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Shear testing experiment

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You are on page 1of 15

ME44100 –2018-2019

The objective of this report is to present the test results and hopper design based on the test results. Write it

as if you have to report to your ‘employer’.

Contact details

In case you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact:

Ed Stok

room B-2-240

phone: 015-2786839

Mobile: 06 14015 115

E.F.L.Stok@tudelft.nl

Note:

write your names, group number and test material in the footer on the next page

DEADLINE OF SUBMITTING MEASURED VALUES (Question 1b and 3): 1 Day after test via

Brightspace group page.

DEADLINE OF REPORT SUBMISSION: Thursday January 10, 2019 at 10.00 (digital: via BRIGHTSPACE

Group page)

Group number 01

Industrial Salt

Authors: name student no.

1. Nahom Tsehaie 4357728

2. Jaime Bulters 4189981

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

1. Material

1.a Describe the test material

Comparing the two test materials, industrial salt has a smaller particle size. This was noticed by feeling

the materials. As salt is a hydrophilic material the salt will cohere over time as it subtract water from air.

This will result in lumps and therefor increase the chance of arching.

1.b. Measure the Angle of Repose of (1) Industrial Salt (IS) and (2) Kitchen Salt (KS)

Figure 1: Angle of Repose for Industrial Salt and Kitchen Salt.

From the results it is clear that the angle of repose for Industrial Salt is smaller than the angle of repose

for Kitchen Salt. Although test results show small variances the biggest measured angle of repose for

Industrial Salt is still smaller than the smallest angle of repose of Kitchen Salt. The variances in the

measurements for one reason could be caused by a loose panel in the measurement device, another

reason could be small measuring errors.

Table 1: Test repetition for Angle of Repose of IS and KS

Repetition no. AoR-IS AoR-KS

1 31,6 33,2

2 28,4 34,7

3 30,9 34,2

4 32,9 35,2

5 31,4 35,2

6 31,6 35

7 31,6 34,7

8 31,8 34,7

9 32,5 35,7

10 31,8 33,5

Mean 31,45 34,61

The 95 % interval shows that if the experiment is repeated under the same conditions there is a 95 %

chance the results of the experiment are in this interval.

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠

𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 = 𝑥̅ = ∑

𝑛

𝑛

1

𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝜎 = √ ∗ ∑(𝑥𝑖 − 𝑥̅ )2

𝑛−1

𝑖−1

𝑧 = 2,262, 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑛 = 10

𝑧∗𝜎

95% − 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑙 = 𝑥̅ ±

√𝑛

The shearcelltype M is used for these measurements, its dimensions can be found in the operating

instructions. (There are two of these cells, make sure you put the right number in the operational

software). Wall friction is measured with two wall materials: cold rolled steel and (blasted) hot rolled

steel.

Normal stress Internal friction Internal friction Internal friction Wall friction

[kPa] Measurement 1 Measurement 2 Measurement 3 Measurement

pre shear 20 8 2 -

sh,1 2 0.5 0.2 1

sh,2 4 1 0.4 2

sh,3 8 2 0.8 3

sh,4 16 4 1.6 4

sh,5 6

sh,6 - - - 10

sh,7 - - - 13

sh,8 - - - 17

Measure the material weight in the cell before the shear measurement starts, do this for the

three YL.

Calculate the bulk density of the material (the volume and the dimensions of the shearcell can be

found in the operating instructions. Show how to determine the density of the material. (formula

and SI units)

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

𝜌=

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒

The mass of each yield loci is already given in the table above. The volume and dimensions of

the shear cell are as follows:

The shear cell has a ring shape, for ring shapes the volume can be calculated by:

1 1

𝑉𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = ( 𝜋𝑑𝑜2 − 𝜋𝑑𝑖2 ) ∗ ℎ

4 4

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

The inner diameter (di) = 0.1 m

The height (h) = 0.04 m

Volume = 0.00942478 m3

1; 1.2129 1286.9

2; 1.2180 1292.3

3; 1.2015 1274.8

Also retrieve the densities during the sheartests from the RingShearTester and draw the density

as a function of the consolidation stress.

1320

1315

Density in Kg/m^3

1310

1305

1300

1295

0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 18.000

Consilidation stress σ1

The density of the industrial salt retrieved during the sheartest from the RingShearTester are

respectivitely averaged: 1316, 1315 and 1302 kg/m^3. All the blue dots are the values that come

out of the RingShearTester. The red tredline gives the estimatic graph of it.

