You are on page 1of 12

Dale!Parker!

Latin!242!

12/11/15!

Poetic!Tendencies!in!Iguvine!Tablet!Ia!

! The!last!25!years!have!seen!great!advance!in!our!understanding!of!the!Iguvine!

Tablets.!In!this!paper,!I!hope!to!contribute!to!this!understanding!with!an!analysis!of!the!

ritual!instructions!of!tablet!Ia,!in!the!spirit!of!Watkins'!1991!exemplary!treatment!of!prayer!

language!in!tablet!VIa.1!At!first!glance,!these!instructions!seem!entirely!prosaic,!useful!for!

knowledge!of!Italic!religion!and!for!linguistic!reasons,!but!not!as!a!source!for!considering!

Umbrian!poetics!or!literary!technique.!!I!think,!though,!that!this!tablet!is!structurally!quite!

complex,!as!shown!by!a!network!of!parallelisms!between!the!different!moments!of!the!

triple!gate!ritual.!

I!begin!with!a!presentation!of!the!text,!using!Poultney's!version:2!
!
(Ia)!!
este!persklum!aves!anzeriates!enetu! 1!
pernaies!pusnaes!preveres!treplanes!!
iuve!krapuvi!tre!buf!fetu.!arvia!ustentu!!
vatuva!ferine!feitu!heris!vinu!heri!puni!
ukriper!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina!feitu!sevum!! 5!
kutef!pesnimu!ařepes!arves.!
!
pusveres!treplanes!tref!sif!kumiaf!feitu!!
trebe!iuvie!ukriper!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina.!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1!Watkins!1995:!214Q225.!The!limits!of!the!paper!unfortunately!keep!me!from!many!of!the!recent!treatments!

of!the!tables.!But!because!this!study!differs!considerably!from!the!aims!of!many!of!these!works!(e.g.,!Weiss!
2009,!wherein!the!author!seeks!to!deQmystify!previously!obscure!text),!I!do!not!see!this!as!too!problematic.!
This!paper!relies!on!the!fact!that!tablet!1a!is!more!or!less!understood,!but!that!poetic!considerations!of!it!have!
been!lacking.!
2!All!text!in!this!paper!taken!from!Poultney!(1959:!158Q162).!

! 1!
supa!sumtu,!arvia!ustentu,!puni!fetu,!!
kutef!pesnimu!aře!arves.!! 10!
!
preveres!tesenakes!tre!buf!fetu!marte!krapuvi!!
fetu!ukripe!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina!arviu!ustentu!
vatuva!ferine!fetu!puni!fetu!kutef!pesnimu!ařpes!arves.!!
!
pusveres!tesenakes!tref!sif!feliuf!fetu!!
fise!saçi!ukriper!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina! 15!
puni!fetu,!supa!sumtu,!arviu!ustentu!mefa!
vestiça!ustetu!fiiuvi!fetu!ukriper!fisiu!fetu!!
kapiř!purtitaf!sakref!etraf!purtitaf!etraf!!
sakref!tutaper!ikuvina!kutef!pesnimu!ařepes!arves.!!
!
!
Initial!Remarks:!

Before!commenting!on!this!passage,!I!want!to!avoid!confusion!by!establishing!a!

convention!for!referring!to!the!various!gate!purifications.!Tablet!Ia!has!six!different!rituals!

of!this!kind,!and!they!will!be!referred!to!as!follows:!the!ritual!before!the!Trebulan!gate!will!

be!(1A),!and!behind!the!Trebulan!gate!(1B);!the!ritual!before!the!Tenescan!gate!will!be!

(2A),!and!behind!the!Tenescan!gate!(2B)!the!ritual!before!the!Veian!gate!will!be!(3A),!and!

behind!the!Veian!gate!(3B).!This!convention!is!distinguished!from!that!of!referring!to!the!

tablets,!in!which!a!Roman!numeral!and!lowerQcase!letters!is!used.!

