You are on page 1of 4

Stable Common Mode Feedback and Two Stage

Operational Amplifiers
EE 410 Final Design Project

Harvish Mehta, Student, and Mehdi Kiani, Member, IEEE


Pennsylvania State Department of Electrical Engineering
University Park, PA, USA

Abstract— Two operational amplifiers are designed in this paper


using .6-µm technology. The first is a stable one stage operational
A. Design of Single Stage Amplifier
amplifier that uses a triode MOSFETs to sense common mode The design of this operational amplifier required a folded
feedback. This amplifier retains a constant gain with varying input, because an input common mode DC requirement of 4V.
temperatures. The second operational amplifier is two-stage single A telescopic operational amplifier was used to achieve a gain
ended differential amplifier. This amplifier has power constraints greater than 60 decibels. Cascading the output increases output
and requires a high output swing. Both these amplifiers are resistance, which increases the gain. To further increase the
created through MOSFETs, while using .6-µm technology through
output resistance the lengths of P2, P3, N1, and N3 were
cadence.
increases. Changing the length effects the early voltage, which
Index Terms—Amplifier, Common Mode Feedback, MOSFET, also increases output resistance. The width to length ratio were
Stability, Compensation, and Two Stage. assigned through overdrive voltages and total current of 5mA.
The width to length ratios and final design of circuit can be seen
in Figure 1.
I. INTRODUCTION
MOSFET technology is the most common type of integrated
circuitry used today. It allows the reduction of power
consumption while maintaining a very high input impedance.
MOSFET technology is useful in the modern industry, because
of the feasibility of the fabrication. To continue, MOSFETs are
common to operational amplifiers. Thus, this paper will discuss
to designs for operational amplifiers that multiple specifications
such as temperature constraints, phase margin, gain, static
power consumption, and output swing.
The remainder of the paper will break into three sections.
Section II will discuss the design of the common mode
feedback (CMFB) single stage operational amplifier. Section
III will discuss a design of a two stage operational amplifier and
Fig. 1. Schematic of CMFB Operation Amplifier
its distinct specifications. Section IV will discuss the
implications and pitfalls of both designs. The biasing voltages are assigned through voltage drops
II. ONE STAGE CMFB OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER across the resistors. These voltages were also decided through
overdrive voltages of the transistors, which were assigned by a
The specifications of this operational amplifier are observed randomly assigned output swing.
in Table 1. In order to meeting these specifications, a NMOS Finally, the CMFB of this amplifier is connected to two
folded telescopic differential amplifier with a CMFB was triode sensing MOSFETs. By adjusting the width to length
designed. ratios of these MOSFETs, the DC output voltage can be set
and remain at 2V. Even though these triode MOSFETs (N4
TABLE I. ONE STAGE CMFB OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER REQUIREMENTS
and N5) are temperature dependent, to produce only 60
Specifications Parameters decibels as a gain allows it to operate sufficiently within
Supply Voltage (VDD) 4V varying temperatures.
Differential Gain (AD) > 60 dB The phase margin of this circuit is increased by adding a
Temperature Range (ºC) 0 ºC - 80 ºC 30 pF capacitor to the differential output. The next subsection
Phase Margin (Degrees) >60 Degrees will show the results of the design in Figure 1.
Input Common-Mode (DC) 4V
B. Results of Single Stage Amplifier

Below are graphs that display the results of the CMFB amplifier
design.

Fig. 4. Gain with Temperature Variation

Fig. 2. Gain of CMFB Operation Amplifier III. TWO STAGE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
The specifications for the two stage operational amplifier are
Figure 2 shows the achieved gain of 61.5114 decibels as seen in Table 2. To meet the required specifications a two stage
well the unity gain frequency of 6.2382MHz. Below, Figure 3 operational amplifier will be designed within the power
displays an achieved phase margin of 64.89477 degrees. The constraints.
specifications for the phase margin and gain.
TABLE II. TWO STAGE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER REQUIREMENTS

Specifications Parameters
Supply Voltage (VDD) 4V
Differential Gain (AD) > 60 dB
Power Consumption (PD) < 2mW
Phase Margin (Degrees) >60 Degrees
Loading (CL||RL) 1pF || 50kΩ
Slew Rate (SR) 100V/µs
Output Swing (Vp-p) 3.6V

