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25 JUNE 2018 URBAN

1 BRIEFING NOTE CLIMATE CHANGE


RESILIENCE
TRUST FUND

Urban resilience, climate change


mitigation, climate change adaptation
and disaster risk reduction

The ADB established the Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust KEY THEMES:
Fund (UCCRTF) in 2013 to support climate change resilience through urban resilience, climate change
mitigation, climate change
the delivery of infrastructure and institutional interventions in medium-
adaptation, and disaster risk
sized cities in Asia. The UCCRTF provides an important opportunity for
reduction, infrastructure, urban
the ADB to demonstrate leadership and scale-up global investment in development.
building resilience to the effects of climate variability and climate change,
particularly for the urban poor. LENGTH:
12 pages
Resilience can hold specific meanings for different disciplines. This
WHO IS THIS FOR:
document provides a definition of urban resilience relevant to the UCCRTF
This document is recommended
and describes the relationship between urban resilience, climate change reading for ADB Project
mitigation, climate change adaptation, and disaster risk reduction for Officers, stakeholders who
infrastructure investment. support infrastructure and
urban programming, and
others working within the ADB
to prepare and implement
projects where there may
be opportunities to integrate
or address urban resilience,
climate change, and disaster
risk reduction.
2 URBAN RESILIENCE, CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION, CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION URBAN RESILIENCE, CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION, CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION 3

What is urban resilience?

Image by COMSEVENTHFLT on Flickr.com


Urban resilience (UR) can be defined as the ability of the city to support
its residents - particularly its poor and vulnerable - to survive and thrive no
matter what kinds of stresses and shocks they encounter.1

Cities are exposed to a growing range of social, economic,


and environmental shocks and stresses. Shocks are
high-intensity, short term events such as earthquakes,
flash flooding, coastal erosion, tropical storms, and
terrorist events. Stresses are processes that occur over
time that are usually lower intensity. For example, urban
poverty, high rates of rural-urban migration, uncontrolled
development, corruption, civil unrest, drought, sea level
rise, or seasonal flooding.

The impacts of shocks and stresses at a city-level can


be complex and compounding, with repercussions for
buildings and infrastructure, people, natural resources,
and governance. Disruptions to one sector in the city can
have far-reaching local, regional, or global implications
that are difficult to predict, particuarly when facing
uncertain trends such as climate change, urban growth
and digital transformation. Traditional ‘predict and prevent’
approaches for disaster risk management and climate
change adaptation may not be adequate in the face of
these challenges.
C A S E S T U DY The Bangkok floods in 2011 resulted in many hundreds
of deaths and around US $45.7 billion in direct
BANGKOK FLOODS economic damages. Flood waters drove residents
from their homes, shut down thousands of factories,
caused damage and disruption to city infrastructure, and
disrupted movements of people and consumer goods.
Far reaching impacts included an estimated 2.5%
reduction to global industrial production.

Closer to home, whilst those living and working in


the key central business district managed to escape
significant flooding, many poorer communities were
inundated as floodwater was diverted away from the
CBD and major assets such as the international airport.

This event highlighted a number of important


lessons for building resilience, such as a need more
improved coordination, disaster modelling, integrated
masterplanning, and contingency planning between
city authorities to better manage broad emergency
responses across municipal boundaries. At the same
time the city demonstrated a number of resilience
strengths, such as high diversity in transport modes
and local community use of informal modes of transport
(such as rafts) when roads failed.

(1) ADB. 2014. Urban Climate Change Resilience A Synopsis. Manila. (2) Arup, Lloyds. 2017. Future Cities: Building Infrastructure Resilience.
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Building resilience can help to overcome the challenges of What is the relationship between urban resilience,
uncertainty and compounding impacts of shocks and stresses in
cities. Measures include those that help governments, communities,
climate change mitigation, climate change
and infrastructure to: adaptation, and disaster risk reduction?

A
Continue to function (survive) and recover
!
Understanding urban resilience requires viewing Approaches to implement urban resilience, climate change mitigation, climate
quickly when shocks and stresses occur. a city as a ‘system’ made up of many connected
and interdependent assets, resources, change adaptation, and disaster risk reduction overlap in some areas, and are
For example: ensuring infrastructure networks institutions, and communities. Considering distinct in others. These relationships can be understood by considering:
have adequate diversity, redundancy, and how any given infrastructure project might
financial planning to continue to operate if affect the city as a whole (either supporting,
disruption occurs in one location. or undermining the ability of residents to
survive and thrive) can help to enhance project The different shocks and stresses to
outcomes beyond an individual asset or which they respond
Reflect, learn, and transform city functions investment.
B
and processes over time to better cope and
respond when shocks and stresses occur
(thrive).

