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Module VI

Micromachining: Diamond turn mechanism, material removal mechanism,


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applications.
Advanced finishing processes: - Abrasive Flow Machining, Magnetic
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Abrasive Finishing.
V1 Magnetorheological Abrasive Flow Finishing, Magnetic Float Polishing,
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Elastic Emission Machining.
Material addition process:- stereo-lithography, selective laser sintering, 3D
Printing, fused deposition modeling, laminated object manufacturing, , laser 2
engineered net-shaping, laser welding, LIGA process.

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Micro-machining
Micro-Machining includes all cutting operations in which material is removed at the micron
level. Present notion of the term ‘micro-machining’ has been used more commonly in the
fabrication of micro-components in the size range of 1 to 500 μm. Micromachining is the
most basic technology for the production of miniaturized parts and components.
Microfabrication deals with all kind of manufacturing processes but at micro & nano level.
Over the past several years there has been an increased interest in micro machining
technology that has captured the imagination of every manufacturing and industry segment;
from aerospace, medical appliance and the automotive world, the potential for product
miniaturization continues to grow and while posing numerous technical challenges. Micro
products can be manufactured either by by material deposition and material removal process
Advantages of micro-products (1-500µm size products)
1. Increased function
2. Reduced material requirment
3. Reduced power requirment
4. Less space is needed
5. Less handling and transportaion etc
Micromachining is the most basic technology for the production of miniaturized parts and
components. Micro turning is one type of micromachining process which uses a solid tool
and its material removal process is almost similar to conventional turning operation. High

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precision (sub-micro or nano scale) in terms of surface, profile and dimensional accuracy

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becomes essential for products for their performance.
Methods for micromaching
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The technique for fabrication of 3D and 2D structures on the micrometre scale. Micro-
machining process can be classifies as follows;

Classification micromachining methods based on the kind of energy used: mechanical,


thermoelectric, electrochemical & chemical, biochemical
Application of micromchining produts
Over the past several years there has been an increased interest in micro machining
technology that has captured the imagination of every manufacturing and industry segment;
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from aerospace, medical appliance and the automotive world, the potential for product
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miniaturization continues to grow and while posing numerous technical challenges.

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The application micro-meso machining technologies are being employed in the manufacture
of a wide variety of products and devices.
1. Medical Components
2. Micro Molds
3. Electronic Tooling
4. MEMS (Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-System)
5. Fluidic Circuits
6. Micro-Valves
7. Sensors
8. Micro-Turbine Impeller
9. Micro-Compressor
10. Nozzle for Diesel Fuel Injectors
11. Cooling Holes in Turbine Blades
12. Inkjet Printer Manufacturing
13. Micro-switches
In recent years, manufacturing industry has witnessed a rapid increase in demand for micro-
products and micro-components in many industrial sectors including the electronics, optics,
medical, biotechnology and automotive sectors.
Diamond turn machining
Single Point Diamond turning is a process of mechanical machining of precision elements
using lathes or machine tools equipped with natural or synthetic diamond-tipped tool bits.
Single-point diamond turning is one of the popular methods for machining precision/ultra-precision

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optical lenses and mirrors. Diamond turn machining can produce surface finish and tolerance to
nano scale especially required for optical elements. To effect a smooth shearing action, a very

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sharp edge and uniform cutting tool edge of the order of a few to tens of nanometer is
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essential. Such fine edge radius is possible with hard single crystal materials such as
diamond.
Diamond only softens at 13500C and melts at 3027 0C, and is also the hardest material in the
world. The high hardness is important for reducing wear rate and enable machinability of
glass and ceramic materials. Cutting edge radius of single point diamond tool can be
sharpened down to 20nm. Its sharp edge can be retained without major wear. Micro-
machining using diamond tool could be performed at high speeds and generally fine speeds to
produce good surface finish such as mirror surfaces and high dimensional accuracy in non-
ferrous alloys and abrasive non-metallic materials. Most single point diamond tool is used
with computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools. Diamond turned surfaces have a high
specular brightness and require no additional polishing or buffing, unlike other
conventionally machined surfaces
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The advantages of using single point diamond turning are: the ability to make lens shapes
very accurately without expensive tooling and it is reproducible. The only tooling required
for the process is a diamond bit. The advantages of using diamond cutting tools often include
improved work piece quality, increased productivity, and reduced costs. High hardness and
wear resistance result in good surface finishes over long production runs, consistent control
of dimensions for extended periods, and long tool life.
Application
Single Point Diamond Turning is a manufacturing technique for producing off-axis parabolic
(OAP) mirrors, off-axis elliptical (OAE) mirrors, and other precision metal optical
components. The application of single point diamond turning to the manufacturing of large
lenses from monocrystalline silicon. Ultra-precision diamond turning of single crystal
semiconductor is an important field of brittle materials machining. Micro-optics ranging from
10s of µm to 100s of µm are a key enabling technology for telecommunications, medical
imaging/diagnostics, and surveillance systems.
We have diamond turned lenses of complex optical shapes and geometries for many
applications, including:
 360 Degree Cameras
 Projection
 Spectrometer
 Aerospace
 Medical
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 Blood Analysers
 Probes

