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Wall Boiling Models fluent

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17.5.20.1. Overview

The term “subcooled boiling” is used to describe the physical situation where the wall temperature is

high enough to cause boiling to occur at the wall even though the bulk volume averaged liquid

temperature is less than the saturation value. In such cases, the energy is transferred directly from

the wall to the liquid. Part of this energy will cause the temperature of the liquid to increase and part

will generate vapor. Interphase heat transfer will also cause the average liquid temperature to

increase, however, the saturated vapor will condense. Additionally, some of the energy may be

transferred directly from the wall to the vapor. These basic mechanisms are the foundations of the so

called Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) models.

In ANSYS Fluent, the wall boiling models are developed in the context of the Eulerian multiphase

model. The multiphase flows are governed by the conservation equations for phase continuity

(Equation 17–166 ), momentum ( Equation 17–167

), and energy ( Equation 17–170

). The wall boiling

phenomenon is modeled by the RPI nucleate boiling model of Kurual and Podowski [235] and an

extended formulation for the departed nucleate boiling regime (DNB) by Lavieville et al [248].

The wall boiling models are compatible with three different wall boundaries: isothermal wall, specified

heat flux, and specified heat transfer coefficient (coupled wall boundary).

Specific submodels have been considered to account for the interfacial transfers of momentum, mass,

and heat, as well as turbulence models in boiling flows, as described below.

To learn how to set up the boiling model, refer to Including the Boiling Model.

17.5.20.2. RPI Model

According to the basic RPI model, the total heat flux from the wall to the liquid is partitioned into

three components, namely the convective heat flux, the quenching heat flux, and the evaporative

heat flux:

(17–408)

The heated wall surface is subdivided into area , which is covered by nucleating bubbles and a

portion , which is covered by the fluid.

(17–409)

where is the single phase heat transfer coefficient, and and are the wall and liquid

temperatures, respectively.

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

The quenching heat flux models the cyclic averaged transient energy transfer related to

liquid filling the wall vicinity after bubble detachment, and is expressed as

(17–410)

(17–411)

Where is the volume of the bubble based on the bubble departure diameter, is the active

nucleate site density, is the vapor density, and is the latent heat of evaporation, and is the

bubble departure frequency. These equations need closure for the following parameters:

Area of Influence

Its definition is based on the departure diameter and the nucleate site density:

(17–412)

Note that in order to avoid numerical instabilities due to unbound empirical correlations for the

nucleate site density, the area of influence has to be restricted. The area of influence is limited as

follows:

(17–413)

The value of the empirical constant is usually set to 4, however it has been found that this value is

not universal and may vary between 1.8 and 5. The following relation for this constant has also been

implemented based on Del Valle and Kenning's findings [94]:

(17–414)

(17–415)

where

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

Implementation of the RPI model normally uses the frequency of bubble departure as the one based

on inertia controlled growth (not really applicable to subcooled boiling). [80]

(17–416)

The nucleate site density is usually represented by a correlation based on the wall superheat. The

general expression is of the form

(17–417)

Here the empirical parameters from Lemmert and Chawla [254] are used, where and

. Other formulations are also available, such as Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii [228] where

(17–418)

Here

Where is the bubble departure diameter and the density function is defined as

(17–419)

The default bubble departure diameter for the RPI model is based on empirical correlations [472] and

is calculated in meters as

(17–420)

(17–421)

The bubble departure diameter in millimeters based on the Unal relationship [480] is calculated as

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

(17–422)

(17–423)

(17–424)

(17–425)

where is the flow pressure, is the wall superheat, is latent heat, is the

near wall bulk velocity, and m/s. The subscripts , , and denote the solid material,

liquid, and vapor phase, respectively.

), the temperature of the vapor is not calculated, but

instead is fixed at the saturation temperature. To model boiling departing from the nucleate boiling

regime (DNB), or to model it up to the critical heat flux and post dry-out condition, it is necessary to

include the vapor temperature in the solution process. The wall heat partition is now modified as

follows:

(17–426)

Here , , and are the liquid-phase convective heat flux, quenching heat flux, and evaporation

heat flux, respectively (described in detail in RPI Model). The extra heat fluxes are representing

the convective heat flux of the vapor phase, and representing heat flux to any other possible gas

phases in a system. These can be expressed as

(17–427)

(17–428)

Similar to the liquid phase , the convective heat transfer coefficients and are computed from

the wall function formulations.

