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1 Number System

& Series
A number is a tool to measure quantities in real life. Numbers are used in addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, and exponentiation operations. Their study is called ARITHMATIC.
CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS :
1. Natural numbers : Natural numbers are a set of non-negative numbers defined as 0, 1, 2, 3,
…… and so on. Natural numbers are also called whole numbers.
2. Integers : Integer numbers include all positive numbers, all negative numbers and zero. It can
be represented by a set shown below,
I  ......,  5,  4,  3,  2,  1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ......
(i) Even and odd numbers : Any number which is divisible by 2 is considered as even
number and any number which is not divisible by 2 is considered as odd number.
Properties of even and odd numbers :
Even + Even = Even
Odd + Odd = Even
Odd + Odd + Odd = Odd
Odd + Even = Odd
Even  Even = Even
Odd  Odd = Odd
Odd  Even = Even
(ii) Prime numbers : Any number which is divisible by either 1 or itself only is called prime
number. For example : 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 etc.
Prime number testability :
a. First take square root of the given number.
b. Take prime numbers starting from 2 to the obtained square root value or nearest integer.
c. If the given number is not divisible by any of these prime numbers then the given
number is a prime number.
a
3. Rational numbers : Rational numbers are numbers represented as where, a and b are
b
integer numbers and b  0.
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4. Complex numbers : Complex numbers are numbers represented as a  ib where, a and b are
real numbers and i  1.
CYCLICITY :
Cyclicity of a number is used to find unit digit value. Power cycle of a number is defined as highest
power of any number such that there is no repetition at its unit digit.
1. Cyclicity of 2 :
5
21 = 2 or 2 = 32

6
24 = 16 22 = 4 or 2 = 64
or 28 = 256
23 = 8 or 27 = 128

Power cycle = 4
Unit digit value = 6
2. Cyclicity of 3 :
31 = 3 or 35 = 243

34 = 81 32 = 9

33 = 27
Power cycle = 4
Unit digit value = 1
3. Cyclicity of 4 :
3
41 = 4 or 4 = 64

4 2 = 16
Power cycle = 2
Unit digit value = 6
4. Cyclicity of 7 :
71 = 7

7 4 = 2401 7 2 = 49

73 = 343

Power cycle = 4
Unit digit value = 1
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1.4 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
5. Cyclicity of 8 :
81 = 8

84 = 4096 8 2 = 64

83 = 512

Power cycle = 4
Unit digit value = 6
6. Cyclicity of 9 :
91 = 9

9 2 = 81
Power cycle = 2
Unit digit value = 1
Number Power cycle Unit digit value
2 4 6
3 4 1
4 2 6
5 1 5
6 1 6
7 4 1
8 4 6
9 2 1

Example : Find unit digit value of 8193.


Solution : For to find 8193 its power cycle is 4.
and for any number to be divisible by 4 its last two terms should be divisible by 4.
193 
 Last two terms 93
93 1
 23 
4 4
So we can write it
8193  8192  8
8193  (unit digit of 84 )  8
8193  6  8  48
So last digit is 8.
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FACTORIZATION :
The process of writing a natural number in terms of its prime factors is called factorization.
1. Let ‘N’ be any natural number such that N  a p  b q  c r where, a, b and c are prime factors and
p, q and r are their respective powers.
2. Sum of the factors is given by,
(a p 1  1)(b q 1  1)(c r 1  1)
Sn 
(a  1)(b  1)(c  1)
3. Product of factors is given by,
n
Pn  ( N ) 2
where, n is the number of factors.
4. Total number of natural number less than or equal to N and relatively prime to N is given by,
 1  1  1 
N 0  N 1   1   1  
 a  b  c 
5. Let N  a p b q c r then the sum of all the natural numbers which are less than or equal to N and
relatively prime to N is given by,
N   1   1   1 
N 0'   N 1  a  1  b  1  c  
2     
6. The number of ways in which a composite number N may be resolved into two factors,
1
 ( p  1) (q  1) (r  1) ; N  a p b q c r is not a perfect square
2
1
  ( p  1) (q  1) (r  1)   1 ; N is a perfect square
2
DIVISIBILITY TESTS :
Following are important divisibility tests,
 

Divisible by Test Examples


The unit’s digit should be even
or 0 (i.e. in the given number at 6  3 = 2,
2 26 , 48 etc.
the units place we should have 2, 82 = 4
4, 6, 8, 0)
The sum of the digits of the (1+2+7+2+9 =21),
3 12729
number should be divisible by 3. 21  3 = 7
The number formed by the last
two digits (units’ and tens’) of
4 21964 64  4 = 16
the given number should be
divisible by 4.

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1.6 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
Last digits
5 The unit’s digit should be 0 or 5. 1835, 15440 are 5 and 0
respectively
The sum of the digits of the (1+2+7+2 = 12),
6 number should be divisible by 3 1272 12  3 = 4,
and the number should be even Number is even
The number formed by the last
three digits (units’, tens’ and
8 52672 672  8 = 84
hundreds’) of the given number
should be divisible by 8.
The sum of the digits of the (1+2+7+2+9 +6 = 27),
9 127296
number should be divisible by 9. 27  9 = 3
10 The unit’s digit should be 0. 3220 Unit’s digits is zero.
The difference between the sum
5+0+3 = 4+4 = 8,
of digits in the even and odd
11 54043 Hence difference is
places should be zero or a
zero.
multiple of 11.
The sum of the digits of the
(1+7+2+8=18)
number should be divisible by 3
12 1728 18  3=6,
and last 2 digits (unit’s and
Also 28  4 = 7
ten’s) also be divisible by 4.
The sum of the digits of the
(8+1+0+6+4 +5 = 24),
number should be divisible by 3
15 810645 24  3 = 8,
and unit’s digit of the number
also last digits is 5.
should be 0 or 5.
The number formed by the last
four digits (units’, tens’
16 hundreds’ and thousands’) of the 12978320 8320  16 = 520
given number should be
divisible by 16.
The last three number of the 1125, 1875,
digits of the number should be 15500, 35625, The last three digits are
25
125, 250, 375, 500, 625, 750, 76375, 22250, as required.
875, or 000. 49750, 5000
 

1. Divisible test for 7


The test holds good only for numbers with more than three digits and is applied as follows,
(i) Group the number in sets of three from the unit’s digit.
(ii) Add the odd groups and the even groups separately.
(iii) The difference of the odd and the even groups should be either 0 or divisible by 7.
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.7
Example : Is 85437954 divisible by 7?
Dividing the given number in three sets,
85 437 954
Adding up the first and the third sets, we get
85 + 954 = 1039
Now their difference is 1039 – 437 = 602.
Since, 602  7 = 86
Hence the number is divisible by 7.
2. Divisibility test for 13
The test holds good only for numbers with more than three digits. The test to be applied is as
follows,
1. Group the numbers in sets of three from the unit’s digit.
2. Add the odd groups and the even separately.
3. The difference of the odd and the even group should be either 0 or divisible by 13.
Example : Is 136999005 divisible by 13?
Dividing the given number in three sets,
136 999 005
Adding up the first and the third sets, we get
136 + 5 = 141.
Now their difference is 999 – 141 = 858
Since, 858  13 = 66
Hence, the number is divisible by 13.
FORMULAE :
1. a 2  b 2  ( a  b) ( a  b)
a 2  2ab  b 2   a  b 
2
2.

a 2  2ab  b 2   a  b 
2
3.

 a  b   a  b
2 2
4.  4ab

a  b  c   a 2  b 2  c 2  2  ab  ac  bc 
2
5.
6. x 2   a  b  x  ab   x  a  x  b 
7. ac  bc  ad  bd  c(a  b)  d (a  b)  (a  b) (c  d )

 a  b  a 3  b3  3ab  a  b 
3
8.

 a  b  a 3  b3  3ab  a  b 
3
9.