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 Fingerprint Scanners
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 Barcode Scanners
Material removal mechanism in micro-machining
The mechanism for material removal involved plastic deformation, micro-fracture and
dislodgement of grains. In nano and micromachining processes the material removal can be
limited to few atoms or layers of atoms. The single point diamonds tool is sharpened to edge
radius as fine as 100 nm, sometimes even up to 20–40 nm. The concept of ductile mode machining
has developed for machining brittle materials, such as glass, Si, Ge and Sic Mechanism of material
removal are governed by the tool edge radius and microstructural effects.
The brittle materials could be machined in the ductile mode when appropriate cutting conditions
and tool geometry were used. Achieving surfaces with high form accuracy, fine surface roughness
and low surface and subsurface damage.
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Abrasive flow machining
Abrasive flow machining finishes surfaces and edges by forcing a flowable abrasive media
through or across the work piece effectively performing erosion of material. The material is
ploughed by the fine abrasives that come in contact with the work material as they rub over the
metal surface with high pressure. The abrasive flow machining process is basically a finishing
process. Abrasive particle like silicon carbide is mixed in a carrier medium like silicone oil,
mineral oil or water etc. This media is extruded under pressure through or across the surface
to get the required finish.
AFM makes it ideal for interior surfaces, slots, holes, cavities, and other areas that may be
difficult to reach with other polishing or grinding processes. Due to its low material removal
rate, AFM is not typically used for large stock-removal operations. The highest amount of
material removal occurs in areas where the flow of the fluid is restricted. It is used for surface
polishing or burr removal, removal of tool feed mark or as complex as final shaping of slots,
internal passages, bends, cavities, edges, and drilled hole openings.

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The AFM process utilizes an abrasive media applied at high pressure to through a work piece.
 One-way flow AFM processing pushes abrasive media through the work piece in only
one direction, allowing the media to exit freely from the part.
 Two-way flow AFM process uses two vertically opposed cylinders to extrude an
abrasive media back and forth through or around passages formed by the work piece
and tooling.
AFM may be performed once, as a one-way flow process, or repeatedly as a two-way flow
process. In the two-way flow process, a reservoir of medium exists at either end of the work
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piece, and the medium flows back and forth through the work piece from reservoir to
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reservoir

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Advantages
1. Improved surface quality (high product life, reduced friction, high fatigue property)
2. Tight tolerances
3. Produces uniform, repeatable and predictable results
4. Faster setup & quick-change tooling
5. Excellent process control
6. Able to process larger parts
7. Deburring, radiusing, and polishing are performed simultaneously in a single operation
8. AFM can process dozens of holes or multiple passages parts simultaneously
Disadvantages/limitation
1. Low MRR
2. Can machine blind holes
3. Expensive
The AFM Process Parameters are classified as given below:
1. Media flow rate
2. Pressure of flow
3. Viscosity
4. Abrasive particle size and shape
5. Abrasive concentration
6. Particle hardness
7. Work piece hardness

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8. Cross sectional area

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It was observed that pressure, abrasive size and percentage of abrasive concentration in media
are the most significant parameters for material removal and improvement in surface
roughness. Also viscosity of media was found as significant parameter for material removal
for the considered size and shape of the work piece.
AFM is capable to produce surface finish (Ra) as good as 0.05 µm. Best surface finish that
has been achieved as 50nm and tolerances +/- 0,5 µm
Application of AFM
It is widely used for finishing process to finish complicated shapes and profiles. Process used
in aerospace, medical and automobile, tool and die industries to achieve
1. Better surface roughness values and tight tolerances.
2. Improve surface quality
3. Reduction in Friction
4. Eliminate imperfection

AFM is particularly well suited for use on gas turbine engine components because these
components usually have complex geometries.
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Magnetic Abrasive Finishing
Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) is a process in which a mixture of non-ferromagnetic
abrasives and ferromagnetic iron particles is taken and magnetically energized using a
magnetic field. The work piece is kept between the two poles of a magnet. The iron particles
in the mixture are magnetically energized using a magnetic field to form a lightly rigid matrix
in which the abrasives are trapped.
After the application of magnetic field, the magnetic and abrasive particles join each other
along the lines of magnetic force and form a flexible magnetic abrasive brush (FMAB)
between the work piece and the magnetic pole. The MAF process removes a very small
amount of material by indentation and rotation of magnetic abrasive particles in the circular
tracks. Cutting force is controlled by the magnetic field generated by an electromagnet or you
can use permanent magnet also.
These abrasive particles form a flexible magnetic abrasive brush (FMAB), acting as a
multipoint cutting tool due to the effect of the magnetic field in the working gap. When a
work piece is inserted into such a processing field under a given rotational speed, feed, and
vibration in the axial direction, surface and edge finishing are carried out via the magnetic
brush.

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When inserting a cylindrical work piece in such a processing field giving revolution, feed and
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vibration in axial direction, surface and edge finishing are carried out by magnetic brush.

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Advantages
Generally, by this magnetic abrasive finishing process generally cylindrical and flat work
pieces are polished but any kind of complex freeform surface also polished can be polished
by this magnetic abrasive finishing process by using a suitable fixture. Because MAF uses
very low forces and loose abrasive particles, the damages to the surface can be minimized.
The advantages of MAF over other alternative processes such as super finishing, lapping, and
honing are listed below:
1. Minimizes the micro-cracks and surface damage of work piece.
2. MAF is able to produce surface roughness of Nano-meter range with hardly any
surface defects.
3. The flexible magnetic abrasive brush (tool)requires neither compensation nor
dressing.
4. Material surface is free of buns and thermal defects.
5. Low energy consumption.
6. Ecologically safe
7. Controllability of process
8. Nonferrous materials, such as aluminium and its alloys or brass and its alloys, can
also be finished with ease
Applications
1. Non -ferromagnetic materials like stainless steel, brass and aluminium.
2. Ferromagnetic materials like steels.

