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IShUBD 10TH JtI1fB, 1912

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. .
THROUGH the lamented death of Sir Joseph Hooker, the greatest of
_British bota.nists, the New Zealand Institute has lost not only the
most illustrious and revered of its honorary members, but one whose
hand haa laid an imprellll on New Zealand science never to be effaced.
Hooker's connection with New Zealand botany oommenced so long
ago aa the early summer of 184:0, when, as naturalist to the fanious
Antarctic Expedition under Sir James Ross, he explored botanically
the Auckland and Ca~pbell Ialands. How thoroughly this work was
conducted is evidenoed by t,he fact that, not,vithstanding subsequent
visits of several experienoed botanists and one well-equipped soient.ific
expedition, only twenty-five additions, many of which are doubtless
extremely local, have been made to Hookel"s original list of 124:
speoies of vasculf1l' plants. As for the lower cryptogams (2'17 species),
they remain virtually as they were. Three months (August-November)
of the sllcceeding year were spent by Hooker at the Bay of Islands,
where he made a. oollection of about t,hl'ee hundred species, alld gained
, at tho Barno time a first-hand n.cql\aintance with a. portion of the New
Zealand fiora. proper. Perhaps even more important was his meeting
ColenBo~ who;, ,through oontact with the brilliant young botanist, was
stirre~ 'tlp;to'tliat 1if.e-Iong enthusiastio devotion to science whioh yielded
such valuR.ble results. '
rmmerliately on the return of the Ross Expedition Hooker commenced
the study of his collections, and, notwit,hstnnding their magnitude,
the first volume of the incent I. Floro. A ntarcticB," devoted to
the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands, appeared in 184:4, a.nd marked
tho oc)mmencement of a new epoch in New Zealand botany.
']'h(1 yeaI'M 1853 to 1855 RIlW the publicntion of tIle II Flora Novae-
Z(~lnnlliue, II It clull.rto wOl'k in two volumes similar to·, the H Flora
Antarotica," consisting of 729 pages anrl 130 coloured plates. In tbis
and the last-mellt.ioned "'ork the species Ilore not merely descl'ibed, but
their Iloffini,ties Ilond geographical distribution most thoroughly consiilel'ed.
Furthor. 't,he essay on the New Zeala.nd fior& which formed an intro-
dqaj;ion to the'" Flora Novn.e-Zelandiae" is Ilo phytogeographic c1allBi'o
. of the :'h~ghest excellence, Written presuma.bly to educate the colonial
colleotor 'a,n:d ,to stimulate botanical resea.rch in the l)ew oolony, it
dealR in a."mast searclling manner with the origin a.nd affinities of
the fiora, and" 'si's' a. contribution to philosophical plant-geography bas
llever been 'excelled, in its admirable marshalling of the, facts, clear-
neAR of, style, moderation of tone, and oarefully balanced 'oo:nch~sions:
, Another portion of the essay. trea.ting ,of the Ihnita. of specieS. their,
'dispersion and, variation, is full of ma.tter -interesting ·ev~ .yet' f.c:l 'a
pl'eaent-day IItudent of evolution. . , ,.

Hoob.el II IllVt.'StiglltlOlll-, IJI 1'W\\ Zl',LI,.IIld hotn.llY l'\tolltlt.'el JUI Illtu tllt
"lIIlXtioR," \\hon hi~ "Hmlllhool, of the No\\ ZOll.lILlid 1"1otll" (IKtil-li7) 'l'hib WUR UO Illt'l C I ol'l"oelucl inll of hil'l 101"1111'1' works, 1"01
many cololtia1 collcl:tol"S Il11el 11t'1'1 1 hun1 at, "ork «'01('11"", 'l'I'nvl'rll,
Ila.ast, Hecto!", Buchanllll, &1.'.), I1m1 1\ vl1s1 Cjlllllltity of fI'c"h Illllle'l ia)
awaited examination. Itllk~'lI, Iho tusk \\118 olle of 110 IllOlLl1 IIIn~lIilllde.
and when the marvc]]clUs IIC'Cll1'UCY of the dOBCI'ipilOllS iM ccmbidl'rl'c! it
ill lU\I"d to helieve tho ract that Ihoy wel'O rll'n.wn up fl'OIll lwrh:u illlll
material alone. AMSIll"euly, well might IJal"win l.!A.clu illl , "Oh, my
heavens I to get up at second hand a New Zealand Born-that ill work."
How original the trea.tment was il'l flhown by Homsley's cOlllputation
that sixteen endemic genel'a anrl hali the species descrihecl havo thc'
aHh: " IIouk. f."
The indebtedness of Nell Zealaud science does not end ""ith nooker'r.
publishtlil work, To all r.e!'ious iJlvehtigators or the fiorl!. ho was n
friend, guide, and counst.'llor Thc!'t.' is, indeed, no nllollle of momeJlt
in the !att'r botany of the Dominion but is dee}>ly indebted to Hooker'lI
iufhwnce· mel I\lIl:1i",t,lllOO, gcn('l'ously given,
Almost to the did the grcat hotnnist feel keen interest ill the
progress of knowlodge in tha.t fa r-ol'f r('~ion ",II ere hib spurs lwei ht·(·n
WOII, WI'iting to the Council of the (!:l1Ih'lbury hr:mch of tho Institllte
on the 24th June, 1910, he slLill, ill 1'(.'1'('1'01\1.'0 to the l'l'ccntly publi"lll·tl
., SuhUlltll1 ctic IRll1nns or N('" ZoalIt1ll1," "r was II.wnr(.' of tho lICi('ntific
expedition to the .\ucklnlld and ClImllhe>ll Jr.latub, OI'~lllIizorl in I!Hl7.
and WOR looking anxioll'Jly fo\' Romo records of itt! l'cHults." .Aft('r
explaining that, of courlle, ho was &pecilllly int('r('~t('Ci in the botany,
hE' I\dds, "Thero is really no section. hiological and gcologicnl, which
I can afford to overlook."
Hooker's work on New Zealand botany, to whioh tho above IIketch
does but Bcnnt justice, el.-OOnding over II. period of nearly forty years,
I'eflects but a. portion of that galli.UM 0.1111 imlUl.Lr,~ whioh have
80 strongly infl.uenced botanical rCflearch thl'Ou~hont the Empire.
TA. (!()CR.\YNJa.

HINU Cr,AYI,ANDto. FI1~Ll.I was btlru at Holyboul'De, HllrnJlshh'!" 1~lIg1ll11d.
in 1825. He rcceived his OdUOlltioIl at 8tnckwcll r.I'UlnllIlLf S('}\olll :lfId
the Cit.y of J..ondon Sebool, a.lId completed the scliuluMtic p()rtiflll 11£ hill
life by a COUrRtl at King-'M College, LOllllon,
Being destined fOl' the p"ofebSion of u. oivil engineer, he was u.rticlu()
to Sir .Tohn Rcnnic, whose llame is well kno"n all over the worlc1 ill
connection with great works of engineering, and wllo WU.S t,he huileh·r
of the presont London Bridge.
At the age of twenty Mr. Field l'ntel'ed tho service of lID lenglish
nilway oompany, where he remained for ten years. The colonial! then
attrllCted him, and he came out to New Zealand in tho ship U Simla,"
nnd proceeded to Wanganui. The yuung settlement wus t.hen governed
by U Town Board, which appoillted Ml', Field its Clerk lLull EIlgiul"""
Sub"O!]nolltly he aot('11 a.lso as Engineer to th(.' nou.d BUBl'dK (ll tllt' (lill·
trict, I1ml Uil OOllslllting Engineel' i(l the Rangitikei ROllIl BOILl'd,
By the (,OUlltl uchion or good t'OlllllluniolthunY Mr, Field left lUI, 11111.1'1,
all over thc district, lJeing l'ol>pllnsible for the construction or no le~b
than ho tJlIIllbaud miles of l'llIlds, His name is perpetuated by .l!'ield'lI:
Track f,'oul Wall!:\,lInui to Kudol, thc half of "hich ntllll'C'<,t tu WunganUl
now forms pIli i of the Pal'apara Hond. This trllck hILs boon and is stilI
used uy ihOllMtndll, nnd is kuown nil ona of the beo;;i sUI'vayed and gl'a<ieci
roadways in the oountry, ('veil though pnlt of it nevel' got lwYOlltl the'
track stage. In li:!84 MI'. l!'iold I,(·til'ed flOm IIctive pm"mits.
Ho publisht'd severnl 11111)('1'1'1 on I'tciC'lltitic e.ubjects, and n book eutitll'lI
.. .l!'Ol'lU, of Now Z(·u.lalld," which giveh ,\ popul,tr ,LCCouut of the ff'l'ns II,
these hlandl:l find its imlllcdiuttl dCPC'llCll·llcieb. <IUd is noted for its gontl
descriptions and excelleut illul:!trations.
He was an Itrcleni ~uPl'Ol'tel' nnd ('xhibitol' of the 1I0lticuiturllI
Rociaty, and took a groat intel'eRt in harbour mattel'S and public dail'lI
He died at Aramoho. Wangallui, at the advanced Il~e of cightv-SPTeIl


\1.1 I. Obsel'VllrtiUl18 1l0no6fning Il1volution, derived from EoologioJJ

Studies in New Zt' By L Oookayne, Ph.D., F.L.S.
11. Somt' HitherLo-unrecorded Plant-h,\bita.ts, Part vn. Bv L.
('ooko.yne, Ph.D., .II'.L.!:l. .• . . . • .• 5]-59
Ill. !:lome NOWb on tho Boto.ny lit the l::lpen~ Mounta.iru., with 0.
I,,~t (If Spooie'iJ t'ullel'ted. fly R. M. Lamg, M.A., B.St'. . . 60-75
I r. Notl"> un the Plant Covering of Codnhh Ihln.nd R.nd the RlIqged
1~1,lrIldll. By D. T... Poppt'lwell .. . . . . . .. 76-8.5
V. List of Li.cb.ens IIoIld Ii'ungi. collected m the Kermadet Islanch. in
1008. By W. R. B. OlivE'r . . .. .. .. 86-87
XV. A New (lenl111 and some Nt'w i::Ipt'cil'l> of Plants. By T. F. Cheese-
nllloll, 14'.L.I:!•• F.Z.H. .. .. . .. " 159-162
XVII. l)I)IIl'riplionH ot N,'w Noltivl' I:!pecws of .Phanerogams. By D.
PE'trie, M.A., .Ph. I). .. .. .. .. .. 179-187
XVlll. On /}anthonia nuda n.ud 'l'riod,in. 'l'Aomaom. By D. Petrie,
M.A .• Ph.D. •. .. .• .. 11:18
'{XX Vl. 'rbe,umirnll::ltruoture of the NC\'I Zealand Pi2JfracfJSP. 'By
~{w. .\1111(' Jr. IronRide, M.A. •. .• .. .• 339-348
,{XX\'II. ()b'4t'I'\,ltillll~ 1111 Sa.Ucomia QlImaZis. By MissF. W. CookE', M.,A, 349-36:2

i::Illme ~1fk.1lt& ot Imported Anima.11I lin the IndigenoUb Vegetation. By B. ('.

Allton, P.LO., F.C.S.· .. .. " , •• Part I 19-24
~oto 0Jl 1lI'Zioo'UIlIl1l6 jaacit;uJatum B;V T. F. Cheesema.n, P.LS.,
F,Z.S. ,. Part 1 24-25
Il(N'rilltioll!l u} .,lIllIe New SJIl'l'ies ot New ZeaJa,n<1 Plants. By L. Cookayne,
Ph.D.• r.I•. H. . . .. .. .. ,. .. Part, n 50-62

•\'RT. \'1. A HrI'Vl'tion eli tho (JlaHSifioatiOJl of the New Zealand Oal'4fltifHna.
By IcJ. Moyrick. B.A., F.R.S. ., 83-10'1
VIl. On the Nomenclature of the LepidopttrrJ of New ZeeJa.nd. By
O. 8. LongHtR.if, :M.A., M..D•• F.R.S. lOS-Ill)
vm. DebCl'iptionll of ThreI.· New Species of LepiiJoptera. By Alfred
Philpott.. .. .. .. .. .. 1115-116
IX. Descripti(J1\~ (If N,'w Zoaland lApidoplera. By E. Meyrick,
B.A., F.R.I::I. •• •• •• •• •• 117-126
X. Notes on HOme Dragon-.8ies from the Kerma.cleo Isla.nds. My
R. J. Till.ya.rd, M.A., F.E.S. •• .. •• 126-127
XI. MiMeellaneous Notes on lIome New Zee.Ia.nd Orustacetl. By
(,harles Chilton, M.A., M.B., D.So., F.LS. ]28-135
XII. Report on S'IUldry Invertebra.tes from the Kermadea IsJands.
By W. Benho.m, D.So., F.R.S. •• •. .• 13G-138
XX. Notes on New Zealand j1'il!hea: No.2. By l!lIlga.r R. Waite,
F.LB. 194-202
viii CO'lltelits.

ART. XXI. Now ~peoies ot IJI'pidO'}JtP.'TII, with Not&! on tho .Larvoe a.nd PUpa!'
. I·Af.I~h
of HOml.' Now Zco.lnnd Bntt.PrflitlJll. By Gt'orgl.' HOWL'",
F.E.H., T~.r•. R. 203-2011
,{XUl. The Ol'll~'l'arhil' lteilitiollliliiph 01 the liirdR of I.ord IIOWl',
Nol"(on., 111111 fJll' Kl.'rmudl'l' 1~I"ndR. By W. R. B. Oliver.. 214-221
XXV. Not.oM IlII N('ht. l.iCI."hi~t()r.v, mid n"bitK of ]Jliqn8 rfMillclllN, R
NI.'\\ Zl'ulnncl 'I'mptioor Spicll'!·. B~' .J. B. <lnh'nhy .. 234 ·240
'{XVI. SOIllI' Ji'I'lLhm'~ II[ Mil' <'il,(·IIIII1.(II), Ny~tl'lII IIC /lip/flirl/IIII "il'rlltu
FIII"Ml·. B) Pl'llfl"ohnr II. B. Kirl-, M..\ •• Vic·tnrlll ('()Ilc'g<'.
Wl'lIin~lIn .. 241-244
XXXVlll. UII I~ ('oll('otio.ll oJ: .J/IIUopilaga from tho Kl'rmlllil'l'h. By
T. Harvey Johnston, M.A .• 0.1'10., Quoollldllnd Univl'lhiLv. Mel La.unt·('illt. HnJ'riI!on, SyrlllOY • !lO:i-373
XXXIX. VIlHOll1n.r System of Bipho/iUlitl obliqllaln Sowllrby. Uy A.•J.
Cot.trell. M.A •• M.Elo. •• .. •• •. •• 374 -379
XL. Descriptions of Nl'w Genera Ilnd Npll(oieil of Ooleopll!'l'fl. By Ma.jor
T. Broun, 1<' RR. .. .. .. .. 37!1-440
NotB on fihe HPCOil'h IIf I{J/,Im fOllnrl. in New Zl.'amnd. Br UilIK'rt
Archey .. Pn.rt I 2rl-28
Additions fill tho Ji'iRh ~'allna ot ~h(' Korma.d.·(· IHmndR. fly ICclAI\J' B. W,\i1A.'.
F.L.S., (.Jura fiar. Uallt.erbllry MIIMlUUl •. .• • . Pun I 2H-2CJ
NlltOio on tho NOlUollolatur(' IIf the Nt"w Gtumill-idl/~. with I>IlROrip'
tion of 0. Now RJK'ci(,H. n~ 'L. R. Prout .. !'nrf II 52-r»4

111. UI110LOUY.
ABT. XIU• .Earthquake-origiUll in tho South-west. Pa,l'ifil' in 1910. By
George Hogbon, M.A., F.RS. 131t-142
XIV. Fluotuation... in the Lovel of the Water in KOIUO ArtoHian WelIH
in thl' Ch.riRI.ohur<'h Al't'o.. By ll'. W. HU~on.<1orr. M.A••
D.So. 142-159
X VI. Some- Rooks (If .l\luunt (Jal~l. l)ullIldin. By.r. A• .Ba.rtrullI. M.Sc. IU:t-179
XXII. The RaisE'd·!1 of Cape 'J'ura.kira.o. By B. ('. AH~on, (".1.0.,
It.n.H. !!OM-213
XXIV. A Proliminary AI'('oUIIL or tltl' Lower Waipa.rn Unrgn. Hy B.
Speight, .M..A.., F.O.H. • • •• •• •• 221 233
XXVll. Note!! 011 Wllllilll,rWn Phyllio~rn.phy. By ('. A. (klt.tnlJ. i\Ull·.,
Victoria. (Jollog(' 2~1i-266
XXXlJl. nook.. in New Zca.llLIld. By PJ'Uft'HKUf MIlJ'Hbo.ll.
D.8o •• F.G.S. .. •. 304-307
XXXI V. 'rho 'Discovery and Extent of Itormor (lIo.f.. ia.tiOIJ in tho 'l'Ofo.nlll
Ra.nges, North Island, Now Zoaltmd. By G. L. Adkill •• 30lh'U6
XXXV. The Geology of the Bluff, N~"W Zel\1and. By L. J. Wild. M.A... 317-339

Typioal Sections showing the Junotion of the Amuri Liluesfione and Web
Pass Stone at Web Pass. By C'. A. tJotton, M.So. (AbRtmct) .PM'!. rn R4--8lI

Records of Milne l:!eismop}lhs. 1906-1911. By H. 8'. Slroy. B.Hc•• lind
G. U:ogben. M.A •• F.G.H... " 441-467
(}ontell t.,. ix


'rR \NRAl'TJOlllI•
•\BT. XXVlIJ. 1'he CotnposiMon ot ROIDO New ZeaJn.nd Food&tu.if&. By,lohn UODo
Malt'olm, M. D., University of Ota,go •• 265-269
XX1X. Muntn.n Wax. By 'l'lu~Ulluro ltig$l. M.Sc. .. 270-287
XXX. Tho Chemistry IIf BUllh l:!ickm.'As. By B. <1. Ar;ton, F.(J.S.,
F. Le. 288-298
XXXI. Note on tho CompOAitiull of .Nitril· Acid. By If. T. M. Fathers 299-300
XXXH. Tho Tnte.motion of Iron with thl' lJigher Lratty Acids. By
'l'homM R. 1~11NtE'rlit'la anel ('Ia.ra l\[iIIicent Taylor, M.A.. • 301-303


The Actioll of .4.lkyl IodideA on Ooprer-m..ide. By H. G. DE'aham. M.A., 1).&.,

Ph.D. . • Part I 29-30
'rbl' NI~ture of Ita.y... 11y Prufcllhor 1.'. H. r..a.~· amI P. W. Bur-
bidge, n.Sc. Part T 30-31



•-\sT. ~ I X. Migrations of the POIYllosia.nK at'ol)rding to tho ~}videuce of the-ir

l"'~lLgc. By Pror',lISor ,I. Macmillan Brown, M.A •• J,f•. n. IH9-1 9:4


l>ellCliptiun of a Multiple Uainbow. By O. L. AdkilL (AbKt.ra.ct) •. l:'arl III 8li

Tho MethodB or Snaring Birds UIKlU by the MaoOliB, with NotoB on a Bird
ku()\vn to tho Maoris as "Tiako.." By .T. Dmmmond, F.L.S., F.Z.S.
(A IIHtraot) . Pari III !i7

[Following p. 457.]
PART L-Iasued 30th AugUbt, 1911.
U.-IsAued 8th January, 1912.
m.-IBs\IL'Ci 10th Juno, 1912.

