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Management information system


The development and management of information technology tools assists executives and the general workforce in performing any
tasks related to the processing of information. MIS and business systems are especially useful in the collation of business data and
the production of reports to be used as tools for decision making. Applications of MIS With computers being as ubiquitous as they are
today, there's hardly any large business that does not rely extensively on their IT systems.

However, there are several specific fields in which MIS has become invaluable.

Strategy Support
While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist management in understanding the effects of their
strategies, and help enable effective decision-making.MIS systems can be used to transform data into information useful for decision
making. Computers can provide financial statements and performance reports to assist in the planning, monitoring and
implementation of strategy.

MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into coherent reports unmanageable volumes of data that would
otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. By studying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that
would have remained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually.

Data Processing
Not only do MIS systems allow for the collation of vast amounts of business data, but they also provide a valuable time saving benefit
to the workforce. Where in the past business information had to be manually processed for filing and analysis it can now be entered
quickly and easily onto a computer by a data processor, allowing for faster decision making and quicker reflexes for the enterprise as
a whole.

Management by Objectives
While MIS systems are extremely useful in generating statistical reports and data analysis they can also be of use as a Management
by Objectives (MBO) tool.

MBO is a management process by which managers and subordinates agree upon a series of objectives for the subordinate to attempt
to achieve within a set time frame. Objectives are set using the SMART ratio: that is, objectives should be Specific, Measurable,
Agreed, Realistic and Time-Specific.

The aim of these objectives is to provide a set of key performance indicators by which an enterprise can judge the performance of an
employee or project. The success of any MBO objective depends upon the continuous tracking of progress.

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Bene ts of MIS
The field of MIS can deliver a great many benefits to enterprises in every industry. Expert organisations such as the Institute of MIS
along with peer reviewed journals such as MIS Quarterly continue to find and report new ways to use MIS to achieve business
objectives.

Core Competencies
Every market leading enterprise will have at least one core competency - that is, a function they perform better than their competition.
By building an exceptional management information system into the enterprise it is possible to push out ahead of the competition.
MIS systems provide the tools necessary to gain a better understanding of the market as well as a better understanding of the
enterprise itself.

A management information system (MIS) is a subset of the overall internal controls of a business covering the application of people,
documents, technologies, and procedures by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service
or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to
analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to
refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making,

e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information system

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM is de ned as :-


1) Provides information support for decision making in the organization

2) MIS is an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operation.

3) MIS is defined as a computer based information system.

Data
Data is a representation of a fact, figure, and idea

Information
information is an ordered sequence of symbols.

information is viewed as a type of input to an organism or designed device. Inputs are of two kinds. Some inputs are important to the
function of the organism. In his book Sensory Ecology, Duisenberg called these causal inputs. Other inputs information are important
only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time and
perhaps another place. Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a
connection to a causal input. In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory
systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or device. For example, light is often a causal
input to plants but provides information to animals. The colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic
work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower,
where the bee often finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.

Information is any type of sensory input. When an organism with a nervous system receives an input, it transforms the input into an
electrical signal. This is regarded information by some. The idea of representation is still relevant, but in a slightly different manner.
That is, while abstract painting does not represent anything concretely, when the viewer sees the painting, it is nevertheless
transformed into electrical signals that create a representation of the painting. Defined this way, information does not have to be
related to truth, communication, or representation of an object. Entertainment in general is not intended to be informative. Music, the
performing arts, amusement parks, works of fiction and so on are thus forms of information in this sense, but they are not necessarily
forms of information according to some definitions given above. Consider another example:

Decision making
Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes cognitive process resulting in an outcome leading to the selection of a
course of action among several alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice.[1] The output can be an action or
anPlease note
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Decision Making

Objectives must first be established

Objectives must be classified and placed in order of importance

Alternative actions must be developed

The alternative must be evaluated against all the objectives

The alternative that is able to achieve all the objectives is the tentative decision

The tentative decision is evaluated for more possible consequences

The decisive actions are taken, and additional actions are taken to prevent any adverse consequences from becoming
problems and starting both systems (problem analysis and decision making) all over again

Mis to an organization
Management Information Systems (MIS) is the term given to the discipline focused on the integration of computer systems with the
aims and objectives on an organisation.