The function depends on the local liquid volume fraction with similar limiting values as the

liquid volume fraction. Lavieville et al [248] proposed the following expression:

(17–429)

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

In wall boiling, the critical heat flux (CHF) condition is characterized by a sharp reduction of local heat

transfer coefficients and the excursion of wall surface temperatures. It occurs when heated surfaces

are no longer wetted by boiling liquid with the increase of vapor content. At critical heat flux

conditions, vapor replaces the liquid and occupies the space adjacent to heated walls. The energy is

therefore directly transferred from the wall to the vapor. In turn, it results in rapid reduction of the

heat removal ability and sharp rise of the vapor temperature, and most importantly, the wall

temperatures. In addition, wall boiling departs from the nucleating boiling regime, and the multiphase

flow regime changes from a bubbly flow to a mist flow.

To model the critical heat flux conditions, the basic approach adopted in ANSYS Fluent is to extend

the RPI model from the nucleate boiling regime to critical heat flux and post dry-out conditions, while

considering the following:

The wall heat partition is defined in the same way as Equation 17–426

, with the exception of the

function definition. Here, the function depends on the local liquid/vapor volume fraction with

the same limiting values as the liquid volume fraction, that is, between zero and one. Lavieville et al.

[248] proposed the following expression:

(17–430)

The critical value for the liquid volume fraction is , and for the vapor phase, it is

.

There are also some other functions available to define the wall heat flux partition. When defining

wall boiling regimes, Tentner et al. [469] suggested the following expression based on the vapor

volume fraction:

(17–431)

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

Taking the thin film boiling into consideration in the wall heat flux partition, Ioilev et al. [187] used a

linear function to extend Equation 17–431

to the critical heat flux condition:

(17–432)

In ANSYS Fluent, Equation 17–431 is chosen as the default formulation for the wall heat flux partition.

17.5.20.4.2. Flow Regime Transition

When wall boiling departs from the nucleate boiling regime and reaches the critical heat flux and post

dry-out conditions, the multiphase flow regime changes from a bubbly flow to a mist flow.

Consequently, the liquid phase switches from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase, while the

vapor phase becomes the continuous phase from the originally dispersed phase in the bubbly flow

regime. With the flow regime transition, the interfacial area, momentum transfer terms (drag, lift,

turbulent dispersion, interfacial area, and so on), heat transfer and turbulence quantities will change

accordingly.

To mimic the change of the flow regime and compute the interfacial transfers, the so-called flow

regime maps, based on cross-section averaged flow parameters, are traditionally used in sub-channel

one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic codes. In CFD solvers, the concept of flow regime maps has been

expanded into a local, cell-based interfacial surface topology to evaluate the flow regime transitions

from local flow parameters. The ensemble of all the computational cells with their usually simple local

interfacial surface topologies can provide complex global topologies to represent the different flow

regimes as the traditional sub-channel flow regime maps.

As a first step, this implementation adopts a simple local interfacial surface topology to control the

transition smoothly from a continuous liquid bubbly flow to a continuous vapor droplet flow

configuration [469], [187]. It assumes that inside a computational cell, the local interfacial surface

topology contains multi-connected interfaces, and the flow regimes are determined by a single local

flow quantity — the vapor volume fraction :

Bubbly flow topology: the vapor phase is dispersed in the continuous liquid in the form of

bubbles. Typically

Mist flow topology: the liquid phase is dispersed in the continuous vapor in the form of droplets.

Typically

Churn flow: this is an intermediate topology between the bubbly and mist flow topology, where

The interfacial surface topologies are used to compute the interfacial area and interfacial transfers of

momentum and heat. Introducing to represent interfacial quantities (interfacial area, drag, lift,

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

turbulent drift force and heat transfer), then they are calculated using the following general form:

(17–433)

or , but with different

lower and upper limits of the breakpoints. Typically, the values of 0.3 and 0.7 are used and

and are the interfacial quantities from bubbly flow and mist flow, respectively. They are

calculated using the interfacial sub-models presented in Interfacial Momentum Transfer and

Interfacial Heat Transfer.