(Te.rc !if/III" 1I0t ifICluded 01

1100XAYN.I, 1,.- P.lGII:

Plate I.-.Exa.mpll' of: 1\ species

Plate Il-
Fig. 1. 'rhroe fOl'mH of tho" llpeoies" JTeroMea bwcifoli4
~. 2. Juvenil(' (Jo'Pl'OBmn &ltIen

~'ig. 1. 80pk0rt1 ,niN'Op/&yUtI
Fig. 2. PitIoBpcwum diuaricatu/II
Platt' IV.-Podoca'plIlI nivali.. "
Platu V-
Fig. I. Veronictj cAatllllmica 22
'Fij(. 2. VI'f'Onil'll 10flfl'llioidl'lI. 1'. I'IIHRinioidlo.s, and V. tl!lr.ltlllllfl 22
Plate VI-
I<'igs. I anrl 2. Nopoom Ieb-IIpklNI •.
Plate VII-
Fig. 1. AriBtml'lia /ruJiC08fI
Fig. 2. PlMnantia corymboBt,
Plate VlII.-Pitt08f1M_ IUI~lricn"'tu

POPPltl.WIIII.L,D. 1•. --
Plate IX.-
Fig. I. Ruggod Islamls. from the nortrh; Uod6sh lsland in the distance.. IiO
Fig. 2. Norfrhorn aspect of one of the Rugged Islands. ahowiJul; Oktwia
a1/.f]'ll8U/oUa and O. Oole.naoi .• .• •. •. tIO
Fi~. 3. Rugged [sIlmds (WI!'a.thf'r Aido) 80

W UTH, N()oA.R a.-

Plato X..-Aegueonic/6lA111l IlfI'lWlii Clarke ., 194-> xr.--Oreoaoma atlalltic"m (''uvior and Valc.'ncienll88 •• ., 198
Plate XH.-JilllrtlWIopoR joknlllMtii Morton .. iOO

AIITON,.8. ('.-
li'ig. 1. ()orYIltJoor}l11I! .lHSOOia.tion• .Pa.lIiser Ba.y • . 2015
Fig. 2. OoryIIDr4f1lU8a.nd MueAletIbeckilJ~lemaasooiatiollS. 'BoMh No. 4. 2()8
Fie. 8. Pc)nd formed immedi&tely above Beaoh No. 2 208
JI'ig. 4. Beach No, 1, t'levo.ted a.t 1855 earthquake ., 208
Plate XlV-
.Fig. 1. Bea.oh No. 4) (95 ft. a.bove _I 208
.Fig. 2. Boulder Plain 'With No.8 Beach (60 it. above 110&) .. 208

J. B.-
Plate :x.V.-Nests, &c., of Mil/all cUBtitI,.". a New ZHlalld trapdoor spider. , 240
xiI List of Plr"tS\.

KIi!.K, H. B.-
Plate XVI- 1'.1.0&
Ii'ig. I. Din.!(rlllnllllltic repr('M'lItnhon IIf thl' c·jT<'ldatory lIY'Ktcm of /lepta·
Ir~1It1/ rirratll .. 1!ol4
Il'ig. 2. Purl of !.he C'lorhl,1 vC'II""I14 ILncl Lhl' 1J('llhridinl lIy.ll'lIl. from th.,
t1ofR,,1 Hidu .. .. • ..' .. . 2~
l'III!.l· XYll. -
F~. 1. 'I'hl' C'!Tl·I'I.·lIt bruuc'hil~1 YChhl'J, 111111 tile nnLl'riol' (lILrt uf tilt" ciol'Hnl
,' hYhtl'III, ffllm f,(1l' cllll'hUI BHpIlf't 2401
Fig, 2. 'I'hl' afferent bruoc'hinl KyHLmll, fmm th(' velltral aMlwrL 2,1-1
Fig. 3. Right afferent'hial V(·hhCI.... from tho rigbt I!itll' 214
Fig. 4-. Anterior part. (If PCIRI-clIorclinal hyllLl'm, Hhowing ('onnl'rtion of right
Hinull with pOrta.l heart. . .. .. .. . 244
Fig. 5. 1'hl' j1ll!:111Rl' HYflWIlI, di'4AC'ctl'lI frum venlnl lIoIIJIoct 244

OOT1'ON, fl. A.-

Plate XVlU-
Fig. I. Vie" I(lClkin~ ~()uth\~lIrcl "I' Mnl(III'11 VaUoy rl'lIlII ~udll.l.·u III 100i1
plain of Tongll(.' I'oint. ('ycl(' •• •• •• .. 2rJCI
Fig. 2. The 8IlrI!Wrll IIhol'(' of Mirnmnr PCiniuHl1ln, HhuwinA I'lIi'll'1I roC'k plat.
forll1ll 200
Fig.:t 1i~11"'1ltl'c1 C'1l1lr'lt plnLful'm lit '1'0111.\111' Poinl 260
rlato XIX-
Fig. 1. South co",,!., <'llr~t 01 ~incllljr lJea.c1 •• 21i(I
big. 2. Scarp IIf tho Wellington fUru)t MOlIll from j>(·t(lll~ 250
Fig. 3. Facet., 1\1 P(·tom· Rn.ilwlly-~tation 250
Fig. 4... I_ona, Vnllp,v": Vit'w rrllm NII,lill 10"111,1, KI~rlll'i 2rlO
Plate XX.-
Fig. 1. View looking l1p the lower gOl'a,l' .,f the Kaiwo.l'rn tllwarug WBlII."-
town.. 25M
Fig. 2. It"all in thl' lower ~ll'gE' of thl' N~htt.llran~a 2$
Plate XXI-
'Fig. I. Narrclwl,1 I4JlIII' in the Nj\.lh:LIImna,1I Valloy 258
Fig. 2. &is!'Cl hl'aohOH Md \~II V('oI'llt (·lIft., lin th,· MIIUth·IlI!.81iern More III
Mira mar 1)"nulHulli 258

AmUN. G. L.-
Plato XXll-
Fig. 1. Ganeml vio" of t.hl· .ul,lI'itllrt~1 Jlurl ttt P.lrk Vallc'y :108
Fig. 2. Waiohinll-iti V"Uoy :1011
Plato XXlII-( bC'dd (lC 1',,1'(.. VII III'S :112
P'late XXTV-'I'be largetrl !.!;11I.I·inl hllRl(11l1l. \·nll(·y ill Pnl'k Va.lley :112
'p HAN SAC rr rON S

N]~W r/]j1Al __J

/.J;; AN]) lNS~'1'TT1JT]~,
" .....


AR'r. I. ()b8",,'utiull~ cfllICt'I'nmq Et'olu.lllln, derit'ed trom EClIloqtcal SttidieR

,71. NI'10 ZruT"nd.
By L. (iOt'KAYNE, PIl.D., F.L.I:5.
LRlIId III/ole tf,r f)llllo~oJlMrlll III,tltllte u/ f'all/rrbUfg. 2nd AUt/III,I, 1911.,

PJatc9 J-YIII.
I. lnh\llluGtion,
11. Elt'montary 6pooill'S.
HI. Variation.
IV. Mutation.
V. Epharmouy.
]. General.
2. Fixity of speoiet:l-pla~t.Joity:
3. ReRpOll'lO to ecological faotor~.
(n.) SIIil.
(h.) Liltht.
Cr.) Wind.
(d.) Water.
(c.) Altitude.
4. \ft<>r-oift'Ot of Htimuli.
5. Co11VOl'lJt'llt <'pharmouv.
(n.) The diva.rirating IIbru}) lorm.
(b.) Th(.' eu.mioll form.
(1'.) Th(.' form.
(a.) ThE' pl'OIItratE' (orm.
II. Pt'Nlhtl'llt jU"f'nilp form~.
\' I. H.vbridizaiiol1.
\' 11. 'I'hl' Ittruggll' tor OXU.tE'lIC1e.
"111. J)i~ribution of H}lt'Oie04.
1. Di'1f.ribution in ~ICl·a.l.
2. lBOla.tion.
IX. }<Jvolution in t hI:' geJlIlM Veronit'll.
X. Colleludil1g roma.rkH.
XI. I,ist of litE'l""ture cited.

PLA.NT-ECOLOGY is concerned with the study of plants as Jiving orga.nisms,
not in the laboratory under artificial conditions, but in the field as they
grow naturally. Like every branch of a great science. its (:ontsut is not
bounded by any definite Jimits. but it intergrades \vith '\"arious departments
1- TrlouB.

of botany, e&pec:ially physiology IIlId f1oribtic' lJotany, though itF.. metho<ih

clorc different from thos(' of the lut tl'J',
The conditiolls whieh the l'llorth offerl:l, ill itb munilold l:Ioilt, lind (Iilllutl:'h,
for plant-life 1\1"<" extremely diversl' !lOll compll'x, hut Ill'v('rt III'iI'8S nlN'('
l'xists in no lew iustal1<'rs 1111 II pparent harmony 1)('1 WI'('11 til(' ('onclit iout>
and the plants, whi('h it! lllllllift'stt'd in th(' laMt')' hy HOnl!' Hp('('iul (01'111 (,it liN
of tho organism UI:I a whol(' or (If Olll' 01' morl' of ith (lI'AlIlIn, [t ill ohvimul
that in attemptill~ to ('orrelate plant-formll with tllril' l'IIVirOllnlt'lItlLI flll'tOl'H
matters are bring dealt with which deeply u.ff~(,t t h(' ht IIdy (I( d('K('('lIt, "lid
data are aceumulated which cannot be 11I'~ll:'ctt'd by bt ud.t'nth of g('ll!'l'ul
.But besides being oC('upied hy plclnt-adaptations* till' ~C()IOglht has u1&o
to do with the species of the taxollomist, since for Olle part of his work,
at any rate, the groups of individuals indicated by thr sp('('ific IlUI1WS are
at present the units with which he has to deal. Furthennor(', hil! pl'u(·ti(·ul
acquaintance with su<,h species, and particularly with tht'il' mrirti('I:I,
must in course of time become wide, whil(' n. variation with hilll if! not
merely II. taxonomic mark to bl' noted for purposes of ('Iussific'ntiou, hut
1\ physiological expression to be expia.ill('d,
Besides being conccrned with the origin of ndaptlltiotls and 1:I}>('('il'b,
plant-ecology deals with thl' arl'llngt"ment of t1t(' llltt('l' into till' vuriOllh
more or leSb well-dl'iilled I'ombumtions entitled ,. plllnt-ILSI!ocilltiolll!," IIIlIl
here come ill such fundamental E'volutionary l'Oll('('ptK ilK distributio]l,
isolation, and the struggle for exist(,Dce,
Plant-ecology itself, although studied in a mor(' or 1('Bti d('sultol'Y lind
illcoherent fashion Bince the time of Linnaeus, may he said to dati', as 1\
special branch of botany, from the publication of Wllrmillg's Plantl'lIlLm-
fund in 1895,t At first looked at afllcance by the older botanists. it has
steadily advanced in importance, It is prosl'Cuted by caroful aud ('nthu-
siastitl workers in many lands, and is now almost universally rl'('oglliZt'd
as a field of the highest biological moment, Unfortullutely, its methodb
are for the most part extremely ('rude, thl're is but litt It' wlifol'llIity of
procedure amollgst its adherl'nts, und its llomenrlature is altoA('th('r un-
fixed. Lastly, many of the problems that await solution 81'(' amongst th('
most difficult that science has to offer.
Bearing the above statt"mellts in mind, it il! ohvioul:I that th(· aimpl('r
1Ihc conditions and the fl'wer thE' spec'ips involved, tIll' c'lIlIi('1' ill it to dr~tw
conclusions of moment, and to state tht, ccoloj.,rj(·ul .. fll(,tIl," if (lilt' IIlILy 811
designate what ILrisl' from ohservations mlmc under l'onditiollll fUI' Irmn
stringent. .Also, a ,',rgin "P(J('fatio'll aZorlof' et.m gi'V<' df'{illviJ.(' il&/IYlmnliotl Otl
moI1II!J kYpicB. The N('w Zcl\lllnd biologil'al ll'gioll lIupplies in som(' !n('I'-
sure the a.bove desidl'rata. Its vl\8('uln r ftcrlL, consisting (If SOtlU' 1,650
species, is not too ~rl'at £01' an ecologicll.l worker to grasp; its ve~I't41lioIl
is still in many places absolutel~· virgin; its climate varies from subtropi('ul
to subantarctic it some parts experience an annual rainfall or morl:' than

• ~he oonvenient term "adaptation" is used lilroughout this p"PfT in 1.1 nOli-
teleo1oaioal sense.
t This statement applifllS rather to the eoology of p1&nt-dir.tributioll than to that
~ and more funda.inental stuclY of Ufe·reaotioD.II knOwn &1\ " biology" by German
lnveetigatortl. In this latter IleUse Darwin hirnaeIf stands pre-ominant &8 an eoologiM.
t The suba.ntarotio and the fIIUba.rotiO olimateR are by no means identioal, lntenlot'
cold plays no part in the first-named, it.. main characteristiet. being lAck of lIunshinc.
frequent cold gales, oow.taut bbowe:n.. and a 'low &vera~ temperature aJl1lbe yr.·ar, with
but little frost in winter.
('OC!iAYNE.-Erolo!Jlc·cil Studl(s m £I'01I1flOll. 3

500 I!m. and other parts less than 30 <:m.; the plant formations include
mall~rove swamp, rain forest, heaths of various kinds, subglacial fell- and
herh-fields, varied associations of rock Ilnd debris, subantarctic southem-
beech {orest. associations in and near hot springs, dunes. salt meadows.
st('pP!'s, swamps. and moors-in fact, for an equal variety an ecologist would
have to !·xplorr one of the hlr~('r eontiJwllts in its entirety. Further, the
isolation of the l'('giOll for a nst period of time fur from any other land-'
surfnC'!'; the abst'nce 01 graZillg animals. the moll. (IJinomiB) excepted:
the diverse floral clements (Malayan, Australian, Subantarctic, &c.); the
strollp, endemism; the numerous small islands where conditions are simpler
than on the larger ones; and, finally, the presellee of many areas whose vege-
tation has been ('hangt'd within a very feW' years through the farming
operations of the settler, and its components replaced by exotiC's of quite
difi(>rent growth-forms-a.ll these attributes much enhance the importance
of New Zealand for ecological research.
Now. although I welllmow that the final court of appeal ill evolutionarr
matters is experiment, still it seems to me that some few details having
a bearing on vllrious phases of the evolution question selee·ted from numerous
observatio1ls on a vegetation and a flora that olle may venture to designate
.. unique" may perhaps be worth the attention of students of descent.


Few will deny, whatever be their opinions as to its truth, tha.t the most
awakening contribution of latE' years to the evolution question has been
the mutation theory of De Vries. Leaving out of consideration for the
present the value of the theory as a means of evolution. the introduction
of rarc-ful experimental methods-i.e., a return to Darwin's own procedure
-rather than mere argument ill favour of this 01' that dogma has given
new life to the study of evolution. Moreover. a change of the highest
moment is the substitution of elementary spcdes* as the raw material for
the evolutiolllLry process. rather thall the Linne8.11 species, which. as shown
below, orf' jrequl'nt7!1 merely and not litJi'flg tfltitil's. It seems well,
then, first or all to examine how far the doctrine of elementary species is
fluPPOl1it'd by the New Zt>lIland fiora, us interpreted by ecolo#zy.
It nerd hardly hn pointed out thlLt the spedes of New Zealand taxono-
mibts b('ionp, to the LhUlean ('ategor", and that, while some refer to definite
and well-denlll>d groups the individuals of which can be recognized at a
gl8nl:(' (t·.g., Veron.ica Gillies'lana T. Kirk. Sl'fIR(Jio cass1nioirles Hook. f.,
('armil'hru'lia gracilis J. B. Armstg., Urtica f('r~ Forst. f.), others vary
to su<·h 11.1\ extent thllt there is no speeial set of individuals reproducing
a plaut that matches the specific description. which is drawn up so as to
include a varying seri('8 of formst whi('h arc considel-ed to intergrade (e.g.,
Vt'l'O'YVWa saliti,folia Forst. f., Cehnisia coriaceo Hook. f., .A8plf'71ium bulbi-
leTu»! Forst. r., Damkonia smHa1llnulari8 R. Br., and, roughly speaking,
perhaps 25 per cent of the vascular flora). Such" species" as these latter
do not really eXltt ;'thetJ are ideaB only, ana t'heiJr 0'1"'i,gim has nothi'll{/ to do ttJith
(!volution. Other" species," again, throup,h want of a full knowledge of their

• This is not very different, after all, from Darwin's view, who declartod that" a
well-marked VAriety may therefore be oODJSidered a.n incipient speoiea • • • the
lerm 'species' i~ ono arbitrarily given to a. at of individuals olo!Iely reAeDlbUng l'&Oh other•
• nll th8.t it does not eft"1\tially differ from the term ' va.riet,.'" (Darwin, 1899, p. 39.)
t And then a.oooptins thi'! M a sJlPOi~, it is tqSid 10 be' mreDlC'ly va.riabll'."