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3. Finishing of bearing.
4. Aerospace components.

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5. Electronics components with micro meter or submicron-meter ranges.

Process parameters
Process parameters: magnetic abrasive type, abrasive particles, magnetic device, work piece
material, working gap, grinding oil, rotational speed, and axial vibration) and
MRR and surface roughness
The magnetic abrasive type, abrasive particles, magnetic device, work piece material,
working gap, grinding oil, rotational speed, and axial vibration are known as the significant
input parameters in the MAF process because they have significant influence on the MAF
process.
 Ra = AS GOOD AS 8 nm
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Magnetorheological nano-finishing process
Commonly used traditional finishing processes are grinding, lapping and honing. All these
processes use multipoint cutting edges in the form of abrasives, which may or may not be
bonded, to perform cutting action. These processes have been in use from the earliest times
because of their capability to produce smooth surface at close tolerances. Earlier there has
been a limit on the fine size of abrasives (a few μm) but today, new advances in materials
syntheses have enabled production of ultra-fine abrasives in the nanometer range. The
ultimate precision obtainable through finishing is when chip size approaches atomic size (0.3
nm). To finish surfaces in nanometer range, it is required to remove material in the form of
atoms or molecules individually or in the groups.
To name a few, these magnetic field assisted finishing processes include Magnetic Abrasive
Finishing (MAF), Magnetic Float Polishing (MFP), Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF),
and Magnetorheological Abrasive Flow Finishing (MRAFF).

Magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid)


A magnetorheological (MR) fluid is a suspension of magnetically soft ferromagnetic particles
in a carrier liquid. Typically, the particles are of the order of a few microns in diameter and
their volume concentration is 30% to 40%. When exposed to a magnetic field, the viscosity
and yield stress of the suspension increase several orders of magnitude. Under magnetic field,
the particles line up, thickening the fluid and fluid to behave more like a solid. The term
"magnetorheological" comes from this effect. The particles are tiny, measuring between 3 to

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10 microns of carbonyl iron dispersed in a non-magnetic carrier medium like silicone oil,
mineral oil or water.

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Magnetic particles (µm /nm) size suspended within the carrier oil are distributed randomly

Under magnetic field, microscopic particles align themselves along the lines of magnetic flux
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Characteristics of MR fluid
 Particle size, shape, density and distribution of carbonyls particles and properties of
carrier fluid are factors controlling MR fluid.
 In off condition (absence of magnetic field) MR fluid appear similar to liquid paint
and exhibit viscosity 0.1 to 1 Pa sec
 Their viscosity changes significantly 105 to 106 times within a few milli seconds when
magnetic field is applied
 Particles held together by magnetic field, form chain which resist to a level of shear
stress.
 The change of viscosity is completely reversible when magnetic field is removed
Magnetorheologcal polishing fluid (MRP fluid)
When the MR fluid is mixed with abrasives particles, we get a MRP fluid. So MRP fluid
consists of carbonyls iron particles (CIP) and nano sized abrasive particles (SiC)
MRP fluid consists of:
o Carbonyl iron powder 20%
o Silicon carbide 20% (nonmagnetic abrasive particles)
o Base fluid medium 60%
o Additives
The flow behaviour of the MRP fluid exhibits a transition from liquid like structure to a gel
like structure on the application of magnetic field.

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The rheological properties of MRP-fluid depend on carbonyl iron particle size (CIP), silicon
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carbide (SiC) particle size, their volume concentration, magnetic properties and magnetic

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field strength. The MR fluid temporarily stiffens and conforms to the surface of the
component being finished. This allows geometries of almost any shape to be polished as
easily as a spherical optic

Advantages of MRP fluid over the traditional methods (lapping)


1. It does not load up as a grinding wheel
2. It is flexible and adapts the shape of the part of the work piece
3. Carries heat and debris away from the polishing zone
4. Processes are more controllable
Characteristic of MRP fluid
1. Concentration of magnetic and abrasive particles
2. Density and size of particles
3. Yield stress under magnetic field
4. Property of carrier fluid
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5. Low off-state viscosity


6. Resistance to corrosion
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7. Stability against sediments etc

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Magnetorheological Abrasive Flow Finishing (MRAFF)
Magnetorheological Abrasive Flow Finishing (MRAFF) is a precision finishing process
developed for Nano finishing of complex internal geometries using smart magnetorheological
polishing fluid. It is a homogeneous mixture of carbonyls iron particles (CIP) and abrasive
particles in a base medium (paraffin liquid). When the external magnetic field is applied,
carbonyls iron particles (CIP) form a chain like structure with abrasives embedded in
between. The magnetic force between iron particles holding abrasive grains provides the
bonding strength which depends on iron concentration, magnetic field strength and particle
size etc.
The Magneto-Rheological Abrasive Flow Finishing is a polishing process that results from
the sum of Abrasive Flow Finishing (AFF) and Magneto-Rheological Finishing (MRF). In
other hands, it is a hybrid process developed to preserve the advantages of both processes.

The MRP fluid is extruded back and forth through the passage, material removal will take
place.

