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A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN STANLEY MATERIAL AND

METTULARIGICAL PIPE AND TUBE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY AT


COIMBATORE
ABSTRACT
The present study is made an attempt to identify Job Satisfaction facilities and
employee’s level about Job Satisfaction facilities adopted. To achieve the aforesaid objective
data is gathered from 100 employees of the organization with random sampling technique. It is
found that most of the respondents are aware about the legislative and non - legislative employee
Job Satisfaction facilities provided at the Company, Job Satisfaction facilities like medical,
canteen, working environment, safety measures etc., are provided by the company. And most of
the employees are satisfied with the Job Satisfaction facilities adopted by the company towards
the employee’s Job Satisfaction.

CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION
Every individual has certain needs and motives which want to fulfill. Any job which
fulfills their needs and motives. There are some situational factors responsible for job
satisfaction. The important causes of job satisfaction are wage incentive systems, the work
environment, length of working hours, behavior of the supervisor, security, scope for promotion
and recognition of merit. Besides proper evaluation of work, impartial behavior and social
relationship with co-workers etc. are also contributory factors.
The term Job Satisfaction proposes many ideas, meanings and connotations, such as the state of
well-being, health, happiness, prosperity and the development of human resources. As a total
concept of Job Satisfaction, it is a desirable state of existence involving physical, mental, moral
and emotional well-being.
The social concept of Job Satisfaction implies the Job Satisfaction of man, his family, and his
community. Job Satisfaction is called a relative concept, for it is related to time and space.
Changes in it have an impact on the system of Job Satisfaction as well. Job Satisfaction is also a
positive concept. In order to establish a minimum level of Job Satisfaction, it demands certain
minimum acceptable conditions of existence, biologically and socially.
The employee Job Satisfaction schemes can be classified into two categories viz. statutory and
non-statutory Job Satisfaction schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are
compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing employee health
and safety. These include provisions provided in industrial acts like Factories Act 1948, Dock
Workers Act (safety, health and Job Satisfaction) 1986, Mines Act 1962. The non–statutory
schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry.
It is a comprehensive term including various services, benefits and facilities offered to
employees by the employer. Through such generous fringe benefits, the employer makes life
worth living for employees. The Job Satisfaction amenities are extended by in addition to normal
wages and other economic rewards available to the employees as per legal provisions. The
significance of Job Satisfaction were accepted as early as 1931 when the Royal Commission on
Employee stated, the benefits are of great importance to the worker which he is unable to secure
by himself. The schemes of employee Job Satisfaction may be regarded as a wise investment
because these would bring a profitable return in form of greater efficiency.
Employee Job Satisfaction facilities in the organization affects on the behavior of the employees
as well as on the productivity of the organization. While getting work done through employees
the management must provide required good facilities to all employees. The management should
provide required good facilities to all employees in such way that employees become satisfied
and they work harder and more efficiently and more effectively.
Job Satisfaction is a broad concept referring to a state of living of an individual or a group, in a
desirable relationship with the total environment – ecological economic and social. It aims at
social development by such means as social legislation, social reform social service, social work,
social action. The object of economics Job Satisfaction is to promote economic production and
productivity and through development by increasing equitable distribution.
Lab our Job Satisfaction is an area of social Job Satisfaction conceptually and operationally. It
covers a broad field and connotes a state of well being, happiness, satisfaction, conservation and
development of human resources.
Employee Job Satisfaction is an area of social Job Satisfaction conceptually and operationally. It
covers a broad field and connotes a state of well-being, happiness, satisfaction, conservation and
development of human resources and also helps to motivation of employee. The basic propose of
employee Job Satisfaction is to enrich the life of employees and to keep them happy and
conducted. Job Satisfaction may be both Statutory and Non statutory laws require the employer
to extend certain benefits to employees in addition to wages or salaries.

A STUDY ON FRAME WORK OF EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION

INTRODUCTION TO JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job
can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with their supervisor,
quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.

Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards
job has been defined variously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is a person’s attitude
towards job.

Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific likes
and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largely upon one’s
success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of
the job and combination towards these ends.

According to pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employee’s feelings in


four important areas. These are:

 Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers,


opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime
regulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools.

 Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments, praises and


blames, leaves policy and favoritism.

 Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in


community, participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier.

 Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.


 Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a
predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.

 Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and


grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and
worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been
found to be a good indicator of longevity.

 Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which the possessions of
feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence
to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals.

 Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual state of
mind.

 Job Satisfaction is the feeling an employee gets when the job he does fulfils all his
expectations. While morale refers to the attitude of the employees of an organization and
is a group concept, Job satisfaction is the feeling of an individual employee. Job
satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal
of one’s job; and affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Job
Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and p
predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and
turnover.

DEFINITIONS:

Weiss (2002) has “argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should
clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and
behaviors”.

DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION:

There are various personal and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction. The age of a
person does have its influence on his level of job satisfaction. People that are young usually have
a higher level of job satisfaction provided they rightly choose their career. Those in their twenties
or thirties are energetic and have the stamina to work hard and derive pleasure out of their work.
As a person gets older, he gets tired physically and mentally. Further, he reaches the saturation
point at this stage and the work, usually, does not give him the pleasure it gave earlier.

STEPS TO IMPROVE EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

The following measures are necessary to improve the satisfaction employees:

 Selection of right man for the right job:


Proper care must take while recruiting persons for various jobs. Persons without attitude
and aptitude for work should not be selected. When it comes to placement of workers,
they should be given jobs in tune with their educational qualification, skills, attitudes and
abilities.
 Satisfactory conditions of service:
All those who have been appointed in the organization should be provided with job
security. They should be given decent pay. Social security benefits like provident fund
insurance etc. should be provided to employees as per the rules.

 Conducive working environment:


The working environmental should be made informal. Undue important need not be
given to hierarchy. The organization should make use of both formal and informal
channels of communication. The bureaucratic approach of the management should go

 Conducive physical conditions:


The place of work should be neat and tidy. There should be free flow of natural light and
air in any workroom. There should be proper provision for canteen. Lunchroom, etc.
 Better work methods:
Conventional work methods and age-old practices should be given up. The enterprise
should come forward to adopt the latest technology. The employees may be trained to
make use of the various electronic devices in their day-to-day work. This not only
simplifies their work but also makes it more interesting.
 Proper superior-subordinate relationship:
The relationship between the superior and the subordinates should always be cordial. The
superior’s style of functioning must be democratic. He should not make an attempt to
impose his ideas on his subordinates. Whenever necessary and possible, he can seek his
subordinate’s viewpoints. Likewise, the subordinates, on their part, must repose faith in
their superiors and come forward to accept responsibilities.
 Good inter-personal relationship:
The relationship between the employees should also be proper. The work done in any
organization is teamwork. In the absence of proper understanding between the
employees, teamwork is not possible. The employees should not give scope for their
personal interest to clash with those of the organization.
 Job rotation:
If certain jobs are, by nature, dull and monotonous, job rotation may help to break the
monotony of workers, i.e., such jobs may be assigned to operation at a certain level by
rotation
 Provision of suitable incentives:
Only human resources can be induced to work. Inanimate objects like machines cannot
be motivated to work. The management therefore, should offer suitable incentives to
motivate employees to perform better. Incentives need not be in the forms of money
payment. There are also non-monetary incentives. Further, these incentives may be gives
for individual performance or group performance.

 Valuation of employee performance:


The performance of employees needs to be assessed regular intervals. Such an
assessment will level their level of efficiency. Such of those Employees who are found to
be highly efficient may be given suitable rewards. Those employees who are less efficient
may be made to undergo training to acquire better skills. If some employees are found to
be highly inefficiency, such people need not be retained. It is only these people who spoil
the work atmosphere in any organization.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. In modern
society the needs and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. When
the people are ever increasing and ever changing, when the people’s needs are not fulfilled they
become dissatisfied. Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Job
satisfaction of industrial workers us very important for the industry to function successfully.
Apart from managerial and technical aspects, employers can be considered as backbone of any
industrial development. To utilize their contribution they should be provided with good working
conditions to boost their job satisfaction. Any business can achieve success and peace only when
the problem of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of workers are felt understood and solved,
problem of efficiency absenteeism lab our turnover require a social skill of understanding
human problems and dealing with them scientific investigation serves the purpose to solve the
human problems in the industry.
 Pay.
 The work itself.
 Promotion
 The work group.
 Working condition.
 Supervision.

