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KONSERVASI TANAH & AIR (KTA)


DENGAN TANAMAN
MANFAAT, PROSES DAN TEKNIK KTA DENGAN TANAMAN
Kompetensi
• Mahasiswa mampu merancang dan
mengambil keputusan untuk
menentukan pilihan rancangan dari
berbagai cara penggunaan tanaman
untuk KTA, pemilihan tanaman ,
konservasi tanah pada lahan pertanian
dan lahan hutan
KONSERVASI TANAH DAN AIR
PADA LAHAN PERTANIAN

Konservasi tanah berarti


mendapatkan produksi
optimum berkesinambungan
Upaya KTA berjalan ditempat, MENGAPA ?:

1. KTA diartikan sempit (hanya terasering)


2. KTA dianggap pengeluaran biaya tambahan
3. KTA dianggap investasi jangka panjang yg
tidak memberi keuntungan langsung.
MENGATASI :
KTA harus dimasukkan sebagai salah satu
komponen proses produksi (seperti halnya
panca usaha tani lainnya). TANPA KTA TIDAK
AKAN DIPEROLAH HASIL YG TINGGI
BERKESINAMBUNGAN
Konservasi Tanah = Peningkatan Hasil :

Semua usaha utk meningkatkan hasil


tanaman, mulai dari pemilihan species/
varitas yang tepat, pengaturan jarak tanam,
pengolahan tanah, pemupukan, pengaturan
pola tanam, dsb dasarnya adalah pekerjaan
KTA.
Konsservasi tanah = Peningkatan hasil:

Budidaya jagung
Teknik 1 Teknik 2
Varitas lokal/tdk unggul unggul
Jarak tanam tidak teratur/jarang optimum
Pupuk rendah/tdk lengkap optimum
Biomassa diangkut utk mulsa
Hasil 2,5 t/ha 6,4 t/ha
Erosi 28 t/ha 18 t/ha
Praktek KTA Pengendalian terhadap
Percikan Limpasan
D T D T
Perlakuan agronomis
Penutupan permukaan tanah * * * *
Peningkatan kekasaran permukaan - - * *

Penigkatan penampungan permukaan + + * *

Peningkatan infiltrasi - - + *
Pengelolaan Tanah
Pemupukan, pupuk kandang + + + *
Pengolahan dalam, drainase - - + *
Perlakukan mekanis
Kontour, guludan - + + *
Terras - + + *
Shelterbelts - - - -
Saluran pembuangan - - - *

D = detachment, T = transport
- = No control, + = moderate control, * = strong control
What soil conservation techniques
are common practice?
Cultivated land

Agronomic measures Soil management Mechanical methods

Mulching Crop management Conservation tillage

Natural Synthetic Contour Ridging Minimum


tillage tillage

Terracing Water ways Structures

High density Multiple Cover cropping


planting cropping (Fallow system)

Crop Strip
rotations cropping
MANFAAT DAN KEUNTUNGAN TANAMAN

1. Menurunkan erosi
2. Meningkatkan kesuburan dan
produktivitas tanah
3. Perlindungan permukaan tanah
4. Konservasi air
5. Manfaat ekonomis ( jasa dan barang )
dari hasil tanaman
PERANAN TANAMAN DALAM
MEMPERKECIL LAJU EROSI
• Tanaman dapat menurunkan energi kinetik
hujan yang sampai pada permukaan tanah
melelui intersepsi daun.
• Peningkatan kekasaran permukaan oleh adanya
sisa tanaman yang menutup tanah sehingga
mengurangi limpasan permukaan.
• Pembentukan ruang pori oleh akar tanaman
sehingga meningkatkan kapasitas infiltrasi dan
perkolasi bertambah.
Proses tanaman menurunkan erosi dan
meningkatkan kesuburan tanah :
1. Menurunkan energi hujan dan limpasan
permukaan
2. Memperbaiki agregasi tanah dan sifat fisik
lainnya melalui bahan organik dan akar tnm
3. Meningkatkan infiltrasi, perkolasi dan
penyimpanan air dalam profil tanah
4. Peningkatan kesuburan kimia tanah dari
bahan organik dan penyediaan kembali unsur
hara yang berada pada lapisan dalam
5. Penambatan hara dr udara oleh tanaman
tertentu
Pengolongan tanaman berdasarkan tujuan :

1. Tanaman penutup tanah


2. Tanaman pelindung
3. Tanaman pagar
4. Tanaman penyubur tanah
Tanaman penutup tanah :

Walaupun semua tanaman sebenarnya


merupakan penutup tanah, tetapi yg
dimaksud dengan tanaman penutup tanah
dlm konservasi tanah yg dimaksud dgn
tanaman penutup tanah (cover crops)
adalah tanaman yg ditanam dengan tujuan
utama uth tujuan menutup tanah, baik
secara individu maupun diantara tanaman
utama.
Tanaman penutup tanah (lanjutan) :