It may be noted that in the boiling models, the liquid is usually defined as the first phase, and the

vapor as the second phase. Once this is defined, it remains unchanged with the flow regime

transition. When and are calculated, however, the primary or secondary phases are

switched. For , the liquid is treated as the primary phase, while the vapor is the secondary

phase. Contrary to this, for , the vapor becomes the primary phase and the liquid is the

secondary phase.

The interfacial momentum transfer may include five parts: drag, lift, wall lubrication, turbulent drift

forces, and virtual mass (described in Interphase Exchange Coefficients

). Various models are available

for each of these effects, some of which are specifically formulated for boiling flows. Also, user-

defined options are available.

The interfacial area can be calculated using either a transport equation or algebraic models as

described in Interfacial Area Concentration

. For boiling flows, the algebraic formulations are typically

chosen. See Interfacial Area Concentration

for model details.

By default, Fluent uses the following model for bubble diameter as a function of the local subcooling,

:

(17–434)

where:

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

As an alternative, the bubble diameter, , can be given by the Unal correlation [480] :

(17–435)

To use the Unal correlation, Equation 17–435, you can use the following scheme command:

(rpsetvar 'mp/boiling/bubble-diameter-model 2)

To return to the default formulation, Equation 17–434, you can use the scheme command:

(rpsetvar 'mp/boiling/bubble-diameter-model 1)

When the flow regime transitions to mist flow, the droplet diameter can be assumed to be constant or

estimated by the Kataoka-Ishii correlation [209]:

(17–436)

where:

is the local liquid Reynolds number

is the local vapor Reynolds number

is the liquid viscosity

The interfacial drag force is calculated using the standard model described in Interphase Exchange

Coefficients(and defined in the context of the interfacial area from Interfacial Area Concentration). As

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

, ANSYS Fluent offers several options to calculate the

drag force on dispersed phases. For boiling flows, the Ishii model ( Ishii Model

) is typically chosen,

though any of the models listed in Fluid-Fluid Exchange Coefficient

are available.

, ANSYS Fluent offers several options to calculate the lift forces on the

dispersed phases. For boiling flows, this force is important in the nucleating boiling regime. In the RPI

model, the Tomiyama model ( Tomiyama Lift Force Model

) is usually chosen to account for the effects

of the turbulent dispersion force.

, ANSYS Fluent offers several options to calculate the

turbulent dispersion force. For boiling flows, this force is important in transporting the vapor from

walls to the core fluid flow regions. In the RPI model, the Lopez de Bertodano model ( Lopez de

Bertodano Model ) is usually chosen to account for the effects of the turbulent dispersion force.

, ANSYS Fluent offers several options to calculate the wall

lubrication force on the dispersed phases. For boiling flows, this force can be important in the

nucleating boiling regime. In the RPI model, the Antal et al. model ( ) is usually Antal et al. Model

chosen to account for the effects of the wall lubrication force.

In the wall boiling models, the virtual mass force can be modeled using the standard correlation

implemented for the Eulerian multiphase model as described in . Virtual Mass Force

17.5.20.6. Interfacial Heat Transfer

As the bubbles depart from the wall and move towards the subcooled region, there is heat transfer

from the bubble to the liquid, that is defined as

(17–437)

where is the volumetric heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient can be computed

using either the Ranz-Marshall or Tomiyama models described in The Heat Exchange Coefficient

.

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12/18/2018 17.5.20. Wall Boiling Models

The interface to vapor heat transfer is calculated using the constant time scale return to saturation

method [248]. It is assumed that the vapor retains the saturation temperature by rapid

evaporation/condensation. The formulation is as follows:

(17–438)

Where is the time scale set to a default value of 0.05 and is the isobaric heat capacity.

The evaporation mass flow is applied at the cell near the wall and it is derived from the evaporation

heat flux, Equation 17–438

:

(17–439)

The interfacial mass transfer depends directly on the interfacial heat transfer. Assuming that all the

heat transferred to the interface is used in mass transfer (that is, evaporation or condensation), the

interfacial mass transfer rate can be written as:

(17–440)

To model boiling flows, turbulence interaction models are usually included in the multiphase

turbulence models to describe additional bubble stirring and dissipation. As described in Turbulence

Models , three options are available for boiling flows: Troshko-Hassan (default), Simonin et al, and

Sato.

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