forms, &c., may iurilldtl ('VC'1l mort> than OtiC LIIlIH'ILll Hlll'C'll'l>, .till cLppt'cLn.
to be the caso with PitU)8porum riyidum Hook. f., lib dcfill!'d by Hook"I',
Kirk, and CheeselJlun. Pilitc I sbows this eab(' ('Il'ul'ly, wh('rl' th(' tYPI'
of P. ri(jfdul/I 011 th(' righl diffl'I'1:I most Ulul'kl'clly rl'Cltll lIw l'ummOIl Houth
IlIlAnd form on the Il'ft, wltidl LlUn naming P. tlivtlril'cullm. '"
In sornl' l'o,lIt>S til<' llifli{'ulty c", til Ilistillgllillhing-IIIlIlIl'H II> md h,~' tlH'
.. creation" u{ •• vllril'til'fI"; hut IltellC', ("!Inin. (Ir,' II/ I/llill' diffrrl'llJ ,'alU(>,~,
cma may betony to disti.nct billlClgiCftI C'a/I'(foriI'H. A rew e'xllmpll'H tclkl'lI
from the" Mauual of till' New 7..enllUid FIlii'll" «'h('I'Kt'mnll, 1\)06) will
explain my mea.niug.
1. II()heria pOpuZ1/Ra A. Cunll. (p. 78) il:l divided into till' 1hl'I'I' V.II'ic·ti('K
ta) 'Vulgaris Hook. f., (b) lal'leeoiata Hook, f., nud (e) MI!lltllli/()lia Hook. f.
There is no such plant in I'xisteucc U8 If. pOpUlYltfl, fOl' l,h(' u('tlcriptioll
includes the three vari('tics (fI), (b), untI (e), ('at'h oi whi('h, hOWCV!'I', if>
distinguished by a spedal diufl,llllbis, the VI\l'il'tit's (1'), (b), lind (e) TCllpl·(,tiv('ly
representil1fl, distinct ~roups of illdividulllK whil·II I'{'prodn('(' thl'nls('lv!'tI
true from s('ed.
2. ('c67mic1laf'/ift Eny8i! T. Kllk hUK II vllrlt'ly IIrbiclI/llllI '1'. KlI'k (p. L1l).
Both the' species l\lld its varit'tr url' d{'I'l('rihl'ci. Bul ill thiH I'UI>(' till' "pl'('ilil'
description rt'fers to Ollt' l:Iet of individualll POIISI'IIHinl-l ('('rtllin ('hluIH't!'rll,
which is (I. En!ls!'i, Pl'OP('I', und dot's not ilwlnd(' VUI'. ()I'bi('ulr~fc" whic'h ill to
be recognized throup,h ita hllVillg (lthl'!' c1l1n~I('tcl'S Iti1flC'ut in ('. R'»!llIii ]11'111'('1'.
which latter may then lx> tt'l'l111'd tlw t,ypl·.
S. Epilobiwm jU'Y£Ct'"m Sol. hlLl:I VIU'I:I. ritlere"m Hausskn" IlirtiUI'rIUl1
Hook. f., and maorophuUum Hu,ussku., t'uch 01 which is dofillc<l at c'onsidl'r-
aLle length (p. 175). But none (If tilt>tle names repl't'scnts a biologil'nl cutity,
for E. junceum, to quot!' il'OIll (1}1C'eseman, "ill I~n l'xtr!'ml'ly val'inblt·
plant, the numt'l'OUB forms of whie'h may be groupod ill tht' throc (ollowing
varieties "-i.e., as above. Furlh('r he writc.>a, "The t'xtreDll" Ktl\tes of th('
above varieties havc a very distinct appeal'lU1('C', n!ld might haw b(,l'1l
treated as species W(,l'e they llOt C'OllllC('ted hy I1Um(,I'OUS intermediate' fOl'llIH,
which make it quitl" impossihlc to draw stric,t liIl('s of demar<'lItion betw('('n
them." Here, tht'n, th(' desllriptioll of the spt'c'il.'s dot'S 1I0t indic'nt(' u ty}>c"
but it inoludcs till' Ihret> tl(ff"iefies nfl.({ fill fliP itltt'Nn('d,'nlc' /""''''11, while i Ill'
vn,rieti611 thems('lws likcwiSl' 1101, diHtinl'1 I.'lItitit·K, t lIud lll'i<HIA to n
different biologic'ltll·u.tegory to lIw Vllf. Clrbwulrtfa of (', EI~!lsii.
4. (JaUltl,tl"ifl rUlJH'8tris R. Hr. (p. ·107) iK Ib tlil1lilll r I'Xlllllplc' to till' II'Ht,
boing said to bc' .. a highly vurin bit, p,lllllt. the nUI\Wl'OUti fm,otl of whit·1i
lUll best arrllllgcd ulld('r tW() la'nels '. lII\uwly, vnr, itltlCl'II/flftl ('1ll'l'Ill'UI.
and val'. ptl.rui,/oUa OhC'l:'lIelll.
5. In certain ot,h('l' ("\SCS, wh!'r(' tllt'I'{' IIrc II h()st of illh'l'gl'lIUitlA tormll,
tho most div(,fgt'nt n1'e trcl.lted aLi l:I('parate spt'dc's noiwithl:llluuling thltt thlly
aro connected by illtermediatel:l. An cxamp)(' of thil:l il:l VI'l'tmil'll p1'Y1{!ui/()lifl
Hook. f. and V. BuchfMl,(l.'f6i Hook. C., of whit'll I,\U~I' spoc'it'K CheCI:IOIDal1
writes (p. 527), .. Larger form" appl'Oach V. 'P~lJ,i/c)l1'(J so clol:lely that
it is di.fficult to draw a lille of demtJ.rcatioll betwet'n the two species.
My var. 'fMIjor might be re£t'rred to t'ither." Othel' examplefl of simill~r

• It seems poas.iblu also that P. iliva1',catum COllHU,tK of two eJAomonta.l:Y IlpeoiCll, fOWld
in the steppe and. fOl'llBt OlillUl.Wb of tho &uth L!Jand l't!'I))E'Otively. &e' VIll, and
oom.]l6l'8 it with the figure in Diole (1906).
t Biologioa11:r. SOlD.(! are OIIrtainly eliatinot ontiti(;R, &II, t.g., the varioty n_pllglllltll,
which Petrie ha.. • m.&<le " into a IlpooioH unclor tho name lff. Srffl661ll, ane1 whioh is greatly
on the inor.m" WllOro foro'lt i~ b3inl{ removell ill tho Waima.rino looality.
TBU!" N.Z IN'T. Vor•. XI,I V PL\T~ I

EXA\IPlll or A 'l'AXONO'l!I(' RpE<"'IC'I

On I i~ht ami I~rt, ndl1HR oI /'iffll\/JtlJIIIII riyuillln. nut dlRhnlluislll'u DB vnli('tie~;
m t'()I1(l't', Juvtlnlll1 Im.1I of pl.mi on lillht.

1""<"1 11./1

}<'lO. 1.-T11R1lK 1<'011"" ()I '1111 ' HI'I ell .. " V),b()NIC'A 1I0~!I'III,rA.

FIG. 2.-.1uVlIi'lll.lIi COI'ROI'IM\ nAUIolRI.

I:!howiny (',nly plU~hllh' shllutq ,11111'·1 l'I!!,·t UlIl'S
l'UCKAYNFi.-f!,'cologlrfll Stut/It:1J III EllollIllOII {j

trclltnll'llt Ill'e Oleolla IIaasMI Hook. f. and O. uleifolia ']'. Kirk (p. 290),
Rammculull Sinclair;i Hook. f. and R. qracilipes Hook. f. (p. 18), and
POll lIeficlilmili Pl'tl'il' and P. pUIIllla Bl'rggr. (p. 905).
1>. l'mmica lJllzi/olia Bellth., ilK originally dl.'nned, prohably referred to
,~ quitt' dennit(' B~t of iudivieltULIII Evell hy Cheeseman (pp. 522, 523) the
IIpl'('i~1:I ill IIpoken of I\I! II .. plant," and not ... s ... varying lIeries of fOrIDs.
FUl'thl'l', thl' flpl'l'i('s is d('tilll'Ci al! "erert," nlld but OIlr variety is allowed.
III puint of fll<'t, howevel',' .. SPOCllll!" ill<lludCb th1'e~ distinct growth-forIDs,
.It any l'dott', two of which, thR prostrate, Imd flit' low, erect, sparingly bro.nched,
dore shown in PI~tc II, fig. I. The var. odora T. Kirk (patens Cheesem.)
ill of tht' ball-like Arowth-forlll. In tMs f'Xumple, then, a taw07lO1'nto species
inoludes plants belon!l;,ng to at least tlif" ,thsolutt'ly distinct bioloyical categories.
And, in addition, it is highly p1'oba hIe that d dozen or more distinct trul'-
brecdill~ entitil's mil!,ht easily be sl'paratl'd from the heterol!,eneous mass of known 11.1:1 V. bIlJYI'/olio.
7. Many val'il'ti('s lIore of a quite difiercnt physiological value to othera.
Home, 8S III cllses 1, 2, and 6. rept'odue'e themselves true from seed. This
I ha\'e definitely proved ill II !lumbel' of iIUltanlles; tkt'y are, in fact, froe
el('f1PR'll.tary IJpt'OWIl. Others, again, are mf'rely environmental (unfixed ephar-
moni(')'" forms, SUdl I\S are dealt with further 011, of which notable examplos
lIrt' tht' var. prostralat Hook. f. of T.Jt'pt()8pf'TmWm 8coparium Forst. (p. 160),
tht' var. rhombifoUUilt Ilook. f. of RaMJ,nculus pinguis Hook. f. (p.12). and the
var. paupemtUS§ T. Kirk of RtibUH oillsoid"l1 A. OUJID. (p. 125). Finally, other
vari('ties rl'prt'sollt ~ IIl'ries of formll regarding the stability of which llothing is
known, bllt whi('h lUI' supposed, without any suffiril'nt reason, to be uIUltable.
Without gOiIlg iuto further dt·ta.ils, it is evident that the species of New
Zel\land taxonomis1s m'U rather the creation of man than of Nature. In
aaying this I am not. hyp01·critical. The main object of a flora is to enable
,\ plant to be rC'a.dily identified, Ilnd this, from the very nature of the case,
demands 1\ more 01' II'ss Il.l'tifieial classificatioll. Where such precise and
('opious informatiou I\S to vnria.tiOll is givell as in Cheeseman's most careful
dud .·Xf\(·t work tllcrc !leed be no mistake, ILnd the worker in the field knows
f'Dctly what h" ma.y expect. But, as a. rule, writers on evolution have
quite' negleCltOO. to distinguish betwel'll tllzonMnio and physiologicaZ species,
whielh In11;(·r I\lon.e al'l' their l·oll11l.'rn.l1
Although hreodill~-~xperjntents ('an alonc decide as to fixity of form,
ecolo,zy should k>1l IIOmethinp,. If tI. cl.'l'tain sot of illdividuals remain
ullc]ll\ng(>d IlVAr wid.' 81'l'lIfI, I:IU far as thl'iJ' spec:ific marks go, and under
\'nrying ('onditjonfl, it. may btl IISBUUlt'd with tolerablo confidence that they
reprodm'l.' their likl', Rllel art· thl.'l'efofl' spet·ies, e-Iementary or Linnean, as

• Hunh ftmnM AL'\' t'allud by l\la."''Icln "o.l;'('()010clatiVt'," in oontradiKtinotion to .. adap-

th'u "-i.p., HIXlI.'itlo "nil 1u>ruditaI'Y. Rogo.t'dil1g taxonomic varieticH, th!' R&m8 author
wlihlll, •• MAlht'lll'eWlOmcmt on no peul par. t.oujoUI'II ~8 tier aux travaux do systtbnatique
pour Ilh.tinguor J.r;. ftcoomodatiollH ,let. variationq proP1'fOD1ent (liteM," and he cites the
tlxampl•• of Polygon.lIl11 nmpllloi"III, with it'! varit'ties 11ata"", fm-utrc, ami mllriC£'''tMIt, all
flf whioh are simply auoomodat.ivl' ...tat'..... (1910, pp. n, 10.)
t HeI.- Cookayne, 1900, 1" 111.
~ Hc!o Cockaynt', 1909... , p. 201.
§ &>0 Cookaynl', 1901, pp. 293, 2114r.
I O. F. Cook'" l'Omarktl au' worthy of oOllilidoration (1907, pp. 362, 363): "The
rlilticulty of dt"fining tho torm 'Hp80lt'fl' has arisen mostly from the faot that ~
pht'nllmonon if! a pliyR.iol.oi!ioa.l ono, W~()1."('Qh tho general 8upJ!OBit.ion has been ~t It
I~ IHl)rphologioal. . • • For ovolu~onal'y purposea .. flpoolfIB lh a group of In.ter-
hrt't'ding I)rga.niKm~; nothing mom i~ roquil'Q(l, no1.ning ll'll'!l will buffioe."
6 Tramactiom.

the may b('. And perhaps it is allowable to go furtht'r, and sa~' that
if several allied plants grow in close proximity in sufficient numbers, and
preserve their distinguishing ('hara('ters, they are probably distinct, and
would romt' true from seed. A ('ase of this latter class is to be scen at
the low('r gorge of thl' River Wllimaka.rirJ, Canterhury Plain, wht're thl:'
vars. miN'0'}Ih1l11a Hook. f. and 'P"o81rata T. Kirk of Sophora tf'fraptera J. Mill.
I!.row sidt' hy side, and in this rase I hav(' proved t'xperimentally that both
vari(.'tics come true from secd. So, too, with certilin forms of A('«1'tI1I
SOIIlfI'Ui8orbae VahI. growing on subalpine fell-fields.
There is no nc(.'d to multiply instances such as tht' above; suffice It to
say that both from experiment and ecologica.l observations I am sa.tisfied
that elementary specie8 are very twmerou8 -m the NetD Zealand flora, especially
in certain genera-e.g., Oalamag'l'08tis, Dcmthrmia, Poa, Festuca, Scirpu8.
Uncinia, CUR'e:t, Lusula, ? Phor'fllitlm, Rcmunculus, Oardarnirte, Pittosporunl.
Rubus, .Acaena, Oa'f'tn.ickaelia, OzaUs, OoriUR'ia, .Aristotelia, Pimelea. Epl-
fob&um, Leytospen)I'IlIm, Ani80t0me, Aciphylla, Gaultheria, Dr(JC()phyl1U'lII.
Gefl.ti«M, MY080ti8, Veronica, Oop'l'08ma, OeZmisia, C'otula, C'raspedia. and
Senecio. On the other hand, many species vary to a degree only.
sud are to hI.' recognizt'd at a glance.

Apart from constant hereditary distinctions, there are . f the individUAl
differences," as Darwin ca.lled them (1899, p. 31), or "fluctuating varia-
tions," as they are now frequently designated. These are supposed to
depend upon a reaction of the organism to a change of environment.
Klebe (1910, p. 235) distinguishes two kinds, the one tt caused by different
external conditions during the production either of sexual cells or vegetative
primordia," and the other .. is the result of varying ex.terual conditions
during the development of the embryo into an adult plant." The two sets
of infl.uences ca.nnot as yet be sharply differentiated. The following case
illllstrates this difficulty.
Olearia semidefitatl& 'Dene. is a modetate·sized xerophyti(' shrub. which
is eonfined to the moors of the Chatham Isla.nds, where both thc ('limatil'
and edaphic ('onditions appear to be of great constancy (Co('kayne, 1902.
p. 288). The leaves va.ry on different individuals in size, shape, toothing.
n.nd tomentum, and plants grow sid(.' by side whi('h, 80 far as gent'fal llP-
pearanee goes. might easily be taken lor distinct speci(.'s. Probably here
the variations are genninal, but at the same time eaeh plant hRs its o\\o'll
rooting-place* and its individual physiologi('al chara('wr, 80 it ('annot ht"
denied but that each plant is subjected to slightly different stimuli to those
experit'nced by any other.
.A most important question is the heredity in :fiuctuating varia.tions
and the degree to which they can be accumulated. Darwin (1899, pp. 31,
32) considered them all-important. tt These individual differences," he
writes, " are of the highest importance for us, for they are often inherited.
as must be familiar to every one; and they thus afford materials for
natural selection to act on and acoumulate in the same manner as mall

• The importance of the rootin~.:pIaoes of indlviduals is generally neglected by

pla.ut-eooI.o!tistS who define the oondition9 of the lIabittl'
88 a wholo, wheTeU .peoiee
growing sicIe by side ma.y be subjected to quite cli1ferent intluenCI'M, 81 in the 08.b8 of
.bIlDn,,- and deep-rooting 8pecleK, erect Md prostrate, and so on.
COCJllYJilE.-Ecological Studies in Evo'fm,eion. 7

doccumulates in any given direction individual differences in his dometlticated

productions." And further on (p. 38), "Hence I look on inru"idual
differences . . . as of the highest importance for us, as being the
first steps towards such slight varieties as are barely thought worth recol-d-
ing ill works on natural history." De Vries and his followers, on the other
ha.nd, deuy that a fluctuating character can be accumulated indefinitely,
J.nd a.ffirm that, "Selection according to a constant standard reaches its
retmlts in a few genera.tioUl~. The experience of Van Mons and other
breederb of apples shows how soon the limit of size and lusciousness may
be attamed. . . . Improvements of flowers in size and colour are
usually casy and rapid in the beginning, but an impassable limit is soon
reached" (De Vries, 1904. pp. 806, 807). Further (p. 18). "Fluctuations
alwa.ys oscillate round an average, and if removed from this for some time
they show a. tendency to return to it. Tais tendency, called' retrogression,'
has never been obsel'Ved to fail as it should in order to free the new strain
from the links with the average."," Fluctuations are not observed
to produce anything quite new, and evolution, of course, is not restricted
to the increa6e of the already existing peculiarities, but depends upon
thp continuous addition of new characters to the stock." The opinion of
Klebs cannot be overlooked in this matter. This famous investigator
ha.s shown in his remarkabll' experiments (Klebs, 1903) that variations
('an bE' artificially induCE'd which arc far beyond the limits of fluctuat-
ing variability and ('onsiderahly greater than any mutations hitherto
Ecological observations can say little on 8 debatable topic: like this,
where long-conducted experiments are alone of weight. Some observations
re~arding vegetables which have escaped from cultivation in New Zealand
are not ,vithout interest, as showing reversion to the wild state. The radish
(RlIapnanw sati1J'U8 L.) is abundantly natura.lized near Wellington, but
the roots no longer swollen to any extent. The parsnip (PeucealJ'MMn
sativum Benth. &; Hook.), probably the celebrated .• Student," which is
supposed by writers on evolution to be a. fixed race.'" came up year by year
in a neglected part of my garden, but in a much deteriorated form.t So,
too, ,vith ., improved" pansies, primroses, and poly8nthuses~ in my garden,
and with EBchsckoltz;a cali/nrnica as naturalized near Cromwell, Central
In many caSt's fluctuating variations are very small, and appear to
Lf' neither an adYantage nor the contrary to their pOB8essor. In other
I'~ses there are variations of much greater magnitude, which ecological
observations, as shown further on, prove to be distinctly dependent
upon external stimuli bringing about a response within the plant which
it! manifested by 1\ visiblE' morphological or an invisible physiological