Syarat tanaman penutup tanah :


1. Tajuk rendah, akan lebih baik jika langsung
menutup permukaan tanah, rapat
2. Tidak merupakan pesaing tanaman utama/yg
akan ditanam
3. Tidak merupakan inang hama/penyakit
tanaman utama/yg akan ditanam
4. Mudah dibersihkan jika sdh tidak diperlukan
sehingga tidak menjadi gulma
5. Lebih diutamakan Jika dapat menambat hara
Tanaman penutup tanah : cara menanam

• Tanaman penutup tanah dapat ditanam


monokulture, biasanya sebagai tanaman
pioneer. Setelah tanaman penutup tanah
dipanen, kemudian ditanami tanaman utama.
Contoh Mucuna
• Tanaman penutup tanah dapat juga ditanam
bersama dengan tanaman utama, untuk
memperlecil erosi, menambah hara, dan/atau
menekan pertumbuhan gulma yg tidak
dikehendaki. Contph Centrosema atau
calopogonium yg ditanam diantara/dibawah
tanaman karet, dan kelapa sawit
Foto 1. Tanaman penutup tanah monokultur
untuk memberantas rumput ilalang :
Mucuna (a), Canavalium (b), Crotalaria(c), Kecipir (d)
Foto 2. Centrosema dibawah tnm karet
Tanaman pelindung :

Tanaman pelindung ditanam dengan tujuan :


1. melindungi tnm utama dr kondisi yg kurang
menguntungkan (mis. Sinar matahari pd tanaman kopi).
2. Meningkatkan perlindungan tanah dr erosi
3. Mempertahankan/meningkatkan kesuburan
tanah dgn hasil bhn organik dan penambatan
hara
Tanaman pelindung ( lanjutan )

Syarat :
1. Tidak menyebabkan persaingan (hara, air
maupun cahaya). O.k. itu sebaiknya tanaman
pelindung memp. Sistim perakaran yg dalam,
jika tajuk daun banyak perlu dipangkas
2. Tidak merupakan inang hama/penyakit tnm
utama
3. Diutamakan tnm yg mampu menambat hara
dari udara
4. Mudah dipelihara
Contoh : lamtoro ( leucaena )
Tanaman pagar :

Tanaman pagar dlm KTA dpt berarti pagar


(fench) yg berfungsi sebagai pembatas
lahan sekaligus melindungi lahan dari
gangguan fisik (pencurian, dan
penggembalaan liar), dan pagar
(hedgerow) dlm sistim tanaman lorong, yg
berfungsi utk melindungi kerusakan tanah
dari erosi serta mempertahamkam/
meningkatkan kesuburan tanah
Tanaman pagar ( lanjutan ) :

Syarat :
1. Tdk menyebabkan persaingan (hara, air, dan
cahaya). Sebaiknya tanaman pelindung memp.
perakaran yg dlm, perlu dipangkas secara teratur.
2. Tidak merupakan inang hama/penyakit tnm
utama
3. Diutamakan tnm yg mampu menambat hara
dari udara
4. Mudah dipelihara
Contoh : lamtoro ( leucaena ), Gliricidae, Flemingia
(utk hedgerow), Secang, Jaranan (utk pagar)
Foto 3. Beberapa tnm utk hedgerow

Calliandra (a); albizia (b);


Cassia (c)
Tanaman penyubur tanah :

Walaupun semua tanaman dapat menyuburkan


tanah, yg dimaksud dlm bahasan ini adalah
tanaman yg sengaja ditanam utk meningkatkan
kesuburan tanah (terutama meningkatkan
kandungan hara).Pada umumnya digunakan
tanaman leguminose. Penanaman dapat
dilakukan secara monokultur sebelum atau
sesudah penanaman utama dlm sistim rotasi
(mis. mucuna –jagung; turi-padi sawah dlsb), atau
bersamaan dengan tanaman utama (mis
centrocema + Karet; crotalaris + jagung )
MACAM KONSERVASI
VEGETATIF
• Peningkatan kesuburan tanah dan peningkatan
ketersediaan air (tanaman penutup tanah, mulsa)
• Penanaman searah garis kontur / Penamanan dalam
strip
• Pola tanam (tumpang gilir, tumpang sari)
• Strip tumbuhan penyangga (riparian buffer strips
• Sistem wanatani / Agrofoerstri(budidaya lorong,pagar
hidup, strip tumbuhan alami, strip rumput, silvipastura,
kebun campuran
• Rebosisasi
TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH (COVER CROPS)