10. a 3  b3   a  b   a 2  ab  b 2 

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1.8 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

a 3  b3   a  b   3ab  a  b 
3
11.

12. a 3  b3  (a  b) (a 2  ab  b 2 )

a 3  b3   a  b   3ab  a  b 
3
13.

14. a 3  b3  c3  3abc   a  b  c   a 2  b 2  c 2  ab  bc  ca 
1
 a  b  c   a  b    b  c    c  a  
2 2 2
15. a 3  b3  c 3  3abc 
2
16. If a + b + c = 0 or a = b = c
a 2 b2 c2
then a  b  c  3abc or
3 3 3
  3
bc ca ab
17. a n  b n   a  b   a n 1  a n  2b  a n 3b 2  .... here n should be odd only

18. a n  b n   a  b   a n 1  a n  2b  a n 3b 2  ....

19. For determining the coefficients of the terms in the expansion of ( x  a) n , for any positive integer
n, we can use the Pascal’s triangle, which is explained below.
Power Coefficients
n=0 1
n=1 1 1
n=2 1 2 1
n=3 1 3 3 1
n=4 1 4 1 6 4
n=5 1 5 10 10 5 1
n=6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1
Example : For n = 4,
In the expansion of ( x  a) 4 the fourth coefficient will be 4 (from Pascal’s triangle)
PROGRESSION :
Progression is a series consisting of terms that has a certain pattern and due to which they are
predictable. Progression in mathematics is of three types as given below,
1. Arithmetic Progression : By an arithmetic progression of n terms, we mean a finite sequence
of the form a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, . . . , a + ( n – 1)d.
where, a is called the first term of the arithmetic progression and d is called the common
difference of the arithmetic progression.
The nth term in the arithmetic progression is given by,
Tn  a  (n  1)d
Sum of an arithmetic progression :
The sum of the n terms of an arithmetic progression with first term a and common difference d is
given by,
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n n
 2a  (n  1)d   (a  l )
S
2 2
Where l  last term of the series
Important points :
(i) If three numbers are in AP then it can be assumed that these numbers are (a  d ), a, (a  d )
(ii) If four numbers are in AP then it can be assumed that these numbers are (a  3d ), (a  d ),
(a  d ), (a  3d ) .
(iii) If five numbers are in AP then it can be assumed that these numbers are (a  2d ), (a  d ),
a, (a  d ), (a  2d ) .
(iv) Arithmetic mean is given by,
ab
AM  (for two terms)
2
a  b  c  ... n terms
AM 
n
(v) If the same quantity be added to, or subtracted from all the terms of an AP, the resulting
terms will form an AP, but with the same common difference as before.
(vi) If all the terms of an AP be multiplied or divided by the same quantity, the resulting terms
will form an AP, but with a new common difference, which will be the multiplication /
division of the old common difference.
2. Geometric Progression : In Geometric progression, every term is obtained by multiplying the
previous term with a fixed value. Geometric series is given by,
a, ar , ar 2 , ar 3 
Where, a is the first term and r is the common ratio.
The nth term in the GP series is given by,
Tn  ar n 1
Sum of geometric progression :
The sum of the n terms of an geometric progression with first term a and common ratio r is given
by,
 r n 1 
S  a ; r 1
 r 1 
 1 rn 
S  a ; r 1
 1 r 
Sum of infinite geometric progression series :
a
S ; r 1
1 r
S  ; r 1
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1.10 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
Important points :
a
(i) If three numbers are in GP then it can be assumed that these numbers are , a, ar
r
a a
(ii) If four numbers are in GP then it can be assumed that these numbers are , , ar , ar 3 .
r3 r
(iii) Geometric mean is given by,
GM  ab (for two terms)
GM  (a  b  c  n terms)1/ n
(iv) If all the terms of a GP be multiplied or divided by the same quantity, the resulting terms
will form a GP with the same common ratio as before.
(v) If a, b, c, d, …. are in GP, there is also continued proportion, since, by definition, a/b = b/c
= c/d = … = 1/r
3. Harmonic Progression : In harmonic progression, every term represents inverse of every term
present in arithmetic progression. If 2, 4, 6, 8…. is an arithmetic series then harmonic series is
1 1 1 1
given as , , , ,... .
2 4 6 8
The nth term of a harmonic series is calculated by,
(i) Inverse all the terms of the series.
(ii) Calculate the nth term using arithmetic progression formula.
(iii) Inverse the obtained nth term.
Harmonic mean is given by,
2ab
HM  (for two terms)
ab
SHORTCUTS :
(i) To find the sum of the first n natural numbers :
Let the sum be denoted by S then,
S = 1 + 2 + 3 + …. + n, is given by,
n(n  1)
S
2
(ii) To find the sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers :
Let the sum be denoted by S then,
S  12  22  32  ....  n 2
This is given by,
 n(n  1)(2n  1) 
S  
 6 

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(iii) To find the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers :
Let the sum be denoted by S then,
S  13  23  33  ....  n3
2
 n(n  1) 
S
 2 
Thus, the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers is equal to the square of the sum of
these numbers.
(iv) To find the sum of the first n odd natural numbers :
S  1  3  5  ...  (2n  1)  n 2
(v) To find the sum of the first n even natural numbers.
S  2  4  6  ...  2n  n(n  1)  n 2  n
(vi) To find the sum of odd numbers  n, where n is a natural number :
Case A : If n is odd  [(n  1) / 2]2
Case B : If n is even  [n / 2]2
(vii) To find the sum of even numbers  n, where n is a natural number :
 n   n   
Case A : If n is odd       1 
 2   2   
 n  1   n  1  
Case B : If n is even    
 2   2  
(viii) If A, G, H be the arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means between any two quantities
respectively then A > G > H.



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1.12 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

2010 IIT Guwahati 2012 IIT Delhi

1.1 If 137 + 276 = 435 how much is 731 + 1.5 If (1.001)1259  3.52 and
672 ? [All branches]
(1.001) 2062  7.85 , then (1.001)3321 
(A) 534 (B) 1403
[EC, EE, IN, MT]
(C) 1623 (D) 1513 (A) 2.23 (B) 4.33
1.2 Given digits 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4. How (C) 11.37 (D) 27.64
many distinct 4 digit numbers greater 1.6 Raju has 14 currency notes in his pocket
than 3000 can be formed? consisting of only Rs. 20 notes and Rs. 10
[All branches] notes. The total money value of the notes
(A) 50 (B) 51 is Rs. 230. The number of Rs. 10 notes
that Raju has is [EC, EE, IN, MT]
(C) 52 (D) 54
(A) 5 (B) 6
2011 IIT Madras (C) 9 (D) 10
1.3 The sum of n terms of the series 1.7 There are eight bags of rice looking alike,
4  44  444  is seven of which have equal weight and
[EC, EE, IN, MT] one is slightly heavier. The weighing
balance is of unlimited capacity. Using
 4 this balance, the minimum number of
(A)   10n 1  9n  1
 81  weighings required to identify the heavier
4 bag is [EC, EE, IN, MT]
(B)   10n 1  9n  1
 81  (A) 2 (B) 3
(C) 4 (D) 8
4
(C)   10n 1  9n  10 
 81  2013 IIT Bombay

4 1.8 In the summer of 2012, in New Delhi, the


(D)   10n  9n  10 
 81  mean temperature of Monday to
Wednesday was 410 C and of Tuesday to
1.4 Three friends R, S and T shares toffee
from a bowl. R took 1/3rd of the toffees, Thursday was 430 C . If the temperature on
but returned four to the bowl. S took 1/4th Thursday was 15% higher than that of
of what was left but returned three toffees Monday, then the temperature in 0 C on
to the bowl. T took half of the remainder Thursday was [EC, EE, IN]
but returned two back into the bowl. If (A) 40 (B) 43
the bowl had 17 toffees left, how many (C) 46 (D) 49
toffees were originally there in the bowl? 1.9 Find the sum to n terms of the series 10 +
[EC, EE, IN, MT] 84 + 734 +…. [EC, EE, IN]
(A) 38 (B) 31 9(9n  1) 9(9n  1)
(A) 1 (B) 1
(C) 48 (D) 41 10 8
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.13