For example: enhancing dialogue between


government and communities to ensure funding C L I M AT E C L I M AT E
decisions address local vulnerabilities, using CHANGE CHANGE
‘smart’ technology to monitor hazard risk, or M I T I G AT I O N A D A P TAT I O N
demand-side management to improve energy
system performance under stressed conditions. The evidence The ‘state’ of the
that informs the city following a
action shock or stress
DISASTER
RISK URBAN
REDUCTION RESILIENCE

EXAMPLE Site selection for an access road connecting a port with an urban
market might target the most direct route. However, this may not
deliver the greatest city benefits.

If the road is designed with connectivity to multiple uses in


mind, for example, schools, vulnerable communities, and health
Arup

facilities, it may provide greater accessibility to jobs, learning,


and health care. Non-structural measures such as safety and The target of the action
traffic monitoring systems may also be considered, while planning
evacuation routes and warning systems can ensure the road
supports and protects communities if a disaster occurs.
The relationship between the approaches is set out in Table 1 and Figure 1, and
At design stage, a catchment-level approach to drainage can
ensure the road does not create any flood risk to surrounding is summarised as follow:
communities during storm events, while incorporating green
infrastructure and water sensitive urban design might create flood ▪▪ Climate change mitigation does not directly respond ▪▪ DRR focuses on historical events as a basis for
management, air quality, and amenity benefits for local residents. to shocks and stresses (rather, to long term global current and future action to reduce the risk of a wide
trends). range of environmental shocks and stresses, including
On the contrary, if road planning does not consider impacts on
those driven by climate change.
the wider city road network and incorporate multiple modes of
transport (such as pedestrians and cycling), this may cause ▪▪ Climate change adaptation considers future
congestion and safety issues which can undermine city resilience scenarios for climate change related shocks and ▪▪ Urban resilience considers how to improve the way
and economic growth. stresses and identifies specific measures to respond a city functions when faced with any number of known
to this change. and uncertain future shocks and stresses.
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FIGURE 1: The State of the City Following the Shocks and Stresses that Climate Change Adaptation,
Disaster Risk Reduction and Urban Resilience Respond

CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

Is action to reduce greenhouse gas Is action to adjust to climate change


emissions3. related shocks and stresses, in order
to minimise disruption and damage4.
Actions generally target the sources
of greenhouse gas emissions for Actions generally target one specific
example, burning of fossil and sector, asset, or location. Actions may
greenhouse gas emitting activities, be undertaken at a global, country,
such as fuels, deforestation, and regional, city, or local scale and are
agricultural production. Actions can informed by an understanding of long-
also include avoiding or reducing term predicted changes in climate due
emissions - generating activities to greenhouse gas emissions.
- for example, energy efficiency
improvements. Actions may be Climate change adaptation actions
undertaken at a global, country, can enable cities to learn and adapt
regional, city, or local scale. Action to climate change related shocks or
is often informed by greenhouse gas stresses.
inventories and international treaties
such as the 2016 Paris Agreement.

Climate change mitigation is not


a response to a specific shock
or stress event, but is a broader
response to long-term trends. It
aims to reduce potential climate
change impacts at a global scale.

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION URBAN RESILIENCE

(‘DRR’) is the practice of reducing Is the ability of the city to support its
disaster risks through systematic residents - particularly the poor and
efforts to analyse and reduce the vulnerable - to survive and thrive no
ORGANISATION
causes of shock and stresses5. EARLY matter what kinds of stresses and
WARNING
SYSTEM
shocks they encounter. POLLUTION ECONOMIC
Actions generally target a specific COLLAPSE

asset, location, or sector. Actions may Actions to build urban resilience target
be undertaken at a global, country, EVACUATION one or more urban systems. They KNOWLEDGE PEOPLE

regional, city, or local scale and are PLAN are informed by long-term predicted
informed by an understanding of trends, historical evidence, and
CONGESTION WASTE
historical evidence of shocks (climate considering city system performance DISPOSAL

change related and environmental) and interdependencies - particularly PLACE

and their likely future impacts. Disaster during shock and stress conditions.
risk reduction actions can help cities to
cope and recover to normal following Actions support cities to cope and
any shock or stress. recover to normal, learn, adapt, reflect,
growth and transform.