Sumber: Vern Grubinger, Cover Cropping Strategies, Univiersity of Vermont


Cover Crops
• Lower value, not main cash crops
• Usually grown in seasons less favorable
for cash crop production
Reasons for Growing Cover Crops
• Forage
• Animal feed
• Green manure
• N management
• Erosion control
• Pest management
• Etc.
Cover crops used as:
• Rotation crops
• Green manures
• Ground covers in perennial orchards or
vineyards
• Other (living mulch, overseeding, etc.
Intercropping)
Cover Crops
for Tropical Systems
• Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
• Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)
• Jointvetch (Aeschynomene spp.)
• Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)
• Velvetbean (Mucuna spp.)
Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea)
as Summer Cover Crop

Excellent N source
Good biomass production
Reduces root-knot and other nematodes
Bush Velvetbean
Cowpea Cover Crop
Cowpea and Sunn Hemp Cover Crops
Why grow low value cover crops?
• Diversification of production for mixed
farms (forage, feed, etc.) Useful when
integrating animals into farming system
• Limit soil erosion
• Benefits of crop rotation:
N management
Pest management
Outcompete weeds
Castor -- Suppressive rotation crop
to some pests and weeds
Crimson clover winter cover
crop can increase root-knot
nematodes for spring crop
Summer Cover Crop of Resistant Cowpea
Can Decrease Root-Knot Nematodes
Root-Knot Nematodes after Summer
Cover Crops – Marion Co. 2001

140
*
Nematodes per 100cc soil

120
100

80
60

40

20
0
Soybean Cowpea Sudax Sunn H Corn
Why grow low value cover crops?
• Diversification of production
• Limit soil erosion
• Benefits of crop rotation
• Utilize excess fertilizer reduce pollution
• Improve soil structure
• Stabilize soil temperature reduce OM
breakdown
• Improve soil fertility adds OM
TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH (COVER CROPS)

Sumber: Vern Grubinger, Cover Cropping Strategies, Univiersity of Vermont


MULSA ( MULCH)

Sumber: Vern Grubinger, Cover Cropping Strategies, Univiersity of Vermont


Mulsa

Mulsa adalah semua bahan (selain pupuk) yg


diberikan pada tanah (biasanya di permukaan,
walau tidak selalu).
Tujuan pemberian mulsa :
1. Mengurangi laju erosi (pada musim hujan)
2. Mengurangi evaporasi (musim kemarau)
3. Memperbaiki sifat tanah (struktur tanah)
Foto 1.
Pemberian mulsa untuk menurunkan erosi
Plastic mulch is a product used, in a similar fashion
to mulch, to suppress weeds and conserve water in
crop production and landscaping.

The red color actually increases stem


strength
History
The idea of using polyethylene film as mulch in plant
production saw it’s beginnings in the mid 1950’s.
Cost
These costs include
equipment, the plastic film
used as the mulch,
transplanters designed for
plastic beds, and additional
labor during installation and
removal of mulch films.

Hoophouses used for growing of


transplants
Organic strawberry field:
variable plant vigour due to no
fumigation. Yields less than 1/
2 conventional.

Panda plastic mulch clear

top with black sides.


PENGATURAN POLA TANAM :

Macam pola tanam :


1. Tanaman tunggal (mono kultur)
2. Tanaman ganda :
- pergiliran tanaman
- tanaman campuran
- tumpangsari
- strip cropping
- alley cropping
PENAMANAN DALAM STRIP (STRIP CROPING)
DAN
PENANAMAN SEARAH KONTOUR
(CONTOUR FARMING)

Sumber: Vern Grubinger, Cover Cropping Strategies, Univiersity of Vermont


Tanaman Strip (Strip Cropping ) :

Penanaman dua atau 3 macam tanaman


secara berselang-seling menurut kontour,
Keuntungan : menurunkan erosi
Syarat : diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga
sepanjang waktu selalu ada bagian lahan
yg tertutup. Jika lahan curam, harus ada
bagian lahan yg tertutup secara
permanen.
Foto 3. Strip cropping
Contour Planting and Strip Cropping

Fig. 10-16b, p. 217


STRIPCROPPING
Bertani menurut Kontour (Contour farming)

Semua tindakan budidaya tanaman, mulai


dari pengolahan tanah, pengaturan
barisan tanaman dst. Dilakukan searah
dengan kontour. Dengan cara ini maka
kekasaran permukaan akan meningkat,
sehingga limpasan permukaan (kecepatan
dan volume) akan berkurang, dan
selanjutnya erosi menjadi lebih rendah.
Protecting soil: contour farming

Contour Farming =
plowing furrows
sideways across
a hillside,
perpendicular to
its slope
– prevent rills
and gullies
TUMPANG GILIR (CROP ROTATION)

Sumber: Vern Grubinger, Cover Cropping Strategies, Univiersity of Vermont


Pergiliran tanaman : menanam beberapa macam
tanaman pd sebidang lahan pd waktu berurutan.