9(9n  1) 9(9n  1) 1.17 Find the odd one in the following group
(C) n (D)  n2
8 8 Q, W, Z, B B, H, K, M
1.10 What will be the maximum sum of 44, W, C, G, J M, S, V, X
42, 40,……..? [CS, ME, PI] [EC-2, ME-2]
(A) 502 (B) 504 (A) Q, W, Z, B (B) B, H, K, M
(C) 506 (D) 500 (C) W, C, G, J (D) M, S, V, X
1.11 Find the sum of the expression 1.18 The sum of eight consecutive odd
1 1 1 1 numbers is 656. The average of four
   ......
1 2 2 3 3 4 80  81 consecutive even numbers is 87. What is
[CS, ME, PI] the sum of the smallest odd number and
(A) 7 (B) 8 second largest even number?
(C) 9 (D) 10 [EC-2, ME-2]
1.19 The next term in the series is 81, 54, 36,
1.12 A number is as much greater than 75 as it 24___? [EC-3, ME-3]
is smaller than 117. The number is
1.20 In which of the following options will be
[CE, MT] expression P < M be definitely true?
(A) 91 (B) 93 [EC-3, ME-3]
(C) 89 (D) 96 (A) M < R > P > S
2014 IIT Kharagpur (B) M > S < P < F
(C) Q < M < F = P
1.13 Fill in the missing number in the series.
(D) P = A < R < M
2 3 6 15 _____ 157.5 630
1.21 Find the next term in the sequence :
[EC-2, ME-2]
7G, 11K, 13M, ___ [EC-3, ME-3]
1.14 At what time between 6 am and 7 am will
the minute hand and hour hand of a clock (A) 15Q (B) 17Q
make an angle closest to 6 0 0 ? (C) 15P (D) 17P
[CS-2, EE-2] 1.22 In a sequence of 12 consecutive odd
(A) 6:22 am (B) 6.27 am numbers, the sum of the first 5 numbers
is 425. What is the sum of the last 5
(C) 6:38 am (D) 6:45 am
numbers in the sequence?
1.15 What is the next number in the series?
[EC-4, ME-4]
12 35 81 173 357 ____
1.23 Find the next term in the sequence :
[EC-1, ME-1]
13 M , 17 Q , 19 S , ______
1.16 Find the odd one from the following
group : [EC-1, ME-1] [EC-4, ME-4]
W, E, K, O I, Q, W, A (A) 21W (B) 21V
F, N, T, X N, V, B, D (C) 23W (D) 23V
(A) W, E, K, O (B) I, Q, W, A 1.24 A five digit number is formed using the
(C) F, N, T, X (D) N, V, B, D digits 1,3,5,7 and 9 without repeating any
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1.14 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
of them. What is the sum of all such 2015 IIT Kanpur
possible five digit numbers?
1.31 Find the missing sequence in the letter
[EC-4, ME-4]
series below : [EC-3, CH]
(A) 6666660 (B) 6666600
A, CD, GHI, ?, UVWXY
(C) 6666666 (D) 6666606 (A) LMN (B) MNO
2
 1  1 (C) MNOP (D) NOPQ
1.25 If  z    98 , compute  z 2  2  .
 z  z  1.32 If the list of letters, P, R, S, T, U is an
arithmetic sequence, which of the
[CS-1, EE-1]
following are also in arithmetic
1.26 What is the average of all multiples of 10 sequence? [CS-2, EE-2]
from 2 to 198? [CS-2, EE-2]
I. 2P, 2R, 2S, 2T, 2U
(A) 90 (B) 100 II. P – 3, R – 3, S – 3, T – 3, U – 3
(C) 110 (D) 120 III. P2, R2, S2, T2, U2
(A) I only (B) I and II
1.27 The value of 12  12  12  ...... is
(C) II and III (D) I and III
[CS-2, EE-2]
1.33 If log x (5/7) = – 1/3, then the value of x is
(A) 3.464 (B) 3.932
[EC-1, ME-1]
(C) 4.000 (D) 4.444 (A) 343/125 (B) 125/343
1.28 Which number does not belong in the (C) – 25/49 (D) – 49/25
series below? [CS-3, EE-3] 1.34 Operators ,  and are defined by :
2, 5, 10, 17, 26, 37, 50, 64 a b
ab  ;
(A) 17 (B) 37 ab
(C) 64 (D) 26 ab
a  b ;
1.29 Consider the equation, a b
a  b  ab
(7526)8  (Y )8  (4364)8
Find the value of (66  6)  (66  6)
Where ( X ) N stands for X to the base N. [EC-1, ME-1]
Find Y. [CS-3, EE-3] (A) – 2 (B) – 1
(A) 1634 (B) 1737 (C) 1 (D) 2
(C) 3142 (D) 3162 1.35 Fill in the missing value
[EC-1, ME-1]
1.30 Find the odd one in the following group
6 5 4
[CE-1, CH, MT] 7 4 7 2 1
ALRVX, EPVZB, ITZDF, OYEIK 1 9 2 8 1 2 1
(A) ALRVX (B) EPVZB 4 1 5 2 3
3 3
(C) ITZDF (D) OYEIK
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.15

1.36 If a 2  b 2  c 2  1 , then ab  bc  ac lies 1.42 Two and a quarter hours back, when seen
in the interval [EC-2, ME-2] in a mirror, the reflection of a wall clock
(A) [1, 2/3] (B) [–1/2, 1] without number markings seemed to
(C) [–1, 1/2] (D) [2, –4] show 1:30. What is the actual current
time shown by the clock?
1.37 If x > y > 1, which of the following must
be true? [EC-2, ME-3]
(i) ln x > ln y (A) 8 : 15 (B) 11 : 15
(ii) e x  e y (C) 12 : 15 (D) 12 : 45
(iii) y x  x y 1.43 The number that least fits this set: (324,
441, 97 and 64) is [EC-3, IN]
(iv) cos x  cos y [EC-3, CH]
(A) 324 (B) 441
(A) (i) and (ii) (B) (i) and (iii)
(C) 97 (D) 64
(C) (iii) and (iv) (D) (ii) and (iv)
1.44 Pick the odd one out in the following :
1.38 log tan10  log tan 20    log tan 890 is
13, 23, 33, 43, 53 [EE - 2]
_______. [EC-3, CH]
(A) 23 (B) 33
1
(A) 1 (B) (C) 43 (D) 53
2
(C) 0 (D) –1 1.45 If 9 y  6  3 , they y 2  4 y /3 is

1.39 How many four digit numbers can be [EE - 2]


formed with the 10 digits 0, 1, 2, ……..9 (A) 0 (B) +1/3
if no number can start with 0 and if (C) –1/3 (D) undefined
repetitions are not allowed? [CE-2] 1.46 The numeral in the units position of
2016 IISc Bangalore 211870  146127  3424 is _____. [EE - 2]
1 1 1 1.47 The sum of the digits of a two-digit
1.40 If q  a  and r  b  and s  c  , the number is 12. If the new number formed
r s q
value of abc is __________. by reversing the digits is greater than the
original number by 54, find the original
[EC-1, ME-1]
number. [CE-2, MT, PI]
(A) (rqs ) 1 (B) 0
(A) 39 (B) 57
(C) 1 (D) r  q  s
(C) 66 (D) 93
1.41 Given (9 inches) 1/2
 (0.25 yards) , 1/2