(3) Developed from UNFCCC 2009. Fact Sheet: The Need for Mitigation. | (4) Developed from IPCC 2012. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to 5) Developed from UNISDR. See: https://www.unisdr.org/who-we-are/what-is-drr
Advance Climate Change Adaptation.
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TABLE 1:
Relationship between climate change Why undertake action to build urban resilience?
mitigation, climate change adaptation, disaster

C L I M AT E C H A N G E

C L I M AT E C H A N G E

URBAN RESILIENCE
risk reduction and urban resilience

DISASTER RISK
Cities are facing unprecedented change. The proportion of people

A D A P TAT I O N
M I T I G AT I O N

REDUCTION
living in urban areas is expected to grow to 70% by 2050,6 putting
pressure on existing infrastructure and services, and driving a
growing infrastructure deficit. These challenges often affect the poor
and vulnerable disproportionately.
Response to
climate change related

1.5
shocks and stresses
The Asia Pacific region is the most disaster-

DOES NOT DIRECTLY RESPOND TO SHOCKS AND STRESSES


affected area in the world, hosting over 40 per
The types of Response to cent of natural disasters and 84 per cent of
broader environmental* people affected by these disasters globally7. BILLION PEOPLE
shocks and shocks and stresses Alongside rapid growth, cities are also facing globally were affected by disasters during
stresses they a range of shocks and stresses related to 2005-15. People in vulnerable situations were
respond to climate change, natural hazards and other disproportionately affected10.
Response to
social and economic social, political, and economic factors. The
shocks and stresses frequency, intensity, and variance of such

$1.3
factors impacting cities is constantly changing,
and increasing8 due to global trends such as
Actions mainly focus on enabling cities climate change.
to cope and recover to normal
Shocks and stress events can cause TRILLION
disruption across cities, influencing health and total economic losses caused by disasters during
State of the Actions mainly focus on enabling cities wellbeing outcomes for inhabitants, affecting the same period10.
city following to learn and adapt infrastructure, livelihoods, business, and
a shock or industry, and eroding hard-won development

40%
stress gains.
Actions mainly focus on enabling cities
to reflect, grow, and transform Building resilience through the design and
implementation of infrastructure projects has
the potential to avoid damages and losses OF NATURAL DISASTERS
due to disasters, unlock economic potential occured in the Asia Pacific region during 2016 7.
Actions usually target through reducing disaster risk, and generate a
one specific sector or asset
variety of co-benefits for communities.9

Target of the
action Actions usually target the
urban system
84%
OF PEOPLE AFFECTED
of people affected by natural disasters worldwide
Informed by an understanding of in 2016 lived in Asia Pacific 7.
long-term predicted trends in
greenhouse gas emissions and
climate change

Informed by an understanding of
The evidence historical evidence of shocks and/
or their likely future impacts
that informs
the action Informed by
considering city system
performance and
interdependencies, particularly
during shock and stress conditions

* Broader environmental shocks and stresses refers to biological, chemical and other physical hazards (such as earthquakes or tsnuami) as well as environmental (6) ADB, 2016. Enhancing Urban Climate Change Resilience: Seven Entry Points for Action. Manila | (7) UN OCHAT, 2017. 2016 Year in Review, OCHA Regional
hazards which can be driven or influenxed by climate change (such as extreme weather events, drought or vector-borne disease). Office for Asia and the Pacific. | (8) UN ESCAP, 2015. Overview of Natural Disasters and Their Impact in Asia and the Pacific. | (9) World Bank / GFDRR. 2015.
Unlocking the Triple Dividend of Resilience [online]. | (10) UNISDR, 2015. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030 [online].
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How is urban resilience integrated into city


development plans, sector specific plans, and
physical interventions?

Resilient cities and infrastructure demonstrate certain ‘qualities’ that


can provide a starting point to identify opportunities for embedding
resilience11:

INCLUSIVENESS ROBUSTNESS REFLECTIVENESS REDUNDANCY


refers to broad consultation Assets and management People and institutions Spare capacity purposely
and participation to ensure a systems which are well- examine and systematically included within systems to
shared sense of ownership concieved, constructed and learn from past experiences, accommodate disruption and
and vision for all - including managed to withstand shock & leverage this learning to changes in demand
the most poor and and stress events without inform future decision-making
significant damage or loss of
function.

RESOURCEFULNESS FLEXIBILITY INTEGRATION


The ability to change, evolve, People, infrastructure Alignment between
and adapt in response to systems, and institutions are stakeholders, plans,
changing circumstances. able to rapidly find different and designs to improve
ways to meet their needs consistency in decision-
when faced with disasters and making and support a
stresses, and recover quickly. common outcome.

Illustration by Arup Visual Communications

The Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust Fund (UCCRTF) is a multi-donor trust fund established in
2013 with the objective of building the resilience of 2.2 million people in 25 cities in eight countries in Asia.
It aims to reduce risks faced by vulnerable communities and assets from extreme weather events through
better city planning and climate-resilient infrastructure.

The trust fund is administered by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) with contributions from the
Governments of the United Kingdom and Switzerland and the Rockefeller Foundation.

For further information on the UCCRTF, please contact:


Virinder Sharma
vsharma@adb.org

(11) Arup, 2014. City Resilience Index. Available at: https://www.arup.com/perspectives/themes/cities/city-resilience-index


Icons for 7 ‘qualities’ by 100 Resilient Cities, Available at https://www.100resilientcities.org/resources/
URBAN CLIMATE CHANGE RESILIENCE TRUST FUND