 0.5 – 1

Pumping:

Suction pipeline 0.8 – 2

Delivery pipeline 1.5 – 3

GASES Natural draught 2–4

Low pressure (fans) 4 – 15


High pressure (compressor) 15 – 25

VAPORS Overheated 30 – 50

Saturated vapors under pressure of:

Over 105 Pa 15 – 25

(1-0.5)·105 Pa 20 – 40

(0.5-0.2)·105 Pa 40 – 60

(0.2-0.05)·105 Pa 60 – 75

Final calculation formula for pipeline optimal diameter is the following:


d = (4Q/ w)

Q – flow rate of pumped fluid, m3/s


d – pipeline diameter, m
w – flow velocity, m/s

Examples of problems and solutions for calculation and


selection of pipelines:
Example No. 1

What are the head losses for local resistances in horizontal pipeline having diameter of 20 x 4
mm, through which water is pumped from open reservoir to reactor with pressure of 1.8 bar?
Distance between reservoir and reactor is 30 m. Water flow rate is 90 m3/h. Total head equals
to 25 m. Friction coefficient is taken equal to 0.028.
Solution:

Water flow velocity in pipeline equals to:

w=(4·Q) / ( ·d2) = ((4·90) / (3,14·[0,012]2))·(1/3600) = 1,6 m/s

We find head friction losses in the pipeline:

H = ( ·l) / (d ·[w2/(2·g)]) = (0,028·30) / (0,012·[1,6]2) / ((2·9,81)) = 9,13 m

Total losses are:

h = H - [(p2-p1)/( ·g)] - H = 25 - [(1,8-1)·105)/(1000·9,81)] - 0 = 16,85 m

Losses on local resistance fall within:

16,85-9,13=7,72 m
Example No. 2

Water is pumped by centrifugal pump across horizontal pipeline at velocity of 1.5 m/s. Total
created head equals to 7 m. What is the pipeline maximal length, if water is taken from open
reservoir, pumped across horizontal pipeline with one gate valve and two 90° elbows and
flows out from pipe to another reservoir? Pipeline diameter equals to 100 mm. Relative
roughness is taken equal to 4·10-5.
Solution:

For pipe with diameter of 100 mm coefficients of local resistances will equal to:

For 90° elbow – 1.1; gate valve – 4.1; pipe outlet – 1.

Then we determine value of velocity head:

w2 / (2·g) = 1,52 / (2·9,81) = 0,125 m

Head losses for local resistances will equal to:

· [w2/(2·g)] = (2·1,1+4,1+1) · 0,125 = 0,9125 m

We find total head losses for friction resistance and local resistances from the formula of the
pump total head (geometrical lift head under these conditions equals to 0):

h = H - (p2-p1)/( ·g) - H = 7 - ((1-1)·105)/(1000·9,81) - 0 = 7 m

Then friction head losses will amount to:

7-0,9125 = 6,0875 m

We calculate value of the Reynolds number for the flow in the pipeline (water dynamic
viscosity is taken as 1·10-3 Pa·s, and density – 1,000 kg/m3):

Re = (w·d )/ = (1,5·0,1·1000)/(1·10-3) = 150000


In accordance with this number using the table we calculate a friction coefficient (the arithmetic
formula is selected on the principle that value Re falls within the range of 2,320<Re<10/e,
corresponding to laminar flow):

= 0,316/Re0,25 = 0,316/1500000,25 = 0,016

We express and find a maximal pipeline length from the formula of head friction losses:

l = (H ·d ) / ( ·[w2/(2g)]) = (6,0875·0,1) / (0,016·0,125) = 304,375 m


Example No. 3

The pipeline with the inside diameter of 42 mm is given. It is connected to the water pump with
flow rate of 10 m3/h and creating head of 12 m. Temperature of the pumped medium is 20° C.
Pipeline configuration is given in the figure below. It is necessary to calculate the head losses
and check whether this pump is capable of pumping water at pipeline set parameters.
Absolute roughness of pipes is taken as equal to 0.15 mm.

Solution:

We calculate the velocity of the fluid flow in the pipeline:

w = (4·Q) / ( ·d2) = (4·10) / (3,14·0,0422)·1/3600 = 2 m/s

Velocity head corresponding to the found velocity will equal to:

w2/(2·g) = 22/(2·9,81) = 0,204 m

Friction coefficient should be found before the calculation of friction losses in pipes. In the first
place we determine pipe relative roughness:
e = /d = 0,15/42 = 3,57·10-3 mm

Reynolds criterion for water flow in the pipeline (water dynamic viscosity at 20° C is 1·10-
3
Pa·s, and density is 998 kg/m3):

Re = (w·d )/ = (2·0,042·998) / (1·10 -3) = 83832

We find out the water flow mode:

10/e = 10/0,00357 = 2667

560/e = 560/0,00357 = 156863

The found value of Reynolds criterion falls within the range of 2667<83,832<156,863 (10/e <
Re < 560/e), hence, friction coefficient should be calculated by the following formula:

=0,11·(e+68/Re)0,25 = 0,11·(0,00375+68/83832)0,25 = 0,0283

Head friction losses in the pipeline will equal to:

H = ( ·l)/d · [w2/(2·g)] = (0,0283·(15+6+2+1+6+5))/0,042 · 0,204 = 4,8 m

Then it is necessary to calculate head losses for local resistances. It is followed from the
pipeline diagram that local resistances are represented by two gate valves, four rectangular
elbows and one pipe outlet.