2017 IIT Roorkee


which one of the following statements is
TRUE? [EC-2, ME-3] 1.48 The number of 3 digit numbers such that
(A) 3 inches = 0.5 yards the digit 1 is never to the immediate right
(B) 9 inches = 1.5 yards of 2 is [EC - 2]
(C) 9 inches = 0.25 yards (A) 781 (B) 791
(D) 81 inches = 0.0625 yards (C) 881 (D) 891
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1.16 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
1.49 Find the smallest number y such that y  1.55 The last digit of (2171)7  (2172)9
162 is a perfect cube. [CS-1, EE-1]
 (2173)11  (2174)13 is [CE-1, CH]
(A) 24 (B) 27
(A) 2 (B) 4
(C) 32 (D) 36
(C) 6 (D) 8
1.50 The probability that a k-digit number
does NOT contain the digits 0, 5 or 9 is 2018 IIT Guwahati
[CS-1, EE-1] 1.56 If the number 715 423 is divisible by 3
(A) 0.3k (B) 0.6k ( denotes the missing digit in the
thousand’s place), then the smallest
(C) 0.7k (D) 0.9k
whole number in the place of  is
1.51 X is a 30 digit number starting with the
_______. [EC]
digit 4 followed by the digit 7. Then the
(A) 0 (B) 2
number X 3 will have, [CS-2, EE-2]
(C) 5 (D) 6
(A) 90 digits (B) 91 digits
1.57 What is the value of [EC]
(C) 92 digits (D) 93 digits
1 1 1 1
1.52 What is the value of x when 1     ....?
4 16 64 256
x2 2 x4
 16  3 7
81      144 (A) 2 (B)
 25  5 4
[CE-2, IN] 3 4
(C) (D)
(A) 1 2 3
(B) 1 1.58 For what values of k given below is
(C) 2 (k  2) 2
an integer? [EE]
k 3
(D) Cannot be determined
(A) 4, 8, 18 (B) 4, 10, 16
1.53 What is the sum of the missing digits in
the subtraction problem below? [ME-1] (C) 4, 8, 28 (D) 8, 26, 28

5_ _ _ _ 1.59 Given that a and b are integers and


 48 _ 89 a  a b is odd then, which one of the
2 3

following statements is correct? [ME-1]


1111
(A) a and b are both odd
(A) 8 (B) a and b are both even
(B) 10 (C) a is even and b is odd
(C) 11 (D) a is odd and b is even
(D) Cannot be determined
1.60 A number consists of two digits, the sum
1.54 If a and b are integers and a  b is even, of digits is 9. If 45 is subtracted from the
which of the following must always be number, its digits are interchanged. What
even? [ME-2] is the number? [ME-1]
(A) ab (B) a 2  b 2  1 (A) 63 (B) 72
(C) a 2  b  1 (D) ab  b (C) 81 (D) 90
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.17
1.61 Find the missing group of letters in the 1.65 A faulty wall clock is known to gain 15
following series : BC, FGH, LMNO, minutes every 24 hours. It is
________. [ME-2, PI] synchronized to the correct time at 9 AM
(A) UVWXY (B) TUVWX on 11th July. What will be the correct time
(C) STUVW (D) RSTUV to the nearest minute when the clock
shows 2 PM on 15th July of the same
1.62 Consider a sequence of numbers a1 , a2 ,
year? [CE - 2]
1 1
a3 , …. an where an   , for each (A) 12:45 PM (B) 12:58 PM
n n2
(C) 1:00 PM (D) 2:00 PM
integer (n > 0). What is the sum of the
first 50 terms? [CE - 1]

 1 1
(A) 1   
 2  50
 1 1
(B) 1   
 2  50
 1  1 1 
(C) 1      
 2   51 52 
1 1 
(D) 1    
 51 52 
1.63 For non-negative integers, a, b, c, what
would be the value of a  b  c if
log a  log b  log c  0 ? [CE - 2]
(A) 3 (B) 1
(C) 0 (D) 1
 a  a  ...  a
a
1.64  a 2b and
n times
 b  b  ...  a
b
 ab 2 , where a, b, n and
m times
m are natural numbers. What is the value
m  m  m  ...  m 

of  
 n times 
 n
 n  n  ...  n 
 ? [CE - 2]
 m times 
(A) 2a 2b 2 (B) a 4b 4
(C) ab (a  b) (D) a 2  b 2

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1.18 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

Answers Number System & Series

1.1 C 1.2 B 1.3 C 1.4 C 1.5 D


1.6 A 1.7 A 1.8 C 1.9 D 1.10 C
1.11 B 1.12 D 1.13 45 1.14 A 1.15 725
1.16 D 1.17 C 1.18 163 1.19 16 1.20 D
1.21 B 1.22 495 1.23 C 1.24 B 1.25 96
1.26 B 1.27 C 1.28 C 1.29 C 1.30 D
1.31 C 1.32 B 1.33 A 1.34 C 1.35 3
1.36 B 1.37 A 1.38 C 1.39 4536 1.40 C
1.41 C 1.42 D 1.43 C 1.44 B 1.45 C
1.46 7 1.47 A 1.48 C 1.49 D 1.50 C
1.51 A 1.52 B 1.53 D 1.54 D 1.55 B
1.56 B 1.57 D 1.58 C 1.59 D 1.60 B
1.61 B 1.62 C 1.63 A 1.64 B 1.65 B

Explanations Number System & Series

1.1 (C) As the number is greater than 3000. So


thousand’s place can be either 3 or 4
Given : 137  276  435
Let us consider the following two cases.
7 and 6 added is becoming 5 means the given two
numbers are added on base 8. Case 1 : When thousand’s place is 3
(137)8 3a bc
+ (276)8 If there is no restriction on number of two’s,
(435)8 three’s and four’s. Then each of a, b, c can be
Add another two given set of numbers also on filled with 2 or 3 or 4 each in 3 ways.
base 8. So, 3  3  3  27 numbers are there. Out of
(731)8 which 3222, 3333 are invalid as 2 can be used
+ (672)8 twice and 3 thrice only.
(1623)8 So number of such valid numbers beginning with
3 are 27  2  25
Thus, the overall problem was based on
identifying base which was 8 and adding Case 2 : When thousand’s place is 4
numbers on base 8. 4abc
Hence, the correct option is (C). Without restriction on number of 2’s, 3’s and 4’s
1.2 (B) a, b, c can be filled in 27 ways (as explained in
Given : Digits are 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4 case 1)

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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.19
Out of these 27 numbers, 4222 is only invalid as 1.4 (C)
two have to be used twice only. So valid numbers
Given : Three friends R, S and T share toffees as
are 27 1  26
below,
Total numbers from case 1 and case 2 is Firstly, R took 1/3rd and returned 4.
25  26  51 Then, S took 1/4th and returned 3.
Hence, the correct option is (B). Then, T took 1/2nd and returned 2.
1.3 (C) Now, the bowl has 17 toffees left.
. Method 1 :
Given : nth series is,
The question can be done orally as R took 1/3rd
4  44  444 
of toffees initially. So, the total number of toffees
. Method 1 : have to be a multiple of 3.
First term of series  4 Only the number 48 is multiple of 3, from the
So, sum upto 1st term  4 options.
Put, n  1 (first term) only option (C) satisfies. Hence, the correct option is (C).
4 . Method 2 :
S 10n 1  9n  10 
81  Let x be the total number of toffees in bowl
At n  1 , initially.
And r, s and t are toffees taken by R, S and T
4
S 1011  (9  1)  10  respectively.
81
According to question,
4
S  81  4 x
81 r  4
3
Hence, the correct option is (C). Number of toffees left,
. Method 2 : x  2x
y  x    4  4 …(i)
4 3  3
S 9  99  999  .......
9 S took 1/4th of y and returned 3
4 y
S  (10  1)  (102  1)  (103  1)  ..... So, s  3
9 4
4 Number of toffees left,
S  (10  102  103......10n )  (1  1  1....) 
9 y  3y
z  y    3  3
4 4  4
S 10(1  10  102......10n 1 )  (1  1  1....) 
9 3
z
y3
4   10n  1   4 10n 1  10  9n  4
S 10    n 
9   10  1   9  9