... Romanes (1895, p. 125) writes, "Tb.a.t is to .y, it has 3QLl8 true to seed for the
laat forty ye&m." Roma.nes mentions this caae as an example in support of the heredity
of an acquired cha.ra.eter, but. Darwin (1905, p. 229) mentions it as a oase of" methodioa.l
t With .. speoies &uoh as this it reali, must be nearly impoSBible to judge under
European oonditions how far a supposed' wild" plaut may be reslly wild and not the
de~t of .. oultivated form.
~ The leaf-like oalyx of the primroses, &0., lmown 80S "" is a
remarkably persistent ob.a.ra.ater.
8 Tl'fln ~fl('fIOIiS 0

The)I' bc'ems to b(' 110 doubt but that De Vl"ieSlll.ll mutations llris(' fum,
tim(' to time. That slwb nfi"ord a bet1Rr material fo), preservation hy n.ltur.d
Kl:'lectioll Hum do small f1u(otuating variations is obvioUl!. Ullfol'tllnnh'ly,
the numh('1 of rl\lI(,R of vl'l'ltabll' mutants is small, while most hav(,OIoiginut{·d
ill cultivatioll. Thill lust fact discoullts the value of th(' mutation thllon"
in tlw opimoll ot m.tllY. t My own f{'eling, as all amatl'UI' I!.clld('uPloof m.m'·
yeaTS' bhllldill~, II nd as one who has C'ultivatC'd with his OWlI hands sevl'r.ll
thoUblind sped<·s of both wild and garden plants in an dlltipodclI.u p,.lfden
far from the- home of most, is that ordinary cultivation, without mUI1l1l'<'.
has little effect in producing variations of moment. In my gal'dell. plaut&
reproduced themselves :£rom seed freely and rame to maturity, hut 11(,\"1111<1
a number of daffodils and some, probably hybrid, dwarf phlox('t; (Ph'" I
IlIWulata L.) I remember nothing "new."
In estimating the origin of species by mutation, nothing but l'xperI-
ment can prove the heredity of the new character. All that el"Ology edn
do is to note striking varieties, their frequency, their environment. tIll:'
position of the individual possessinll. such variations with l'<'gal'd to Ilormal
individuals, and so on.
ThC' following examples of what may be- full or partial mutatIOns III
the Nt'w Zealand flora, indigt'lloUS and introduoed, roay bt' of illtt'l't'!!t ;-
1. The white forIn of M Y08otidi'lllmo nobile Hook.
The spt'cies is confined to tht' Chatham Islands, where it growl> on or
near the Bea-shore. In the normal form the oentral ha.lf of th(> l'orol1., illo
bright blue, which fades to purple, a.nd tho edSt's are more or 1t'Sf, whIte.
Mrs. Chudleigh, of Wharekauri, some years ago discovert'd one plant with
white :fI.owers growing wild ill the nOl'th of the main island, and although IIhe
is an excellent observer, and Myosotidiwm has been carefully noted ill itt;
habitat by Mr. Cox and others, no more white-flowered fOlIDB h(.'l:'11
obsl'rvt'd. The plant in question is now fairly common ill (Ou1tivatioll, ,mdo I
lUld"rstancl, comes truf' from seNt So, too, does the normal bluE' fOl"Dl.t

• Soml>thing not wrv lhffl'ft'llt to the llIut.&LjUJ] theory waH propowldod by J. ll.
Armstrong, form(:'rly I)f tho ChriBtohurch Bota.nica.l Garden, in 1\ papor (l<'IIling with thl'
New .zc..a.ia.lld hJK!OieR of VCI'01&I"t'1l in 11181, in thl'h!' WOl'tlh: "I haVt' h<-<-u enabll'lJ to .,I!o.,('rvil
IIUmel't)U8 ~"rd(:,)l'RooilliugK IIf many of tho form~, and thl'y a..tmO!.t invlloliabiy l'IlIII.'mble
thl'lf pall'ntK. Hon\lltimos, ho\\,ovor. "POTU! appear, and whlln thih hapIlIlIl. .. tlwl"I.' h(I('mR
til bll 110 htl'Oll~ tenodl'no? 011 tho }lart of the "110ft to l'l'proIlUl'l' its!.'lf, and it npIlC;'a"" to
me loot it iK jUhl in thil! manner that the grea.t!'r numbt'r of our na.tiw fOrDlh hM l' IlCll"ll
pl'OducOO. •\t IIOW' v('ry dilltu.ut date thore Wl."l'l' prooo bly ouly t.wo 01· thl'CIl (pl'J haJ1l' unly

one) lI}JlOoi('ft oxiRting wit hill t h(' linuth of thl' oolony; but, 011 account of til<' I'xtl"l'mt'
ioeal va1'iatioll.l! of climatll and vari<><l geologIC!&! formation of tbl' RUrla.ce, 01.'1 tam \O,tria_
tions uccurrell, and a Ioport r:.o produoed, bOing III.'lf.f(·rtilC'. and ha.ving withill it...eif all
the o1emPJIts required for reproduction, naturally rt':vroduccd it.. likl' until all.oti1t'r 1111('11
sport ocourl't.'Cl. and thUII the formK gradually bt>l'aml" di&rontiatcd from th!' type, and
by a long 1lElri0ll of such sports one la.rgl· family of l'erom rllB hat. been formod. t' Thl'1l

hi! goes on to show how sim.i1ar muta.tion~ have taken pJa.ocs amongst spedE'lo of other
la.nds, and considers that the intermediates baVE' bI."en E'radioatcd " by man or the la.r~r
a.nimaJ6, leaving only in most _ thE' more widely diifel't'nt.ia.tod forma.'· But III
New Zealand man ha.R done little, and very many in~rml.'diate forms have b('E"Il. pre·
t Klebs, however, writes (1910, p. 241). "Even if it is demonstratoo that ill' WOh
IlimpJy desling with the Hplitting-up of a hybrid, the facts adduced in no IIOU<oC lollf' their
very ~t value."
t Raising from IIeIld is, in fact, the only satildsctory method 01 Propalllltb11t I",th
1he type and the white-Bowered form.
('OIJK.nNIC.-Ecu1oglral 8tudu:b 111 E /)01I1flOlI. 9

2. The white variety of OliomtkU8 puniceU8 Banks &; 1:101.

The type has scarlet flowcrs. It is now very soarce as do wIld plant, but
,zrt'w originally 011 or neaf sea-cliffs from the East Cape district northwards.
and mland at Lake Wailmremouna. The type is a most common garden-
plant: it is propagated from soeds, and comes trne. According to Cheese-
man (1907, p. 443), from informatIOn supplied by Mr. H. Hill, the flowels
of East Cape plants vary considerably in colour, size, shape. and relative
proportions of the petals. At Waikaremoana the flowers are comparatively
IImlill cmd reddillh-purple. At Tolaga and Tokomaru they are large, and th<.>
standard very broad, with a whitish stripe on each side Ilcar the base.
The white form is white· throughout. It is propagated fmm ~eed, and,
J,1'cording to Mr. T. W. Adams, comes true." It is very commOlllll culti-
vc:Ltion. .As for its origin, according 1.0 Chcesemall, .. J. white-lI.owered
variety is stated by the Maoris to grow on the Tiniroto cliffs." This rna.)
01' may not be the Bource of the garden form. Possibly C. PUMotttd rousiets
of BPveral elementary species.
3. Itmmlum Travers!;' Hook. f. var. elegans CockaYlle (Uel·l.LUiac.).
Thl' nOl'mal colour of the flowers of G. Travel'si,' is white. It grows on
I'oustal olit'fs of the Chatham Islands. The flowers of var. f'Kgnns are pink
III colour, !loud rather larger. It comes .. true" from beed. According
til Captain Dorril:'ll Bmith, it is found occa&ionally on rhatham Island, but
I finly know it as a garden-plant.
4. Plwrmium tenaz Ji'Ol'Bt., forD! with purplish leaves (Llliu.l·.).
Thl' origin of this striking pla.nt is not known. It is very common in
New Zealand gardells It appears to come very nearly, or perhaps abso-
lutely. true rrom seed, and the young plants have much more brilliantly
f'oloured leaves than the adult.
P. t8'naa: was commonly oultivated by the Maoris, who rt'cognized by
llaml.' many distinct-looking forrns.t Some of these appear to reproduce
tb('IDselves more or less true, while others are probably of hybrid origin.
:). Phormium (fookianum LI.' Jolis, fonn with bracts ill part instead of
flowers (Liliae.). (See Williams, 1904-, p. 333, and pi. 25.)
Thl' plant ill question was discovered by the Right Rev. Bishop Wil-
liams gl'owillg a little above high-water mark at Bla.okhe-ad. It was then
ill seed, nnd the (·u,psules wer(.' aooompanied by numet'ous persistent bracts.
A few of the seeds wm:e sown. One of the young plants produced an in-
.!lort·sl·eu('e similar t,o that or thl.' parent in 1900 !lond 1901, but in 1902 thl.'
fuur 8m~pes produced flowers and seeds in the usual way, but thesE' in the
I!OU1'II1' of the summer" hl.'gan to bl' clothed with leaves ,. in thoir upper
tl. Various crilllSOn- and pink-flowered forms of Leptospermum 8c{)pariwn
Forst. (Myrtac.).
At least six individual!! of Leptospermum soopariuf'II bearing crumon or
dt'ep-pink flowers without a trace of white have been found wild in various

• Mr. Cheeseman informs me that he also has raised the white form frtlln hOOd, &nrl
that none of the plants produoed flowers other than white.
t FifLY-lI8ven names are given in .. Phormiurn 'BftaQI &8 a Fib1'OUb Plant" ( Wt'llirJgtoIl,
1872). but it ill now known that many of tilem aro synonyms. Tllore are 001-
lections on somn of the- Uovurnmont experimental farms, where their hehaviour a& to
,·on~t,\noy. hybridization, &"., hi Ix>inll' studied.
10 7'ranllactions.

parts of New Zealand. The two best known bear thl' gllrden names of
L. Ohaptnanii* and L. Nickulsii* rl'spl'('tivl'ly. Seedlings in abundance
haVI' been raised from the latter by Messrs. Na.irn and Son, Christchurch, in
their nursery, and eve1'Y opporlwlity wall kindly afforded me of studying
their form, &e. (see CoC'lmyne, 1907A). Thl' colour of the original plant
is repeated more or less in tbe seedlings, but it "m'il's II good deal, and SODle
flowl'1:II are whitt'. Dark-('olourl'd lellVl!s, 1\ parl'lltal character, IL('company
the darker flowers.
III Ilo oase recorded by Cheese-man the phmt WIIS reported by its finde-r,
Mr. R. J. Gilberd, to come- true to colour (Cht't'seman, 1908, p. 275).
It is obvious that these crimsoll forms only appear o(·casiouallr. for
they are too striking in ('ontrast with the familiar white blossoms to be
overlooked by even a casual observer. Further, the change of colour is
deep-seated in the plant, since the leaves are also affected. In L. Nicholsit
Rort., too, the plant is of a weeping habit, as opposed to the normal erect
stature. Finally, it must be noted that the semi-mutants grew in widelr
sepa.ra.ted loca.lities, some in the SO\lth a.nd others in tht' North Island.
7. Double white torm of LPpt08pel"lnUtli scopanum Forst. (Myrtac.).
This was loWld growing wild on pumice soil in the Hot Lakes district
by Mr. E. Philipps Turller. The doubling is very complete, and, so far as I
could judge from much-damaged spe('imens, resulted from petalody of the
tltamtlllB. Probably it is unable to produce seed. This case is of further
illterest because double flowers, as De Vries has pointed out (1905, p. 489),
are exceedingly rare in the wild state, though so common in cultivation.
Only OM individual was noted. The mutation was evidently quite spon-
taneous, and cannot be attributed to any lIudden ('hange of soil-conditions.
Leptospermwm scopauium is 0. most variable plant. Doubtlee.b some
of the forms are good elementary species. The form ,vith pinkish :fio\'I"ers
and hairy leaves, &c., of northern Auckland, which occurs over wide areas
side by side with other forms from which it can be re('o!!,nized at II alallC!!.
is a ill point.
8. 01.earfa semidentota Dcne., 10J'm with white :fiorets.
The typo has brilliant purplt' ftower-ht'o.d!!, Thp \vhite form waR dln-
('overed growing wild by Captain A. A. Dorrien Smith. It is now in
('ultivation in the' gardt'll tit Trl'sc'o Ahhl'Y, tidily.
A similar <.'1IoB1.l is VILr. Detl.tiyi (10('I.o~ynt· of Olearia chat/lmmca T. KiJ'k,
lound on Pitt IsII\lld by Dr. A. Dendy, F.R.H., u.nd whit'h has purpll' fior('ts
Imd yellower denser tomentum on thl' undt'r-surfact' o{ the leaf tllllil the
typt" the lior(\ts of wltiC'h, 1ll0reoVl'r, !trt' whitt' fllding to purplish.
1I. lIletrosideros,llUJ'i,do, Menzies, form with white flowers.
The type has crimson flowers. The white-ftowt'r('d form has ll(~en founel
in two places, one plant which I have seen growing llear the hend of the
Otira Gorge, Westland, and the other lower down the valley.t
10. Metrosiileros to'l'llefltosa A. Rich., form with yellow flowers.
Mr. H. Carse (Cheeseman, 1906, p. 1137) discovered one specimen with
yellow flowers, those of the type being dark orimson, o.t RanQnlID\l
Harbour, northern Auckland.
• Because 1 u~e these garden na.m.os it mUllt n:>t be oonoluded that I conRider the
plarlts of the sarne biologiOaJ class as Linnea.n spec.iell, or oven elemeut&ry speciei.
t Iamm(lebtecl to.Mr. J. O'Malley. ofOtira, foroaJlingm.y attention to the latter plant.
(JooruYNJlI.-EcologMal Studies i'll Evolution. 11

11. Rubus Barkeri Cockayne.

This is a presumably non-flowering species (see Cockayne, 1910, p. 325) ;
at any rate, cuttings from an adult plant growing luxuriantly and under
most varied conditions for a period of thirteen years have never flowered.
Be this as it may. the plant in question, although closely related to R. parvus
Buchanan, differs from that species in its trifoliate leaves with lanceolate*
ll'aflets and not aimple linear leaves, its serrate and not dentate leaf-margins,
its difforent autumnal colouring and its greater sizl' in all parts (see fig. 1).

l~lG. I.-OUTLINE Oll' LEAII' Oil' (1/) RIrBtrs BAUlIIBI, (II) R. PAllVIfil. X 5
Only one pln.nt was originally noted. Recontly I bave seen abundance of
Rubua parvus in various localities in Westland and under difYerl'nt <'Ondi-
tions, but it is remarkably constant in characters, and presented no trrmsi-
ticms towatds R. Bar1ceri. I kuow well that my action in "creating" a
taxonomic species in this case is open to adverse criticism, especially as
I believe that the original wild plant may be the only one in existence; but
if a species can originate by mutation there must be a time when there is
only OM individual, and if so, and its characteristic marks are of " specifio ..
importanoe. it is just as much a t< species" as if there were thousands of
similar individuals.

~ So defined in original desoription, but' lea.leta in &.g. 1 are broader.

12 '1'/,(l#lIucf iOIl~.

12. VfOroniclI BnllhUlni Hook. f., form with whitt' flowers.

V. Bt'fItha1t~i is a shrub of straggling habit endemic ill t,he Auc'kland
Isla.nds. Tho flowers are 110rnmlly of l~ brilliant hlue, a most ulluewtl ('olom
IlJnongst New Zoaluud plants. Orll' 01' two itldividuals with whiu· flOWeTh
wore !loted by mo in 1907. Also, anotht'r plant lLl~ tltl' flowc1'tI almost
rarmiu(.> wlum jutlt opellillf.!,. hut, lltding to 1\ paiN' ('oloUl' 011 thl' outl·t· part"
of Oll' r()rolh~ whl'll lully ('xpILlldl'd «(1J(wkllym', 190!~, p. 2()3).
13. OCrlll'lX"ll('l' of vtll'iegution, &('.
TheJ'(.· are three forms of variegntcd (loprosma BalM'ri Emil. ill ('llltiYatioll
of whose origin I know nothing. A vtniogatod form of (:/risl'tw/(( Itttorali~
Raoul was discovered a number of yeal'l:l ago by tho late Mr'. Purdie ill thl'
vieiuity of Dunedin. The late Mr. H. J. Matthews IOllud, I~lso ill th(·
neilthbourhood of Dunedin, n form of Fuchsia {':roortical.a J•. f. with \'('1'\'
dar'li:-roloured leaves, quite different £rom the Ilormal. OIl(' individual c;f
Oqrdyli11R australis Hook. f. with variegated loaves WIlS found Ulall~' yelHs a~o
in a batch of seedlings rlliseu at DUl1call'lI lIursery, Chrisu·luu'Ch. It IIpp('m't.
to OOll'l(, true from seed. VlIl'iegated {ol'ms of Vmmic(I saltici/o/ia FOl'l$t. appeared 011 several O('(,RoflionK ill c·ultivltotioll. Thcm' arc \·ul'iC'got<'ri
forms of p,'ttosporulII ten1ti/oliwn Blinks & Hoi. IIolld p, t'tlgenioides A. ('nnn..
but their origin it! uukllown. A form of (loprOSItlIl robusta Raoul with
yellow and not the typi('aIl'ed-orllllg(.> drupes was found by me near Kaipara
Harbour, Auckland. There are a numher of variegatl'd forlllS of PhormiunI
tenaz FOl'St. Ilond P. Oool....,ia'1lt111t Le Jolis in cultivation. \vhich ('orne more
or lesl! true {rom !ICed. but U vlIoriegated plant of the latter speril's found
wild by me 011 l\Iount Sherwood. Marlborough, UpOII being into
cultiva.tion reverted to the type.
14. Tetragonia. Murr.
This case is cited by De Vries (1901, p. 469). There al'e two forl111:1, 011(,>
with browuish Ilnd the other with green flowc>rs: both came true. Tht'-
wild plant in New Zealand hilS yellow fiow('rs.
15. Pittospm'wn lervui/oliulJI Bauke & 1:101., form with yellow flo\\'ors.
In New Zeala.nd, 80 {at· lIS is knowll, the petals are invariably dark-
purple, almost blark. But, accol-ding to H. M. Hall (1910, pp. 7, 8), two
shnlbs growing ill I' row of thA lIornu~I·(·oloured plant in California pro-
duc(l(l ,II('llow Howcltl. HhCluld thill h(' ut 11011 C'OlllmOIl ill N('w 7..enland it
clOltl<l hllortlly h~vo escaped lloti('(.'.
16, Iut.roduced plallts.
IXIme rl'luarkablo lIlol'l' or less h('I1'diw,ry \'ul'intiollti hlLVC ('ollLe about
in the broom (Oytisus 800pclrius l..1ink.), gorso (Ule:c C'UrOp(l('U8 L.), anu tree-
lupin (Lupimu arboreus Sims). III tht' first two Ilamed specios there 8f(.>
tlolour-changes from the llormal yellow to white, dificmmres in siZl' 1~lld
Khape o£ flower, and, in the gome, variation ill time of blooming.
Lupi'NU8 at'OOrcUB Sims, normally yellow, and varying but little in its
native laud, on the dunes near New Brighton, Ollontorbury, has und('rgo)lt'
many remarkable changes in the colour of its flowl~l'S. Thero is, e.g., a
pure-white, yellowB of various tints, and a great variety oI purples com-
bined, or not, with whites Imd yellows. These abnormally coloured plants
occur ill patches here and there as 8 gelloral rule, aud appear to g~ more
abundant year by year. In tho North Island I haw neither llotirC'd !lor
heard of such variations, 110r yet in Central Otago.
('OCKAYNF..-Ecolog;cal SttldltS in El't}lutlUlI. 13

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and cowgrl:lSS (the var, perenne) vary
to an astonishing extent in a small patch, chiefly self-soWll, in my garden.
Many of the forms are most distinct, and the new characters are diverse.
affecting colour of fiowers, stems, and foliage, fonn of inflorescence, degree
and kind of hairiness, genera] habit, &c. Hert> pure culture-methods and
Mendelian procedure would be needt.'<l to come to any reliable conclusions
as to variants such as these.
HOlell1 lanatus L. and Dactylis glomernta L., I am informed, vary at
times beyond their ordinary fluctuating capacity.
('apsella BUT8a-tpaJltoris Medic., a very variable species in its natural
habitat, and which has alrl"ady given rise to carlall} lllutants, varies to an
astonishing degree in New Zealand, ospecially in highly manured ground.
A ('aroful study of such yariatioll is certainly demanded.