In!a!text!of!this!kind,!with!such!careful!delineation!of!sacrificial!items,!and!in!which!

the!entire!ritual!is!invalidated!if!interruption!or!error!occurs,!we!should!read!nothing!as!

accidental.!This!might!seem!obvious,!but!commentaries!on!the!tablets!usually!do!not!look!

! 2!
beyond!the!seemingly!verbatim!repetition!of!the!gate!rituals!to!the!many!points!of!

distinction!between!them.!The!scrupulosity!that!the!text!assumes!on!the!part!of!the!

officiating!priest!leads!me!to!believe!that!all!differences!between!the!various!rites!are!

intentional!and!marked.!This!is!a!necessary!assumption!for!the!arguments!of!this!paper.!!

Commentary:3!

The!alliteration!alone!should!establish!this!text!as!a!poeticQleaning!work.!In!the!first!

few!lines!we!have!este$persklum$aves$anzeriates$enetu/!pernaies$pusnaes$preveres;$arvia$

ustentu/!vatuva!ferine!feitu!heris!vinu!heri!(Ia.1Q3).!The!various!aře[pes]!arves!formulae!

that!end!each!paragraph!share!this!feature!as!well.!We!might!also!consider!the!passage's!

extensive!homoioteleuta!in!addition!to!wordQinitial!alliteration.!This!feature!is!perhaps!

predictable,!as!instructions!necessitate!repeated!imperatives,!but!the!sound!effects!still!

contribute!to!a!poetic!flair:!puni$fetu,$supa$sumtu,$arviu$ustentu$mefa/$vestiça$ustetu$fiiuvi$

fetu$ukriper$fisiu$fetu!(Ia.16Q17).!

Sounds!aside,!we!also!see!a!degree!of!poeticized!syntax.!The!imperative!enetu!(Ia.1),!

is!separated!by!an!ablative!absolute!from!its!object!and!not!in!expected!P1.!The!text!

arranges!the!invocations!of!the!deities!in!a!chiastic!structure:!iuve$krapuvi$tre$buf$fetu!(Ia.3)!

and!tref$sif$kumiaf$feitu$trebe$iuvie!(Ia.7Q8).!This!chiasmus!is!itself!part!of!a!larger!chiasmus!

that!bridges!the!opening!paragraphs:!in!these!lines!the!pattern!is!(a)!"[god]!+![sacrifice]"!

and!(b)!"[sacrifice]!+![god]"—in!lines!14Q15!the!pattern!is!(b)!"tref!sif!feliuf!fetu/!fise!saci"!

and!in!line!17!(a)!"fiiuvi!fetu."!I!find!it!significant!that!this!chiasmus!bridges!gate!rituals!1AQ

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3!For!overview!of!these!comments,!see!the!appendix.!

! 3!
2B—the!first!four!gate!rituals!seem!to!exist!in!a!parallelism!independent!of!their!other!

parallelisms!with!gate!rituals!3A!and!3B.!We!can!understand!it!as!a!discrete!part!of!the!

larger!liturgy,!before!the!rather!different!ceremonies!of!the!Veian!gate!and!the!extremely!

different!ceremonies!at!the!two!groves.!!

Another!similar!feature!is!the!order,!in!ritual!1A!and!2B,!in!which!the!Fisian!Mount!

and!state!of!Iguvine!are!mentioned!in!relation!to!the!sacrificial!gifts.!In!1A,!the!text!

mentions!the!gifts!first!(lines!3Q4)!and!then!the!Fisian!Mount!and!the!state!of!Iguvium!(line!

5)—gate!rituals!1B,!2A,!and!the!beginning!of!2B!reverse!this!order.!But!2B!has!a!double!

ritual,!and!in!the!second!one!the!Fisian!Mount!and!state!of!Iguvium!are!in!hyperbaton!

around!the!sacrificial!gifts.!Therefore!the!standard!order!appears!to!be![Fisian!Mount!and!

the!state!of!Iguvium]!+![sacrificial!gifts],!and!the!order!in!1A!and!4B!are!marked.!I!see!this!

sort!of!ring!composition!as!another!way!in!which!the!text!sections!off!the!lustrations!for!the!

first!two!gates!as!discrete!from!the!Veian!gate!ritual.!