From equation (i),
3  2x 
4 z    4  3
S 10n 1  9n  10  4 3 
81 
x
Hence, the correct option is (C). z 6 …(ii)
2
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1.20 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
T took 1/2 of z and returned 2 back, From equation (i) and (ii),
z x = 9 and y = 5
So, t 2
2 Thus, the numbers of 10 rupee notes are 5.
Finally, number of toffees left Hence, the correct option is (A).
z  z 1.7 (A)
17  z    2    2
2  2 Let, the eight bags are
1 x  A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 , A5 , A6 , A7 , A8
17    6   2 [from equation (ii)]
22  Let three are placed on one side of balance and
x three on other side; say A1 , A2 , A3 on one and
17  5
4 A4 , A5 , A6 on another. If they are equal obviously
x  48 A7 or A8 is heavier means one additional trial is
Hence, the correct option is (C). required. Hence, total two trials are required.
1.5 (D) If they are unequal, let A1 , A2 , A3 is heavier than
Given : A4 , A5 , A6 obviously heavier one is among A1 , A2
and A3 .
1.001  3.52 and 1.001
1259 2062
 7.85
Now put A1 on one of the side of balance and A2
. Method 1 :
on another side.
Let S  (1.001)3321
If A1  A2 obviously A3 is heavier.
Since, a n  a m  a n  m
If A1  A2 or A1  A2 obviously A1 or A2 is
S  (1.001)1259 2062 heavier, then atleast two trials needed.
S  (1.001) 1259
 (1.001) 2062
Hence, the correct option is (A).
S  3.52  7.85  27.64 1.8 (C)
Hence, the correct option is (D). Given : The mean temperatures for a certain
. Method 2 : week are :
Taking the product of greatest integer values i.e. Monday to Wednesday  410 C
3  7  21 , it is concluded that the correct answer Tuesday to Thursday  430 C
is obviously greater than 21. Let the temperatures on Monday, Tuesday,
Hence, the correct option is (D). Wednesday and Thursday is M, T, W and Th
1.6 (A) respectively.
M  T W
Let number of Rs. 20 notes be x So,  41
3
Number of Rs. 10 notes be y. M  T  W  123 …(i)
20x + 10y = 230 T  W  Th
2 x  y  23 …(i) And also,  43
3
and x + y = 14 …(ii) T  W  Th  129 …(ii)
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.21
Subtracting equation (i) from equation (ii), . Method 2 :
Th  M  6 …(iii) Sum of n terms of series
According to question, temperature on Thursday S n  10  84  734  ....
was 15% higher than that of Monday. S n  (9  1)  (81  3)  (729  5)  ....
Th  1.15  M …(iv)
S n  (9  81  729  ....)  (1  3  5  ....)
From equations (iii) and (iv),
S n  (9  92  93  .... n terms)
1.15M  M  6
 (1  3  5  .... n terms)
0.15M  6
6  9n  1  n
M Sn  9    [2 1  (n  1)2]
0.15  9 1  2
6 9
Th  1.15   460 C S n  (9n 1)  n 2
0.15 8
Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (D).
1.9 (D) 1.10 (C)

Given : Series is 10  84  734  ..... Given : 44, 42, 40 


. Method 1 : The given series is decreasing by 2. For the sum
to be maximum, the series should not include
Check from the options by substituting
negative numbers. So, the series should be
n = 1, 2…
44, 42, 40, 38  2, 0
For n = 1 :
Sum  0  2  4  44
From option (A),
Sum  2(1  2  3  22)
9(91  1)
 1  10 Given series is an A.P. series.
10
Therefore, sum of the series is given by,
From option (B), n
Sum  (a  l )
9(91  1) 2
 1  10
8 where, n  number of terms
From option (C), a  first term
9(91  1) l  last term
 1  10
8  22 
Sum  2   (1  22)   506
From option (D), 2 
9(91  1) 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
 1  10
8 1.11 (B)
For n = 1, all options are right.
1 1 1
For n = 2, sum must be 10 + 84 = 94. Let S    
1 2 2 3 3 4
Only option (D) is correct for this and we can go
through that. 1
......... 
Hence, the correct option is (D). 80  81

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1.22 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

    1.14 (A)
2 1 3 2
S   
 2   2 
 2    3   
2 2
 1   2  . Method 1 :
   
12
  11 1
81  80 
......  
10 2
 2 
   
2
 81  80  9 300 3
 
8 4
S  2 1    3 2   .....  81  80  7 6
5

S  81  1  9  1  8 For any clock the angle between any two


Hence, the correct option is (B). consecutive numbers (out of 1 to 12)  300.
As hour needle moves in one hour or 60 mins
1.12 (D)
from 6 to 7 i.e. 300.
Let the unknown, number be y. At 6 : 22 am, The hour needle moves by angle
According to question, 22
 300  110
y  75  x … (i) 600
The minute needle moves from 4 to 5 i.e. in 5
y  117  x … (ii)
minutes by 300.
From equation (i) and (ii),
Thus, within 2 min (from 6 : 20 to 6 : 22), the
y  96 angle by which it moves
Hence, the correct option is (D). 2
  300  120
1.13 45 5
12
Given : Series is 11 1
2 3 6 15 x 157.5 630 10 2
600 0
Let the missing number is ‘x’ 9 0 12 3
11
3 6 15 630 8 4
Here  1.5 ,  2,  2.5 , 4 7 5905
2 3 6 157.5 6

x 157.5 Thus, the angle between two needles at 6:22 am


Series : 1.5, 2, 2.5, , , 4
15 x is 590.
The ratio of consecutive numbers is in AP where, Hence, the correct option is (A).
Common difference d = 0.5 . Method 2 :
First term a  1.5 We can also measure the angle by this formula.
Then according to the given series, 11
Angle  30 H  M
2
x
 a  3d From option (A) :
15
Here, Hour (H) = 6
x
 3  x  45 and minute (M) = 22
15 11
Hence, the missing number in the series is 45. Hence, Angle  30  6   22  590
2
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.23
From option (B) : Option (B) :
11
Angle  30  6   27  31.50
2
From option (C) :
11 Option (C) :
Angle  30  6   38  290
2
From option (D) :
11 The numbers 7, 5 and 3 represent the number of
Angle  30  6  45  67.50
2 alphabets in between.
Hence, the correct option is (A). Option (D) :

1.15 725
Given : Series is 12 35 81 173 357 __
12 35 81 173 357

Hence, the correct option is (D).


23 46 92 184 368
1.17 (C)
Difference
The alphabets can be numbered as given below,
In the given series consecutive difference A B C D E F G H I
doubles with each term. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
So, J K L M N O P Q R
357
+ 368 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
725 S T U V W X Y Z
Hence, the next number in the series is 725. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

1.16 (D) Notice the pattern of given options using the


above table.
The alphabets can be numbered as given below, Option (A) :
A B C D E F G H I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
J K L M N O P Q R
Option (B) :
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
S T U V W X Y Z
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
The numbers 5, 2 and 1 represent the number of
Notice the pattern of given options using the alphabets in between.
above table. Option (C) :
Option (A) :