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Structure formed with abrasives trapped and embedded between iron chains, in the presence
of finite magnetic field.
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Magnetic Float Polishing(MFP)
The use of magnetic field to support abrasive slurries in finishing ceramic balls and bearing
rollers, and the process is known as Magnetic Float Polishing (MFP).
A magnetic fluid containing fine abrasive grains and extremely fine ferromagnetic particles in
a carrier fluid such as water or kerosene fills the aluminium chamber. A bank of strong
electromagnets is arranged alternately north and south below the chamber. On the application
of magnetic field the ferro fluid is attracted downward towards the area of higher magnetic
field and an upward buoyant force is exerted on non-magnetic material to push them to the
area of lower magnetic field. Ceramic balls are confined between a rotating shaft and a
floating platform. Abrasive grains, ceramic ball and the floating platform can remain in
suspension under the action of magnetic force. The balls are pressed against the rotating shaft
by the float and are polished by their abrasive action. Fine polishing action can be made
possible through precise control of the force exerted by the abrasive particles on the ceramic
ball.
The buoyant force acts on a non-magnetic body in magnetic fluid with magnetic field. The
abrasive grains, the ceramic balls, and the acrylic float inside the chamber all being of non-
magnetic materials, are levitated by the magnetic buoyant force. The drive shaft is fed down
to contact the ball and presses them down to reach the desired force level. The balls are
polished by the relative motion between the balls and the abrasives under the influence of
levitation force and resistance. Both higher material removal rate and smoother surface in this
polishing method, are attained by stronger magnetic field and finer abrasives.

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The surface finish obtained was 4 nm Ra and 40 nm Rmax. The best sphericity obtained of the Si3N4
balls was 0.15 to 0.2 µm. Finished surfaces relatively free of scratches, pits, etc. were obtained.
The magnetic float polishing technology that has been developed has the following
characteristics.
1. High material removal rate
2. Excellent surface finish – crack free surface
3. Good sphericity
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The material removal rate during the magnetic float polishing of ceramic balls is high
because there is more sliding in this process than in conventional lapping is due two reasons
 The polishing load in magnetic float polishing is 100 times lower than in conventional
lapping. Hence the frictional force at the contact region is significantly reduced.
Consequently, there is more sliding than rolling.
 The drive speed in magnetic float polishing is 100 times higher than in conventional
lapping. Thus there will be more sliding taking place in the polishing region due to
increased relative speed.
Application
The long processing time and use of expensive diamond abrasive result in high processing
costs. Also, the use of diamond abrasive at high loads can result in deep pits, scratches, and
micro cracks. To minimize the surface damage, ‘gentle’ polishing conditions are required,
namely, low level of controlled force and abrasives not much harder than the work material.
The magnetic float polishing (MFP) process easily accomplishes this.
Magnetic float polishing is a new technique developed for efficient finishing of advanced
ceramics. Ceramics are extremely sensitive to surface defects resulting from grinding and
polishing processes. Since fatigue failure of ceramics is driven by surface imperfections, it is
of utmost importance that the quality and finish of the elements of ceramic bearings be
superior with minimal defects. For this gentle and flexible polishing conditions like low level
of controlled forces and use of abrasives softer than work material are required. Magnetic

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float polishing finds use in precision polishing of ceramic balls.
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Elastic Emission Machining (EEM)

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A process of machining where material is removed by the elastic fracture without plastic
deformation in the order of atomic size is called EEM. Using ultra fine particles to collide
with the work piece surface, it may be possible to finish the surface by the atomic scale
elastic fracture without plastic deformation. This new process is termed as Elastic Emission
Machining.
EEM processing is conducted in a machining slurry in which powder particles are suspended
in pure water. The slurry is continuously supplied to a machining point by a tool, which leads
to the powder particles attacking the surface. EEM is a non-contact machining process,
differing from conventional polishing, which uses an abrasive pad. Therefore, atomic-order
smoothness without crystallographic damage can be achieved.
The removal process in EEM solely depends on the contact between powder particles and the
work piece surface. Fine powder particles are brought to the work piece surface by a flow of
pure water, and the chemical reaction between the surfaces of the work piece and the particles
results in the removal of surface atoms from the work piece
The powder particles chemically react with the surface, thus removing the surface. A rotating
sphere is used as a tool in EEM. The rotation of the sphere close to the work piece surface
produces the flow of slurry with dynamic pressure at the gap. This enables the powder
particles to attack the surface while maintaining the noncontact state between both surfaces.
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The material removal can occur on atomic size units, then the finish generated can be close to
the order of atomic dimensions (0.2 nm to 0.4 nm). This new process is termed as Elastic
Emission Machining (EEM).

In the EEM process a polyurethane ball, 56 mm in diameter, is mounted on a shaft driven

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by a variable speed motor. The axis of rotation is oriented at an angle of 45º relative to

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the surface of the work piece to be polished. The work piece is submerged in slurry of

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ZrO2 or Al2O3 abrasive particles and water.
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The material removal rate for the work piece was found to be linear with dwell time at a
particular location, allowing the total thickness of material removed to be controlled to
within 20 nm. The removal rate, however, was found to vary non-linearly with
concentration of abrasives in the slurry.
The proposed mechanism of material removal due to slurry and work piece interaction
involves erosion of the surface atoms by the bombardment of abrasive particles without
the introduction of dislocations. Surface roughness as low as 0.5 nm rms have been
reported on glass and a surface roughness of ≤ 1nm rms was obtained when polishing
single crystal Silicon.
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Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF)
All traditional finishing process are incapable of producing required surface finish of
nanometer level. Magnetorheological finishing is one of the new process which can provide
surface finish up to nano meter level. Magnetic abrasives are emerging as important finishing
methods for metals and ceramics.
For the polishing purposes, proper abrasive slurry (silicon carbide) is incorporated into the
MR fluid (MRP), which is supplied to the narrow gap between the wheel and work piece.
When magnetic field is applied, the magnetic particles hold the abrasive particles together
and act as a solid and relative movement is given between the work and abrasive slurry.