Some!final!parallels!between!1A!and!2B:!variants!of!aře[pes]!arves!close!each!

paragraph!in!this!section,!with!slight!differences!in!each!occurrence—except!that!its!form!

in!both!paragraphs!1A!and!2B!is!the!same.!Also,!paragraph!1!opens!with!a!unique!ceremony!

(the!bird!watching),!and!paragraph!4!closes!with!a!unique!ceremony!(the!

consecrated/loaned!bowls).!!

Once!we!suppose!that!these!four!rituals!are!supposed!to!operate!in!relation!to!each!

other,!we!can!look!for!specific!parallels.!There's!the!obvious!variation!of!"before"!vs.!"in!

front!of"!the!respective!gates,!yielding!ABAB,!matched!by!the!animal!sacrifice!at!each,!oxen!

(A)!and!pigs!(B).!The!text!also!matches!the!oxen!sacrifices!that!occur!in!1A!and!2A!to!gods!

! 4!
in!the!GraboviusQtriad,!and!we!might!note!that!the!chiasmus!here:![Grabovius!god]!+![oxen]!!

and![oxen]!+![Grabovius!god]!or!ABBA.!!

The!use!of!oxen!is!significant.!IndoQEuropean!societies!had!a!sacrificial!hierarchy!in!

which,!among!other!things,!oxen!outstripped!pigs!(in!some!traditions,!pigs!were!not!even!

worth!sacrificing).4!Further,!in!later!Roman!religious!practice!Jupiter!ordinarily!received!

sheep!and!rams,!but!on!the!Capitol—that!is,!in!the!most!solemn!locale—he!received!an!ox.5!!

On!these!grounds!I!think!the!ritual!understands!the!sacrifice!to!the!Grabovius!gods!as!

particularly!important!moments,!despite!the!opinion!of!de!Cazanove,!who,!while!

acknowledging!the!parallel!between!the!Grabovius!gods!and!the!Capitoline!triad,!still!

asserts!that!the!oxen!sacrifices!"should!not!be!arbitrarily!isolated,"!because!these!represent!

only!"one!part!of!a!complex!ritual."6!!

Now,!not!only!is!there!variation!in!the!order!of![sacrificial!item]!+![Fisian!Mount!and!

state!of!Iguvium],!but!even!within!the!unit!"sacrificial!items"!the!text!avoids!sacrificing!

items!in!the!same!order.!In!1A,!they!are!sacrificed!in!the!order:!grain,!meat!(ribs),!

wine/mead;!in!1B:!meat!(underparts),!grains,!mead;!in!2A:!grain,!meat!(ribs),!mead;!in!2B,!

mead,!meat!(underparts),!grain,!cake/libation.!1A!and!2A!are!the!only!ones!in!the!same!

order,!not!surprising!given!the!special!status!of!the!Grabovius!gods!mentioned!above.!But!

even!here!the!text!avoids!total!replication,!as!the!ritual!switches!the!order!of!mentioning!

the!intention!(Fisian!mount!and!state!of!Iguvium)!and!the!gifts!between!1A!and!2A.!The!

addition!of!the!cake!and!libation!in!2B!to!the!other!typical!sacrificial!items!in!1AQ2A,!unique!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4!Puhvel!1978:!354.!For!this!we!have!Roman!evidence!as!well,!as!in!this!passage!in!Ovid:!"et!minor!ex!humili!

victima!porcus!hara."$Amores!3.13.16.!
5!Ibid.!359.!
6!de!Cazanove!49Q50.!

! 5!
in!rituals!1AQ2B,!is!a!marker!of!κλῖμαξ or!gradatio,!a!sign!that!a!discrete!portion!of!the!

greater!liturgy!is!ended.7!