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1.24 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
Option (D) : Sum of smallest odd number and second largest
even number is,
 75  88  163
Hence, the sum of the following numbers is 163.
Hence, the correct option is (C). . Method 2 :
1.18 163 Let us consider eight consecutive odd numbers,
they are
. Method 1 : a  6, a  4, a  2, a, a  2, a  4, a  6, a  8
(i) For odd numbers : Sum of eight consecutive odd numbers  656
Let 1 term  a0
st
a6a4a2aa2a4
Common difference, d  2 a  6  a  8  656
8a  8  656
n8
a  1  82
Sum of AP series,
a  81
n(n  1)
S n  na0  d  656 Smallest odd number
2
a  6  81  6  75 …(i)
8 7
S n  8a0   2  656 Again consider four consecutive even number,
2
b  2, b, b  2, b  4
a0  75
Average of these numbers :
(ii) For even numbers : b2bb2b4
 87
Let 1st term  ae 4
4b  4  87  4
Common difference, d  2
b  1  87
n4
b  86
Sn And second largest even number
Average of n consecutive numbers   87
n b  2  86  2  88 …(ii)
1 1 n (n  1)  Adding equations (i) and (ii),
 Sn   n ae  d
n n 2  75  88  163
(n  1) Hence, the sum of the following numbers is 163.
87  ae  d
2 1.19 16
(4  1) Given : Series is 81, 54, 36, 24, ......
87  ae  2
2
Let 5th term is x.
ae  84 Then 81, 54, 36, 24, x
Hence, the sequence is, Therefore,
84, 86, 88, 90 54 2 36 2 24 2
 ,  , 
The second largest number is 88. 81 3 54 3 36 3
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.25
x 2 1.22 495
Hence, 
24 3
Given : In a sequence of 12 consecutive odd
x  16 numbers, sum of the first 5 numbers is 425.
Hence, the next term in the series is 16. Let the sequence is :
1.20 (D) a, a  2 , a  4 , a  6 ,….. a  22
In option (A), P and M both are less than R but . Method 1 :
there is no clear relation between P and M. Sum of first five odd numbers is,
In option (B), P and M both are greater than is 425  a  (a  2)  (a  4)  (a  6)  (a  8)
but again there is no clear relation between P and 425  5a  20
M. a  81
In option (C), P = F and F > M, so P > M therefor Sum of last five odd numbers is given by,
it is incorrect.  (a  14)  (a  16)  (a  18)
In option (D), P = A and A < M therefore P < M  (a  20)  (a  22)
is definitely true.
 5a  90
Hence, the correct option is (D).  (5  81)  90  495
1.21 (B) Hence, the sum of the last 5 numbers in the
Given : Sequence is, sequence is 495.

7G, 11K, 13M, ___ . Method 2 :


It is an AP series where,
A B C D E F G H I
First term  a (let)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Common difference, d  2
J K L M N O P Q R
Thus Sum of first n terms is given by,
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 n(n  1)d
S n  na 
S T U V W X Y Z 2
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Sum of 5 consecutive numbers,
5 4
Here, 7, 11, 13 are consecutive prime number. S5  5  a  2
2
Thus next prime number will be 17. According to question,
and G is 7th alphabet, K is 11th alphabet and M is 425  5a  20
13th alphabet. a  81
7th, 11th and 13th are again consecutive prime Sum of 12 consecutive numbers is,
number. 12  11
S12  12a   2  1104
So, the next alphabet will be 17th alphabet which 2
is Q. Sum of first 7 consecutive numbers is,
Thus the next term will be 17Q. 76
S7  7a   2  609
Hence, the correct option is (B). 2
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1.26 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
So, the sum of last 5 terms is given by, Similarly, sum received due to all 9’s
 S12  S7  1104  609  495 = 4!(9  90  900  9000  90, 000)
Hence, the sum of the last 5 numbers in the  4!  99999
sequence is 495. So, overall sum received due to all digits
1.23 (C)  4! 11111 (1  3  5  7  9)
 4! 11111 25  6666600
Given : Sequence is
Hence, the correct option is (B).
13 M , 17Q , 19 S , ____
1.25 96
A B C D E F G H I
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  1
Given :  z    98
 z
J K L M N O P Q R
1  1
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 z2    2  z    98
z 
2
z
S T U V W X Y Z
1
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 z2 
 96
z2
Checking from the options, only option (C) has Hence, the correct answer is 96.
the correct combination of number and alphabet. 1.26 (B)
Hence, the correct option is (C). The all multiple of 10 from 2 to 198 are
1.24 (B) 10, 20, 30190
Overall there will be 5!  120 numbers It is an A.P. series :
Digit 1 will appear at unit, tenth, hundredth, First term (a)  10
thousandth and ten thousandth place 4! times Common difference (d )  10
each. So sum received due to all 1’s will be Number of terms (n)  19
4!  (1  10  100  1000  10000) The sum of A.P. series for n terms is,
 4!  11111 n
Sn   2a  (n  1)d 
Similarly, sum received due to all 3’s 2
= 4!(3  30  300  3000  30, 000) 19
S n   20  18  10  1900
2
 4!  33333
Sum of terms 1900
Similarly, sum received due to all 5’s Average    100
Number of terms 19
= 4!(5  50  500  5000  50, 000) Hence, the correct option is (B).
 4!  55555 1.27 (C)
Similarly, sum received due to all 7’s
= 4!(7  70  700  7000  70, 000) Let y  12  12  12   

 4!  77777 y  12  y
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.27

y 2  12  y Now,
(3926)10
y 2  y  12  0 – (2292)10
(1634)10
1  1  48 1  7
y   4,  3 convert to
(1634)10 ¾¾¾¾ ® 8 1634
2 2 octal

Since, square root of a positive number is always 8 204 2


a positive number. Therefore, y should also be a 8 25 4
positive number. 3 1
Thus, the value of given sum must be, ( y8 )  (3142)8
y4 [ y  ve]
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (C). ..Method 2..
1.28 (C) (Y )8  (7526)8  (4364)8
Given : 7526
The series 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, 37, 50, 64. (Y )8 = - 4364 = (3142)8
3142
The difference in consecutive numbers is
Hence, the correct option is (C).
5  2  3, 10  5  5,
1.30 (D)
17  10  7, 26  17  9,
37  26  11, 50  37  13, Given : ALRVX, EPVZB, ITZDF, OYEIK
. Method 1 :
64  50  14
Option (A) : It consists of only one vowel.
The difference is 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and thus next
Option (B) : It consists of only one vowel.
difference should be 15 (not 14).
Option (C) : It consists of only one vowel.
So, the last number should be 50  15  65
Option (D) : It consists of three vowels.
Which means that 64 doesn’t belong to the given
Hence, the correct option is (D).
series.
. Method 2 :
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Option (A) : A – L – R – V – X
1.29 (C)
A – L : 10 alphabets between A and L.
..Method 1.. L – R : 5 alphabets between L and R.
Given : (7526)8  (Y )8  (4364)8 R – V : 3 alphabets between R and V.
V – X : 1 alphabet between V and X.
(Y )8  (7526)8  (4364)8
Similar for option (B) and (C).
(7526)8 
convert to decimal
 Option (D) : OYEIK
 7  83  5  82  2  81  6  80   (3926)10 O – Y : 9 alphabets between O and Y.
Y – E : 5 alphabets between Y and E.
(4364)8 
convert to decimal
 E – I : 3 alphabets between E and I.
 4  83  3  82  6  81  4  80   (2292)10 I – K : 1 alphabet between I and K.
Hence, the correct option is (D).
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1.28 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

1.31 (C) 1.33 (A)


In the alphabetical sequence, the missing word is  5  1
as follows Given : log x   
7 3
A CD GHI MNOP UVWXY
5 log e m  n 
x 1/3   
7  e  m 
n