1. Keuntungan :
- mengurangi resiko penurunan kes. Tanah
- memotong siklus hama/penyakit
- menganeka ragamkan hasil
2. Syarat :
- tnm yg titanam tidak memerlukan hara sama
- tidak mempunyai hama/penyakit yg sama
Contoh : padi gogo- Kacang tanah- jagung
Crop Rotation –
Warm Temperate and Tropical Systems
• Continuous crop sequences
• Cash crops (economics often determines
crop sequence)
• Cover crops (not primary $$ crop)
• Unintentional rotations
Crop Rotation –
Warm Temperate and Tropical Systems
• Continuous crop sequences
• Cash crops (economics often determines
crop sequence)
• Cover crops (not primary $$ crop)
• Unintentional rotations:
Fallow – variously defined = clean fallow, weed
fallow (erosion, etc.)

Weeds (increased diversity or source of pests?)


Protecting soil: crop rotation

• Crop Rotation = alternating the crops grown from one season


or year to the next
– wheat or corn and soybeans
Benefits of Crop Rotation
• Diversification of production
• Effects on next crop:
• Source of N (see cover crops)
• Pest management (especially less mobile
pests (nematodes, soilborne diseases)
Breaks cycle of pest

Some crops toxic to pests (marigold, etc.)


Crop Rotation Sequences can be
Critical
• Legume provides N often improves
yield of next crop
• Sorghum uses up excess N can
decrease yield of next crop (high C:N can
immobilize N)
• Wheat possible allelochemical effects
on next crop
• Herbicide residues could carry over into
next crop (e.g., corn soybean)
Specific Information Needed to do Crop
Rotation – Example: Potato following
Legume or Sorghum
• If no soilborne pests present:
Legume before potato increased N
increased yield
Sorghum before potato possible decreased
yield
• If certain soil insects (wireworms) present:
sorghum before potato increased insect
damage
• If root-knot nematodes present: legume before
potato increased nematode damage
Wireworm
Larva of Click Beetle

D Hall et al. 2008 EDIS


Grain Sorghum
Forage Sorghum
Often used in potato rotations
Potato following Legume or
Sorghum Rotation in Florida
Legume Sorghum

N addition +++ ---

OM addition + +++

Weed + +++
management
Pests Nematodes Wireworms
encouraged
Specific Information Needed to do Crop
Rotation – Example: Potato following
Legume or Sorghum

• Usual rotation is sorghum + N fertilizer


• Suppresses nematodes
• Suppresses weeds
• Adds OM to soil
• N fertilizer is added
Benefits of Crop Rotation
• Diversification of production
• Effects on next crop:
• Source of N (see cover crops)
• Pest management (especially less mobile
pests (nematodes, soilborne diseases)
Green Manures
• Can add N for succeeding crops
• Plowed in while still green, at optimum C:N
ratio
Green Manures
• Can add N for succeeding crops
• Plowed in while still green, at optimum C:N
ratio
• Example: corn following summer green
manure crops (Reddy et al., 1986)
Summer Rye cover Corn
Cut and
green crop in next
tilled in
manure winter spring
Green Manure Effects on Corn
Crop N yield from
crop biomass
Mungbean 24
Pigeonpea 267
Crotalaria 169
Hairy Indigo 233
Velvetbean 153
Fallow 34

(kg/ha)
Green Manure Effects on Corn
Crop N yield from Dry matter yield
crop biomass of corn crop
Mungbean 24 3510 d
Pigeonpea 267 4070 c
Crotalaria 169 6760 a
Hairy Indigo 233 4830 b
Velvetbean 153 4170 c
Fallow 34 2708 e
(kg/ha) (kg/ha)
Green Manure Cover Crops: Benefits

• Add N
• Add soil organic matter
• Possible toxic residues vs. some pests
(e.g., cabbage)
• Erosion protection and other benefits of
cover crops
Green Manure Cover Crops: Problems

• May deplete soil moisture in dry climates


• Non-legume or high C:N ratio depresses
available N (solve by turning under while
still green = lower C:N ratio)
• Ties up land for crops of low economic
value
TUMPANG SARI
(INTERCROPPING)