Tables do not contain values of coefficient of local resistances for normal gate valves and
rectangular elbows with pipe diameter of 42 mm, so we will use one of the methods of
approximate calculation of values we are interested in.

We take table values of coefficients of local resistances of normal gate valve for diameters of
40 and 80 mm. We assume that plot of values of coefficients represents straight line in this
range. We set up and solve system of equations in order to find a plot of dependence of the
local resistance coefficient on the pipe diameter:
{
4,9 = a·40+b
4 = a·80+b
=
{
a = -0,0225
b = 5,8
Sought equation has the view:

= -0,0225·d+5,8

With diameter of 42 mm local resistance coefficient will equal to:

= -0,0225·42+5,8 = 4,855

Similarly we find the value of local resistance coefficient for rectangular elbow. We take table
values for diameters of 37 and 50 mm and solve system of equations, making similar
assumption on the nature of plot at this section:
{
1,6=a·37+b
1,1=a·50+b
=
{
a = -0,039
b = 3,03

Sought equation has the view:

= -0,039·d+3,03

With diameter of 42 mm local resistance coefficient will equal to:

= -0,039·42+3,03 = 1,392

For pipe outlet local resistance coefficient is taken as equal to one.

Head losses for local resistances will equal to:

· [w2/(2g)] = (2·4,855+4·1,394+1) · 0,204 = 3,3 m

Total head losses in the system will equal to:

4,8+3,3 = 8,1 m

According to the data obtained we conclude that this pump is suitable for water pumping
through this pipeline, as the head, it creates, is larger than total head losses in the system, and
fluid flow velocity stay within the optimum margin.
Example No. 4
Section of straight horizontal pipeline with inside diameter of 300 mm was subjected to repair
by way of replacing 10 m long pipe section with the inside diameter of 215 mm. The total
length of pipeline section under repair is 50 m. Section to be replaced is 18 m away from the
beginning. Water flows at 20°C at velocity 1.5 m/s though the pipeline. I is necessary to find
out how hydraulic resistance of the pipeline section under repair will change. Friction
coefficients for pipes with diameter of 300 and 215 mm are taken equal to 0.01 and 0.012
correspondingly.

Solution:

Initial pipeline created head loss only for fluid friction with walls during pumping. Replacement
of the pipe section resulted in occurrence of two local resistances (abrupt contraction and
abrupt expansion of passage conduit), and section with changed pipe diameter, where friction
losses will be different. The remaining pipeline section was not changed and, consequently,
can not be considered as part of this problem.

We calculate the pipeline water flow rate:

Q = ( ·d²) / 4·w = (3,14·0,3²) / 4·1,5 = 0,106 m³/s

As the flow rate does not change throughout pipeline length, we can determine the flow
velocity on the pipe section subjected to repair:

w = (4·Q) / ( ·d²) = (4·0,106) / (3,14·0,215²) = 2,92 m/s


The obtained value of the flow velocity in the pipe replaced section stay within the optimal
range.

In order to determine the local resistance coefficient firstly we calculate Reynolds criterion for
different diameters of pipes and ratio of cross-sectional areas of these pipes. Reynolds
criterion for pipe with diameter of 300 mm (water dynamic viscosity at 20° C is 1·10 -3 Pa·s, and
density – 998 kg/m3):

e = (w·d )/ = (1,5·0,3·1000) / (1·10-3) = 450000

Reynolds criterion for pipe with diameter of 215 mm (water dynamic viscosity at 20° C is 1·10-
3
Pa·s, and density – 998 kg/m3):

Re = (w·d )/ = (1,5·0,215·1000) / (1·10-3) = 322500

Ratio of pipe cross-sectional areas equals to:

(( ·d1²)/4) / (( ·d2²)/4) = 0,215² / 0,3² =5,1

Using the tables we will find values of coefficients of local resistances, rounded the ratio of
areas to 5. For sudden expansion it will equal to 0.25, and for sudden contraction will also
equal to 0.25.

Head losses for local resistances will equal to:

·[w²/(2g)] = 0,25·[1,5²/(2·9,81)] + 0,25·[2,92²/(2·9,81)] = 0,137 m

Now we calculate friction losses in replaced pipeline section for initial and new pipe sections.
For pipe with diameter of 300 mm they will equal to:

H = ( ·l)/d · [w²/(2g)] = (0,01·10)/0,3 · [1,5²/(2·9,81)] = 0,038 m

For pipe with diameter of 215 mm:

H = ( ·l)/d · [w²/(2g)] = (0,012·10)/0,215 · 2,92²/(2·9,81) = 0,243 m

Therefrom we conclude that friction losses in the pipeline will increase by:

0,243-0,038 = 0,205 m

Total increase of friction losses in the pipeline will equal to:

0,205+0,137 = 0,342 m