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2018-01-16

CVL 407: Structure III


Dr. Haitham Aboshosha, PEng

Email: Habo@Ryerson.ca
Office Hours: Wednesdays from 9:00 to 10:30
MON209 (during office hours)

Course Objective

• Understanding of the principles of structural behaviour in


withstanding gravity and lateral forces, and appropriate
applications of structural systems (“B7-Structural Systems” of
CACB Performance Criterion for Architectural Science”)
• Demonstrate and apply these engineering principles to solve
engineering problems (i.e. structure that works and resists
environmental loads)

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Why this course ?!

Why this course ?!


A Personal Experience !

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Why this course ?!

Knowing how structures behave (loads acting


on my structure, what structural system to use,
design of the components (slab, beam, column,
wall) of my system, ENABLES you to:
• Effectively design structures that are
functional, constructible and economic with
minimum number of design iterations!
• Unleash your creativity for new designs and
ideas. You understand how your structure
performs and have the basic knowledge to
design and/or check the structural design!
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Textbooks

Compulsory 1. Brzev, S. and Pao, J. (2017), Reinforced Concrete Design,


Texts A Practical Approach
2. 3rd Ed., Pearson Education Canada, Prentice Hall,
Toronto, ON.
3. Handbook of Steel Construction (2011), 10th Ed.,
Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Ottawa.
4. Wood Design Manual (2010), Wood Council of Canada,
Ottawa.
5. Lecture notes taken during classes and handouts posted
on the course web site.

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Textbooks
Reference 1. Concrete Design Handbook (2006), 3rd Ed., Portland Cement Association, Ottawa.
Texts 2. Rod Underwood, Michele Chiuini (2007) Structural Design, A practical guide for
Architects.
3. Chaallal, O. and Lachemi, M. (2010), Reinforced Concrete Structures: Design
according to CSA A23.3-04, 1st Ed., Presses de l'Université du Québec.
4. MacGregor, J.G., and Bartlett, F.M. (2000), Reinforced Concrete, Mechanics & Design,
Prentice Hall.
5. Kulak Grondin (2011), Limit states design in structural steel, 9th Ed., Canadian
Institute of Steel Construction, Ottawa.
6. Robert G. Drysdale & Ahmad A. Hamid (2005), Masonry Structures: Behaviour and
Design, Canadian Ed., Canada Masonry Design Centre, Mississauga.
7. Ontario Building Code (2012), Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Building
and Development Branch, Toronto, Ontario.
8. Hibbeler, R. C. (2017), Mechanics of Materials, 10th Ed., Prentice Hall.
9. Hibbeler, R. C. and Yap K. B. (2012), Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th Ed.,
Prentice Hall.
10. Schodek, D. and Bechthold M. (2013), Structures, 7th Ed., Prentice Hall.

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Classroom Rules
• Arrive on time
• Turnoff your cell phone and other electronics.
• Due to privacy requirements, picture taking or voice recording is not
permitted at lectures and tutorials (Unless authorized by the instructor).
• Web surfing, texting, reading newspapers ...etc are not permitted during
lectures.
• Always use your Ryerson email in all communications
• All handouts, lecture notes ...etc will be posted on the D2L Brightspace
• Please read carefully the course outline.

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Materials used For Structural Elements

• Reinforced Concrete (RC)


• Steel
• Wood
• Masonry

In this course we will cover RC and Steel

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Structural Components
Reinforced concrete buildings consist of several structural
components (or members). The basic components of a
reinforced concrete building are:
• floor and roof systems
• beams
• columns
• walls
• foundations

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Structural Components

The floor and roof systems are Columns are vertical


the main horizontal structural components that support a
components in a building. structural floor system.
They carry gravity loads and Columns are usually
transfer them to the columns subjected to combined axial
load and bending.

Beams transmit the loads from


the floors to the columns.
Beams are usually cast
monolithically with the slab
and are subjected to bending
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and shear.

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Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Structural System

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Design of reinforced concrete structures

The objective of structural design and construction


is to produce safe, serviceable, economic, durable
and aesthetic structures.

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In this course

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In this course

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Ultimate Limit State

In US, it is called LRFD


(Load and Resistance Factored Design)

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2015

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Canadian design codes for concrete structures

The design and construction of buildings in Canada is


regulated by the National Building Code of Canada (NBC)
The current edition of the NBC, published in 2005, is
referred to as NBC 2015.