The development and management of information technology tools assists executives and the general workforce in performing any
tasks related to the processing of information. MIS and business systems are especially useful in the collation of business data and
the production of reports to be used as tools for decision making. Applications of MIS With computers being as ubiquitous as they are
today, there's hardly any large business that does not rely extensively on their IT systems.

However, there are several specific fields in which MIS has become invaluable and use full to an organisation.

Strategy Support
While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist management in understanding the effects of their
strategies, and help enable effective decision-making.

MIS systems can be used to transform data into information useful for decision making. Computers can provide financial statements
and performance reports to assist in the planning, monitoring and implementation of strategy.

MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into coherent reports unmanageable volumes of data that would
otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. By studying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that
would have remained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually.

MIS systems can also use these raw data to run simulations - hypothetical scenarios that answer a range of 'what if' questions
regarding alterations in strategy. For instance, MIS systems can provide predictions about the effect on sales that an alteration in price
would have on a product. These Decision Support Systems (DSS) enable more informed decision making within an enterprise than
would be possible without MIS systems.

Data Processing
Not only do MIS systems allow for the collation of vast amounts of business data, but they also provide a valuable time saving benefit
to the workforce. Where in the past business information had to be manually processed for filing and analysis it can now be entered
quickly and easily onto a computer by a data processor, allowing for faster decision making and quicker reflexes for the enterprise as
a whole.

Management by Objectives
While MIS systems are extremely useful in generating statistical reports and data analysis they can also be of use as a Management
by Objectives (MBO) tool.
Please note : We are completely closed on 22nd December through to 31st December.
Any orders placed during this time will be dealt with when we open again on 31st December.
MBO is a management process by which managers and subordinates agree upon a series of objectives for the subordinate to attempt
to achieve within a set time frame. Objectives are set using the SMART ratio: that is, objectives should be Specific, Measurable,
Agreed, Realistic and Time-Specific.

The aim of these objectives is to provide a set of key performance indicators by which an enterprise can judge the performance of an
employee or project. The success of any MBO objective depends upon the continuous tracking of progress.

Bene ts of MIS
The field of MIS can deliver a great many benefits to enterprises in every industry. Expert organizations such as the Institute of MIS
along with peer reviewed journals such as MIS Quarterly continue to find and report new ways to use MIS to achieve business
objectives.

Information sharing
Today, information sharing is critical to almost every institution and organization. There is no more pressing need for information
sharing than during an international crisis, during which multi-national, military-civilian coordination is needed. Successful information
technology implementation for international crises could be increased by analyzing prior relief efforts. The purpose of this thesis is to
explore the role of information technology in enabling the sharing of actionable information among various organizations in relief
efforts. An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations
such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations used information technologies to increase information flow
across the organizations and thereby enhance the level of success of the operation.

Legal responsibilities in sourcing, sharing and storing information


With the rise in outsourcing and with more and more global organizations outsourcing business processes and IT services to India,
there has been a number of legal issues in outsourcing. Companies outsourcing to India have to face some complex legal issues with
outsourcing. If your organization is outsourcing to India, make sure that your organization is aware of the intellectual property
protection and the data privacy and protection in India. Before outsourcing to India, also make sure that your organization knows
about compliance with applicable Indian laws, enforcing contractual/legal rights in India and dispute resolution procedures.

There are several legal issues in offshore outsourcing and dealing with them effectively can help the organization who wishes to
outsource and the outsourcing service provider, to face the legal issues of outsourcing. The following are some tips on efficiently
dealing with the legal issues of offshore outsourcing.

1. Taxation
Offshore outsourcing is often influenced by several international and local issues. The taxation policy of India also has a big effect on
the offshore outsourcing decision. Before outsourcing, find out about the tax implications that you have to deal with. This is an
important legal aspect to deal with, because different countries have different tax laws You can meet your outsourcing provider in
India and decide about which tax provision would be appropriate in the legal contract.