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

Include a data time line of 1 of the measurements here

Figure 3: Data time line of measurement with pre shear stress 20 kPa

12.000

y = 0.6899x - 0.0766

10.000

8.000

𝛕 in [kpa]

6.000

y = 0.6766x + 0.0142

gr01 Measurement1

gr01 Measurement 2

4.000

gr01 Measurement 3

Linear (gr01 Measurement1)

2.000 Linear (gr01 Measurement 2)

Linear (gr01 Measurement 3)

y = 0.6675x + 0.0177

0.000

0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 18.000

σ in [kpa]

Figure 4 : Yield Loci of Industrial Salt

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

7.000 COLD ROLLED STEEL

6.000 y = 0.3799x + 0.1069

5.000

𝛕 IN [KPA]

4.000

3.000

2.000

y = 0.161x + 0.1584

1.000

0.000

0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000

Σ IN [KPA]

Cold Rolled steel Hot Rolled Steel

Figure 5: Wall Yield Loci of Industrial Salt with two different surface materialsTable 3: Tabulated results 𝜎 𝑣𝑠 𝜏

YL2 gr01 Industrial Salt

σ [kPa] τ [kPa]

σ [kPa] τ [kPa]

1 2,051 1,283 1 0,506 0,362

2 4,051 2,762 2 1,052 0,711

3 8,052 5,509 3 2,051 1,414

4 16,051 10,977 4 4,051 2,752

σ [kPa] τ [kPa] WYL cold gr01 Industrial Salt

1 0,250 σ [kPa] τ [kPa]

0,187

2 0,452 1 1,148 0,319

0,321

3 0,851 2 2,147 0,503

0,579

4 1,652 3 3,148 0,676

1,123

4 4,147 0,837

5 6,148 1,157

Blasted hot rolled steel 6 10,148 1,791

WYL hot gr01 Industrial Salt 7 13,148 2,279

σ [kPa] τ [kPa] 8 17,147 2,910

1 1,151 0,543

2 2,150 0,928

3 3,151 1,310

4 4,150 1,692

5 6,152 2,439

6 10,151 3,964

7 13,151 5,052

8 17,151 6,658

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

--------from here on the test apparatus is not required anymore, make sure you have extracted all

measurement data and requested information from the system for processing

Datatimelines are required for appendix A of this report--------

Suppose there is a relation between the tested Industrial Salt and time consolidated Salt. Assume

that each YL of the time consolidated material can be constructed by increasing each individual measured

shearstress by 10%.

Do this for each of the 3 YL, and construct the Mohr circles for all the measurements according directions

in “Powder and Bulk Solids” by D. Schulze.

σ [kPa] τ [kPa]

1 2,051 1,4113

2 4,051 3,0382

3 8,052 6,0599

4 16,051 12,0747

Pre shear 20,051 13,332

σ [kPa] τ [kPa]

1 0,506 0,3982

2 1,052 0,7821

3 2,051 1,5554

4 4,051 3,0272

Pre shear 8,051 5,3317

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

σ [kPa] τ [kPa]

1 0,250 0,2068

2 0,452 0,3575

3 0,851 0,6358

4 1,652 1,2144

Pre shear 2,051 1,3596

What is the effective angle of internal friction for both materials (φ e)

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

What is the wall friction for both materials? (φ w or φx)

Describe or show how to determine the above angles for both the tested and the time consolidated

material. What is the difference? Are they the same for all measurements? What are the values (present

them in a table)?

The effective angle of internal friction and angle of internal friction for the industrial salt can be extracted

from the results reports obtained after conducting the elements.

For the time consolidated salt the effective angle of friction can be determined by drawing a line from the

origin to the last measured point. This will lead to:

𝜏4

φe = tan−1 ( )

𝜎4

For the angle of internal friction the pre-shear stresses have to be used. This leads to:

𝜏𝑝𝑟𝑒

φi = tan−1 ( )

𝜎𝑝𝑟𝑒

1 20 34,4 31,2

2 8 34,1 31

3 2 34,2 31,1

measurement σ pre [kPa] φe [ ˚ ] φi [ ˚ ]

1 20 36,95 33,62

2 8 36,77 33,51

3 2 36,32 33,54

The figure below shows the relation between the normal stress and the wall friction angle for two

materials. These materials are hot rolled steel and cold rolled steel. The figure shows a big difference in

friction angles between the two materials. From this figure can be noticed that hot rolled steel has a

higher friction coefficient than cold rolled steel. The limit of the wall friction angle for hot rolled steel

around 21,1 ˚, for cold rolled steel the limit of the wall friction angle is around 9,5 ˚

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

30

cold rolled steel

25

Hot rolled steel

20

φ[˚]

15

10

0

0 5 10 15 20

σ[kPa]

In question 1 you have determined the angle of repose. Comment on how the angle of repose of your

test material relates to the friction angles?