B EF JKL QRST
(+1) (+2) (+3) (+4) 7
x1/3 
Therefore, the missing word in the sequence is 5
‘MNOP’. 3
 7  343
Hence, the correct option is (C). x  
 5  125
1.32 (B)
Hence, the correct option is (A).
P, R , S , T ,U is an arithmetic sequence.
1.34 (C)
They must have a common difference as,
R  P  S  R  T  S  U  T …(i) The operators are defined as,
(i) Multiplying equation (i) by 2, a b ab
ab  , ab 
2 R  2 P  2 S  2 R  2T  2 S  2U  2T ab a b
This shows that sequence (I) {2P, 2R, 2S, and a  b  ab
2T, 2U} is an arithmetic sequence. 66  6 5
(ii) From sequence (II), 66  6  
66  6 6
( R  3)  ( P  3)  R  P
66  6 6
( S  3)  ( R  3)  S  R and 66  6  
66  6 5
(T  3)  ( S  3)  T  S So, (66  6)  (66  6)
(U  3)  (T  3)  U  T 5 6
So, from equation (i),   1
6 5
( R  3)  ( P  3)  ( S  3)  ( R  3) Hence, the correct option is (C).
 (T  3)  ( S  3)  (U  3)  (T  3)
1.35 3
This shows that sequence (II) {P –3, R –
3, S – 3, T – 3, U – 3} is also an arithmetic The central number is the half of sum of numbers
sequence. that are on the sides
As R  P  S  R 64
5
(iii) From sequence (III), 2
R 2  P 2  ( R  P )( R  P ) (7  4)  (2  1) 11  3
7 
R 2  P 2  ( S  R )( R  P ) 2 2
(1  9  2)  (1  2  1) 12  4
So, R2  P2  S 2  R2 8 
Therefore, sequence (III) is not an arithmetic 2 2
sequence. (4  1)  (2  3) 5  5
5 
Hence, the correct option is (B). 2 2
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.29
So unknown number, (iv) cos x  cos y
33 cos 3  0.998
x 3
2 cos 2  0.999
Hence, the missing value is 3. cos x  cos y is false.
1.36 (B) Hence, the correct option is (A).
1.38 (C)
Given : a 2  b 2  c 2  1
Since, (a  b  c) 2  a 2  b 2  c 2 Let x  log tan10  log tan 20    log tan 890
 2(ab  bc  ca) x  log(tan10  tan 20   tan 890 )
(a  b  c) 2  (a 2  b 2  c 2 ) {Since, log m  log n  log(mn)
ab  bc  ca 
2 and tan(900  )  cot 
For minimum value of ab  bc  ca , tan 890  tan(900  10 ) }
Put a  b  c  0 x  log(tan10  tan 20   tan 450
1
Minimum (ab  bc  ca )   cot 450   cot 20  cot10 )
2
 1 
(Since, a 2  b 2  c 2  1 )  cot   tan   tan  cot   1
1
Only option (B) has minimum value as . x  log(1 1 1..... 1)  log(1)  0
2
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1.39 4536
1.37 (A)
Given : x  y  1 Given :

For x  y  1 , ln x  ln y and also e x  e y (i) No number can start with zero.

Since e x and ln x are monotonically increasing (ii) Repetition is not allowed.


function. In thousandth place, 9 digits excepts 0 can be
Example : placed.
Assume x  3 , y  2 In hundredth place, 9 digits can be placed
(i) ln x  ln y (including 0, excluding the one used in
ln 3  1.0986 , ln 2  0.693 thousandth place).
In tenth place, 8 digit can be placed (excluding
ln x  ln y is true
the ones used in thousandth and hundredth place)
(ii) ex  e y In ones place, 7 digits can be placed (excluding
e3  20.08 , e 2  7.38 the ones used in thousandth, hundredth and tenth
e x  e y is true place)
(iii) yx  xy Total number of combinations,
 9  9  8  7  4536
(2)3  8 , (3) 2  9
Hence, 4 digit numbers that can be formed are
y x  x y is false 4536.
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1.30 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

1.40 (C) Mirror image of 1 : 30 is 10 : 30


So, the actual current time shown by the clock
1 1 c 1
Given : q a
 , r b  , s  , will be,
r s q
(10 : 30) + (2 : 15) = 12 : 45
q a  r , r b  s, s c  q
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Taking log on both sides,
log q a  log r , log r b  log s, 1.43 (C)

log s c  log q In the given set of numbers, all are perfect


log r squares but 97 is not.
a  log q  log r  a 
log q 324 is square of 18  (18)2 = 324
log s 441 is square of 21  (21)2 = 441
b  log r  log s  b 
log r 64 is square of 8  (8)2 = 64
log q 97 is not the square of any number
c  log s  log q  c 
log s
Hence, the correct option is (C).
log r log s log q
So, abc    1 1.44 (B)
log q log r log s
Hence, the correct option is (C). In the group of given numbers, all are prime
1.41 (C) numbers except 33.
Given : 33 has [1, 3, 11 and 33] as its factors.
(9 inches)1/2 = (0.25 yards)1/2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Squaring both sides,  Key Point
9 inches = 0.25 yards.
A prime number has only two factors ‘1’ and
Hence, the correct option is (C).
‘the number itself’.
1.42 (D)
1.45 (C)
The following diagram, shows the clock when its
reflection seemed like 1 : 30, two and a quarter Given : 9 y  6  3
hours (2 hr. and 15 min) back.
Actual wall clock Mirror image 9y  6  3
of wall clock
since x   x
12
11 1
Taking positive value,
10 2 9y  6  3
y 1
Put y  1 ,
4 y 2 4(1) 4 1
y2  1   1  
3 3 3 3

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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.31
Taking negative value, be a smaller number and reverse of 66 will be
9y  6  3 similar to itself.
1 From option (A) :
y Sum of two digits in the number = 3 + 9 = 12
3
1 After reversing the two digits number = 93
Put y  ,
3 The difference between the new number formed
and original number = 93 – 39 = 54
1
4  2 Hence, the correct option is (A).
4y  1  3 1 4 1
y2        
3 3 3 9 3 . Method 2 :
Thus, in both cases, the obtained value of Let original number be xy.
Then, (10 x  y )  54  10 y  x
 2 4  1
 y  y is 
3  3 9 x  54  9 y
Hence, the correct option is (C). 9 x  9 y  54
1.46 7 x  y  6 … (i)

Cyclicity of 1 is always 1. Also, x  y  12 … (ii)


Cyclicity of 6 is always 6. From equations (i) and (ii),
Cyclicity of 3 is, x  3, y  9
31  3 Hence, the correct option is (A).
32  9 . Method 3 :
33  7 Let the digit at one’s place will be x and ten’s
34  1 place will be (12 – x).
Hence, the original number  10 (12  x)  x
Unit digit of 211870  1
 120  10x  x
Unit digit of 146127  6
 120  9 x … (i)
Unit digit of 3424  (34 )106  1
The number obtained by interchanging the digits
Hence, the correct answer is 1  6  1  7 .
 10 x  12  x
1.47 (A)  9 x  12
Given : As per given condition,
(i) Sum of digits of two digit number is 12 9 x  12  54  120  9 x
(ii) Reverse of the two-digit number is 9 x  9 x  174  12
greater than original number by 54. 18 x  162
. Method 1 : x9
The new number formed by reversing the digits From equation (i),
is greater than the original number is possible in Original number  120  9  9  120  81  39
options A and B only because reverse of 93 will Hence, the correct option is (A).
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1.32 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

1.48 (C) . Method 2 :

Total number of 3 digit numbers Take the prime factor of 162  2  81  2  9  9


 2  3 3 3 3
 900 100 to 999
Hence, to make it perfect cube, the value of y
Numbers which have 1 on immediate right of 2 should be y  2  2  3  3  36
210, 211,........, 219  10 numbers Hence, the correct option is (D).
and 121, 221,321,.....921  9 numbers 1.50 (C)
So, number of 3 digit number such that digit 1 is To find a k-digit number that does NOT contain
never on the immediate right of 2 is given by, the digits 0, 5 or 9.
900  10  9   881 The total number of ways to fill any place
Hence, the correct option is (C). = 10 (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

1.49 (D) Now, if this number does not contain (0, 5, 9)


then there are 7 other ways to fill each of the k
Given : X  y  162 digits.
. Method 1 : These remaining digits are following :
Checking from the options, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8
Option (A) : Probability of filling these 7 digits will be,
X  24  162  3888 7
k