But!the!text!features!more!than!the!dyadic!structure!between!the!rites!of!the!

Trebulan!and!the!Tesenacan!Gates.!Further!parallels!exist!in!connection!with!the!rites!of!

the!Veian!gate.!I!copy!that!text!as!follows.!

3A!
preveres!vehiies!tref!buf!kaleřuf!fetu!vufiune!! 20!
krapuvi!ukriper!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina!!
vatuva!ferine!fetu,!heri!vinu!heri!puni,!!
arviu!ustentu,!kutef!pesnimu!arsepes!arves.!!
!
3B!
pusveres!vehiies!tref!hapinaf!fetu!tefre!iuvie!!
ukriper!fisiu,!tutaper!ikuvina.!puste!asiane!fetu,!zeřef!fetu,!! 25!
pelsana!fetu,!arvia!ustentu,!puni!fetu,!taçez!pesnim!!
u!ařiper!arvis!api!habina!purtiius,!suřum!pesuntru!!
fetu,!esmik!vestiçam!preve!fiktu!tefri!iuvi!fetu!ukri!!
per!fisiu,!tutaper!ikuvina,!testruku!peři!kapiře!peřum!feit!!
u!api!eřek!purtiius,!enuk!suřum!pesuntrum!feitu!staf!! 30!
li!uvesmik!vestiça!afiktu!ukriper!fisiu,!tutaper!ikuvin!!
a!feitu!nertruku!persi!kapirse!peřum!feitu!puni!feitu!!
api!suřuf!purtiius,!enuk!hapinaru!erus!titu!zeřef!!
kumultu,!zeřef!kumats!pesnimu.!!
!
3A!deals!with!the!last!member!of!the!GraboviusQtriad—again,!we!see!this!god!

invoked!before!the!gate,!and!with!three!oxen.!But!the!order!within!the!unit![sacrificial!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
7!Cf.!Watkins!217!on!κλῖμαξ/gradatio. !

! 6!
items]!is!ruptured.!Instead!of!the!order!"Grain,!Ribs,!Wine/Mead"!in!1A!and!2A,!the!order!

here!is!"Ribs,!Mead,!Grain."!This!difference!allows!the!dyadic!parallels!between!the!first!two!

gates!to!be!maintained,!while!allowing!for!the!addition!of!the!third,!related!member!3A.!

Moreover!3A!has!an!additional!instruction!in!the!oxen!sacrifice:!these!oxen!must!be!kaleřuf,!

"with!white!foreheads."!We!again!see!κλῖμαξ,!with!a!marked!final!constituent,!elegantly!

overlapping!the!climaxes!of!1AQ2B.

This!phenomenon!characterizes!the!entire!Veian!gate!liturgy.!Instead!of!demanding!

a!sow/pig!to!be!sacrificed,!as!in!1B!and!2B,!3B!demands!three!lambs!in!addition!to!the!usual!

pig!sacrifice.!The!Veian!liturgy!also!spatial!demands!on!the!performing!priest—unlike!in!

the!prior!rituals,!where!his!physical!position!is!unstated,!here!he!must!be!explicitly!at!the!

rear!of!the!altar!and!be!seated.!(25Q26).!

Above!I!mentioned!the!ABBAABBA!chiasmus!between!"iuve…!fetu"!(3)!"feitu…!

iuvie"!(7Q8)!and!"fetu/!fise!saçi"!(14Q15)!"fiiuvi!fetu."!(17),!which!I!argue!opens!and!closes!

the!discrete!ritual!of!1AQ2B.!If!we!then!add!3A!and!3B!as!an!addendum,!creating!a!larger!

gate!ritual!between!1A!and!3B,!then!the!chiasmus!continues!in!regular!pattern:!this!gate!

ritual!finishes!off!the!pattern!with!(A)!"iuvi!fetu"!(28)!and!(B)!"feitu!staf/li!iuvesmik."!(30Q

31).!We!may!also!note!that!the!text!marks!this!as!an!end!to!the!gate!rituals!as!a!whole—this!

paragraph!alone!does!not!end!in!the!usual,!and!hitherto!unaltered!(despite!all!the!other!

alterations)!manner!of!kutef$pesnimu$ařepes$arves.!