The design of concrete structures in Canada is performed


according to the CSA Standard A23.3-04 “Design of
Concrete Structures”. The current edition of the standard,
published in 2004, is referred to as A23.3.
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LOADS

One of the main NBC 2015 structural design requirements


states that a building structure should be designed to have
sufficient structural capacity and structural integrity to
safely and effectively resist all loads and effects of loads
that may reasonably be expected. The following types of
loads need to be considered in the design of buildings:
• dead load (D);
• live load due to use and occupancy (L);
• snow load (S);
• wind load (W); is a variable dynamic load that acts on walls and roof
surfaces within a building.
• earthquake load (E); also known as seismic load, is a dynamic loads 29
caused by vibration of the earth and acts laterally on the building structures.

Dead load

Dead load (D) is a permanent load due to the weight of


building components. According to NBC 2015, the
specified dead load for a structural member consists of

• self-weight load (weight of the member itself)


• superimposed dead load

The self-weight of a structural member is calculated based


on a consideration of the unit weight of the material
involved and its volume. The unit weight of Normal-weight
reinforced concrete can be taken as 24 kN/m3 30

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Example: Self weight load (SWL)


A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular cross-section
(350 mm width and 700 mm overall depth) is made of
normal-density concrete. Determine the beam self-weight
(in kN/m) to be used for the dead load calculation.

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Example: Self weight load (SWL)

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Superimposed dead load


The superimposed dead load for a structural member
consists of:

The weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the


building to be supported permanently by the member

The weight of partitions

The weight of permanent equipment (if any)

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Table 1.11 Concrete Design Handbook

For complete table, please refer to Concrete Design Handbook

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Table 1.13 Concrete Design Handbook (please refer to the handbook for the complete table)

(please refer to the handbook for the complete table)

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Factored resistance of a structure


The factored resistance of a structure can be determined as

Factored resistance =Φ×R


where R is the calculated resistance of a member,
connection, or structure based on the specified material
properties, and Φ is the resistance factor applied to the
resistance or specified material property, which takes
into account the variability of material properties,
dimensions, quality of work, type of failure, and
uncertainty in the prediction of resistance.
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Φconcrete = 0.65 Φsteel = 0.85

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Basic Design Relationship

Resistance ≥ Load Effects

In Limit State Design Method:


φ Rn ≥ α1 S1 + α2 S2 + …

A23.3 NBCC

α is the load factor and S is the specified load. 41

Serviceability Limit State

 Conditions in structure checked under service load


 Primary concerns: deflections and crack widths
 Δ ˂ limiting value in code
 W ˂ limiting value in code
 Other concerns: vibrations, permanent deformation
 Principal load factor = 1.0

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Load Transfer Mechanism

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Load Transfer Mechanism

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Load Transfer Mechanism

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Examples
B1
2.0

C2

C1

The figure shows a plan view of a reinforced concrete floor in a residential building. The floor system
consists of a 200 mm floor slab supported by 300 mm × 600 mm floor beams. The floor supports its own
weight and a superimposed dead load of 0.30 KPa, in addition to the applied live load. The exterior beams
support 200 mm brick wall (one side plastered) while the interior beams support 100 mm brick wall (both
sides plastered). Assume 3 m floor height.

Determine ultimate design load for columns C1 and C2


Determine the ultimate overall load of the floor
Determine the design D and L load going to beam B1, then sketch max BMD using the approx. method

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Revision on structural analysis


Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below.

30 kN/m 15 kN
A B C D

4.0 m 2.0 m 2.0 m

Solution

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Revision on structural analysis


Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below.

Solution (cont.) 120 30 kN/m 15 kN


A B C D

75 4.0 m 2.0 m 2.0 m


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Revision on structural analysis


Shear force and Bending moment diagrams

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Revision on structural analysis

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Revision on structural analysis

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Revision on structural analysis

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Bending Moment and Shear Force Tables

(please refer to the handbook for complete table 1.14)


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Bending Moment and Shear Force Tables


Table 1:15 for multi-span beams

Example D=20 kN/m, L=10kN/m


Sketch the maximum BMD diagram

l=8 m l=8 m

Example for D=20 kN/m, L=10kN/m


Sketch the maximum BMD diagram for the
Beam shown above. Use table 1.15.

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Bending Moment and Shear Force Tables


D=20 kN/m, L=10kN/m,Sketch the maximum BMD diagram`
1.25D=25 kN/m, 1.25D+1.5L=40 kN/m

l=8 m l=8 m l=8 m l=8 m

Case 1 (Max moment left span) Case 2 (Max moment above support) Case 2 (Max moment right span)

(-0.063*40*2)*L2=322 kN.m

(0.096*40-0.0315*25)*L2=195 kN.m (0.0096*40-0.0315*25)*L2=195 kN.m

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Approx Max Bending Moment


1.25D=25 kN/m, 1.25D+1.5L=40 kN/m
D=20 kN/m, L=10kN/m,
Dmax=1.25D+1.5L=40 kN/m

Close to the detailed solution


in previous slide ?

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Approx. Max Bending Moment

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