1. General.
It is when we come to epharmonic adapttitiolls that ecology presents
its most important contribution to the evolution questiOll.
III !\ttemptillf.!, to explain the origin of epharmonic adaptations it is
evident that, as ill the case of all explanations of evolutionary phenomena,
no absolute proof can be given without experiment, and, where such is
wanting, it seems l'eallOnable that the most probable explanation should
be accepted for the timn being, notwithstanding that other though less
pl'Obable explanations would fit the case. Geuerll.lly in polemical dis-
cussions on matters of evolution llatUl'&1 selectioll is assumed to be a vera
causa which ueeds no demonstration, and if any other reason is put for-
ward, however likely it may appear, it is considered of no moment, unless
it can be proved not merely to the hilt, but to the objector's satisfaotion.
Now, I am of opinion that in the hereditary epharmonic variations
cited below there is a much greater likelihood of their having been brought
about by the direct actio)] pf the various ecological factors than by tht'
continuous accumulative selection of fluctuating varieties, and in making
this statement I am merely echoing the opinion regarding a.nalogous phe-
nomena or Romanes (1895, pp. 122-32), Warming (1909, pp. 370-78),
MacDougal (1911, p. 57), HCllSlow (1895, 1908), Costantin (1898), (Scott-
Elliott, 1910), ulld many othor writers 011 evolution.
With the lIlu('h-dispnte-d Lalllardcian factors use and diBUBe, which are
so frequently the on I!! parb:! of tho doctrine dealt with by the zoological
(JpponAllts of modifipd Lalllan·kism, I have nothing to do. How far evolu-
tionary methods ('orl't'Spond ill the plant and animal kingdoms no one can
say, but it dol'S )lot seem unreasonable to imagine that they may have been
ill many respects differont. * At any rate. this pa.per is concerned only wit11
the hotanical sid(' of (·volutioll.

2. F1'Z'if!J 0/ Species-Plasticity.
Nothing has been brought out more clearly by ecological studies in
New Zealand than tho extreme ., plasticity" of many species and struc-
tures, and their rapid response to a change of environment. Thil is 8t)

• LIla,yitt (1907, p. 237) writes, "In no case ill it Rafe to reason deductively from
nne kingdom to tht' other. In the facloTl! affeoting tbPh' 8,·olution, plant« and animaJ.o..
(liffer vAl'tly.
14 Transactions.

great in numerou8 insta'1l.Ce8 that the idea of "normal" 'ose8 tts meaning.
Take the following examples :-
(0.) Leptospermutn acopariun! FOESt. (Myrtac.) lUay be a moderate-sized
tree, a tall shrub, a dwarf plant 2-8 cm. tall which :flowers and ripens seed,
and an absolutely prostrate plant which fonns a dense covering to the ground
and puts forth adventitious roots, although tho erect forms are exceedingly
difficult to a.rtificially strike as cuttings.
(b.) Certuiu shrubs are of tnt> xerophytic awaricating growth-Iorm when
growing ill the open, but of fl compOITati'flely loose, leafy, and meaophytic
habit when growing in the shade and shelter of the forest-e.g., Piitosporum
tlivarioatum* C'ockayne, Oorokia Ootoneaster Raoul, A.'7istotelia lruticosat
Hook. i, &C. In such a case, were the shade form alone in existence (see
Plate VII, fig. 1), there is no botanist but would consider it fixed and
normal, and yet it is the sun and wind form rather that is so considered.
(c.) Fuchsia ('olel&8oi Hook. f. (Onagrac.) is a twiggy shrub in the open,
but in the forest it is frequently a sorambUng liane.
(d.) HymenophyllJum multifi,dum Sw. (Filic.) when occupying wet rocks
in the A.uckland Islands has its fronds closely curled up, but when growing
in the forest interior of the same group they are quite flat. That the curled
fronds are not fixed 1 have shown by means of moist-air culture (1904:,
pp. 266, 267). Suppose that H. mufJ:ifi,dum was only found on B 'wind-
swept treeless island, such J.S Macquarie Island, no one would question
the cutled frond being normal and fixed.
(e.) Myoporum laetum FOESt. t. (Myoporac.) is nearly "lways 1'1 Btnafl
round-headed coastal tree b.avinl!, a distinct erect trunk, but on Moko Hinou
Island it is altogetktfl' 'P'08trate, and its branches far-spreading, cord-like,
and twiggy. Were it not that I have seen intermediate forms on some
parts o! the North Island coast I could hardly believe that the Moko Hinou
plant was not a stable form.
(I.) MyrluB pedtmculata Hook. f. (Myrtac.) is generally either a smalZ
(ree or a twiggy erect snrub,t but at an altitude of some 1,200 m. in the
Notkofagus forest of tho volcanic plateau, North lsland, it is Ireq:uemly
quik prosttOtle and wQt;ng. 8typ'keZw, fascicula"a Diels (1iJpa.crid.), although
nearly always an erect shrub as n forest-plant, behaves exartly as the last-
named in the same station. On dWlOS it is I~SO frequently prostra.te.
(g.) Dracophllilum poZitum Cockayne (Epacrid.) when growing 011 tlu'
mountains of Stewart Islalld is II tllrf-making shrub, a low 8prsaclitlg shrub
with stout horizontal bra.nches, or II mas8illll ball-like oU8hion pla'llt, accord-
ing to (·ircwllllbmces. So difft'Tellt are those various forms that I mn
hardly yet believe them to be merely nnvirollmontal UIlDX('() fOlms of one
.anothor§ nnd that my observation is not faulty.
(.n.) (JIRiakenia clicarpfl R. Br. and G. ~ Sw. (Filic.) diff('r speci-
fically in the former having the lnargins of the segments of the pinnae in-
curved so as to be- pO\1ch-shapod, whereas those of the latter are virtually
:fiat. But the same individual of tbe var. Mcistophylla Hook. i will possess

• Thls plant has been morgt'd with P. rigidlUll! Hook. f. A dlagnor,is hAS not yet
been published, owing to lack of auftioient material, but it is neoeBfl&ty he~ to use &
definite name. since P. rigillv.m and P. divarilltltwn are certainly distinct t'ntities. (See
Pla.te I.l
t For further deta.ils, see Cookayne, 1901, pp. 265-67, and Dials, 1906, pp. 66-611.
t It hi possible that tho tree and shrub are ditferent species, but 1 ha.rd1y think
so, though I have not seen intermediates.
§ See Cookayneo. 1909, p. 16, and photo No. 13, facing p. 17.
('0CKAYND.-Ecological Studies in EI·olutioll. 15

some pinnae wiJ,h poucl&eB and otM:rS quite flat, in accordance with the degree
of illumination to which they are exposed. In fact, here tke 8pecific dis-
tinctiOfJ does not hold-it is merely ephanllonic-and the latest name must
be abandoned; 110r call the two" species" be maintained even 88 " varieties."
(i.) Di8C08'ia townatou Raoul (Rhamnac.) when growing in positions
subjet. .t to tho a.ttacks of rabbits may form low green oushions made up of
leafy spinoless shoots. " Normally" it is a stiD branching 8kl"l0 furnished
with a.bundant spines.
Many more examples could be cited, but the above SMW clearly enough
how unstable species may be, even when growing under natural conditions.
When experimental methods are brought into play the e:ffecOi from plasticity
become still more strikinp:. For example, spine-production may be sup-
pressed in Disoaria toumatou,. true leaves may be produced in the whip-
oord veronicas and species of Oarmiokaelia (Legum.); rolled leaves made-
flat,· and vice versa i cushion plants opened out widely. Undoubtedly
a serios of experiments such as those of Klebs (1908) would yield results
equally surprising.
It can be seen from the above that this uncertainty 88 to .. nOl'mal"
form opens up room for great doubt in all discussions regarding the origin
of permat&ef6t adaptations, for it may quite well be as8erted that absolute
fi,zity does notwt. It seems to me all that can be done is to consider
as to llorma.l" those forms whirh predominate and represent the general
growth-fonn of the bulk of the individuals; but (/,88'118'edly in no lew oases
there i8 no normal/orm oJ all.
:t Response to Ecological Flwtol·S.
W8l'ming has IIwnmed up the state of knowledge on this head up t&
the date of pUblication of his admirable" Oecology of Plants" (Warming.
1909, pp. 16-81), so that only a few local examples are necessary here_
First of all, it lllust be emphatically pointed out that it is virtually
impossible in the field, where so many ecological factors are concerned,
to say whioh is the predisposing cause of the internal response of the-
plant. Generally more than one factor will be concerned.
(a.) Soil. ..
Exoess o£ salt leads to succulence, as in certain salt-meadow species
which become loss succulent as members of non-halophytio formations.
The introdu<'ed Silme angZicfJ L. develops more succulent leaves when
growing neal' tho sea tban inland. Miss Cross examined the anatomy of
certain salt-mt'adow plants and those of the same species grown in oxdinary
soil in a greenhouse. Her figures show considerable di:fferences in thick-
ness of leaves, but other factors besides want of salt doubtless affected
the result (1910, pp. 569-71).
The soil Ileal' hot springs containing excess of sulphur, &c., inhibits
the erect sbrnb form of Leptospermufn ericoides A. Rioh., which then occurs
only in the prostrate form.
Lack of nutritive salts in sand-plains near the mouth of the River Rangi-'
tiUj IUld elsewhere changes the leaf-form of Selliera 'laau:aM Cav. (Gooden).
This is in accordance with the much more carefully conducted observations

'" III the caso of Olearia cYM1:t'foli.n Hook. f. the much revolute, boat.shaped J.ea.n
become flat with mom-air oulturt', and what was considered an important speoifi.
charaoter, di'ltine,ui..hing the" Rpeci8lt " from O. nUI/UII'IIlarijolia Hook. f•• vanishes.
16 1'''(lII~acf/Onl!.

of Mass.lrt, which arl' supportl>o' by soil-analyses (1910, pp. 156-65). 1'he

prostrate bobit of cl'rtl\ill shruhl'! of dune-holloVls ill the north of Auckhlllti
may, in part, be similarly expl.nnl'd.
Acid peat soils favour th(.' ('ushion and other Xl'L~lIllOl'phil' growtll-fornu.,
though IDesophytic forms m.~y ailio occur. '"
Phyl1mJIvt'IR c/rllli!lt'I(/' F. MUl'll. (Stylid.), anti douutloSll itll tlollil's of similul'
l'ushioll-form, rlUl be mndl' oj much loosl'r growth by moist-.lil' l'ulturl'
(Cockllynl' 1909A, p. 201).
The l!hootll of ('oluZa TJaasrii T. Kirk (Compos.), one paLt of u plant rooted
III deep tloil, and nnothor part on rott(.'n rock 01 shallow soil, exhIbit certaiu
striking difiol'encetl. These are chiefly in degree of intensity of churarterb.
The portion in shallow soil has smaller leaves, stiffer stems, more glands, anll
tht' leaf-segments closer. The ll'aves are of a darkel' greell, and are markl'd
with brown on tho lower half, whl.'reas th('re is no trace of hrown on thl'
doep-rooting portion. A dune form of 6lcaena 1l11'crophylla Hook. f. bl"havl's
similarly ill my gard(,l1, the lea\"cs of non-rootiug shoots being much smaller
than those of rooted shoots and broadly llllLrp,ill('d with blOwn, tho c. normal"
leavl's h('i~ lighter !_!,r(.'(,ll and f<J,intly brown at the apires of till' teeth at
most. preRI'IlCI' 01' nbllt'nre of u. dnrk colourillg-mnttor would appeal'
o£ smull importanr(' w('rl? it not that dark-coloured leavcb !tle a rather
froqucnt chl\rltCtl'risti(' of New Zealtlond plants.
Pln.nts l'XPOfll'd to tirifting salld mny dl'vclop all upw.u·d growth. ThUb,
Po(/, co.espitosa Forst. f., 1I1thoUjl,h It lIieppe tussock-grass, when growing
on drifting santi ill Oelltral Otngo gets mol'l' or less 1\ sand-hinding form.
So, too, with Phormi'lUI6 tt'f6(JJ; Forst. and A.rllndo oonspicu(I Forst. f. 011
constal dUlles, though both arc commonly swamp-plnllts.
Scirpus Irotldosus Banks &. SoL, tl sand-binding plant of the' most
extreme type, is llot only endemic, but belongs to an endemil' SUbQ,l'IUlS
(Desmosokoenlls). Not only hus this plant attained its growth-form m ,m
isolated dunC'-al'ea, but, as Mr. R. B. Olivel' suggests ill 1\ Jettel to me,
possibly in actual competition with the Australti\11 Spini/px hil'lIUtllS LabilJ.
At one placl' in Puhipuhi Valll'Y, Seaward Kuikour.\ Mountains, nt'al'ly
all 1.h" species, both indigenous nnd introduc('d, growing on (,old, wet, liml'-
I:l'1;0111' soil I'xhihit Intnkl'cl varil'gn.tioll, but bl')'OI,d I his (cluphir influ(.'llCI'
they arl' of tiLl' nornml gtl'I'Il.
Highly llmlUlrl'll 11011, ilK is \VI'Il knowll III ('ultiva1.ion, al'tll po\wrIully
upon plant-Jorm. [n llatLlrt' the' Ileum' OI'C'l1l'll. V)l\lltfl of Sicyos f&WltmliH
EIIlU. growing on Around mnml1'lI<l hy PUffil1llH sphrtl?l1'1t.9 in ih(' Kl'I'lIllIc1('('
hlanM frl'lluently pl'Odl1(,1.I ml\1A fiowel's ill which "1hl' pl:'tltlt! tUI'll grl'l'lI.
and 8t5BUml' morl' 01' II'Hti th(' shll.p(' und ehnl'at'!1.11· or folin)!,p Il'l\vI's " (Oliwl',
R. B., 1910, p. 132). (Jel't.lin spI·t'il's appl.'ar ('Ollfined to boil oj tIll' uhove
charoutor-e.g., S!'nl'IJio tmtill11dllR T. Kirk, of Antipod('s Ishm<l, nlld (iotu{n
FeaJ.herIJtllnil F. MueJ1 .• of C'hutlunl1 Island.

(b.) Llullt.
Tho bright light of dunes proba.bly leads to the red- or orange-Loloul'I'd
steDlil of the rush-like uptocarpu8 8implex A. Ri('h (Restiac.), whiuh 1),1'('
green in the shade, and ItS salt-swamp plants not nearly so brilliantly
coloured. It is a moot point how far the reddish, yellowish, or brownish
hue of certain true dUllt'-pln.nts may be considl.'l'cd fixed and hl'reditary
* Boo on thill Iltl&tl BnnUl, 19] J, Pl1. 121,124. Xerophytos are confined to (!('rtain
zones in the bogs studilKl, tIll' lal'gl!f>t OO~'BI'('Qq lx,illlJ hycll"l,hytil' or mUl-ophyti('.
('OOKAYNJ!..-Ecologlr(l[ 8tllliles III El'ullltltJII 17
(e.g., SOli pUB /l"(lIIdOSUS BlIllkt. & &1., ('opros/lla aenola A. CUUIl., (.Jurmern
rtren.nria Cheesem., Euphorlnn ,,[nUt'n FOl'bt. f.).
An mteretlting cast" is that of Lycopodium ramulosum T. Kirk, a plant
fOlming extt"usive patches on moors ill tht' west of the South Island and
~tewart Island, the sporophylls of whwh are absent 01 scantily produt'ed
In shade plants, but extremely abundant 1ll those growing in bright light.
Many youn~ trees ill the forest aStluIUt' u sperial form with a slender stem and few branchos, whirh art" confined to its upper portion.
Similarly, the xerophytie fern Pterid&ulJI esculelltut1l Cockayne becomes in a
dim light a srrambling liane, Au examplt" obst"rved by Mr. H. Carse and
myself was growing a.mongst tall, slender Leptospenllum BCOPMiu»I on Reef
Point, north-wel:!t Auckland. Some of the fronds were more than 3 m. in
It''ngth. Pinnae were II bsent until the brighter light was gained. The final
portion of the rhachis was green Ilolld succulent, and the distance between
the pinnae 46 t'm. Tht'sl' latter were still coiled up and quite rudimt"ntary,
,Illihough tho largest ,vas 25 cm. 10nf2.. The rhnt'his was twisted-i.e., it
bhowed a tendency to tWllle.
I!'lhade-and herf.' proba.bly COUlt'S III mOIsture in the air-increases th('
Rlze of leaves, t'hllllges certaill xerophytes into mel>ophytes: e.g., species
of <.'armichaelia, D,scnri« fuulllntou. PodOt.'llrpU8 nil'alis Hook., as may be
plaillly seen from PInta IV, l't'spouds markedly to changes in illumina.tion,
tht' shadt' form resembling P. tolam much more than the speciel:! which it
really is. Th(' Spt'('inll'ntl were ('ollt.'(·tt'd within a few feet of one anothu.
The lie of the leaf is rt'gulnted by the light. Olf'aria ilISi!ln!B Hook. f.,
a shrub of dry l'ocks ill Marlborough, archt's its brant'hes upwards to a sur-
prising degree, thus bringing its leaf rosettes into a suitable position with
regard to the light. This hahit persists in plants raised from seed and
grown on Jla.t ground.
(0.) WInO.
Wind is a most impol'tant mctor in New Zeala.nd. First comes tht"
" wind-shearing" action, which is m part a physiological process; it is
wt"ll marked in trt'es and shrubs of oxposed positions, and may be frequently
seen in Podocarpus totara D. DOll., Leptospnlnutn scopari'U'In Forst., and
many other plants. The prostrate habit is encouraged by wind; but here
other mdors may enter in, as cold and acid soil. ('opro8'lIIa foetidi.ssimu
Forst. is usuallv a tall forcst-shrub, but wht'n a member of the tussock-
moor Ilssoriatioil of the Aucklnnd Islands (Cockayne, 190<JA, pp. 200, 201.
and 219) it is prostmh' and twiggy. The prostrate form of Leptospenll'Um
scoparium. 011 the subl~lpino moors of Stewart Island is another and remark-
I~ble example. Well-developed prostrate trunks are to be seen ill Ml'tro-
sii/eros luciila Mellz. (Myrta('.) in the Auckland Islands, Stcwal't Island, nnd
thl' Southern Alps, and ill Olearia ilioiloUa Hook. f. (Compos.) in some sub-
.l.lpille foresia of the Bouth Island. Reduction in sizt" of leaves must often
be attTibuted to wind-nction.
(d.) Wat~r.
Plants of still or slowly running water are subjected to a fairly con-
tltl1nt environment. * (' coroflopijolia L., as a land-plant, is a herb with
branched, prostrate, more or less rooting stems, the branches of which are
erect or semi-erect; the internodes are short; the leaves are rather
B.eshy, more or less lanceolate in outline. and pinnatifid, lobed, toothed, or
sometimes t"ntire; the roots are, at most, of a moderate length. As a
• Of OOUfIIC', the position of tho l)lant with roganl to the bUrf.OI', the nature of tht'
&ubcltra.1um. a.nd othe-r fa.ctoT'l ('Zl'roi'!l' 110 oon'lidera.ble inilUE"nCf'.
18 T /'(1,11 ~tlrtiollio.