PAY
Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling
so many needs. Money facilities the obtaining of food, shelter, and clothing and provides the
means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. More over, pay can serve as symbol of
achievement and a source of recognition. Employees often see pay as a reflection of
organization. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on job satisfaction as
direct wages.

THE WORK ITSELF


Along with pay, the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how
satisfied employees are with their jobs. By and large, workers want jobs that are challenging;
they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. The two most important aspect of the work
itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place. In
general, job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. Jobs with too
little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation
cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and ‘burnout’.

PROMOTION
Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. A promotion to a higher
level in an organization typically involves positive changes I supervision, job content and pay.
Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom,
more challenging work assignments and high salary.

SUPERVISION
Two dimensions of supervisor style:
 Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal
relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them.
 The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making,
employee who participates in decision that affect their job, display a much higher level of
satisfaction with supervisor and the overall work situation.

WORK GROUP
Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to individual
employees. The working groups also serve as a social support system of employees. People often
used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a source of comfort.

WORK CONDITION
The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort.
The working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of
work. If people are require working long hours and / or overtime, they will have very little felt
for their families, friends and recreation outside work.

DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION:

While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that: all
individuals do no derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the
same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job
and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus, all those
factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and situational variables
determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are.
INDIVIDUAL FACTORS:
Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the jobs,
they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual’s level of education, age and
other factors.

LEVEL OF EDUCATION:
Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction.
For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education,
particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this
phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs
which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peter’s principle which suggests that every individual
tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly.

AGE:
Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job
satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising upto certain stage, and
finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this. When
individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions about what they
are going to drive from their work. These assumptions make them more satisfied. However,
when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts rising again as
the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. At the last,
particularly at the far end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement
and future outcome.

OTHER FACTORS:
Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If
an individual does not have favorable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the
workplace. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job
satisfaction. Personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.

NATURE OF JOB:
Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job
content.

OCCUPATION LEVEL:
Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. This happens because
high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction
for the job holders.
For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory
workers are least satisfied.

JOB CONTENT:
Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for
performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. A higher content of these
factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a routine and repetitive lesser satisfaction; the
degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job
enrichment.

SITUATIONAL VARIABLES:
Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context – formal and
informal. Formal organization emerges out of the interaction of individuals in the organization.
Some of the important factors which affect job important factors which affect job satisfaction are
given below:
1. WORKING CONDITIONS:
Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like conditions of workplace and
associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. These work in two ways.
First, these provide means job performance. Second, provision of these conditions affects the
individual’s perception about the organization. If these factors are favourable, individuals
experience higher level of job satisfaction.
2. SUPERVISION:
The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision; the degree of
importance attached to individuals varies. In employee-oriented supervision, there is more
concern for people which is perceived favorably by them and provides them more satisfaction. In
job oriented supervision, there is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people
become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction
3. EQUITABLE REWARDS:
The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree
of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and equitable, it
offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the
job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely.

4. OPPORTUNITY:
It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job nature and work
environment by they also attach importance to opportunities for promotion that these job offer. If
the present job offers opportunity of promotion is lacking, it reduces satisfaction.

1. Work group: Individuals work in group either created formally of they develop on their
own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. To the extent such groups are
cohesive; the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is
low. In a cohesive group, people derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction
and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction.
EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an
individual’s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.

Physical and Mental Health:


The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual’s physical and mental
health. Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favorableness’ or unfavourablesness
affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health.
For example, Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism and mental and physical health
result from psychologically harmful jobs. Further, since a job is an important part of life, job
satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is spillover effect which
occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction.

PRODUCTIVITY:
There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity:

 A happy worker is a productive worker,


 A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker.

The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and
productivity; when job satisfaction increases, productivity increases; when satisfaction decreases,
productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts
for job performance. However, this may not be true in all cases.
For example, a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not
put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. Therefore, this
view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity.
The view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the
relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also support this
view.

This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job
performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job
performance. 1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The basic
factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with performance.
There are two types of rewards intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward stems from the job
itself which may be in the form of growth potential, challenging job, etc. The satisfaction on
such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to
control by management such as salary, bonus, etc. Any increase in these factors does not help to
increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction.