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The low viscosity MR fluid is pumped through a shaping nozzle onto a vertical, rotating

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wheel. At the apex of the wheel, the fluid stiffens into a ribbon, under the influence of a dc

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magnetic field. The work piece is placed into the ribbon and forms a converging gap.
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Shaping and smoothing are accomplished simultaneously as the rotating work piece is moved
through the ribbon under computer control.
An electromagnet, located below the polishing wheel, has specially designed pole pieces that
extend up to the underside of the apex of the wheel rim. These pole pieces exert a strong local
magnetic field gradient over the upper side of the wheel. When the magnetorheological fluid
passes through the magnetic field, it stiffens in milliseconds, then returns to its original fluid
state as it leaves the field, again in milliseconds. This precisely controlled zone of magnetized
fluid becomes the polishing tool. When an optical surface is placed into the fluid in this zone,
the stiffened fluid ribbon is "squeezed" from its original thickness of about 2 mm, to about l
mm. The "squeezing" results in significant shear stress and subsequent polishing pressure
over that section of the optical surface. At the same instant, the MR fluid conforms to the
local curvature of the part being polished.
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Rapid prototyping
The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can automatically
construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data for the purpose of
testing the various design features, ideas, concepts, functionality, output and performance.
Rapid Prototyping technology employs various engineering, computer control and software
techniques directly to produce a physical model layer by layer (Layer Manufacturing) in
accordance with the geometrical data derived from a 3D CAD model.
 A virtual prototype (a CAD model of the part) may not be sufficient for the designer
to visualize the part adequately
 Using RP to make the prototype, the designer can see and feel the part and assess its
merits and shortcomings
Conventional machining (turning, milling, drilling etc) can produce prototypes using metal
removal methoduntil the desired shape is achieved, which are called subtractive processes.
Rapid Prototyping (RP) is an additive process, adds material in a layering process, to create
the desired form, thus enabling complex forms to be manufactured in one piece that would
otherwise be impossible.

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Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) builds complex
shapes through additive processes, producing components without the use of tools.
The advantages of RP
1. Physical models of parts can be manufactured in a matter of hours and allow the rapid
evaluation of manufacturability and design effectiveness. In this way, rapid
prototyping serves as an important tool for visualization and concept verification. This
helps the user in knowing how the final product will look like.
2. As the development costs are reduced, Rapid prototyping proves to be cost effective.
3. The process itself reduces waste, as unused materials can be recycled.
4. It is easier to find the design flaws in the early developmental stages.
5. There is better communication between the user and designer as the requirements and
expectations are expressed in the beginning itself.
6. High quality product is easily delivered by way of Rapid prototyping.
In short why use Rapid Prototyping
1. To increase effective communication.
2. To decrease development time.
3. To decrease costly mistakes.
4. To minimize sustaining engineering changes.
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5. To extend product lifetime by adding or eliminating features early in the design.


Generally used 3D printing materials in industries are listed below. Plastics - Glass -
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Ceramics  Rubber- Paper - Titanium & Metals

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All RP techniques employ the same basic five-step process.
Starting with CAD file of the object, software divides the object into a series of thin slices,
stacked on top of one another. Using this data, commercial Rapid Prototyping machines
slowly and precisely add material, recreating the individual layers and ultimately the
component.

1. Create a 3D CAD model of the design


2. Convert the CAD model to STL format (Stereo lithography)
3. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers
4. Construct the model one layer atop another
5. Clean and finish the model
Types of Rapid Prototyping

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While there are many ways in which one can classify the numerous RP systems one of the

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better ways is to classify RP systems based on the material that the prototype or part is built
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with. In this manner, all RP systems can be easily categorized into
(1) Liquid-based
(2) Solid-based and
(3) Powder-based.
Liquid-based RP systems have the initial form of its material in liquid state. The Stereo
lithography Apparatus (SLA) falls into this category.
Solid-based RP systems encompass all forms of material in the solid state. In this context, the
solid form can include the shape in the form of wire, roll, laminates, pellets and powders. The
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) Fused Deposition
modelling (FDM) fall into this definition
Another classification of Rapid prototyping into following groups
 Subtractive (Removal of material)
Conventional methods of prototyping (by machining or other process0
 Additive (adding of material): Build parts in layer by layer (slice by slice as stacking a
loaf of bread)
o Stereo lithography
o Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)
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o Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)


o Laminated Object Manufacturing
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Stereo lithography (SLA)
Stereo-lithography is one of the most common types of Rapid Prototyping processes. Stereo-
lithography Apparatus (SLA) technology fabricates three-dimensional solid objects from
liquid resin. It is a material additive manufacturing process. A computer controlled UV laser
draws the image of the object on the surface of liquid plastic. The laser takes passes at hitting
the liquid plastic and thereby hardening it. At the completion of each pass, the object would
be lowered so that the UV laser could go through its next pass. This process continues and the
end result is a carved out 3-D physical model of the object.
Materials: Thermoplastics (Elastomers)
Elevator– control the movement of
platform upward
Platform– for the basement of part
building
Resin vat– contain raw material to form
SLA model
Laser: transform liquid to solid
In SLA process, the software firstly interprets the CAD data and slices it into a series of thin
horizontal layers and converted to machine specified control data files based on the part. The
machine control data is then downloaded into the equipment for part building. A perforated
steel building platform attached to a vertical elevator is moved to the start position which is