Just!as!in!2B,!here!too!in!3B!there!is!a!multiplied!ritual:!the!first,!and!usual!one,!for!

the!Fisian!Mount!and!state!of!Iguvium,!followed!by!the!ritual!items;!then,!a!second!one,!to!

the!same!god!(Tefer!Iovius),!with!the!unique!instruction!of!"mak[ing]!a!mound!for!the!

bowl"!"at!your!right!foot."!(29Q30)!But!3B!exceeds!2B!by!including!a!third!mention!of!the!

! 7!
Fisian!Mount!and!Iguvine!State.!(31)!In!another!display!of!κλῖμαξ, the!Fisian!Mount/state!of!

Iguvium!show!up!twice!in!1AB,!thrice!in!2AB,!and!four!times!in!3AB.!!

A!crossQexamination!of!other!IndoQEuropean!sacrifices!will!also!shed!light!on!the!

complex!interplay!between!the!different!gate!rituals.!Oettinger8!argues!that!a!standard!IE!

sacrifice!consisted!of!9!animals!(normally!9!oxen).!He!cites!examples!from!Greek!!(Iliad!

6.154,!236),!Germanic!(runic!stone!of!Stentoften!and!report!of!Adamus!Bremensis),!Iranian!

(Videvdad!V.22,!20),!and!oblique!references!in!Hittite!and!Sanskrit.!I!think!that!this!thriceQ

three!sacrifice!of!oxen!to!the!GraboviusQtriad!provides!further!evidence!for!Oettinger's!

schema,!and!it!also!reveals!a!particularly!archaic!detail!of!the!ceremony.!Most!importantly,!

it!shows!that!the!lustration!as!a!whole!is!not!a!series!of!random!acts,!but!that!the!gate!

rituals!acquire!meaning!in!their!broader!structural!pattern.!!!

A!related!consideration,!which,!because!it!is!rather!speculative!I!will!devote!only!

little!attention!to,!is!understanding!the!"architectural!orientation"!(as!Levine!puts!it)!of!

different!moments!in!the!gateQpurifications!ritual.9!By!this!term!Levine!meant!an!attempt!to!

understand!why!certain!ritual!actions!are!performed!in!relation!to!different!spaces!or!with!

respect!to!different!architectural!features.!As!we!have!noted,!oxen!are!the!more!important!

sacrificial!item,!and!the!GraboviusQtriad!are!the!more!important!gods!in!this!ritual.!These!

sacrifices!are!performed!outside!the!gate,!while!the!inferior!victims,!and!the!gods!to!whom!

they!are!offered,!are!sacrificed!within!the!walls.!I!think!it!makes!sense!that!the!more!

important!moments!of!the!ritual!occur!outside!the!city,!outside!the!gate—after!all,!as!

Levine!notes:!"The!siQgar![gate!latch]!is!both!the!protector!and!the!inviter.!It!is!revered,!first!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
8!Oettinger!2008:!403Q414.!
9!The!term!is!from!Levine!(1967:!47),!an!especially!apt!article!because!it!deals!with!a!Near!Eastern!GateQ

purification!ritual.!

! 8!
of!all,!because!it!'bars'!entry!to!all!undesirable!forces…"10!Therefore,!the!more!important!

rituals!occur!at!the!points!of!highest!danger!for!the!Fisian!arx.!Further!speculation!than!this!

would!probably!entail!a!loss!of!contact!with!the!text.!I!came!to!this!conclusion!

independently!of!Frothingham,11!who!also!considers!the!question!of!why!the!GraboviusQ

gods!are!invoked!outside!the!walls.!Our!analyses!are!not!dissimilar:!he!believes!that!the!

answer!has!to!do!with!the!pomerium!of!the!city!of!Iguvium—that!the!more!important!gods!

would!be!invoked!to!protect!departing!citizens!or!troops!leaving!the!pomerium!of!the!

city.12!