THE RELATION BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION

ABSENTEEISM:
Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of job holder from the workplace either
unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable
reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. This absence is due to lack
of satisfaction from the job which produces a ‘lack of will to work’ and alienate a worker form
work as for as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to absenteeism.
HIGH

TURNOVER

JOB ABSENCES
SATISFACTION

LOW
LOW HIGH
TURNOVER AND ABSENCES

RELATIONSHIP OF JOB SATISFACTION, EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ABSENCES

EMPLOYEE TURNOVER:
Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given
period of time. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tries to overcome
this through the various ways of defense mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he opts to leave
the organization. Thus, in general case, employee turnover is related to job satisfaction.
However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover, the other cause being
better opportunity elsewhere.

DIMENSIONS OF JOB SATIFACTION

Job satisfaction is a complex concept and difficult to measure objectively. The level of job
satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to individual, social, cultural,
organizational factors as stated below:-

DIMENSIONS

INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL


CULTURAL
FACTORS FACTOR

 Individual:- Personality, education, intelligence and abilities, age, marital status,


orientation to work.
 Social factors:-Relationship with co-workers, group working and norms, opportunities
for interaction, informal relations etc.

 Organizational factors:- Nature and size, formal structure, personnel policies and
procedures, industrial relation, nature of work, technology and work organization,
supervision and styles of leadership, management systems, working conditions.

 Environmental factors:-Economic, social, technical and governmental influences.

 Cultural factors:-Attitudes, beliefs and values.

These factors affect job satisfaction of certain individuals in a given set of circumstances but
not necessarily in others. Some workers may be satisfied with certain aspects of their work and
dissatisfied with other aspects .Thus, overall degree of job satisfaction may differ from person to
person.

IMPORTANCE TO STUDY JOB SATISFACTION


The importance to the study of job satisfaction level is very important for executives. Job
satisfaction study importance can be understood by the answer of the following question
1) Is there room for improvement?
2) Who is relatively more dissatisfied?
3) What contributes to the employee satisfaction?
4) What are the effects of negative employee attitudes?

BENEFITS OF JOB SATISFACTION STUDY


Job satisfaction surveys can produce positive, neutral or negative results. If planned
properly and administered, they will usually produce a number of important benefits, such as-
1. It gives management an indication of general levels of satisfaction in a company. Surveys
also indicate specific areas of satisfaction or dissatisfaction as compared to employee
services and particular group of employee.
2. It leads to valuable communication brought by a job satisfaction survey. Communication
flow in all direction as people plan the survey, take it and discuss the result. Upward
communication is especially fruitful when employee are encouraged to comment about
what is on their minds instead of merely answering questions about topics important to
management.
3. as a survey is safety value, an emotional release. A chance to things gets off. The survey
is an intangible expression of management’s interest in employee welfare, which gives
employees a reason to feel better towards management.
4. Job satisfaction surveys are a useful way to determine certain training needs.
5. Job satisfaction surveys are useful for identifying problem that may arise, comparing the
response to several alternatives and encouraging manager to modify their original plans.
Follow up surveys allows management to evaluate the actual response to a change and
study its success or failure.

IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION

 Frequently, work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers self-worth and
produces anxiety. At the same time, monotonous jobs can erode a worker's initiative and
enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessary turnover. Job satisfaction and
occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-
development. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads
to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible, innovative,
and loyal.
 For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and
committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity the quantity and quality of output
per hour worked seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is important to
note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither
conclusive nor consistent.. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of job loss, will not
give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerful motivator, it is also a
temporary one, and as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline.
 Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization include reduction in complaints
and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and
worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to
be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between job
satisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that
satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus
protecting the "bottom line." No wonder Andrew Carnegie is quoted as saying: "

CREATING JOB SATISFACTION

What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job
satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then
rewarded for being successful. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that
enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following:

 Flexible work arrangements, possibly including telecommuting


 Training and other professional growth opportunities
 Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to "put
his or her signature" on the finished product
 Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative
 Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work
 A stable, secure work environment that includes job security/continuity
 An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides
timely feedback as well as congenial team members
 Flexible benefits, such as child-care and exercise facilities
 Up-to-date technology
 Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion

Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are
many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from
one worker to another and from day to day. Apart from the factors mentioned above, job satisfaction is
also influenced by the employee's personal characteristics, the manager's personal characteristics and
management style, and the nature of the work itself. Managers who want to maintain a high level of job
satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each member of the work force.
For example, when creating work teams, managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people
with similar backgrounds, experiences, or needs in the same workgroup. Also, managers can enhance
job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type of work.