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just below the resin surface. An X-Y electronic motor driver optical scanning mirrors directs

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the laser beam, which cures the borders and cross sections of the built parts one layer at a

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time on the surface of the resin. Photopolymers are converted into solid state instantly after
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irradiation of laser beam. The elevator then lowers the newly built layer by a distance of one-
layer thickness after a short period of time to allow the newly formed layer to increase the
green strength. The process is repeated until the object is completed and object is taken out
by raising the elevator and object is removed from the vat.
Advantages
1. Accuracy and precision parts (Tolerances= 0.0125mm)
2. Good surface finish
3. Less time taken (depends upon the size and complication of the part)
4. Wide shape and complex geometries can made
5. Pattern for all casting and moulding can be made economically
Disadvantages
1. Expensive
2. Size of object (50*50*60 cm) is limited
3. Fragility of product
Applications
1. Medical and Healthcare parts
2. Electronics; Packaging, Connectors
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3. Casting Patterns and Jigs and Fixtures


4. Manufacturing Sporting Goods
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5. Wind-Tunnel Test Models etc.

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Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)
Fused deposition modelling is also a rapid prototype technology commonly used to convert
CAD drawings into physical parts. FDM works on an "additive" principle which extrudes
material in layers. Plastic or wax is melted and liquefied in the extrusion head and extruded
through a nozzle. The nozzle is made to move over a trail identified by the CAD design to
produce part. This way single layer is extruded and then it is dropped to extrude the next
layer on top of the first until the entire prototype is built, with one layer at a time. Upon
hitting the build platform, the liquid solidifies and the platform lowers where the next layer of
liquid is laid upon it. This process continues until the product is complete. The raw material is
typically production grade thermoplastics, though sometimes metal is used as well.

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Advantages
1.
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FDM process part can be high strength,
2.
3.
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Cost-effective and waterproof.
Easy material change
4. Thin parts can be made
5. Tolerance of +/- 0.005”
6. Low temperature operation
Disadvantages
1. Part strength is weak perpendicular to build axis
2. Seam line between layers
3. Temperature fluctuation during production lead to de-lamination
4. Support requirement is difficult
Application
Used for making concept and functional models in many industries.
 Concept models — Test form and fit, communicate design intent
 Functional prototypes — Tough prototypes that can be used for functional tests
 Support parts (jigs, fixtures, helps) can be produced directly
Typical applications include automotive, aerospace or any application where your part needs
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to be functionally tested in an environment of heat or chemicals.


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Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Selective Laser Sintering uses the principle of sintering. Sintering is a heating process that
prevents melting and a coherent mass is produce. In SLS, metallic or non-metallic powders
are sintered using a CAD program guided laser that selectively fuses the powdered material.
It works with a high-powered laser – as the laser selectively moves over the surface of
thermoplastic powder it fuses cross-sections of the material layer by layer. As one layer is
completed, the process is repeated by lowering the powdered bed and adding a fresh layer of
material.

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First cylinder moves up so that a layer of material can be send to the second cylinder. In

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second cylinder after receiving a layer of material, it is processed using laser beam. Then
second cylinder moves down to receive the next layer from the first cylinder as it moves up to

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supply the next layer of materials. The processes continue till final product forms.
Advantages K
1. SLS offers the freedom to quickly build complex parts that are more durable and
provide better functionality over other rapid prototyping technologies.
2. Fast build times/ production rate
3. Variety of materials can be process
4. Raw materials are inexpensive
5. Simultaneous production of work is possible

Disadvantages/ Limitations
1. Typical SLS parts have little rough & porous (not good surface finish) not as smooth
as SLA surface
2. The larger shrink rates of SLS increase the tendency for the prototype to warp
3. Material changeover difficult compared to FDM & SLA.
4. Some post-processing / finishing required
Materials used
 Polyamide
 Polystyrene
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 Nylon etc
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Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)
In it, layers of adhesive-coated paper, plastic, or metal laminates are successively glued
together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter. The main components of the system are
a feed mechanism that advances a sheet over a build platform, a heated roller to apply
pressure to bond the sheet to the layer below, and a laser to cut the outline of the part in each
sheet layer. Parts are produced by stacking, bonding, and cutting layers of adhesive-coated
sheet material on top of the previous one. A laser cuts the outline of the part into each layer.
After each cut is completed, the platform lowers by a depth equal to the sheet thickness and
another sheet is advanced on top of the previously deposited layers. The platform then rises
slightly and the heated roller applies pressure to bond the new layer. The laser cuts the outline
and the process is repeated until the part is completed. After a layer is cut, the extra material
remains in place to support the part during build.
The process is performed as follows:
1. Sheet is adhered to a substrate with a heated roller.
2. Laser traces desired dimensions of prototype.
3. Laser cross hatches non-part area to facilitate waste removal.
4. Platform with completed layer moves down out of the way.
5. Fresh sheet of material is rolled into position.
6. Platform moves up into position to receive next layer.
7. The process is repeated.

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Advantages
1. Fast production, less time is required
2. No support structure is required
3. Relatively large parts may be made, because no chemical reaction is necessary
4. Low cost due to readily available raw material
Disadvantages
1. Dimensional accuracy is slightly less than that of stereo-lithography and selective
laser sintering but no milling step is necessary.
2. The life of LOM product is limited
3. Poor surface finish
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4. Post processing is required


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Application
1. Used for Pattern making and toys
2. Used for medical application
3. Large products can be made
4. To make show pieces
Process parameters
1. Lased intensity and laser diameter
2. Thickness of layer(movement of Z axis)
3. Curing period
4. Temperature of roller adhering etc
Laser welding
Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding technique used to join pieces of metal or
thermoplastics through the use of a laser. The beam provides a concentrated heat source,
allowing for narrow, deep welds and high welding rates. The beam provides a concentrated
heat source, allowing for narrow, deep welds and high welding rates. The process is
frequently used in high volume applications using automation, such as in the automotive
industry. It is based on keyhole or penetration mode welding.