water-plant, the stem il:! straight, unbl"lln("ht'd, and pt'rhllps 40 em. long; the
intel'l1odes are lone;; th'" leav('s linear and E.'l1tir(', and the roots numerous
and SO 40 cm. long; wilen the shoot risE.'s abovE.' the water-surfacE.' it
hrallt'hes, nnd the Il·t\V('S ,Ht' much as in the lu.nd-plant.
Not only th(' leuvl'1:! hut also the inflorescence diff(·J' gJ'catly in size In
thl' ltllld and wllt('r fonnl:! of thl" illtl'Odl1l'cd Radi(!'U/a NallfUl1itmr-aqttatioot1l
Brit. & Rcnd.
Specially moist air I'auses the production of aereul l'OotR 011 thl' IItems
of certain whipcord veronicas.
Bc1Ieflkra digitoJ..o, Forst. (Aralial'.), a low forest tree OJ' shrub, when
II,rowiug ill certain damp gullies of northern Auckland produces sometimes
leaves much more deeply cut than the normal.
The moist-gully form and the dry- or aeid-ground form of Blrckntllll i
capeme Schlcht. (Filic.) are so distinct in appearance that many might
('onsidcr them distinct spec·ies.
(e.) Altitude.
Altitude is l~ complex combination of faetors which sometimes product's
striking difierencrs in the same species, according to thl" height at which
the individuals grow.
A very common feature is diminution of stature with increase of alti-
tude, though this is not so with all species. The trecs Dacrydium cupre8-
stntlm Bal., Wl'inmannia racellW8a Linn, f., and Griselinia littoralis Raoul
are much reduced in size when forming a part of the mountain-scrub of
Stewart Island, the two latter eventually becoming small shrubs.
On the other hand, if the lowlands can offer an equivalent environmont
to tha.t of the mountain&-thougb, of course, it can never be actually
identical-a.lpine plants may oceUl' at sea-level, their forms differing not
at aU n'Om those a.t all altitude of 600 m., 900 m., or considerably higher.
The lowland moor of Stewart Island ('ontsins vaIious alpine plants ot
this ('hal'acter-I'.g., Celnm'sia argenlRa T. Kirk, Astelia li'llRariN Hook. f.,
DracophylluJIl p"litum (iockaYllt', Carpha alpina R. Br., Drmatia novae-
zelnntiilU' Hook. f., {falthn. l&ooae-ze/MuHae Hook. f.. (/aimardia ciliafa
Hook. {. (For full list, Sl"e CO('kaytll", 1909. p. 27.)

4• .ljtl'l'-eUl'cl 0/ Stimuli.
It is most imp0l1ant with regard to thl' question of thl' ultinwh' hClreuity
of (·hallAc~ ill form and structul'l". &('., Jll'OUgbt nbout by 11.11 internal l'('-
spouse of thC' plUllt to stimuli from without to iuqlliJ'(' liS to ddbtite
examples where the> form, &;('., persists for a reasonably long time after
thl' stimulus is removed. Thr following cases lwar 011 this sllhjcc·t :-
1. A prostl"ate form of a ~pecies of Oopr08fl'la (Ruhiac.), which originally
grew on acid peat on the Chatham Island tableland. was cultivated by
me in a pot for three years, and then ill ordinary garden-soil ill a garden
for four years more, during the whole of which time tho prostrate habit
remained. But all 011 a sudden, durinp; tho eighth yc-ar, it commenced
to put fOl'th erec..-t shoots, and hut for its unfortunate destruction would
lmdoubtedly by this time have been 011 erect shnlb. So assured was I
that this plant would remaill prostrate or stunted tha.t I published cer-
tain remarks to that effect (1907, p. 878). Bo, too. with a stuntC:'d form
of Q.lloGhcr species of C'OF08flIG, pE'rhaps O. ouneata Hook. f., collected
by me ill 1903 in AntipodE'S Island. This WIlS grown on the rorkery Bt,
()ocruYNE.-Ecolog~cal Studies 1'''' EvofutlOri. 19
Canterbury College for six years and kept its habit, but later on it too com-
menced to put forth erect shoots.
2. Ooprosma Bauen Endl. when growing on a sea-cliff is a straggling
shrub, more or less closely :ll.attened to the rock-surface, and puts forth
nothing but long spreading horizontal shoots. Such plants bear flowers
and fruit. This growth-form of the species may be referred to wind, and
porhaps heat. But when C. Baueri grows in u. coa.stsl forest, or even when
isolated on loamy clay, it is a tree with a stout trunk. Plants whirh I raised
from seed, and whirh now growing in the experiment-ground at Canter-
bury College, possess long spreading horizontal shoots---i.e., they are of
the shrub form, as above; but they are also developing erect shoots, and,
if permitted, they will eventually grow into trees (see Plate II, fig 2). Here
it is possible that the prostrate form is inherited from the rare of rock-
frequenting plants. But the sti.mulus has not been sufficient to make a
really permanent race, and so the prostrate form only occurs during an
early stage in the ontogeny of the individual. Similar cases of partial
heredity are dealt with further on when treating of prolonged juvenile
S. Oleana Lyallii Hook. f. (Compos.) forms a pure forest on some of
the New Zealand subantarctic islands. A striking feature is the prostrate
or semi-prostrate trunk, which may be referred to wind, a peat soil, and
perhaps a uniform low temperature. In the interior of the forest, no
matter how boisterous is the wind without, it is quite calm, and yet the
seedlings are nearly always more or loss prostrate at first. So, too, with
the seedlings of O. Oo'lensoi Hook. f. when growing on the mountains of
Stewart Island.
4:. The case of Suphora microphylla Ait. and S. prOBtral,a, Buchana.n:
This is fully discussed in this paper under the heading" Persistent Juvenile
Forms" (p. 25), to which it may be well perhaps for the reader to turn
a.nd consider the case in relation to the point under discussion.
It would be beyond the scope of this paper to mention in detail instances
of after-effect of stimu1i in places other than New Zealand, but it is we1l
to Lriell.,Y ~llum.erate ~ few of the more striking. Such Schiibler'B
cereals, which, grown in a northern climate, ripened their seeds earlier even
when cultivated in southern countries; Cioslar's conifers, whose seeds,
collected in the Alps, when sown on the plains produced plants of slow
growth and small diameter j Klebs's Veronica and Semperoilvum, whose
striking a.bnormalities of inflorescence were repeated in plante raised from
seed j Blaringhem's races of maize and barley originating from planm pur-
posely damaged in a specific manner (Blaringhem, 1907) j Zederbauer's
experience with a form of OapBella Bwrsa-pastoriB from an altitude of
2,000-2,400 m. in Asia Minor, which through four generations in Vienna
maintained in part the special alpine stamp; and MacDougal's ovarial
treatments, where one new induced form has maintained its character, so
far, up to the fifth generation (see MacDougal. 1911, pp. 56, 57).
5. OO'llllJef'f]etR Epharmony.
From. what has gone before, it is plain that ,-arious growth-forms of
New Zealand plants may be referred with confidence to stimuli from outer
£actors. It has been seen also that of such forms SOlUe are merely environ-
mental; but there are others,' now to be dealt with. which are hereditary,
and remain constant, unless perhaps when exposed to such a change of
conditions as they would not encounter in nature.
20 Tr(m~actlolU

If IS a f~t of the Y"(,(I/f'BI slqIH{irn/flCf' '"nt ldelltlCalql"uwlh-/orms arf' /ound

side by side QI'Mn,gst spt'('I('S bf'longlnlj to um·plafcd familit·s. The import-
anct' of this OCCU1Tt'nCC if! btIll m.ore l'mphasiz('d by tht' iAl·t thl\t other
spol'ics in mr-distnnt parts of th(' edl1.h, growing nudE'I' upproximately
similal ('onditions, may likl'W1Sl' possess thp lumu' ('phn.l"lIlolll(· forllls.
thel'<' bhould 1,(, thill c01l1'l'rgent P'j,hnrlllon,lJ, us It if> ('0.11('<1, IIC'l'1l1K to I('n,l
tho strongest SUppOI·t to 1h(' vil"w that th(' ('f[('(·t o{ an outl'l" IIt.JlllUhlh IIpOI1
tht' plant, such as Ii~ht, h('at, &('., may bl'('oml' hereditary.
Only a few ChaTcltoWlisti(' J.,rrowth-Iol·IUS roo('iv(' uttl'UtiOIl 110r<.>, and thc>
treatment of these is quite blior. A {ow othpTIl .\J"t' d(,lIlt with whpll tn',ll-
ing of the genus Vf'ronioa (p. 44).
(a.) Th( iJrfXIllwhn.u 81~tub IlolIll.
ThlS very commoll New Zealand growth-form (.'Onsists 0:1 mll( II-brdlwlll>U
often stiff and wiry stenlb which art' pressed olObt'ly togothl'r 01' ('ven
interlaced, the branching being fl'<'quelltly Ilt .llmosl :~ right ILn~le (Sl'C
Plate III, fig. 2). Although I do not know of auy pxo,mple wheJ"e:' wllld hal>
brought an exact replica of this form, !~ wllld-shorn Ilhmh is l'ioB<'ly rc-laW.
Still mOl"C closp is thl' unstablo forlll RBSUlIU>(l by certai.n liulics in th<' 0)11'11
(e.g., Rubus, MueA7,nbecHa,* and ('[Plnal1s) whi('h grow in l'ompnllY with tru('
divaricatiug shrubs. Further, the rt'lation to sltrubs ot an opel! growth
is exhibited hy tho alro,ldy IU<!lltiOllOO ('()rol<"lfl OotOtlfflStl'7 I\ud PittosPOYl(/il
divariootum, when they grow 88 forest-plants. Sut/onta (UtJfmcatn Hook. r.
(Myrsmao.) is virtually fixed uuder all (·it'CUlll.StaJl(·es, though in the fO]'(>81
it may have- a slender trunk.
The ecological fat'1JOrs gOV(>1"lllllP. thIS gl~)wth-form appear to be WlJlel.
in the first place, d.ud thf'u various OthN xN'Ophyti(' stimuli, or which soil
must play an importnnt pa.rt.
The most instnlctive cast' of ('oJlvprgellt epharlllony ill th<'Sc plants
is ill the scrub of certain South Island mOlltalll' river-teuaCE's OJ" rlYe!'-
beds, wht're so gt"Catly do many of the spe<"ies I'('sl'mble 0111.' anoth..r th.Lt
it is quite (,88Y to confuse them. 'rho following is 1m actuo.l c·omlll'lllJ.-
tiOll: Pittos1wrUI/I divllnootllof'll Cockayne (Pittosp.). RIIIII-'8 8ubpllll'Jll'rflfu8
Cockayu(' (R08d.!,.), Ih8Ofl'l'ia foumafotl Raoul (RlllIIIUlnl")' .II isfofl'lrn frul'-
t,'OO8{1 HO(lk. r. (E1n('o!'arp.), Il1llnt>1uwtMm t/l'lltafn R. Hr. V,II". (upilla
T. Kirk (Viol,'l·.), Oorll1ria OotOll('(lIlI('1" Ruoul «IOl"lla<J.), (10JlII/8/11{1 '}Jl"flp&nquCl
A. Cwm., O. PQl"tJif/O'I'a Hook. f. (Rubio.l.'.). 1I111IIl'nnnih('rn would m"ll1t'utly
be Ilobsl'llt 01" (·olln.nod to specially K'WI\Y ground. Tlum' would also pro-
bably he Olll' or mOfl.' dpecics of Vrroll;l'rr .1lld (lo.rm ich(ll'/ia, hut thdl"
growth-r()rll1K 111"11 di1i~rollt.
The divo.ri(·l\tmA growth-form also OOUUTS ill tll(' foJlowiug famili('s:
PoZygonacea.e, Ran'U'1WU7acear, lJtguminoBae, RlIIQcene, lCnc1M08(1,(', Mal-
tlaceae, MYB~'M()(J(U', and OOtwpositae-i.('., ill fift.t'en fd.llli1ies ••ltogether, I\U
of which have likewise members with altogether different. growth-fonns.
Generally speoking, tho ea.rlier juvenile fonn of the~(' planls is mesophyti("
(b.) Pile OtiJhi()t/ ]POlin.

Every tra.nai.tion oxist.e between the open circuLu mat-like form sud
dense Ullyielding eushions. It is nteTely a question of degree in redu('-
tion of internodes and closeness of growth. The genus Ot'ZmisiG shows
... M. Aalcmi p(otrit', mo&t o1olo<'ly related to thl' Il&nl'. 1J/. romplsru, i. a dl...",rioating
TRANI. N:if, IN ...' , VOl XLIV PL\'!r III

11 J<' 1 ~Ol HUP \ \11 ILOJ'ln I I \

,)UH mIl' dl\dIH.lhnL\ ILIIlI

IflG 2.-PU."XObPORU\J ll1\'\BllA'lU\[

A Sill ub 01 till) U1\.l1 lI..olhng, gUJ\' til loun
'I'll \N" N Z INfoI, VOL XLl\' I'I\ICIV