For example, a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector, and a
shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson. As much as possible, managers should match job tasks
to employees' personalities.

Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to
create a stimulating work environment. One such step is job enrichment. Job enrichment is a deliberate
upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment usually includes
increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. Large
companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job
satisfaction.

Good management has the potential for creating high morale, high productivity, and a sense of purpose
and meaning for the organization and its employees. Empirical findings show that job characteristics
such as pay, promotional opportunity, task clarity and significance, and skills utilization, as well as
organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers,
have significant effects on job satisfaction. These job characteristics can be carefully managed to
enhance job satisfaction.

Of course, a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find many
more satisfying elements in the work environment. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask
themselves the following questions:

WORKERS' ROLES IN JOB SATISFACTION

If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own
satisfaction and well-being on the job. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job
satisfaction:
 Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging
work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other recognition.
 Develop excellent communication skills. Employers value and reward excellent reading,
listening, writing, and speaking skills.
 Know more. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more
efficiently and effectively. This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed.
 Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations
and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards.
 Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability to work well
with others to get the job done.
 Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections
and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively.
 See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to
satisfaction with the work itself. This helps to give meaning to one's existence, thus playing a
vital role in job satisfaction.
 Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stress-management
techniques.

ASSURING JOB SATISFACTION

Assuring job satisfaction, over the long-term, requires careful planning and effort both by management
and by workers. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg's(1957) and Maslow's
(1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating, challenging, supportive, and
rewarding work environment is vital. Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system, it
is very important that salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance
rather than seniority.

So, in essence, job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their
jobs. Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting, her pay is fair, her promotional opportunities
are good, her supervisor is supportive, and her coworkers are friendly, then a situational approach leads
one to predict she is satisfied with her job" (p. 91). Very simply put, if the pleasures associated with
one's job outweigh the pains, there is some level of job satisfaction
THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION

AFFECT THEORY

Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction
model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy
between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how
much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates
how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values
a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when
expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who
doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and
Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a
position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no
autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet
will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

DISPOSITIONAL THEORY

Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory]. It is a very general
theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies
toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable
explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over
time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels
of job satisfaction.

TO HERZBERG FOLLOWING FACTORS ACTS AS MOTIVATORS:

o Achievement,
o Recognition,
o Advancement,
o Work itself,
o Possibility of growth, & Responsibility.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERTURE

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. Report of National Commission on Employee (2002), Government of India, made
recommendations in the area of Employee Job Satisfaction which include social
security, extending the application of the Provident Fund, gratuity and
unemployment insurance etc. Shobha, Mishra & Manju Bhagat, in their “Principles
for Successful Implementation of Employee Job Satisfaction”, stated that Employee
absenteeism in Indian industries can be reduced to a great extent by provision of
good housing, health and family care, canteen, educational and training facilities and
provision of Job Satisfaction activities.
2. A. Sabarirajan, T. Meharajan, B.Arun (2001) analyzed the study on employee
Job Satisfaction in industry. The study shows that 15% of the employees are
employees are satisfied with their Job Satisfaction.39 % of the employees is average
with their Job Satisfaction. 16% of them are in highly dissatisfied level. This study
throws light on the impact of Job Satisfaction on QWL among the employees of
district.” While describing the Job Satisfaction in , A.J.Todd (1933) was analyzed
that the Employee Job Satisfaction is the voluntary efforts of the employers to
establish, within the existing industrial system, working and sometimes living and
cultural conditions of the employees beyond what is required by law, the custom of
the industry and the conditions of the market.
3. V. V. Gir+i National Employee Institute(1999-2000), a fully funded autonomous
body of the Ministry of Employee, it was conducted action-oriented research and
provides training to grass root level workers in the trade union movement, both in
the urban and rural areas, and also to officers dealing with industrial relations,
personal management, EmployeeJob Satisfaction, etc.
4. In the view of K.K. Chaudhuri, in his “Human Resources: A Relook to the
Workplace”, states that HR policies are being made flexible. From leaves to
compensations, perks to office facilities, many companies are willing to customize
policies to suit different employee segments.
5. Conventions and Recommendations of ILO (1949) sets forth a fundamental
principle at its 26th conference held in Philadelphia recommended some of the
measures in the area of Job Satisfaction which includes adequate protection for life
and health of workers in all occupations, provision for child Job Satisfaction and
maternity protection, provision of adequate nutrition, housing and facilities for
recreation and culture, the assurance of equality of educational and vocational
opportunity etc.
6. A Study done by P.R. China in 2003, Great expectations are being placed on firms
to act with increasing social responsibility, which is adding a new dimension to the
role of management and the vision of companies. They argue that social Job
Satisfaction activities are strategic investments for firm. They can create intangible
assets that help companies overcome entry barriers, facilitate globalization, and
outcompete local rivals. They are simple contribution, topic contribution,
colemployeeation with non-profit organizations or government organizations, and
establishment of corporation charity fund.
7. The purpose of literature review is to identify the problem statement, understand the
secondary data that has been gathered in the field of study and make new findings
on the problem statement.
8. Hoppock defined job satisfaction as any combination of psychological,
physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say
I am satisfied with my job (Hoppock, 1935).
9. According to this approach although job satisfaction is under the influence of many
external factors, it remains something internal that has to do with the way how the
employee feels. That is job satisfaction presents a set of factors that cause a feeling
of satisfaction.
10. Vroom in his definition on job satisfaction focuses on the role of the employee in the
workplace. Thus he defines job satisfaction as affective orientations on the part of
individuals toward work roles which they are presently occupying (Vroom, 1964).
11. One of the most often cited definitions on job satisfaction is the one given by
Spector according to whom job satisfaction has to do with the way how people feel
about their job and its various aspects.
12. It has to do with the extent to which people like or dislike their job. That’s why job
satisfaction and job dissatisfaction can appear in any given work situation.
13. Job satisfaction represents a combination of positive or negative feelings that
workers have towards their work. Meanwhile, when a worker employed in a
business organization, brings with it the needs, desires and experiences which
determinates
14. Job satisfaction represents the extent to which expectations are and match the real
awards. Job satisfaction is closely linked to that individual's behavior in the work
place (Davis et al., 1985). Job satisfaction is a worker’s sense of achievement and
success on the job.
15. It is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal
well- being. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well and being
rewarded for one’s efforts. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness
with one’s work.
16. Job satisfaction is the key ingredient that leads to recognition, income, promotion,
and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment (Kaliski,
2007). Job satisfaction can be defined also as the extent to which a worker is content
with the rewards he or she gets out of his or her job, particularly in terms of intrinsic
motivation (Statt, 2004).
17. The term job satisfactions refer to the attitude and feelings people have about their
work. Positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction.
Negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction
(Armstrong, 2006). J
18. job satisfaction is the collection of feeling and beliefs that people have about their
current job. People’s levels of degrees of job satisfaction can range from extreme
satisfaction to extreme dissatisfaction. In addition to having attitudes about their jobs
as a whole.
19. People also can have attitudes about various aspects of their jobs such as the kind of
work they do, their coworkers, supervisors or subordinates and their pay (George et
al., 2008)
20. . Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which can mean different
things to different people. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation, but the