    (0.7) k
( X )1/3  15.7  10 
Incorrect option. Hence, the correct option is (C).
Option (B) : 1.51 (A)
X  27  162  4374
Let the number X is 47  1028 .
(X )1/3
 16.3
Then, X 3  473  1084  103823 1084
Incorrect option.
X 3  1.03823 1089
Option (C) :
So, there are 90 i.e. (1 + 89) digits in X 3 .
X  32 162  5184
Hence, the correct option is (A).
( X )1/3  17.3
1.52 (B)
Incorrect option.
x2 2 x4
Option (D) :  16  3
Given : 81      144
X  36  162  5832  25  5
x2
( X )1/3  18  4  2  3
2 x4

 9       144
Hence, the correct option is (D).  5   5
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.33
2
 36  x  2   3  x  2 
2 From option (A) :
        144 ab  15 [not even, incorrect]
  5    5  
x2 From option (B) :
 36 5 
 5  3   12 a 2  b 2  1  25  9  1  35
[not even, incorrect]
12 x  2  12
From option (C) :
So, x  2 1
a 2  b  1  25  3  1  29
x  1
[not even, incorrect]
Hence, the correct option is (B).
From option (D) :
1.53 (D)
ab  b  15  3  12 [even]
Given : Hence, the correct option is (D).
5 __ __ __ __
– 1.55 (B)
4 8 __ 8 9
1 1 1 1 Cyclicity of 1 is always 1.
Case (i) : Cyclicity of 2 is,
5 0 0 0 0
– 21  2
4 8 8 8 9
1 1 1 1 22  4
Sum of missing digits  0  0  0  0  8 23  8
S 8 24  6
Case (ii) :
25  2
5 0 1 0 0
– Cyclicity of 3 is,
4 8 9 8 9
1 1 1 1 31  3
Sum of missing digits  0  1  0  0  9 32  9
S  10 33  7
Since, the sum can either be 8 or 10, therefore it
34  1
can not be determined.
Cyclicity of 4 is,
Hence, the correct option is (D).
41  4
1.54 (D)
42  6
Given :
Unit digit of 21717  1
(i) a and b are integers.
Unit digit of 21729  2
(ii) a  b is even.
Unit digit of 217311  7
Let a  5 and b  3 where both are integers and
their difference is even. Unit digit of 217413  4
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1.34 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®
Therefore, the last digit of (2171)7  (2172)9 The sum of infinite G.P. series is given by,
 (2173)11  (2174)13  1  2  7  4  14 a 1 4
S 1  
1 r 1 1 3
Hence, the correct option is (B). 4
1.56 (B) Hence, the correct option is (D).
1.58 (C)
Divisibility rule : For a given number, if sum of
digits is divisible by 3, then the number will be (k  2) 2
Given : f (k ) 
divisible by 3. k 3
Number is 7 1 5__4 2 3 From options :
Let, the missing number is x. (4  2) 2 36
When k  4, f (k )    36
Now we check whether the sum of number is 43 1
divisible by 3 or not. which is integer

7  1  5  x  4  2  3  22  x (8  2) 2 102
When k  8, f (k )    20
83 5
From options :
which is integer
When x  2 ,
(28  2) 2 302
22  2  24 (which is divisible by 3) When k  28, f (k )    36
28  3 25
When x  5 , which is integer
22  5  27 (which is divisible by 3) (18  2) 2 202
When k  18, f (k )    26.67 ,
Here we see that the value of x satisfied in above 18  3 15
equation is 2. which is decimal number
(10  2) 2 122
Note : Here in this question only option (B) and When k  10, f (k )    20.57
(C) are satisfying the equation i.e. (2 and 5). But 10  3 7
smallest number is asked in question. So, correct which is decimal number
answer is 2. (16  2) 2 182
When k  16, f (k )    24.92
Hence, the correct option is (B). 16  3 13
which is decimal number
1.57 (D)
(26  2) 2 282
When k  26, f (k )    34.08
1 1 1 1 26  3 23
Given series, 1     ......... is in
4 16 64 256 which is decimal number
G.P. form. Hence, the correct option is (C).
Geometric progression (G.P.) form 1.59 (D)
 a1  a1r  a1r 2  ..... Given :
Here, the first term is a1  1 and the ratio of 2nd (i) a and b are integer.
1 (ii) a  a 2b3 is odd
and 1 term is r  (r  1) .
st
4 So, a (1  ab3 ) is also odd.
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GATE ACADEMY ® Numerical Ability : Number System & Series 1.35
. Method 1 : 1.61 (B)
Since, multiplication of odd and odd number is Given : Series is BC, FGH, LMNO,……….
odd. It is clear from the given series that each term has
Therefore, a and (1  ab3 ) will be odd. If 1  ab3 one more alphabet previous each term. Also, gap
is odd, then ab3 will be even. between each term increases by one alphabet as
well.
Since, a is odd, so ab3 to be even, b must be
BC, DE, FGH, IJK, LMNO, PQRS
even.
So, next term will be TUVWX.
Therefore, a is odd and b is even.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
1.62 (C)
. Method 2 :
Given :
Checking from the options :
Sequence of numbers a1 , a2 .....an
Options a b a  a 2b3 1 1
(Odd) Where an  
n n2
Option 1 1 1 1 1
1(odd) 3(odd) 28(incorrect) So, a1  1  , a2   , a3  
(A) 3 2 4 3 5
Option  1  1 1 1 1
2(even) 4(even) 258(incorrect) Sum  1        ......  
(B)
 3  2 4  50 52
Option
2(even) 1(odd) 6(incorrect)  1 1 1  1 1 1 1 
(C) Sum  1   .....      ..... 
 2 3 50   3 4 5 52 
Option
1(odd) 2(even) 9(correct) 1 1 1
(D) Sum  1   
2 51 52
Hence, the correct option is (D). 1 1 1 
Sum  1     
1.60 (B) 2  51 52 
Given : Hence, the correct option is (C).
(i) Sum of a two-digit number is 9. 1.63 (A)
(ii) When the number is subtracted by 45, the Given : log a  log b  log c  0
digits of the number are interchanged. log abc  0
Let the two digit number be xy. abc  1
Then x  y  9 … (i) Since, a, b and c are non-negative numbers and
and 10 x  y   45  10 y  x their product is 1, their sum can not be negative
or 0.
x y 5 … (ii)
So, option (C) and (D) are incorrect.
From equation (i) and (ii), Since, a, b and c are greater than equal to zero,
x  7, y  2 their sum can not be 1.
So, the number is 72 So, if a  b  c  1  1  1  3 [option (A)]
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (A).
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1.36 General Aptitude [GA] GATE ACADEMY ®

1.64 (B)
Given :
(i) 
a   a  a 2b
a 
n times

n  a  a 2b
n 2 a 2  a 4b 2 … (i)
(ii) 
b   b  ab
b  2

m times

m  b  ab 2
m 2b 2  a 2 b 4 … (ii)
m
  
m m  n
   n  m  n  n  m
n 
n times m times

m
  
m m  n
   n  m 2 n 2
n 
n times m times

Multiplying equation (i) and (ii),


m 2 n 2 a 2b 2  a 6b 6
m 2 n 2  a 4b 4
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1.65 (B)
Given : Faulty clock gains 15 minutes every 24
hours
On 11th July at 9 am, clock is synchronized to the
correct time.
From 11th July, 9 am to 15 th July 9 am = 4 days
Total minutes gain  15  4  60 min  1 hour .
15
Every hour the clock gains min  0.625 min
24
From 15 th July 9 am to 15 th July 2 pm, total
minutes gain =5  0.625 min  3.125 min .
So, from 11th July at 9 am to 15 th July 2 pm,
clock has gain 63.125 minutes, which means the
correct time is 12.57 pm or approximately 12:58
pm.
Hence, the correct option is (B).



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