PIIIII.I \111'11, NI\ \I,h

Un "'11, ~hJIII' [OIlU. 'Ill III.\hl, ~IIII t 11111 I' bum (Jt II ,I qUI'll
('OCKA.1NIIl.-/ft'Ologlrtl/ St Utili'S III RI"OlutwlI. 21
straggling lUats in (). discolor Hook. f. a.nd O. Walkeri T. Kirk, IOOl~e <:1)'(.:11la1
cushions in O. vt8C08a Hook. f., aud true dense cushions ill C. seBsiliffora
Hook. f. and O. argen.tea T. Kirk.
Frequelltly the epharmony of such cushions call be seen ded.rly in one
and the same species, as in the tiny taxad Dac71lriiutI! lam/oUulI! Hook. t,
which forms cushiolls on dry pumice at 1,200 m. altitude- near Mount RUcl-
pehu, but which growillg amongst othtor shrubs under more mesophytic
conditions is frequently Ilo straggling shrub, or when ill colonies 011 sonr
peaty growld me-rely a olose turf.
The cushion form culmiuates in the great amorphous masses of <:ertlU.n
species of Psyc1vropkytOfl and llaastia, which grow 011 alpine roc:b* exposed
to SUIl, frost, and willd, or at times, ill the C'ase of R. Gageni T. Kirk, of
i:ltewart Islaud, on wet peat.
Excepting with regard to tbe physiologlcally dIfferellt bryophyte cushions
of moors or wet forests, the cushion forlll is governed by lttrong xero-
phytic conditions, and the same species may thrive either ill physically or
physiologically dry statiolls-e.g., Phy["/,aI)l!ne ('nlensoi Berggren (Atvlid.).
Psyckropkyeqn, Goyeni B1"8uverd (Compos.). .
The form under consideratioll occurs in the following families: Ta:raceae.
(Jraminea.e, Oyperaceft6, Ol'ntrokpidaceae, J ",neaceat.', Portulm:aceal', (laryo-
pkyllaceae, LegumifW8(J(J, Violaceae, Tnymeiaeaceae, UmbelUjf'fae, BorlJ-
gi'1l.aOel1R, SO'fopkularinooeae, Plantagitlaceae. Bt.'1liri'Ulceal', clnd Oomposital'.
Epharmonically similar cushions O(l('ur aUlongst different generd. and
families in high mountains everywhere. Cl"rtain ereC't shrubs when wind-
swept becoml" virtual1y C'ushions.
(0.) LiaTle8.
Climbing-plants have most certainly descended from Ilon-clilllbillg speciel>
which through shadc and moisture have grown upwards out of the lower
tieN of vegetation ill a stratified association. Many transitions between
climbing and non-climbing plants can be observed, aud these, considered
along with the heredity of the climbing habit and its strong difierentiation,
afford weighty support to a. belief in the heredity of epharmollic cha.racters.
The ferll Hypo'lepis tUstans Hook., which generally gh'es no hint of a pro-
pensity to clim.b, when growing alongside a support lllay lengthen its fronds
for oonsiderably more than 1 m., though at thilt length they would fall but
fur the support. 011 Lhe rhcms are minute excrescences, which. though
()ortainly not adaptatiolls for the purpose,t assist the frond to maintain
its position. The climbing £ol'1n of Pteri,dium esoulentu,lII, already noted,
is specially interesting because of its hint at winding. So, too, with the
IJcrambling }iano Lycopo(Uum flOlubile Forst. f., which, gaining a thin support,
winds freely, the winding beillg ill this case all hereditary cha.racteristiC'.
The case of Fwksw, Oolensoi Hook. fl, already mentiolled, is of especial
moment. This is a shrub in the open, and a.t times a scramblillg liane in
the forest. There can be little doubt that this latter habit is hereditary
to some extent, and it is possible that there may be clilUbing and n011-
climbing races. This is the more likely as the .• species" is considered
variable, and large forms are said to "almost pass into F. exoorticata"
(Cheeseman, 1906, p. 187), which is a small tree or shrub. but never a
• HGafiia plllvj1UJII8 app.'80rB to grow on r.hingle-slip, 80ml not 011 rook, &0 far as I
Jl&ve observed; but I am aiRo advi~ tha.t at times it grows ou rock.
t Stdotiy llpeaking, there iF! 110 .. pUrp<l'o(' .. ill any adaptation, but it ih often con·
\'enient to HJIl"IIk tl'leologiC'ally.
III the case of Rubus CJt8801des A. Cunn. var. POIIIIp8fat'1J8 T. KJrk there
IS no question of dJ.stinct races, although there are certainly two epharmoni('
growth-forms. The one is a hlgh-chnlbing hrule growing in forests. It is
provided more or less abund&Jltly with leaves, and produces plenty of
flowers and fruit. But m the opl'n, on hillsides fully exposod to wind and
SUll, It forms rounded bushes of interlacing twigs, has its leaves r~uccd
to midnbs, and never produces flowers. It is, in fact, a xerophytio form,
governed by the non-forest conditions, &Ild its presence depends upon
seeds being brought from the forest-plant by birds. Seedlings rmsed by
me from the forest-plant were leafy in an early Be~ling stag_e* j this was
followed by the epharmonie leafless form, which, althougll hered.ltary,
C&Il only persist so long as xerophytic conditions are maintained. Plan1s
growing in the shelter of a clift may have a few leafy shoots which run hear
flowers and fruit. .Rt.ibua BUbprwperatus Cockayne, closely related both as a
species &Ild as a growth-form. has alao a forest form and a xerophytic lorm,
but m this case both produce flowers. The adult flowering forms of the
root-clim bing li&Iles Mt1Jr08ideros BCMIdens Sol. &Ild M. ftoTi,iJ,a Sm. lnay
berome shrubs in the open, an analogous case to that of the artincially
raised tree-ivy of gardens. It IS highly probable that other climbillg
Sprol~S of the genus behave in a Similar maImer.
The genus Olematis is represented by eight speciest in New Zealand.
All al'e more or less variable, and SOlne of the species appear to " run into "
one another. Six lnay be cOllSldered mesophytes j they are fOll.'St-plants,
or some chmb amollgst shrubs. These spl'cies are abundalltly furnished
IVlth leaves. But the var. rutaejolia, Hook. f. of O. 001011801 nook. f. grows
under more xerophytie conditions, ~nd, m IIrcordance with tht'llO, it, is
smaller than the typo, the leaves llro more cut and proaent lesa tr~nsplrlll~
surlace; perhaps it is a fixed. form. O. IIWIItG is subxerophytic; it gro\\H
In the open, frequently climbmg mto the brclnches of the xerophytiC' /)'S
oaria toumtJtou; its stems are slender, brownish-green, pUbesCllllt, and
mterlaced, and its leaves much reduced. Finally. O. a.jol,ia,ta Buchanan
is a true xerophyto; it is Vlrtually leafless j tho stow are greon and {nno-
tion as leaves j they are ruah-hke, grooved, have the stomata III tho
grooves, &Ild are generally closely intertwmed - i.e., tho growth-form is
identical with that of the above RtIbus, &Ild approximates to the dim-
ea.ting form. The seedling has plenty of lea.ves, and when the adult
grows in the forest this juvenile state may persist and even flower. It
must be remembsred. 1iho.t this range of follllS of Olematis, w]nch vary
from forest mesophytes to an almost divaricating leafless shrub torm, arc
~ll presumably descended from ODe ancestor, and that even now many
are connected. by intermediates, while one species is epb.e.rm.oniealJy lUetIQ·
phytie or xerophytic, according to its station.
(d.) TM P109trrm Form.
There are various modifications of the prostrate form, whioh depend
ulne1ly upon closeness of br&IlohlllS and rooting-capacity. Here thero are
only m.entl.oned those with more or less straggling stems, which mayor
may not bear adventitious roots. 011 cp-min SUbalpine moors a Dumber

• I:!ee '&Iso figs. 229, 230, Goebel, 19().), pp. 333, lIM.
t qtUJd~ Col. is OJDltted, .., It seems to me merely a. of O. tllAnUa
J. B. AnnstronJr:. Nor do 1 know a.nytlll~ roga.rdWg ~ V&1'I. d8fllJ"fIt"'Itll Hook. f.
and jrlio6cUtJ Klrk of O. 'fJfI7'fIiflm'a .A.. CuIUI.
'I'II\N' N ~ I", I \'11 \I.IV PLATL V.

1'1" I - V, IIONIC ~ C 11\111\ III( A

luttlJll.I JlI1II1 •• 1 ,.,tl. 111\ hul ..,11I111Il-\ hCIIJlont,t1h, t1111~ ,lul\'lI1.., LII 1""cbllL'
Chdl,l( t"al


II"1Q !l
L. VL:BONlUA LOGANIOIllCb 2. V. C.AbbIN,OlDll&. J ltL\ LBbIOIOo SUOO'r 01 V lLlll.AGONA.
4.. V TE'l'l!..o\GlONA X 3
Ji'au p II.J
TuAN... N Z IN-.'l, VOL XI,]V

lot'lC, 1 nUJlI1()lt\ 11'1n\PIII~\

Ymml., tJ"l' ut ('h.lih.lll 1,I.mel !l1I1l1 1.,111\\lII!I, OICC 1 \\Iill ,tt.lI!1,ht Ul,tll< h.·,

If10. 2. -t;Ol'IIOBA lLTD.Al"l&B.A.

Socdhngs nl Vh.t.tho.m I&l~nd fOIlIl.
('OCKAYNE.-h'/·oloYI('(/! "'flUllls III 81'olllfltJl/ 23
of plants of this class may grow side by side belonging to the geltera. DaL:If!l-
JIUIn, Podocarpus (Taxac.), LeptOBpe1'n&um (Myrtac.), Styphella (Epacrid.).
(.'oprosma (Rubiac.), Veronica (Scrophular.), and OelmiBia (Compos.). In
'lOme cases the prostrate form is here hereditary, while in others it is unDXOO
md depends merely upon the station.
Thl' combinatIOn of species forming the shrub steppe on the subalplllt'
\,oicamc plateau, North Island, ('ontains II considerable percentage of
prostrate shrubs, BOml' of which more or less erect unde]' less Xl'ro-
phytic conditions.
Coastal rocks favour the prostrate form. Thus in such ~ &ituaiaOll
near Island Bay, Wellington, there are Hyme'lUJ'flJJ&era Cf'a88ifo11a Hook. f.
(moro or less hereditary), Ooprosma Baueri Endl. (hereditary ,,,hen juvenile).
VnO'luCa macroura Hook. f. var.· (perhaps hereditary when juveUlle but
I'I'ect when adult).
Other veronicas of coastal rocks arl' DI0rl' or less prostrate. and tws
IS strongly hereditary in V. choihamica BUl'hanan-so much 80 that a shoot
~rown vertIcally in a pot quickly assumed the horizontal direction (se('
Plate V, fig. 1).
An interesting instance of non-hereditary convergent ephalmony of
this growth-form is the wiry undergrowth of three specIes of Copr08'Jna
beneath the tussocks of D(JlfltkoMa. antarctica Hook. f. at some 250 m.
o\ltltude in Aut'ldand Island. One of the spl'Cies, (I. /oetidi88Ima, is
" normally" a tall twiggy shrub, and the other two are ml'dlUm-slzed
divclricating shrubs.

6. Per8i8fftll. Ju"cl&,l~ FOrtn8.t

About two hundred species of Ne," Zealand vl&Scular pl.mts, btllongillg
to thirty-seven families, show a mort' or less well-marked distiUl1ion
hptween the juvenile and adult stages or
development, whil(' ill perhaps
0110 hundred spt'cies the dd.!erellces IIore very great mdc('d. The most
interesting cases aro those in whit'h l\ juvenile form remains p(,l111anent
for 1\ number of years, 80 that in im ontogeny thc individual passe& through
two, or oven more, distinot stages, and not infrequently thl'Ou~h two

'" 1 ..m llIJ)lined to tlunk it would be better to (lol1ll.lder tluK .. ~l'0(lIefo,. It di1ferl,
con"iderably from the typioa.l form. which grows in the Ea.1lt Cape distnct.
t HN.erobla.,tio development is a. world-wide phenomenon whioh !wi not received
nearly the atteIltion it deeerves from writerK on evolution. It is its OOC!urrlmCC' in RO
many ondemio speoies in New Zealand tha.t:ma.kee data from. tlwI rtogion of Iopecial iuterest.
In 1879 I. Bayley Balfour roc01'ded a. number of striking examplell from the Ibland of
Rodriquez-..6.f/., Olerodsftdron laci"iaeum BaJf. f., :reminding one of the N'bW Zealand
YolMpa'IIQII; Bt''lll'plefl: Seem.; PyroBWia tn'loculan8 Balf. f.; l'emelll1 ~tolla Lam., a
l'Ubiooeouli plant, evidently wheli juvenile somewhat of the dival'ica.ting t.hrub form;
a.nd .JlaawriM ~fI,oreI Balf. f. (Tumerao.). which haIIIQ!lg narrow juvenile and
broad adult loaves, as in J'M8I1I'I.8ia. 'lMterop'/ltJ'O.a A. Cunn. and othl'r New Zealand plants.
AltogothOl ISOvonteen. species of t:recs and 'lbrubs and one herb out of 170 Sl'eoies of
~permophyt.oP ahow marked. dimorphism. GOl'bel (1889-93) gives a number of t'Dmple&
of hN.erophylly, &0., referring the phenomena. in some insta.noes to direot outl'r stimuli,
a.nd he deals further with tlie matter in hiR "Organography of Pia.ntb" (1900-5) and
his .. Exporimentelle Morphologie It (1908). Diels (1906) goes into the IIl&tter at con-
sideAble 1ensrth. ueing many important illUlitrations from his ob&ervatlonB in We&tern
Australia. As for thti phenOmenon in Ne~ 1.caWld. Hooker WI.9 the first to refer to it,
m hla splondid .. Introductory Elsay to the New Zealand Flora " (1853, p.l). Kirk giVOEo
many cfetai.ll! in his "ForNI; Flora" (1889), and these are E.uppleJllentcd by Clheeot'man
In bill lfanual. FinaJIy, my own writing<! '\lure 1890 acmtain a. goon deal of 'lCatteJ'('(l
Information not previously publiehed.

glOwth-forms. Although the juvenile and adult forms may be so dis-

tinct 8S to virtually represent different species, yet in many cases the adult
does not appear suddenly, but intermediate stages occur. In these there
11:1 very frequently u. combination of characters which arc prim.luily quite
distinct. Thus in the intermediate leaf-form 0:[ PIJII'BOnsia CO!p8Ularis R. Br.
(lire fig. 2) there are all kinds of ('ombinations between the early ",eOOling
lili.nrl rO'lJl1&df'd Ipsf and thc later long -narrow one. Elaeocarpu8 Hoo/rn-1,nntts
R.Loul ulso exhihits a remarkable series of leaf-combinatioI11I, for which
see fig. 3. Further, there are tmnsitiollS of general growth-forms, us wilen
Sophora miO'1'ophylla Ait. commences the adult stage with stout IIClnl-l'rect
hut still flexuous stems. It seems clear from the above facts and from
thosl' that follow that the possibilities of both juvenile and adult lUe
latent in the one plant, but each rcquires its necessary stimulus to set it
tl'l'e in its entirety. If thl" stimulull is not suffirient, then 0111' or thl" other

FrG. 2.-YARI01711 Jj'ORMIi 01' LIlIAI' IN l'.\RhON6L\ lllilTBROJ'IIYT,I.o\

II, d.dult l('af: laneL g, ('8.rIiCht form of leaf, hut often more oircular; el, 1'. and II.
hitillnal forms; band r, llCeond type- of juvoni1u lea.f. Lifo Hize.

form may persist, or there may be lIo combination of charucwrs, 1\1"1 ill tht'
transitiona.l forms. In any case, hl"Tedity comel:! in, and thiR hns uttuiUOll
to such a degree thu.t under normal conditions there is a juv('nilt' IItngr of a
('ertain average duration, a transitional stage, and an adult.. Diffor('nt
degrees of heredity have arisen, as I believe, in proportion to the lengtb
of time the original stimuli have functioned, combined with their intensity,
and abnormal increase or decrease of stimulus can in many iustances
hasten or retard the procession of events. There is in some measure, per-
haps, species-making going on before our eyes. This is best seen in those
cases wher~ the juvenile form. produces flowers, for if progressive develop-
ment should cease at this point what is virtually a species distinct from
('OC'KAY:IIJI..-J<J('(J109lr(/1 Sfllrlll ~ III J<J !'Ol,iflOll 20

the ooult has appe8rt'd, Should such II flowering juverule form be eph'il-
monk then, 8S Diels has shown, we are face to face with a case of onto-
genetic evolution (1906). In somp of the species the juvenile and adult
fonns Cdn both clearly be shown to be epharmonic (e.g., Veronica l!loopo-
dwides Hook. f., Oa,miollaelia 8ubulata T. Kirk, Discaria toumatou Raoul,
Potamogeton Ohee8elnMlii A. Bennett, Clematis a/oliata Buchanan); they
lim even be experimentally produced or prolonged. In other cases ephar-
mOllY can only be inferred (Sophora mi(Jfophy17a, Podocarpu8 dac'f!ldioidelJ,
Rubus schmidelioidea); alld ill othE'rs it is more or 11'88 obscure (Pa/'8(lnBla
heJerophylla, PBeudo]Jf1lflA1a cra88i/()1iu'R C. Koch, PittoaPO'f'IIAR patulum
Hook. f.). There is, thereforo, a gradual gl'Sdation from the known to the
unknown, but, as the main features are alike throughout, it is reasonable
to assume an epharmonic origin in most ('ascs, notwithstanding that con-
tradictory examples occur, and to consider that there is n relatiou between
the age of the form and lts relative stability. Here there is no attempt
to go thoroughly into the phenomenon under cousidcration; cel'tain typical
examples are alone discussed.
The significance of the divar;cating growth-form has been ah'eady noted.
It ma.y bt' remembered it is emillently xerophytic, extremely well dt'fined,
,md preSt'nt in various unrelatt'd families. But this form is not confined
to shrubs alone, but appears as a persistent juvenile stage in the life-histolj
of certaiu plants, which aro thus xerophytic shrubs for some years sud
finslly ordinary mesophytic forest-trees. The following are examples:
Pffl.tlantia oorymbosa Forst. (Icscinac.), Hoheria anguBtl10lia Raoul, PlaYI-
antkus betulifuu A. Ounn. (Malv&c.), Suphora mirrophlllln Ait. (Lel!,um.),
ElaeoCOlpus Hooke'fianus Raoul (Elat'ocorp.).
The csse of Sophora miorophyUa Ait. is the most instructive. It must
be considelC.'d along with the remaining species-So tetraptera* J. Mill.,
8. granrliflora Salisb., and S. preJBtrata Buchanan. All the species com-
men~" with hypogcal ('otyledons, and th" first, or first two, leayel:\ are
simple "nd arrested structures, but the RUI'cerding ones are pilluute clnd
of the adult type. The primary stem is pre(:t and sompwhat :flexuous (set'
Plate VI, fig. 2), except in the csst' of S. fl1(I1Uliflora. This speciel!
('()ntinuOB to grow erect, and in time devt'lops into 8 small tree. T.I!erc
is no heterophylly beyond the early simple leaves, and no hint eYen of
any xerophytic shrub stage. With S. tIIicrophyUa the progress of events
is very different. Here the early seedling 80011 develops into a xt'rophytic
divaricating shrub, and so it will remaiu for somt' ten years or more, and
attain a height of perhaps 1·4 m. before the more 01' less erect branches
shoot upwards, the forerunners of the mesophytic treP form (see Plate nI,
fig. 1). It is quite common to see a specimen which is shrub at the
base and tree above. Occasionally the upper part of the shrub fonn will
hlos80m. but I do not think this evPl' happens before the tree itsel£
fiowel'S. SophO'1a pr_ata neVer grows out of the shrub state; it is a (izfd
j!WffIt·lt form, whioh, moreover, rt'produ('es itself true from seed. Betwpen
B. tnicrophylla, and S. prastmta there lire illten11Miates. With regard
to S. tetraptera, the juvenile plant differs but little from the adult (see'
Plate VI, fig. 1), though it has for s time a few flexuous twigs. I have

• Under this 11&DlO [include thu llhatham IAland plant, 01. form in the neighbour-
hood of Auokland City. and the Chilian plant. As for the- Auokland pla.nt, I do not
know it. juvenile &ta.te well enough to speak with certainty. but in any case its behaviour,
jf diBeft'llt from that stated, woUld not in any way aft'eot my ~OIll'bl6iolls.
1'r(1II ~(/rf/()1I ~