Sumber: Vern Grubinger, Cover Cropping Strategies, Univiersity of Vermont


Tanaman campuran :

Penanaman beberapa tnm pada sebidang lahan pd


waktu yg sama. Jika ada yg dianggap tnm utama
disebut tumpang sari ( tnm utama dan tnm sela ).
Keuntungan :
1. Tajuk cepat menutup lahan, erosi turun
2. mempertahankan kesuburan tanah
3. memperkecil resiko kegagalan panen
Syarat :
1. tidak mempunyai kebutuhan hara dan tajuk yg
sama
2. diusahakan salah satu tnm dpt menambah hara
3. tidak mempunyai hama/penyakit yg sama
Contoh : Ubikayu + jagung; tebu + Cowpea
Foto 2. Tumpang sari Tebu + Cowpea
Perennial Peanut
Possible Groundcover or Living Mulch
Protecting soil: intercropping

• Intercropping
= planting
different types
of crops in
alternating
bands
– increases
ground cover
Windbreaks

Fig. 10-16d, p. 217


POLA TANAM
AGROFORESTRI

Sumber: K Hairiah
Tanaman lorong (alley cropping ) :

Tanaman lorong adalah bentuk khusus


strip cropping, dimana sebagao tanaman
strip-nya adalah tanaman pohon, yg
disebut hedgerow (tnm pagar), sedang
tanaman pangan ditanam diantara 2 baris
tnm pagar, disebut pula sebagai tnm
lorong
Tanaman lorong (lanjutan) :

Manfaat :
1. Menurunkan laju erosi
2. Mempertahankan kesuburan tanah
Syarat tanaman hedgerow :
1. Tidak menyebabkan persaingan hara, air dan
cahaya
2. Menghasilkan bahan oganik yg tinggi
3. Mampu menambat hara dr udara
4. Tidak merupakan inang hama/penyakit
5. Mudah dipelihara
Foto 4. Alley cropping tnm jagung dgn
hedgerow tnm gliriside
Alley Cropping

Fig. 10-16c, p. 217


• Sistem pertanaman lorong atau alley cropping adalah
suatu sistem dimana tanaman pagar pengontrol erosi
berupa barisan tanaman yang ditanam rapat mengikuti
garis kontur, sehingga membentuk lorong-lorong dan
tanaman semusim berada di antara tanaman pagar
tersebut
Agroforestri = alley cropping = budidaya pagar ?

Plot perc. Lampung Utara


Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah
Tawangmangu
Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah
Sengon Cengkeh

Teh

Bagelan, Malang
Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah
Maninjau
Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah
(Foto: Jan Bennist & K.Hairiah)
AGROFORESTRI

• Sederhana (simple agroforestry)


• Kompleks (Complex Agroforestry or
Agroforest)

(De Foresta and Michon, 1994)


AGROFORESTRI SEDERHANA
Komponen : < 5 spesies tanaman
•Tanaman semusim: Satu atau dua
spesies
•Pohon/tanaman semak, 2-3 musim
atau lebih
•Pohon sebagai pagar hidup atau
berpencar di dalam petak atau
ditanam dalam barisan
AGROFORESTRI KOMPLEKS

Komponen : > 5 spesies tanaman


•Pohon, liana (tanaman memanjat),
tanaman obat-obatan dsb.
•Fungsi dan strukturnya menyerupai
hutan alami
•Dikelola oleh petani
REBOISASI / PENGHIJAUAN
Reboisasi dan Penghijauan :

Reboisasi dan penghijauan pada dasarnya


adalah penanaman tanaman pohon. Re :
kembali, jadi Reboisasi berarti penanam
an tnm pohon kembali di lahan hutan.
Penghijauan digunakan utk semua
kegiatan penanaman pohon pada lahan
non hutan
Reboisasi dan Penghijauan (lanjutan):

Pertimbangan pemilihan tanaman :