A. Design of Two Stage Operational Amplifier

Because of the different specifications acquired on Table 2,


this operational amplifier will require a different topology. For
example, the gain of this amplifier will need to be greater than
100 decibels. To continue, a high output swing is also specified,
so multiple telescopic transistors will reduce the swing. Thus,
Fig. 3. Phase Margin of CMFB Operation Amplifier two stages will be needed to achieve a high gain as well as a high
output swing. The width to length ratios have increased lengths
An AC analysis was completed to derive the gain verse the (proportional to the widths) to again create a high output
temperature range of 0 ºC - 80 ºC. As observed from Figure 5, resistance for the gain. An overdrive of .1 V was used on P5 and
the temperature remains either within 3 decibels to 60 decibels N10 to achieve a high output swing. These specification of width
or constantly increases as the temperature increases. to length ratios can be seen in Figure 5.
Nevertheless, the requirement of maintain a gain above 60 Furthermore, the maximum total current within this circuit is
decibels is met. .5mA due to total static power constraints of 2mW. This small
current can affect the slew rate. To increase the current on the
second stage output, a multiplier on N10 creates a current six
times larger than the current mirror at N9. A multiplier on N5 Below, Figure 7 displays the phase margin. As observed
creates a current three times larger than the current mirror. from the graph the phase margin at unity gain is 78.89 degrees.
Finally, in order to increase the phase margin of this two Another observation from Figure 7 is that a zero can be seen as
stage amplifier, a compensation capacitor is put in series with the phase margin slightly increases around 1MHz.
resistor from the drain of P5 to the gate of P5. The capacitor
pushes the pole from the first stage lower, while pushing the
output pole from the second stage higher. The resistor creates a
left-half-plane zero which can also increase the phase margin by
reducing the effects of the mirror, stage one, or output pole.

Fig. 7. Phase Margin of Two Stage Operational Amplifier

Because the total peak to peak swing of the circuit is not


symmetric. Two figures are taken to represent the high point of
the swing and low point of the swing. Figure 8, displays the
highest swing that can be achieved, which is 3.927 V. This
measure was taken at the highest peak of the sinusoid wave
without clipping.

Fig. 5. Schematic of Two Stage Operational Amplifier

B. Results of Two Stage Operational Amplifier

This section will discuss the results of the designed circuit in


Figure 5. Figure 6 represents the gain, bandwidth, and the unity
gain frequency. The gain acquired is 101.6359, the bandwidth is
98.85 Hz, and the unity gain frequency is 4.38798MHz.

Fig. 8. Highest Swing of Two Stage Operational Amplifier

Figure 9, is measured at lowest peak of a sinusoid wave


without clipping. This low peak value is 20.95 mV. Thus the
peak to peak swing is 3.91, which fulfills the swing requirement.

Fig. 6. Gain of Two Stage Operational Amplifier


Figure 10 displays the current in all of the branches of the
two stage single ended amplifier design. From these current
values the slew rate of the amplifier can be derived as well as the
power used within the circuit. The total current used within this
circuit was .372mA. Therefore, the total static power consumed
is 1.49mW.
Next, the slew rate of this design is derived from the total
current at the output of stage two divided by the total capacitance
at the same output. The total current is 290.39µA, and total
capacitance is 4pF (load capacitance and compensation
capacitance). Thereby, the slew rate is 72.6V/µs. This is the
requirement that falls short of the desired specifications.
Over all, this design meets all specifications but the slew rate.
Fig. 9. Lowest Swing of Two Stage Operational Amplifier
The advantages of this type of circuit is the gain, swing, power
consumption, and high phase margin. The disadvantages of this
circuit is the low input common mode range (ICMR). This
circuit operates with a .7 V input voltage, and has very little
range to operate with another input voltage.
IV. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
The objective of this document is to design two stable
operational amplifiers that deliver to the given specifications.
The first design was a one stage CMFB amplifier that met all of
its requirements all the while using a triode sensing circuit. The
second design is a two stage amplifier that has a high gain, phase
margin, and low power consumption. This design meets all
requirements except the 100 V/µs slew rate. This document
delivers and gives two potential designs that match the
Fig. 10. Currents of Components in the Two Stage Operational Amplifier specifications.

REFERENCES
[1] Ele Razavi, Behzad. Design of Analog CMOS Integrated
Circuits. New York: McGraw Hill Education, 2017. Print.