nature of this relationship is not clear. Satisfaction is not the same as motivation. Job
satisfaction is more of an attitude, an internal state. It could, for example, be
associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative
(Mullins, 2005).
21. We consider that job satisfaction represents a feeling that appears as a result of the
perception that the job enables the material and psychological needs (Aziri, 2008).
The importance of job satisfaction specially emerges to surface if had in mind the
many negative consequences of job dissatisfaction such a lack of loyalty, increased
22. They proceed from the assumption that the objectives set at the highest level and
high expectations for success in work provides achievement and success in
performing tasks. Success is analyzed as a factor that creates job satisfaction.
23. satisfaction is under the influence of a series of factors such as: The nature of work,
Salary, Advancement opportunities, Management, Work groups and Work
conditions. When talking about factors of Spector (1997) lists three important
features of job satisfaction. First, organizations should be guided by human values.
24. Such organizations will be oriented towards treating workers fairly and with
respect. In such cases the assessment of job satisfaction may serve as a good
indicator of employee effectiveness. High levels of job satisfaction may be sign of a
good emotional and mental state of employees. Second, the behavior of workers
depending on their level of job satisfaction will affect the functioning and activities
of the organization's business. From this it can be concluded that job satisfaction will
result in positive behavior and vice versa, dissatisfaction from the work will result in
negative behavior of employees.
25. Third, job satisfaction may serve as indicators of organizational activities. Through
job satisfaction evaluation different levels of satisfaction in different organizational
units can be defined, but in turn can serve as a good indication regarding in which
organizational unit changes that would boost performance should be made.
26. Christen, Iyer and Soberman (2006) provide a model of job satisfaction presented in
Figure 1 in which the following elements are included: atisfaction the fact that they
can also cause job dissatisfaction must be kept in mind. Therefore the issue weather
job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are two opposite and excludable phenomena?
There is no consensus regarding this issue among authors.
27. In fact the main idea is that employees in their work environment are under the
influence of factors that cause job satisfaction and factors that cause job
dissatisfaction.
28. Therefore al factors that have derived from a large empirical research and decided in
factors that cause job satisfaction (motivators) and factors that cause job
dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) Barriball (2005) mentioned the traditional model of
job satisfaction focuses on all the feelings about job of an individual
29. . However, what makes a job satisfying or dissatisfying does not depend only on the
nature of the job, but also on the expectations that individuals have of what their job
should provide. Maslow (1954 cited in Huber, 2006) arranged human needs along a
five level hierarchy from physiological needs, safety and security, belonging, esteem
to self- actualization. In Maslow’s pyramid, needs at the lower levels must be
fulfilled before those rise to a higher level.
30. According to Maslow’s theory, some researchers have approached on job
satisfaction from the perspective of need fulfillment (Regis & Porto, 2006; Worf,
1970). Job satisfaction as a match between what individuals perceive they need and
what rewards they perceive they receive from their jobs (Huber, 2006).
31. However, overtime, Maslow’s theory has diminished in value. In the current trend,
the approach of job satisfaction focuses on cognitive process rather than on basic
needs in the studies (Huber, 2006; Spector, 1997).
32. Another approach as proposed by Herzberg (Herzberg et al., 1959; cited in Huber,
2006) is based on the Maslow’s theory. Herzberg and colleagues built Herzberg’s
motivation hygiene theory of job satisfaction. Theory proposed that there are two
different categories of needs, which are intrinsic (motivators) and extrinsic (hygiene)
factors. Theory postulates that job satisfaction and/or is dissatisfaction is the
function of
33. Brown Frode, Year: 2006: In their study “changes in HRM and job satisfaction”,
1998- 2004 evidence from the work place employment relations survey examined
that their significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from
work between 1998 and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found
to have increased over this period as well.
34. It also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human resource management
practices the paper reports a week association between formal HRM practices and
satisfaction with sense of achievements improvements in perceptions of job security,
the climate of employment relation and managerial responsiveness are the most
important factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement
between 1998-2004. Author:
35. Harter & Frank L, Year: 2002: From their study they Analysis to examine the
relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement
and the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit,
employee turnover, and accidents. Generalizable relationships large enough to have
substantial practical value were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-
engagement and these business-unit outcomes. One implication is that changes in
management practices that increase employee satisfaction may increase business-
unit outcomes, including profit.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHDOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A Research design is simply the framework or plan for a study. The design may be a
specific presentation of the various steps in the process of Research. For this descriptive
design was used. Descriptive research includes survey and fact finding enquiries of different
kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs, as it
exists at present. In this method the researcher has no control over the variables. He / She
can only report what has happened and what is happening.