1. Sesuai dgn kondisi/syarat tumbuh
2. Sesuai dgn tujuan (lindung/produksi/
konservasi air, atau menghilangkan air)
3. Diutamakan tanaman lokal
4. Mempunyai nilai ekonomis
5. Cepat tumbuh, mudah dipelihara
(terutama utk tanah marginal, biasanya
digunakan tnm akasia, sengon )
• Penghutanan kembali (reforestation) secara umum
dimaksudkan untuk mengembalikan dan memperbaiki
kondisi ekologi dan hidrologi suatu wilayah dengan
tanaman pohon-pohonan. Penghutanan kembali juga
berpotensi untuk peningkatan kadar bahan organik
tanah dari serasah yang jauh di permukaan tanah dan
sangat mendukung kesuburan tanah. Penghutanan
kembali biasanya dilakukan pada lahan-lahan kritis
yang diakibatkan oleh bencana alam misalnya
kebakaran, erosi, abrasi, tanah longsor, dan aktivitas
manusia seperti pertambangan, perladangan
berpindah, dan penebangan hutan.
DASAR PEMILIHAN JENIS
POHON untuk lahan terdegradasi
• Cepat dan mampu tumbuh ditempat terbuka penyiaran
penuh serta menghasilkan seresah yang banyak.
• Tajuk lebat, akar kuat &melebar, serabut, dalam,
serta mampu bersaing dengan alang-alang.
• Mudah ditanam & minim pemeliharaan
• Tahan terhadap hama penyakit
• Mampu memperbaiki hara terutama nitrogen
• Memiliki nilai ekonomis.
• Biji atau bagian vegetatif mudah diperoleh.
• Pohon jenis lokal yang dominan hidup (domestikasi)
BUFFER STRIP

Sumber: Widianto
Adanya cekungan
(embung) alami dan
relief mikro menjadi
tempat singgah air
permukaan sehingga
tidak langsung mengalir
ke sungai, meningkatkan
kapasitas infiltrasi
kawasan dan
mengendapkan bahan
terangkut air (sedimen
dsb)

Adanya strip filter atau buffer


sepanjang bantaran/sempadan
sungai bisa mengurangi jumlah
sedimen yang bisa masuk ke
sungai, sehingga air sungai bisa
tetap jernih
Skema Perkembangan Lansekap dalam DAS

Seluruh DAS Mulai ada Pertanian Peningkatan Upaya


tertutup Pembukaan intensif, pemanfaatan restorasi
HUTAN Hutan untuk Hutan tersisa lahan dengan
Pertanian di bantaran menghabisk agroforestri
sungai an hutan dan
tersisa konservasi
vegetatif

Dimodifikasi dari sumber : Susswein, van Noordwijk and Verbist (2002)


Debit Banjir (tahunan)

Jumlah Sedimen Terangkut

Debit dasar (tahunan)

Dimodifikasi dari sumber : Susswein, van Noordwijk and Verbist (2002)


Erosi dan
longsor

FILTER dan
BUFFER

Air Jernih
Conservation Tillage
Pengolahan tanah Konservasi :

1. Dengan diolah, ikatan/agregasi tanah akan


rusak, tanah terbuka pada pukulan langsung
air hujan dan limpasan permukaan.
2. Padahal, belum tentu semua tindakan
pengolahan diperlukan oleh tanaman

Diperlukan modifikasi pengolahan tanah


(kemudian disebut Pengolahan tanah
konservasi, Conservation tillage )
Pengolahan tanah Konservasi (lanjutan):

1. Tanpa olah tanah ( zero tillage )


2. Pengolahan tanah seperlunya/minimum
(minimum tillage)
3. Pengolahan tanah bawah
4. Pengolahan tanah menurut kontour
(contour tillage )
Conservation Tillage
• = portion of previous crop residue left
unincorporated on soil surface
Conservation Tillage
• = portion of previous crop residue left
unincorporated on soil surface
• Opposite of conventional tillage (plowing)
• Plowing benefits: good root zone, weed
management
• Not plowing benefits: erosion management
Tillage Options
• Tillage (turn in everything)
• Top mowed and removed (root stubble
left)
• Top mowed, but left as mulch (root stubble
left)
• Planting into dead crop residues (nothing
removed)
Tillage and Crop Residue
Management
NONE 100%

TILLAGE SURFACE
INTENSITY RESIDUE

FREQUENT 0%
Tillage and Crop Residue
Management
NONE No tillage 100%

TILLAGE SURFACE
INTENSITY RESIDUE
Minimum tillage

Reduced tillage

FREQUENT 0%
Tillage and Crop Residue
Management
NONE 100%
No Tillage
90%
TILLAGE SURFACE
INTENSITY RESIDUE
30%
Minimum Tillage

FREQUENT 0%
Conservation Tillage
• = portion of previous crop residue left
unincorporated on soil surface
• Many different terms:
• = Reduced Tillage
• = No Tillage
• = Minimum Tillage
• = Crop Residue Management
Conservation Tillage
• = Reduced Tillage
• = No Tillage
• = Minimum Tillage
• = Crop Residue Management
• Many different terms, depending on
relative amounts of residues and varying
degrees of incorporation (cover crop
mowed and used as mulch, forage
removed with stubble left in field, etc.)
Strip Tillage
• Crops planted into narrow tilled strip (4-
12”, 10-30 cm)