2. Legal Systems that are Heterogeneous


When you outsource to India or any other country, you will discover that the rules of governance are different in different countries. In
outsourcing, you and your outsourcing provider have to make sure to include two different legal systems. This heterogeneity in the
legal system is an important legal issue with outsourcing that companies have to deal with. This problem exists, because there is no
legal system which can be used globally. Different countries even have different intellectual property laws. Since there are no standard
legal rules and regulations to follow, it is best to meet your outsourcing provider and make sure that you adhere to both the legal
systems. This will help you to sort out any legal issues of outsourcing.

3. The In uence of Local Laws


Some countries have strict data protection and privacy laws, which might be a hindrance in outsourcing. In such cases, the
outsourcing provider and the customer would be legally bound and share equal legal responsibilities. This might increase the liability
of the customer and in some cases can become a legal issue in outsourcing. Outsourcing service providers also have to protect their
business from civil penalties. Conduct some research on the country that you want to outsource to and if the local laws of that country
are a hindrance, find another outsourcing service provider. The influence of local laws is another major legal issue in outsourcing.
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4. Dispute Settlement

Legal Issues in Outsourcing to India


1. E ective Changes in Indian Laws
India is the most idea place to outsource to. When you outsource to India, you need not face many legal issues in offshore
outsourcing. There are many global organizations which have been outsourcing to India and these organizations have not faced any
hindrance with the legal issues of outsourcing to India. Indian laws are always going through amendments and they are often changed
to effectively meet the requirements of today and to be in unison with the latest international laws.. The Indian government has
brought about many effective changes in patents, copyrights, designs, trademarks to meet the requirements of today. Such effective
changes have transformed India's intellectual property laws.

2. The Proper Law of Contract in India


When a legal contract has to be made between two countries, the legal regime of any single country becomes insufficient to deal with
the situation. Outsourcing brings about two legal systems into the picture and this is where the private international law comes into
place. Before you sign a legal contract with your outsourcing provider, make sure that you decide about which law would govern the
legal contract. In India, the outsourcing service providers ensure that the "Proper Law of contract is applied, before a legal contract is
signed.

3. Choice of Law is endorsed by Indian courts


The courts in India have always endorsed the choice of proper law. If you have expressed the choice of law in the legal contract, you
can be sure that it will be supported in the Indian courts.

sharing
There Moral and Legal Responsibilities to Share Genetic Information Within Families, in Genetic Secrets: Protecting Privacy and
Confidentiality

Information trend
Consider these three contradictions in the daily life of the professional searcher:

1. Many search pros find themselves teaching searching skills to end users, but the real gap in teaching is actually where to search.

2. Finding is what users want and what drives their search satisfaction; searching and rigorous, high-quality process is what librarians
excel at. These are two very different value systems.

Ambiguity rules. How do we market professional searching skills if, by their very nature, there is an inherent contradiction between
these skills and what the market needs and values? Selling ourselves as "search pros" when the buyers value "finding" is a disconnect..
And marketing our narrow searching skills instead of our high-level search environment competencies is also a disconnect

1. Choosing searching tools that mitigate the mistakes of novice end users (Forgive them, Father, for they know not what they do.)

2. Never implying that our high-level searching skills are more than casually related to the armies of Googlers pounding their eager
fingers on keyboards.

3. Developing a new language to discuss and market the key differences between free Web searches and finely tuned subscription
search styles and skills. Advanced searching definitely doesn't just mean more search boxes in the search form or enabling a few plug-
in search buddy applications

Strategic decision making


most people might choose to divert the course of the train, and sacrifice only one child. You might think the same way, I guess. Exactly,
to save most of the children at the expense of only one child was rational decision most people would make, morally and
emotionally.But, have you ever thought that the child choosing to play on the disused track had in fact made the right decision to play
at a safe place.
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While we are all aware that life is full of tough decisions that need to be made, we may not realize that hasty decisions may not always
be the right one.

"Remember that what's right isn't always popular... and what's popular isn't always right."

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