We!might!briefly!consider!how!the!ritual!instructions!in!tablet!I!compare!to!their!

analogue!in!tablet!VI.!The!common!narrative!is!that!tablet!VI!represents!a!sort!of!"expanded!

version"!of!an!abbreviated,!laconic!version!present!in!tablet!I.!I!would!argue!that!this!

reading!might!require!some!nuance.!On!the!basis!of!certain!syntactic!features,!I!would!

suggest!that!we!might!read!tablet!VIa!as!part!of!a!different!literary!genre!from!tablet!Ia.

! The!syntax!of!the!two!tablets!is!wildly!different.!Most!strikingly,!the!instructions!for!

the!lustration!of!the!three!gates!in!Ia!contain!no!subordinate!clauses.!The!sentences!are!

short!and!repetitive,!with!simple!word!orders!(with!certain!overQarching!patterns!and!

parallels,!as!noted!above).!Despite!a!few!ellipses,!the!officiating!priest!has!clear!

instructions.!CrossQculturally!(even!beyond!IndoQEuropeans)!this!is!very!much!in!line!with!

the!genre!of!ritual!instruction.!For!example,!a!stock,!and!even!defining!detail!in!levitical!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
10!Levine!1967:!48.!
11!Frothingham!1915.!
12!Frothingham!316.!Interestingly!but!less!relevantly,!this!paper!also!used!the!tripleQgate!pattern!of!the!

Iguvine!tables!to!argue!for!the!existence!of!triangular!pomeria!in!ancient!Italy,!which!in!Frothingham's!time!
was!a!matter!of!controversy.!

! 9!
ritual!instruction!is!"short,!verbal!sentences,"13,!as!well!as!"stereotypical!repetition."14!In!

contrast,!even!at!the!second!sentence!of!tablet!VIa!we!see!a!relative!clause:!"poei!angla!

aseriato!|!eest,!eso!tremnu!serse!araferture!ehueltu."!Subordination!occurs!all!throughout!

tablet!VIa,!even!when!we!exempt!the!prayers.!If!a!staple!of!the!genre!of!ritual!instruction!is!

simple,!abbreviated!syntax!(presumably!so!as!not!to!confuse!the!officiating!priest),!then!

VIa's!departure!from!this!could!set!it!in!a!whole!different!genre!from!Ia.!Further!

considerations!than!this!go!beyond!the!limits!of!this!paper.!

! As!an!aside,!I!note!the!interesting!theory!of!Baruch!Levine!that!various!Near!Eastern!

ritual!instructions!were!originally!descriptive!rather!than!prescriptive—in!his!own!words,!!

[These!are]!kind[s]!of!text!written!after!the!event!and!intended!
not!as!a!manual!or!code!of!ritual!procedure,!but!as!a!record!of!
cultic!expenditures...!They!are!dispassionate!administrative!
accounts!which!record!actual!events,!rather!than!projecting!
pious!performance.15!!
!
Such!an!analysis!on!the!Iguvine!Tablets!is!beyond!this!paper,!but!to!me!the!instructions!of!

Ia!seem!to!be!more!in!line!with!a!"record"!of!"actual!events",!while!VI!seems!to!be!more!of!a!

"pious!projection",!a!later!overQcomplication!of!an!originally!simple!liturgy.!!