Residue Residue
on on
surface surface
Strip Tillage Planting into Crop Residue
Rye Cover Crop Killed by Herbicide,
Use Strip Till Planter to Plant Crops
Crops Strip Planted into Green Cover Crop,
Cover Killed Later with Herbicide
Strip Till Peanut in Rye Mulch (double row)
Strip Till Peanut in Rye Mulch (single row)
Strip Till Corn in Rye Mulch
Strip Till Cotton in Rye Mulch
Conservation tillage in US
increased rapidly since 1980’s

Schertz, 1994
Advantages and Reasons for using
Minimum Tillage
• Reduced erosion
• Economics
• Moisture conservation
• Stabilizes soil temperature
• Improved soil fertility and accessibility
• Improved quality of surface water
• Government regulations and programs
• Improved yields
Relationship between Conservation
Tillage (more surface residue) and
Reduction in Erosion
Advantages and Reasons for using
Minimum Tillage
• Reduced erosion
• Economics (reduced trips over field and fuel
costs, but more herbicide)
• Moisture conservation (reduced evaporation
rates)
• Stabilizes soil temperature
• Improved soil fertility and accessibility
• Improved quality of surface water
• Government regulations and programs
• Improved yields
Relationship between Conservation
Tillage (more surface residue) and
Moisture Conservation (less
evaporation)
Advantages and Reasons for using
Minimum Tillage
• Reduced erosion
• Economics
• Moisture conservation
• Stabilizes soil temperature
• Improved soil fertility and accessibility
(preserves OM)
• Improved quality of surface water (reduced
erosion and runoff)
• Government regulations and programs
• Improved yields
Advantages and Reasons for using
Minimum Tillage
• Reduced erosion
• Economics
• Moisture conservation
• Stabilizes soil temperature
• Improved soil fertility and accessibility
• Improved quality of surface water
• Government regulations and programs (Food
Security Act – 1985 – Minimum tillage
considered part of soil conservation program to
reduce erosion)
• Improved yields
Advantages and Reasons for using
Minimum Tillage
• Reduced erosion
• Economics
• Moisture conservation
• Stabilizes soil temperature
• Improved soil fertility and accessibility
• Improved quality of surface water
• Government regulations and programs
• Improved yields ? --- Depends on soil types and
conditions….
Soybean Yield (bu/A)
Tillage system Favorable soils Droughty soils

Conventional 44.0 33.2


plowing

No-till 41.1 38.1

Benefit from no-till


From Johnson, 1994 in poor soils
Improved Yields from Minimum
Tillage?
• South US, dry soils greater yields
• North US lower yields (cooler temps.,
less DD in no-till)
Problems with Minimum Tillage

• Weeds
• Weed pressure often severe in min. tillage
• Increased herbicide usage for weed
control and for killing crop residues
• Roundup-Ready cultivars
• New weed problems – K strategists, etc.
• Compaction -- varies
US Pesticide Sales following
Increase in Conservation Tillage

Mostly
herbicides

Johnson, 1994
Effects of minimum tillage on
physical and biological factors
• Soil moisture
• Soil temperature
• Soil fertility
• Soil acidity
• Pests
Effects of minimum tillage:
Soil Moisture
• Decreased evaporation and water loss
• + + improved water holding capacity on
soils that tend to dry
• - - may delay drying in water-logged soils
Effects of minimum tillage:
Soil Temperature
• Lowers soil temperature, depending on
amount of residue
• + + for South US, tropics
• - - for north (soil warming may be delayed
in spring)
Effects of minimum tillage:
Soil Fertility
• + + increased organic matter, reduced
erosion
• - - N availability can be affected by
residues and lead to deficiency:
Fertilizer placement and degree of incorporation is important

C:N ratio of residue is critical

Placement important with other nutrients (P, K) too


Effects of minimum tillage:
Soil Fertility
• + + increased organic matter, reduced
erosion
• - - N availability can be affected by
residues and lead to deficiency:
Fertilizer placement and degree of incorporation is important
C:N ratio of residue is critical
Placement important with other nutrients (P, K) too

Strip Tillage can help with these


fertilizer placement problems !
Effects of minimum tillage:
Soil Acidity
• Can increase with decomposition and
organic acids
• Can affect nutrient availability
• Takes time to develop and may be
confined in a relatively narrow vertical strip
Effects of minimum tillage:
Pests
• Weeds --- can be major problem
• Diseases
• Insects
Effects of minimum tillage:
Diseases
• Varies with specific situations and ecology
of pathogens
• Crop rotation important to eliminate
residues of the same crop (contaminated
residues could be source of disease
inoculum)
• Some seed pathogens worse with cooler
soil temperatures
Effects of minimum tillage:
Insects
• Varies --- may favor pests or beneficials
• Favorable habitat and hiding places for
crop pests in residues (cutworms, snails,
slugs)
• May provide habitat for predators
Tillage
impacts
larger
organisms;