The value of the angle of internal friction is in the 95%-interval of the angle of repose for the measured

industrial salt. This would mean that the angle of repose is equal to the angle of internal friction.

The difference in the angle of internal friction and the effective angle of friction is due to fact that the

yield locus is not linear, therefor the line between the last measured point and the origin is different from

the line between the origin and the pre shear.

Determine for both the tested and the time consolidated material the pairs of values of σc

(unconfined yield stress) and σ1 (compacting stress) necessary to plot the powder flow function.

The following values are from the shearcell cell report or determined with the circle of mohr:

#Test Unconfined yield stress σc [Pa] Compacting stress σ1 [Pa]

Tested Time consolidated Tested Time consolidated

Measurement 2 kPa 76 192 3465 3580

Measurement 8 kPa 0 700 13639 18150

Measurement 20 kpa 0 1750 33884 41500

Th powder flow function has the following formula: σc = f(σ1). If we plot σc against to σ1, we obtain the

following graph:

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

2000

Unconfined yield stress σc [Pa]

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000

Compacting stress σ1 [Pa]

What do you notice about the measurements?

From the measurements one can notice that the industrial salt will flow freely when there is no

consolidation, for the 20 kPa and the 8 Kpa measurements this would imply that when the pre-stress is

released from the salt, the salt would flow immediately.

Furthermore, the angle of internal friction differs slightly from the angle of repose. This difference relates

to the method used to measure the angle of repose. This was done with a smart phone held by hand and

later the angle was determined using a computer program. As the photo’s where taken by hand, the

angle at which the photo was taken differed slightly, this accounts for a difference.

Except for the angle of repose the experiments were conducted once at different stress states. This gives

an approximation but is not reliable.

The height which is accounted for will be determined by using the fact that the stress in the bottom part

will equal:

𝜎𝑏 = 𝜌 ∗ 𝑔 ∗ ℎ

Design a conical stainless steel hopper with mass flow for the tested Industrial Salt, for the

2 wall materials.

Use diagrams from “Powder and Bulk Solids” by D. Schulze

Determine the hopper flow factor.

Show how you determined the flow factor (ff) and the angle of hopper case ().

To determine the ff first the angle of the angle of hopper case is determined, with the wall friction angle

and effective angle of internal friction, the ff can be determined.

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

For the angle of the hopper case () the following equations are used:

𝜋 1 1 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜑𝑒 )

𝜃𝑐 = − ∗ arccos ( )− 𝛾

2 2 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜑𝑒 )

sin(𝜑𝑤 )

2𝛾 = 𝜑𝑤 + arcsin ( )

sin(𝜑𝑒 )

Material 𝛾 𝜃𝑐

cold rolled steel 13,24 43,1

hot rolled steel 30,34 26,0

The hopper flow factor (ff) is determined from gif 10.20 in the book “Powder and Bulk Solids” with the 3

parameters (𝜑𝑒 , 𝜑𝑤 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃𝑐 ) and has the value: 1.8 for cold rolled steel and 1,9 for hot rolled steel.

Determine (and show how you determine) the minimum outlet diameter for mass flow.

We want to design a circular outlet. In order to determine the minimum outlet diameter for mass flow,

we need to know few parameters first. The formula for minimum outlet diameter B is:

𝐻(𝜃)∗𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡

𝐵𝑚𝑖𝑛 = Where:

𝜌𝐵 ∗𝑔

𝐻(𝜃) = factor determined by slope of the hopper wall and in variable with the cone angle;

𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 = critical stress developed in the surface of the arch

𝜌𝐵 = bulk density of the material

𝑔 = acceleration due to gravity

- The 𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 can be determined from the intersection of the graph where the powder flow function and the

𝜎

line 𝑐 are plotted. This value is the critical unconfined yield stress 𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 . In our case the critical stress is

𝑓𝑓

100.52 for cold rolled steels 100.44 Pa for hot rolled steel.

𝑚

- The acceleration due to gravity is 9.81 2

𝑠

- We already calculated the bulk density in question 2 for the three measurements. The bulk density we

𝑘𝑔

are using the maximum one, which is 1316 3 .