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Advantages of LBW
1. Laser beam can be transmitted through air rather than requiring a vacuum,
2. The process is easily automated
3. LBW results in higher quality welds.
4. Thermal damage is minimum
5. Filler material is not required
6. High precision weld
Limitations
1. Low welding speed
2. Thickness of weld is limited
3. Certain materials cannot be welded (Mg)
Application
1. To produce micro weld
2. Dissimilar material welding
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Laser engineered net shaping(LENS)
This process is like other rapid prototyping technologies in its approach to fabricate a solid
component by layer additive methods. The laser creates a molten pool of metal on the
substrate, into which powder feeder injects powders into the melt pool. The metal powder
rapidly solidifies forming lines of deposited material on the substrate. Lines are sequentially
deposited adjacent to one another until an entire layer is fabricated. The laser focal point is
then moved in the positive Z direction to begin depositing the next layer. An inert gas is used
to shield the metal from atmospheric gases. It uses a layered approach to manufacture the
components. Process principle; local melting of metal powders
using a laser

Advantages

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1. Can be used to repair parts as well as fabricate new ones

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2. Can fabricate strong functional metal product
3. Net shape product

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4. Less wastage and less secondary finishing process is required
5. Product can undergo light finishing machining and heat treatment process
Disadvantages
1. Has a rough surface finish, may require machining or polishing
2. Some constrain in geometry shape of product
Application
1. Fabrication and repair of injection molding tools
2. Fabrication of large titanium & other exotic metal parts for aerospace applications
3. Parts have been fabricated from stainless steel alloys, nickel-based alloys, tool steel
alloys, titanium alloys etc

Liga processes
The LIGA-process is used to manufacture micro structures by deep X-ray lithography. Using
the process, microstructures can be manufactured from different plastic materials and metals.
The LIGA consists of three main processing steps;
1. Lithography,
2. Electro-forming/electroplating
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3. Molding.
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Step involved
1. Apply resist and X-ray exposure through mask,
2. Remove exposed portions of resist,
3. Electrodeposition to fill openings in resist,
4. Strip resist for (a) mold or (b) metal part
In the process, an X-ray sensitive polymer photoresist, typically PMMA, (Poly methyl
methacrylate), a transparent thermoplastic bonded to an electrically conductive substrate, is
exposed to parallel beams of high-energy X-rays from a radiation source through a mask

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partly covered with a strong X-ray absorbing material. Chemical removal of exposed (or

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unexposed) photoresist results in a three-dimensional structure, which can be filled by the

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electrodeposition of metal. The resist is chemically stripped away to produce a metallic mold

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insert. The mold insert can be used to produce parts in polymers or ceramics through
injection molding.
Advantages
1. Capability to make large aspect ratio structures
2. To produce Micro- structural components
3. Wide range of part sizes is feasible
4. Close tolerances are possible and high surface finish.
5. High production is possible
Disadvantages
 X-ray LIGA is expensive due to the equipment required.
 Slow process.
 Complex process
Applications
 MEMS Components
 Sensors
 Actuators
 Trajectory Sensing Devices
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 Micro optical Components


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 Components such as micro lenses, mirrors, and filters

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Missing notes from module 4
Abrasive Jet machining (AJM)
In abrasive jet machining, a focused stream of abrasive particles, carried by high pressure air
or gas is made to impinge on the work surface through a nozzle and the work material is
made to impinge on the work surface through a nozzle and work material is removed by
erosion by high velocity abrasive particles. The selection of abrasive particles depends on the
hardness and Metal Removal Rate (MRR) of the work piece. Most commonly, aluminium
oxide or silicon carbide particles are used.

Working
Dry air or gas is filtered, compressed and regulated (pressure and flow rate) while passed into
the mixing chamber. In the mixing chamber, abrasive powder is fed and is thoroughly mixed

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with air. The nozzle increases the velocity of the mixture at the expense of its pressure.

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Nozzles direct abrasive jet in a controlled manner onto work material. The velocity of the
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abrasive stream ejected through the nozzle is generally of the order of 330m/sec.
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Advantages of Abrasive Jet Machining (process capabilities)
1. Surface of the work piece is cleaned automatically.
2. Smooth surface finish can be obtained.
3. Equipment cost is low.
4. Hard materials and materials of high strength can be easily machined.
5. Narrow slot can be produced

Disadvantages of Abrasive Jet Machining (limitations)


 Metal removal rate is low
 In certain circumstances, abrasive particles might settle over the work piece.
 Nozzle life is less. Nozzle should be maintained periodically.
 Abrasive Jet Machining cannot be used to machine soft materials.
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Process performance parameters
For AJM process, it is necessary to analyse the following process criteria.
1. Material removal rate
2. Geometry and surface finish of work piece
3. Wear rate of the nozzle
Performance generally influenced by the process parameters as enumerated below:
1. Abrasives used and its shape, size and composition
2. Carrier Gas properties (Density, pressure and velocity of carrier gas)
Density – 1.3 kg/m3
Velocity - 500 to 700 m/s
Pressure - 2 to 10 bar
3. Nozzle (material and diameter (0.2 to 0.8mm)
Effect of abrasive flow rate and grain size on MRR
It is clear from the figure that at a pressure MRR increase with increase of abrasive flow rate
and is influenced by size of abrasive particles. But after reaching optimum value, MRR
decreases with further increase of abrasive flow rate.
Standoff distance
Standoff distance is defined as the distance between the face of the nozzle and the work
surface of the work. SOD has been found to have considerable effect on the work material
and accuracy. A large SOD results in flaring of jet which leads to poor accuracy. It is clear