! I!have!tried!to!show!that,!far!from!being!structurally!random!and!literarily!bland,!the!

ritual!instructions!of!1A!are!actually!a!rich!source!for!understanding!Umbrian!poeticized!

prose.!I!have!also!pointed!out!features!that!the!gate!ritual!shares!with!other!IE!religious!

customs,!and!even!with!nonQIE!religious!customs.I!!have!also!opened!for!further!study!the!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
13!Watts,!J.W.!81.!summarizing!R.!Rendtorff!(1954).!I'm!not!quite!sure!what!Watts!means!by!"verbal",!unless!

he!means!that!ritual!instruction!tends!to!be!heavy!on!the!actual!act!to!be!performed.!Consider!tablet!Ia's!
frequent!repetition!of!"fetu"!and!"ustentu".!!
14!Ibid.!82.!
15!Levine!1967:!18.!

! 10!
possibility!that!tablets!Ia!and!VIa!do!not!interact!merely!as!"simplified/elaborated"!

versions!of!each!other,!but!perhaps!represent!different!projects!altogether.!!

Appendix:!Parallels!in!Gate!Rituals!1AQ2B!
!
este!persklum!aves&anzeriates!enetu! 1!
pernaies!pusnaes!preveres!treplanes!!
iuve&KRAPUVI&TRE&BUF&FETU.!arvia ustentu$$
vatuva ferine feitu heris vinu heri puni$
ukriper fisiu tutaper ikuvina feitu sevum!! 5!
kutef pesnimu!ařepes!arves.!
!
pusveres!treplanes!tref&sif&kumiaf&feitu&&
trebe&iuvie!ukriper!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina.!!
supa!sumtu,!arvia!ustentu,!puni!fetu,!!
kutef!pesnimu!aře!arves.!! 10!
!
preveres!tesenakes!TRE!BUF!FETU!marte!KRAPUVI!!
fetu!ukripe!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina!arviu ustentu
vatuva ferine fetu puni fetu kutef pesnimu!ařpes!arves.!!
!
pusveres!tesenakes!tref&sif&feliuf&fetu&&
fise&saçi&ukriper!fisiu!tutaper!ikuvina! 15!
puni!fetu,!supa!sumtu,!arviu!ustentu!mefa!
vestiça!ustetu!fiiuvi&fetu!ukriper(fisiu(fetu((
kapiř(purtitaf(sakref(etraf(purtitaf(etraf((
sakref(tutaper$ikuvina!kutef!pesnimu!ařepes!arves!

! 11!
!
!
!
!
!
Works!Cited!
De!Cazanove,!O.!(2011).!PreQRoman!Italy,!before!and!under!the!Romans.!A$Companion$to$
Roman$Religion.$J.!Rüpke!(ed.).!Oxford:!WileyQBlackwell.!43Q57.!
Frothingham, A.L. (1915). Grabovius-Gradivus, plan and pomerium of Iguvium. The American
Journal of Philology. 36.3: 314-322.

Levine, B.A., and W.W. Hallo. (1967). Offerings to the temple gates at Ur. Hebrew Union
College Annual 38: 17-58.

Oettinger, N. (2008). An Indo-European custom of sacrifice in Greece and elsewhere. Evidence


and Counter-Evidence, Festschrift Frederik Kortlandt, vol. I. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 403-
414.

Poultney, J.W. (1959) The Bronze Tablets of Iguvium. Baltimore: American Philological
Associations.

Puhvel, J. (1978). Victimal hierarchies in Indo-European animal sacrifice. The American Journal
of Philology. 99.3: 354-362.

Rendtorff,!R.!(1954).!Die$Gesetze$in$der$Priesterschrift:$eine$gattungsgeschichtliche$
Untersuchung.!Göttingen:!Vandenhoeck!&!Ruprecht.

Watkins, C. 1995. How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics. New York: Oxford
University Press. 214-225.
!
Watts,!J.W.!(2003).!The!rhetoric!of!ritual!instruction!in!Leviticus!1Q7.!The$Book$of$Leviticus:$
Composition$and$Reception.!ed.!R.!Rendtorff!and!R.!Kugler.!Leiden:!Brill.!79Q100.!
Weiss,!M.!(2010).!The$Ritual$Complex$of$the$Third$and$Fourth$Tabulae!Iguvinae.$Leiden:!
Brill.!

! 12!