𝑚

𝜃

- 𝐻(𝜃) can be approximated with 𝐻(𝜃) = 2.0 + where 𝜃 is the cone angle. In our case the cone angle

60

is 43.1 degrees for cold rolled steel. The cone angle of the hot rolled steel is 26,0 degrees. So this gives a

H of 2,65 and 2,40 respectively.

𝐻(𝜃)∗𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 2.65∗100.52

𝐵𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 0.021 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 for cold rolled steel

𝜌𝐵 ∗𝑔 1316∗9.81

𝐻(𝜃)∗𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 2.40∗100.44

and 𝐵𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 0.019 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 for hot rolled steel

𝜌𝐵 ∗𝑔 1316∗9.81

We still need to apply a safety margin of 25% in 𝐵𝑚𝑖𝑛 , because we did not a apply a safety margin in 𝜃 of

3 degrees.

𝑘𝑔

So, The bulk density (ρb) equals 1310 and to achieve mass flow in this situation, the minimum outlet

𝑚3

diameter should be equal to 2.6 cm for cold rolled and 2.4 cm for hot rolled steel. This is not realistic,

because with these values, there will be arching. If the outlet is too small, a stable arch can form above

the outlet and the flow stops.

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

Determine the maximum storage capacity and the geometry (including dimensions) of the silo if the

space available is limited to 10x10x10m. Make assumptions where necessary.

In the previous question we determined the minimum required diameter. Since the particle size of the

industrial salt is 600 micrometer, our material is classified as coarse grained material. Now we can use

the following formula, to calculate the mass flow:

𝑊 = 𝐶 ∗ 𝑝𝑏 ∗ √𝑔 ∗ (𝐵 − 𝑘 ∗ 𝑑𝑥)2.5

Where:

C and k are fitting parameters. Beverloo found C=(.55-.65) and k=(1.5-3.0). we are using the

maximum of C and the minimum of k, in order to create the maximum mass flow. So C = 0.65

and k = 1.5

𝑝𝑏 and g and B are already defined in question 9

dx = particle size in meter. In our case this is 0.0006 meter.

𝑊 = 0.65 ∗ 1316 ∗ √9.81 ∗ (0.026 − 1.5 ∗ 0.0006)2.5 = 0.27 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

𝑎𝑛𝑑

𝑊 = 0.65 ∗ 1316 ∗ √9.81 ∗ (0.024 − 1.5 ∗ 0.0006)2.5 = 0.22 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

This seems way too small. So we decided to take mass flow of approx. 130 kg/s. If we take a outlet

diameter of 0.3 meter, gives us a mass flow of 131.1 kg/s. this seems reasonable. So we do further

calculations with a diameter of 0.3 meter.

The maximum dimensions for the designed conical hopper that will fit in the space of (10x10x10 m3)

1000 m3 will be as follows:

The outlet diameter is determined from the mass flow (0.3 meter). From the cone angle of both

materials, the height of the inclination of the lower part of the hopper will be determined. The remaining

upper height will be straight. This results in the following equations.

𝐷𝑡𝑜𝑝 = 10 𝑚

𝐷𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 = 0.3 𝑚

𝜃𝑐,ℎ𝑟 = 26°

𝜃𝑐,𝑐𝑟 = 43,1°

𝐻𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 10 𝑚

𝐷𝑡𝑜𝑝 𝐷𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡

−

𝐻𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 = 2 2

tan(𝜃𝑐 )

2

1 𝐷𝑡𝑜𝑝 𝐷𝑡𝑜𝑝 𝐷𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝐷𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 2 1 2

𝑉 = 𝜋 (( ) + +( ) ) ∗ 𝐻𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 + 𝜋𝐷𝑡𝑜𝑝 ∗ 𝐻𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡

3 2 2 2 2 4

Applying these equations leads to the results shown in the table below:

Hot rolled 26 0,3 10 9,943974 0,056026 272,7772

Cold rolled 43,1 0,3 10 5,182823 4,817177 518,2189

In addition, discuss the difference or similarities in design for both wall materials.

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

Add here the Data Time Lines of the three shearcell tests, and the wall friction test.

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

ME44100 – Practical 2018-2019 v1

Documentation:

Course Quality control and Powder Technology Dr.I. Peschl

Introduction to Particle Technology M. Rhodes, J. Wiley & Sons

Powders and Bulk Solids D. Schulze

www.dietmar-schulze.de

Brightspace

J. Bulters Industrial Salt

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