No tillage
benefits
earthworms,
predators
Coleman and
Crossley, 1996
Seedbed Problems in Min. Tillage
• Problem in cool, moist soils
• Increased seedling mortality from:
• Mulch layers
• Diseases (aggravated by cool temp. and
moisture)
• Slow germination and establishment
(lower DD if soil is cool)
References
• Text, Ch. 14, pp. 287-295.
• Altieri, 1987. Ch. 11.
• Coleman, D.C., and D.A. Crossley. 1996.
Fundamentals of Soil Ecology. Academic Press,
San Diego.
• Johnson, R.R. 1994. Pp. 12-22 in P.J. Bauer
and W.J. Busscher, eds. Proc. of the 1994
Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for
Sustainable Agriculture. USDA Coastal Plains
Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center,
Florence, SC.
• Schertz, D.L. 1994. Pp. 1-5 in Bauer and
Busscher.
GEOTEXTILES

Sumber: Furhan R. Hussain Qurat-ul-Ain


Soil Erosion Control
Geotextiles

Currently, the major use of natural fiber


geotextiles worldwide is in
erosion control industry!

Textile Research & Innovation Centre | Textile Institute of Pakistan


www.tip.edu.pk
Soil Erosion Control
with Geotextiles
• Erosion is controlled in four
primary ways, however the
Ground Cover solution is
most common.
• Ground covers provide
additional control over
weeds as a benefit.
• Geotextile ground covers
can be synthetic or natural,
however natural fibers are
preferred for their
environment friendly
properties
Textile Research & Innovation Centre | Textile Institute of Pakistan
www.tip.edu.pk
Soil Erosion Control
with Geotextiles
• Two most common natural fibers for natural
geotextiles are coir and jute.
• Natural fibers are processed into fine yarns
which in turn are woven or matted to create
fabrics.
• Jute geo-textiles (JGT) holds many
advantages over man-made geotextiles in
controlling surface soil-detachment and
consequent erosion for its three dimensional
construction.
Textile Research & Innovation Centre | Textile Institute of Pakistan
www.tip.edu.pk
Soil Erosion Control
with Geotextiles
• JGT can retain almost 5
times their own weight of
moisture, can attenuate
extremes of temperature,
can provide protection to
seedlings from the direct
sunrays and prevent
dehydration of soil, allows
air and light through its
pores, and provides micro-
nutrients to the soil after
biodegradation.
Textile Research & Innovation Centre | Textile Institute of Pakistan
www.tip.edu.pk
Soil Erosion Control
with Geotextiles
• Yarns (usually weft yarns) of JGT placed
normal to the direction of surface run-off
act as mini check-dams laid in series,
curbing the velocity of surface run-off and
preventing, to a good extent, migration of
the detached particles beyond.

Textile Research & Innovation Centre | Textile Institute of Pakistan


www.tip.edu.pk
Soil Erosion Control
with Geotextiles
Application Methods of NGT:
1.The soil-surface is to be leveled without any
sharp aggregate protruding over it.
2.Broadcasting of seeds of appropriate
vegetation.
3.Unrolling of NGT from top of the slope to the
bottom along the direction of surface run-off.
4.Anchoring of JGT by steel staples/wooden
pegs within a trench at the two ends and filling
the trench with brick bats/gravel or suitable
materials.
Textile Research & Innovation Centre | Textile Institute of Pakistan
www.tip.edu.pk
Soil Erosion Control
with Geotextiles
Application Methods of NGT:
5. Care should be taken to ensure drape
ability of JGT i.e., the fabric must touch
the ground at all points.
6. Overlaps should be 100 mm at the
sides and 150 mm at the ends.
7. A second dose of seed broadcasting
should be given over the laid NGT along
with dibbling of locally available grass.
Textile Research & Innovation Centre | Textile Institute of Pakistan
www.tip.edu.pk
TERIMAKASIH
Protecting soil: terracing and
intercropping
• Terracing = level
platforms are cut into
steep hillsides
– a “staircase” to contain
water

• Intercropping = planting
different types of crops in
alternating bands
– increases ground cover
Protecting soil: shelterbelts and
reduced tillage
• Shelterbelts or Windbreaks =
rows of trees or tall, perennial
plants…planted along edges of
fields to slow the wind

• Reduced Tillage = furrows are


cut in the soil, a seed is dropped
in and the furrow is closed
– No-till farming
• disturbs the soil even less