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AE1350 Lecture

Aerospace
Aerospace History
History and
and World
World History
History
Nature as Inspiration
Leonardo da Vinci’s Ornithopter
Montgolfier’s Balloon
Flight on November 21, 1783
Cayley’s Airplane Design (1804)

Had a Fuselage, Tail, wings!


He proposed using an engine for thrust
Flies as a “model” glider, the first glider
Otto Lilienthal’s Human-Carrying Gliders

Crashed and died on a flight in 1896 after years of


successful flights - Contemporary of the Wrights,
Langley, Chanute, and many others…
First Successful Airplane Flight

Samuel P. Langley
Steam power, 30 lbs., 25 mph
The first successful flights in 1896
First Human-Carrying Airplane

The first successful flight on December 17, 1903


Gas engine, solved problems of control
Pre-WWI

Curtis June Bug 1908

Bleriot monoplane 1909


First flight across
English Channel
WWI
• First used for reconnaissance
• …then for shooting down reconnaissance aircraft
• …then for shooting down the planes that are shooting
down the reconnaissance aircraft…

Fokker DVII 1917


125 mph
Early all-metal monoplanes

Ford tri-motor, 1926


Early Rockets
Chinese use of rockets for fireworks 3500 years ago

In 1926, Goddard explored


throttle-able liquid-fueled rockets
with guidance systems
Charles Lindbergh
• Charles Lindbergh was best
known for accomplishing the first
flight from New York to Paris in
the Spirit of St. Louis in 1927. He
covered the distance of 3,610
miles in 33 1/2 hours. This was
the first solo, non-stop
transatlantic flight.
• Aviation becomes respectable for
the masses, the popular
Lindbergh goes on world tours to
promote aviation and
Pan-American Airways
Flying blind, Doolittle in 1929
WWII
Junkers JU-87 “Stuka”

Consolidated B-24 Liberator, 16,000 built

Hawker Hurricane, 315 mph 1935


WWII
• Number of aircraft built in the USA in 1944
– 96,318
• Number of aircraft built in the world in 1944
– 240,443
• Number of aircraft built in the world 1935-1945
– 931,155
– About two thirds by Allied Powers,
One third by Axis Powers
WWII

Boeing B-29, pressurized, 357 mph

V-2 Rocket Messerschmitt ME-262, Jet


1950s
Supersonic Military
Aircraft

Satellites, Launch Vehicles,


ICBMs

Commercial Transports With Jet Propulsion


Satellites for Communications, Remote
Sensing (example: Weather)
Space “Race”
• At the height of the cold war, Soviet Union and the
USA compete for prestige in the new arena of
manned space flight

Alexei Leonov, first,


Yuri Gagarin, first space walk 1965
person in space, 1961
Neil Armstrong, first man on
the moon, 1969
Cold War Weapons (1960s)

Lockheed SR-71, 1964

Submarine Launched Land based ICBM


Ballistic Missiles
Wide body airliner, 1960s
• Efficiency improvements makes air transportation
affordable to many for the first time

Boeing 747

• Accelerates with airline deregulation in 1978


Exploration of Space

Voyager 1 and 2 tours solar


system 1977-1989

Viking 1 and 2 on Mars 1976


Peak of General Aviation in 1970s

Cessna 172

Gates Learjet 24
B-1
• First airplane in which the software cost more than
the hardware, 1980s
Stealth, 1982

F-117
Space-based Navigation: GPS 1990s
Fly-by-wire, Fly-by-light
Cockpit Alerting: TCAS and EGPWS
• Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
• Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
(EGPWS)
Precision Guidance
Current State of Things
• Major aerospace companies significant part of military-
industrial complex
(Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Northrop-Grumman)
• Boeing and Airbus battle for world commercial transport
market with more efficient aircraft
• September 11, 2001 – security joins safety
• 60-year-old debate on winning wars with air power alone
continues
• Pressures on air traffic management
• International cooperation in manned spaceflight
• Retiring the expensive aircraft from the 70s
(Shuttle, Concorde)
Future
• Large expansion of commercial air traffic in China
and India?
• How can commercial flight be safer & more secure?
• Reducing environmental impacts?
• Use of unmanned aircraft?
• New missile defense systems?
• Hypersonic precision weapons?
• Mission to Mars?
• Space tourism?