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from figure that MRR increase with nozzle tip distance or Standoff distance up to certain
distance and then decreases. Decrease in SOD improves accuracy, decreases kerf width, and

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reduces taper in machined groove.
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Applications
1. Used for cutting thin fragile components like germanium, silicon etc.
2. Most suitable for machining brittle and heat sensitive materials like glass, quartz,
sapphire, mica, ceramics germanium, silicon and gallium.
3. De-flashing small castings, engraving registration numbers on toughened glass used
4. AJM is useful in manufacture of electronic devices, drilling of glass wafers, making
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of nylon and Teflon parts permanent marking on rubber stencils, cutting titanium foils
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Module V---Question
1. Briefly explain non-transitional machining process. Give applications
2. Discuss the dimensional tolerance that can be achieved by unconventional machining.
3. What is the importance of non-traditional machining?
4. How is chemical machining different from electrochemical machining?
5. Explain the influence of chemical machining as product tolerance and surface finish.
6. Draw the schematic arrangement of ECM. Explain its working and limitations.
7. Name any two electrolytes used in ECM process.
8. How will you differentiate the ECM with EDM process?
9. With a neat sketch, explain Electro-Chemical Machining process. List the major
process and applications.
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10. Explain EDM. What are its applications? (8 marks)
11. Compare the different tool materials used in spark EDM.
12. Explain the principle of Wire EDM. .
13. List out the advantages of EDM
14. Explain EDM. What are its applications? (8 marks)
15. Illustrate arid explain the process of EDM and state the differences in process
parameters used in wire cut EDM.
16. List out the advantages of EDM process. .
17. Discuss the EDM process.
18. List out its applications of `WEDM.
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19. Explain the role of dielectric' in EDM process. (4 marks)
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20. Discuss the various factors of EDM that affect
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a. the metal removal rate and
b. the accuracy of holes obtained in EDM
21. Why has the wire EDM process become so widely accepted in industry?
22. Sketch and explain an Electro-discharge machining process. List the important
process variables and discuss their effects on MRR and surface finish.
23. Discuss the various factors that affect (i) the metal removal rate and (ii) the accuracy
of holes obtained in EDM.
24. What are the merits of EDM?
25. Describe the selection of dielectric medium in EDM.
26. What are the capabilities of wire EDM? Could this process be used to make tapered
pieces? Explain.
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27. Explain the working of Electron Beam machining with the help of a neat diagram.
Discuss its application areas
28. Distinguish between laser beam machining and electron beam machining. Give their
field of application in manufacturing.
29. Draw and explain the construction and working of the Electron Beam Illustrate the 4
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steps leading to material removal by EBM and explain the process. (12 marks)
30. In Plasma Arc Machining, how a transferred is are processes different from a non-
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31. What are the distances of electron beam over laser beam for machining?
32. List the different types of laser used in Laser beam machining.
33. How is laser produced?
34. Briefly explain the working principle of LBM.
35. Describe the plasma are cutting and machining;

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36. What is meant by kerf width in AJM? How does it relate to the nozzle tip distance?
37. Illustrate and explain the Abrasive Water Jet Machining process and state the
advantages, limitations and applications of the process.
38. Draw graphs to relate the following process parameters to the material removal rate in
abrasive jet machining
a. Nozzle tip distance.
b. Abrasive flow rate.
c. Abrasive grain size
39. Discuss abrasive water jet machine.
40. List any two advantages of AJ M process.
41. Discuss any four process parameters involved in AJM.
42. List the various elements of AJM process and explain their influence on process
parameters.
43. Explain the process parameters which influence Metal Removal rate in Abrasive Jet
Machining
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44. What are the limitations of abrasive jet machining?
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45. Describe, in detail, metal removal by abrasive jet machining.
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46. Why are abrasive slurry is used in ultrasonic machining? _
47. Sketch and explain Ultrasonic Machining.
48. Explain the principle of ultrasonic machining. What are the limitations of USM?
49. Why is frequency tuning a must in Ultrasonic Machining?
50. What is the function of a concentrator in Ultrasonic Machining?

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51. `What is rapid proto-typing?
52. Briefly explain the types, process and advantages of Rapid prototyping process.
53. Explain the fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing methods
used in Prototyping process.
54. List out the any four advantages of Rapid. Prototyping.
55. What do you mean by Virtual and Physical prototyping?
56. Name the different types of Rapid prototyping.
57. Explain basic steps involved in Rapid prototyping with flow diagram.
58. What are the advantages of` rapid prototyping?
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59. What is Fused Disposition Modelling method of rapid prototyping


60. What is stereo lithography?
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62. With a neat sketch, explain the stereo lithography process.
63. Discuss stereo lithography.
64. Explain the stereo lithography process in Rapid Prototyping with suitable sketches.
65. What is the abbreviation for LIGA? What are the tolerances obtained in the LIGA
process?
66. Explain LIGA process.
67. Discuss briefly LIGA process and list out its applications.
68. Write short notes on Liga process.

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