RESEARCH DESIGN
The methodology adapted to collecting information from a sample size of 100
respondents by using simple random sampling technique, in order to analyze and interpret
the respondent’s opinions and views with respect to the Job Satisfaction provided by
STANLEY MATERIAL AND METTULARIGICAL PIPE AND TUBE
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY AT COIMBATORE

DATA COLLECTION
The entire study is based on both the primary data and Secondary data.
PRIMARY DATA:
For collecting the primary data, the questionnaire method was employed. Each respondent
was given a questionnaire and they answered it and returned back in two weeks’ time.
 Questionnaire: A Questionnaire has been prepared and distributed among the
respondents (employees) for both executives and non-executives.
 Interview: Personal Interview and interaction with the respondents (employees).
 Observation: by observing the working environment.

SECONDARY DATA
For secondary data the researcher depends on various company records, websites and
journals etc. The secondary data is that which have been already collected by someone or
else which have been passed through statistical data can be categorized into two broad
categories named published and unpublished statistics.
PILOT SURVEY:
Pilot survey was conducted with the employees of the organization is helped the researcher
to have incite to the strength and weakness of questionnaires. The resold pilot survey
suggestion obtained from experience employees uncertain changes were made the
questionnaires pilot survey also enable the researcher would take time and administrator the
questionnaires.
SAMPLING DESIGN
The total number of employees working in “STANLEY MATERIAL AND
METTULARIGICAL PIPE AND TUBE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY AT
COIMBATORE” is 100. The total number of questionnaires issued to the employees is 60
but only questionnaires were used for the study.
DATA SOURCES
Primary data was collected by the questionnaire based marked survey. Secondary data was
obtained from journals, magazines newspapers, books and the internet.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
For doing the survey research, structured questionnaire with both open ended and close end
equations were used.
DATA ANALYSIS:
The mode of survey was personal interview with the respondents during the filling up of the
questionnaire.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:
The sampling used for this study was probability sampling. Since the study is only meant
for certain specific categories within the total population, a stratified random
sample was used. Three groups of categories have been taken into account viz.
students professionals and general public.
SAMPLE SIZE
A sample size of 100 respondents is used for the study.
TOOLS OF THE STUDY
HYPOTHESIS STUDY
Percentage analysis and chi-square are used for analyzing the data collected.
Percentages are obtained when ratios are multiplied by 150

No. of respondents
Percentage of respondents = ---------------------------- X 100
Total No.of respondents
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS:
Chi-square test = (O-E)2/E
Degrees of freedom = V = (r-1) (C-1)
Where O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency
R = Number of rows
C = Number of columns
Level of significance = 5%.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


 Employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for
physicians. After all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your
bottom line, as temps, recruitment and retraining take their toll
 . But few practices (in fact, few organizations) have made job satisfaction a top
priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant opportunity
that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative
and committed to their employers, and recent studies have shown a direct correlation
between staff satisfaction and patient Satisfaction.
 Family physicians that can create work environments that attract, motivate and
retain hard-working individuals will be better positioned to succeed in a competitive
health care environment that demands quality and cost-efficiency.
 what’s more, physicians may even discover that by creating a positive workplace for
their employees, they’ve increased their own job satisfaction as well
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
 The study has been designed with the following objects
 To know awareness about the concept of “Employee job satisfaction”
 To know employees Job Satisfaction strategies in this company of employees.
 To give suggestions to improve the employee job satisfaction in the company.
Ensure continuous development of human Resources.
 To maintain good relationship between the management and workers.
 To find out various job satisfaction
 Facilities provided at the Company.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


 The study "Employee job satisfaction” provided by STANLEY MATERIAL AND
METTULARIGICAL PIPE AND TUBE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY AT
Coimbatore thrown light to the Job Satisfaction of employee who marks in the
organization.
 This study wills help the top management to improve their employee Job
Satisfaction in favorable for employees of STANLEY MATERIAL AND
METTULARIGICAL PIPE AND TUBE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY AT
COIMBATORE
 The Study covers the whole organization is taken into consideration and the survey
is conducted among the workers through the Questionnaire and also present study is
restricted to organization and data is analyzed based on the information provided by
employees of the our company.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
 As the study revolves around the reward system of the organization and in spite of
keeping serious and sincere efforts there are several limitations. There are as
follows.
 The information is collected by 100 employees only.
 The investigation access to the staff was limited due to the shift system.
 Information received from the respondents neither may not be accurate. So the
received information will not give a true and fair view of the actual position.
 Due to time constraint, the research work has been undertaken within the stipulated
time of 3 weeks
 Due to time limitation, sample size for the project study is limited to only 100
employees.