80(,ll only Onll speCImen r<lised from Chili un seed,· and it rcsemble& rlo&ely
the Chatham Island plant. S. micl"Ophylla and S. prostrata grow sidt' hy
Sidt' itt the lo"er Waimak.mri Gorge, Canterhury Plain.
In the abo,,(' case of Sophora the adult form is probably the stem form,
.\Ild the xerophytic dlv.ulca.ting shrub form an epharmonic adaptatiol
whi('h uw':>(, during a probable period of drought on the east of the Routhertl
Alps at th(' time> of the glacl&l period (see Diels, 1896, and Cockayne, 19(0).
In tertain parts ot the problematical Greater New Zealand where tht'
ctimdt(' still relTldomed sufficiently wet the ancestral Sophora would ft'-
main unchanged; 80 we still see S. grrmrUflora in the East Cape distrirt
and S. tetrapt"a in tht" Auckland distrirt and the Chatham Islandb. III
the South Island there is only S. mA,crophylla and S. p1OBtrata, in the fonnel
of which the xerophytir stimulus never evoked an absolutely hereditary
form, whereo.s in the latter the effect of the stim.ulus is much more deep-
seated. To what extent such a stimulus can leave its mark is shown in
the forest-tree Elaenoarpus HookerialwuB, which at any age may put forth
reversion shoots high up the trunk or on the branches. The hetcromorphy
in the other species listed above may be similarly explained. There i~
first of a.ll a short-lived erect mesophytic stage, then a long-persisting
xerophytic stage, and a final adult me80phytic stage. Tht' first stap;e,
suitl'd illS it is to shelter by ground-plants, &c., is epharmonic j it may
also be coneidHed. a surVIval from the a.neestral plant. The second (XE.'l0-
phvtic) stage Wlt~ epharmonie during the steppe-clima.te period of thl'
eusWorn I:!outh Island, but is certainly benefioial no longer it and the adult
sta.ltE.' is morl' or lees a. return to the original form, but now ('aIled fortll hy
the pl"t.'Sl'nt mesophytlc ronditions. A('cording to this supposition, it i~
considered that the tendency to hoth xerophytie and me80phyti(' form
is latent in the plllnt, and that onf' or the other will appear 1111 1:10011 ,1M
1.11(' necossary intpnsity of stimulus is rl'llChed, Until that iR th(' ('aM',
whiohever form is thl' more heTl'ditury-i.e., the moT<' strolll(ly fiXt'd-
Will pl'rsi'it, (,Vl'lI though it is far from beinA epharmoni(·.
In ,I COllllidl'rab]e number of illstallOrs there is a lll(,llOphyti(' jU\'enill'
st.L£!,l' an<1 a xerophytir adult. III this 1'111.811 the prosont m<'Sophytic ('on-
ditions lire not lIufficil'ut to inhibit tht! strongly heroditary xllrophytir
form, which also in II. number of cases is in ha.rmony with the xerophyti('
stations ..fft'ctod by these plants. ThE.' following examples of this and othE.'f
p<'rllistent juvenile forms may be noted.:-
(1.) Shrubs which leafy as juveniles, but leafless &8 adults, whell
they have B.a.t or terete green assimilating stems - e.g., specie'S of Oar-
miohal'lia,.~ Notospartium, and OoralZoB'partium. How unstablE.' really is
the xerophily of many species of Oarmiohaelia is shown by their abundant
production of leaves in shady stations.
(2.) Shrubs with an abundance of leaves, sometimes very thin, when
juvenile, but of the cupressoid form when adult-e,g., certain TaztJCl'fJE
(see Griffen, 1908), whipcord veronicas, a.nd some speoies of Helic1t,!/,um
b('lol~in~ to the section Ozothafllllit',
------------------ -
• 'l'ho IIeed was very kindly Bent to me by Dr. Eug. Autran, of Buenoll AyL'tlll, anll
tho seedlings were raised by Mr. T. W• .Ada.m.'I, to whom I UI greatly indebted.
t The divarioatinJr form of ~U8 BooirilntIB and the jUvenile PRtV40pa_
craNi/olt·ufII. with its thiok, narrow. BtHf, defleud leaves, oertaInly seem out of plaoe in
.. rain forest, where they &lI) assuredly IIDt epbArmonio struotures.
~ OtmJlic1aGelilJ gracili8 J. B. .Arm~rong i8 leafy in the adult; it is a aorambling
_ . and groWl in wet gtouud or swamps. O. grandlftom Hook. f. is deoiduOWl, but
8burula;ntlyleafy in spring a.nd Bummer. O. odortIfa Co1enso is also leafy.

}tIC, 1 - ...\PI ... 'UIIII\ I unlIt u... \

On Ill!. JIlH mIl. "" light. ,,,luI!

a.' .,
On left, adult; on uqht. "'Jm-ju~"ml€' In bluom
'l'R\N'I N 'I '1\"', \'0' \ 1.1" I'r\1I "'"
COOKAYNE.-Brologll'lll Sf11dlf'8 III EwllltlOlI 27

Tht.' juvcmlr stagE' in these plants, the Tazaccae excepted, does not
usually persist for any 101lg ~riod, .md may be to the first st.lge
III Sophllra and thl:' various diva.rlCatillg shrubs. But ill the verowcas, as
J IlllVt' hhown, it can b<.' made to P<'l"Bist artifit'ially for years, so long as
th(.' plont is kf'pt in moist air. Fllriher, reverSlOll shoots all' frt.'quent
('V(,ll on llul:'b a typical xerophyt<' ell> Hel1tiluY8um Belago, wlule it seems
probablc· that hereditary setnl-juvl:'mle races occur of Veronica fetl"aqo'1w:t.
Hook. .Illd V. 19copoiiAoides* Hook. 1. ThC'se are further dealt mth on
p. 45. In the C&ll' of Dacrydtttm lnxifoliUffl Hook. f., a pro&trate or
Buberl:'ct mountl.lm-shrub, gro,ving in wet ground or bogs, it is qwte com-
Dlcm to find juveUlle plants With the lax spreading lea.ves bloODllDg freely.
IIl1d nev!'r dovoloping into the cupressOld adult. The juvenile I>tage of
D. mtermedi'l1»1 T. Kirk frequently bpcome>s a tree, c\nd fiowels and frwts
nK ahundantly ciS the" normal" lldult growing ill the same swamp forest.
This flowering juvenile WIIS giv<'l\ thl' val'ietal name graetl?8 by Kirk.
(3.) N!'arly 1111 the clivaric'ating shrubs have a pnmaly juvelllie mebO-
phyti(' staAt'. This is gonerally but transitory. but I have already shown
ill the> ('ase (If Pitt08po1"t14f1 dioorioatum and Corokia Ootoneaster how the>
early sto.~e may persist ill the for<'st and reach its full stature. Rt'mi-
juv(,llllf' phmts of the Pitt08porum may also ftOWt'l •
.lriRWft'lta /rofioll8a Hook. f. (Elneo('arp.) is an mtercsting (,8se. The
edrly st'('dhng is eT<'ct, mesophytlc, a.nd, ('ompared with the adult, shows
a most remarkable variety of leaves. These are oftl'n more or less lanceo-
lnt('. toothed, lobed. or pinnati:fid (see Pla.te VII, fig. 1). La.ter on the>
c\ivaricating form Ilppears, which may finally be of the most intenl>e cha-
racte>r, the small frequently more or less oblong leaves being scanty. dnd
the> nltiruatl' sllOots almost spinous.t But this form is not truly stable.
plants J!,rowinp, ill an adjac<'Dt N othofagus forest being much. more meso-
phytil" Even whell quite in the open, thl're forms still divaricating
to 8Om(' exWnt, it is tl'Ue, but juve>nile 80 £."Ir as leaf-form goes, and these
develop no furthor, and blossom. This semi-juvenile :fixed form should
hI' l'onsidt'rl'd olde>r than the :' norma.l" adult, olld it may represent the
lIT('-gluu",l plan1,.
Ntlttcmill IliVfm'cata Hook. t., 110 fdr .tI:! I have observed, has 110 set'dling
llwSOphytil' I:Itugt'. But c'v!'n thIS .. wl'lI-fix('d" spe(·jcs when p,rowing Oil
1,hc' POOl' Kuigh1B Mands hi,s l(,lIvf's thr('l' tim('s the size of those of the
utltll.ll stations.
(4.) Notllll'jlQMJl simple:r. 8I:'(,nl. 11Iltl N. Bclgerleyi, Harms. (Araluu:.) hove
.1111() I~ tn!'MOphytic' juvcni](' form, hut. tb(.' adult must be considered me>DO-
pllytic· Ukewiso. Both arl' rain-fof('st plants, while the fOrnlt'l" is found
J1KO ill certain subalpine s(.'rull. I have not full details regarding N. Edgf't'-
1('gi, the juvenile f(lrm of whil'h sometim<'s so closely resembles tb.a.t ot
N. H;mp7n tllat I, for one, l'l!.1Inot distinguish between them, so my remarks
lire> l'olmut'd to the latter species. The ea.rly stage has a fern-like. much.-
(ut, thin and largt' ll'af. This is sUl'Ceeded by a st'cond stage with ternate

• ahellIIOmall found 0. Sl.'mi'Juven.ilo tonn at V. tslmgono at the b&&e of Tonga.rito

and Ruapehu, and writoll (1908, p. 281), .. Probably it is an mtermediste "tate be-tWeell
fJuo juvenilo ,t.age and t.!u, lully ma.t Ul't'<l ant', but if so it must pel'llll8t for many yt'&1'h."
Mr. PO]lpol~1l oollec.ted .. form of WWJ.lC'OM Yertmica on the Garvie Mounta.uu., a plant
of whiOh ball kept the IK!mi·juvOAil!' farm for two years in my g&1'derI. So, too, from
some .Dotos sent to mo by Mr. F. O. Ulbb" it ill evidc."nt that he h&lI had in l'UltivatiOll a
vNy llimilar plant.
t 111fIHB'/If.J1tIlW"tl. dania., R. 8r. var. ttlptna 'r. Kirk a.h.o develops semi-spmes under
very dry condition..
2l::! 1'rlln !OCflOln,

lell.Vl't!, aud this by the Sllllpll'- I:llId thicker-lellvl'Ci IIdult, III SOIll(, IOl'dlitiel>
the mU('h-c'ut form it! &upprebt!rd to some extent, or almost rnhrely IIhtlellt
(Auckland Islaudt!; hut Sl.'(, Cockuyne, L904, p, 249,'" and pI. 11), Thl'
(,Iosely r('lated NothopotlflJ: part'UI/I Cocku.yne ILI&o s('rms to lnck a cut-
ll'lwcd tlt.age, N, anom(llmll &t'IIl.. tLlthough f!'equently IL f()fl·tlt-pluut,
ha.s '"' juvPllile ml'80phytil' form wi1h small terlULie Il'IIV1'S lind an ILd"lt
divltricutillg &hl'ub (mm l'olllw(·ting tht' t('rnllh'-It'lwed Coml of tht· ~1'IlUIi
with tht' divari('utiug shmbs,
(5.) In this I'last> <:onll' d l'ollblderll.ulc numul'!' of pillnts whit'h ('311110t
With confiden~ b(' referred in their different stages to &pl'l'iul OutCI'
factors, Take tho case of certain speoies of Pseudopam(JX (Arllli!lC',): two
(P, rrtllJstjolium C, KOell and P. jl"fOO: T. Kirk) have the I'urious 111"'1'0'"
deflexro juvenile leaves and unbranched stem, but ill p, N'fIRaFi' <.', Kodl,
d tlubalpine shrub, the virtually similar juvcuile leaves flrc ('reet; and ill
P. rhntll11nniC'lHII T, Kirk they ,trt' wanting .Iltogl'ther, tho juvenile I\nd
Adult Ie-aves not bl'in!!, very different.
The primury seedling ieaves of P. crassi/olwlII t~re somewhat simihH ill
form to the adult, hut, of COU1'8e, much smaller. Th('y are cred, und neVl'r
de:B.exed, p, /f'I'OX, 011 th(· contrary. comlll(,Il('eS with uMrow-liut'ur toothed
leav(>S of the st'l'ond btage, which nre not ~rect, hut horizontal for a tim(',
The smllll-l('uved juvt'nile und the iarge-I('ILVed udllit forms of the l'Oot-
climbing fel'n Blrclmwn fili,jorme Ettill~h, cannot be llxplainNl t'phar-
monically, thoUAh there probably is, or has been, l:Iome relation of th(· sor1,
SillCC the is the commou ground form (ereeping fOl'm) a.ud tIlt'
large-leaved the climbing form, Nor can I suggest any explanation of th('
two juvenile led-forms of Parsonsia keterophylla and p, capB'Ularis R. Br.
(see fig. 2). In the former species the long nall'ow-Ieaved shoottl O('('osiOll-
ally flower. aUld ill the latter there is a fixed flowering juvenile raCl' oeclll-
ring in thc uplands of the South Island whirh I ronsider a. distinct specictl,
WeittmlmrWI rn.eem()fl(l L. f. and W, syZvicola Sol. (Ounonial'.) nr(' two
closely rl'lutE'd tlpec'il's who!!t· flowers IUl' virtually identical, lind whirh
diffel' mOl'('I,\" in thl' IItll1lt lell f of the fil'st-llamE'd being entire nnd I)f thl'
Qthl'I' l'OmpOlll1cl. 'rht' ('lU'ly 1:I('(.'dlings of both 1\1't' idontic!ll; tht')' art'
I.'r('rt, tlll'ir 1t'llvPs nrl' Kimpl(', toothlld, thill, anll hairy, Thon ('onu'S IL KOI'oud
stllgE', in whi('h ill lV, rnfflnOR(I the loavos IU't' terlllltl', Itnd ill W, 111I11Ii('olll
both h'l'Ilntl' 01' pilllllLk At this stuge, when hoth plants I~r(' ru(·rl·ly hushy
shrubs. th('y ('1111 tlO\VI'r, Im<l IlPpfl not dl'volop into t,f(l(>S, Fl'Pqul'utly Ull
thn h('oth lunchl of nIH,tht'I'1l Auckh\lld W. 8uwicI)l(l I\ttuins 3--~ m, in hl'ight ;
the lcavt's 1Ll'(' ItLl'gl', lind mwo many lelloflets, yl'llowilllt in ('oll)ur, allli
although MI', H, Oartll', myself, lind otlwrs hllVl' se~n hundrt'dll of thl'II(' tall
juvenilo pllluts WI' htlVe l1ev~r RI't'll them in flOWPl', Aokl'II!I' TOllaej(llifl
A, (\um. (Cullon.), if not Iletunlly a eompa.nion pla.nt, grows 11<'1101' hy 011
the forest's outskirts, &(' •• 1\11d its adult form so much l'etlembles this juv('nill'
Wf'inmMlMU that no Ollt' could distinguish flowerless examples Olll' from
tho Otht'l' without a kllowledgl' of certain quite obscure difierono6s. t The
adults of the two species of Wemmannia are lofty forest-trees, From tho
above it seE'ms l'eaSOllable to conclude that W. syl9Jioola is merely a fix<!'d

• 'L'hl'Ough a oLorioal elTOr ·'l.'lltiI.'U-It!&wd " i"l)rinh.'d lIl.·vcrsJ. time'> instoocl uf "~implc
leavetl." The leaves are mol'E' or 11..,.. HC.'rra.tu, hut compal'N1 with the juv('lIil.l· till'\' 110m
vil'tua.Ily .. ontire," ,
t The IliH1.lnotion~ giVl'1l by Kirk ill t hI' .. I''ol'll'-t IrlUl'8," p. 11:1, (Iu nut hulel in
pra.ctlQf', lID fllr a~ tho lo&f I.. oonroml.'ll,
('OUK_\YNE.-Kro[(){/I('(71 Siud/I'li lit }if 1·lIllltWII. 29
juvenile stage of W. racemOSIJ, or elst' that the former is tht' litem form and
W. 7acemosa a mutation 0)' an epharmonic variant that hali become fixl'd.
Several instances of juvenile blossoming have already been Il.ivt'n. The
followinp, are additional examples :-Ranuncu'lus Lyallii Hook. f. (tht! juvt'-
nilE' has a reniform leaf lind thc adult 8 peltate; reversion 1£'llves occur
.1& a result of hIId nutrition; tht'rE' arE' intermediates between thl' two
typl'S of leaves): P1'ttosporum tmui/ol!um Banks & Sol. (the juvenile
seems to me identi('sl with P. niljrescetl.S Hort.,. thl' plant so much used in
certain parts of New Zealand for hedges; as II hedge-plant the juyenile
form is alone to be tll'en, it being preserved by the constant cuttingt):
('lematis indivisa Willd.: Drooophyllum arboreltm Cockayne: A.gathis aus-
tralis Salisb.: Nothopan,(J!J; Eilgerleyi Harms. (one semi-juvenile form blooms
and is the var. serratwlt! T. Kirk): and AnisotomP fili/olia C'ockayne und
Laing. There are also It number of forest-trees which remam in the shrub
I>tage and flOWl'l' (see Co~kayue, 1908, p. 22).
Each of thl' alJovl' ca,ses would need dedding Oll Its merits 8S to whether
the flowering juvenile might be the beginning of a new line of descent, or
was merely", l't'Vt'l'SiOll. I will only dis('uss the casE' of .-l.»i8oto9lle fiU/olia
Co('lrnyue and Laing.
This is an herh Wlth the Il'aves in all ereet rosette Itnd Ii long tap-root
whi('h grows UPOII StOllY debris where there is a stl'ppe ('limate in the moun-
tains of Nelson. Marlbol'ough, .Uld C3nterbuI'Y. The lpaves are grassy,
some 20 ('Ill. 101lg, ternately divided into segments whil'h lue filiform if
the plant gl'OWl! in thE' open, but 3 mm. broad, or blOader, wIlen growing
in the shadl'. Buth forll1tl produce flowers. Seedlings raised from thl' fih-
form XE'rophytic form had ul'oad segments (see fig. 38, pl. 12, in Cockayne,
1900. and also pp. 295-97). The broad leaves are certainly beneficial for
pl'omotin~ rapid growth ill a. dry station, nor will the seedling be exposed
to as l'igorous lIuI'l'oundi1l#ls as the adult, protected 8S it will be by the
stont's. Its form is therefore epharmonic. The broad-leaved adult of
the shade is th.·ll u. Howl'ring juvenile, whi('h mayor may not be" fixed."
but, if md, it would be an example of ontogenetic evolution, the arrival
of til!' new speeies dating from the first timE' the juvenile plant reproduced
its lik£' {rom sl·ed.
MallY of these ltt'tl'roblastic !:Ipl'cies put fOl'th when adult typiral juvenile
or tlemi-juvenile shoots, as the (,l1.l:Ie may be. ~uch ma.y often 1)1' traced to
1\ specilll stimulus. Thus, IItRms of Pllylloc/nrTus al'P'inu8 Hook. f. when
prostrate 011 wt't lIoil may boar abundance of true leaves, but those in a
drier position have phylloclades only: Discaria toumaiou Raoul cropped
by rabbits produ('l's leafy shoottl only;; and RnnuntJul'UB LY(Jllii Hook. f.
I(roWll in dry soil undl'r unfavourable conditions mar de,·elop a certain
number of reniform seedling leavE'S.
The position of the reversion shoots UpOll the plant differs ill different
specil's, Very often they are confined to near the base, in which case they
may be merely developed resting buds. Pseudopana:JJ crMsilolium C. Koch
and Weinmannia raoem08(J L. f. when {'ut to the ground regenerate from
the stump by means of juvenile shoots, Pitto~1Um tenuiloUum Banks &;
Sol" as a hedge-plant, remains permanently jUYenile through frequent

• H. M. Hall (1910) i~ of the b&IJI(.' 0VIIUOI1.

t Other IIpt'I.'ies of Pitt06'POrU1II alM> occur at tilnElh in th_ ht>dgt.... through the
hawing of miXt'Cl ~. and so other forml! of leaf may be> o('('a,iollally Pl'CbeIlt.
fr nottd 01'1(.' adult pla.nt growing OJ! a II&nd·dw\t· thnt WI" aimor.t, if not entirely,
without Rpillell, th(' lU'rophytio IIt..tion notwith~ta.nrling.

(·Iippil1~. The shrubhy bases so frequel1tly seen of Prnnantm CfJrymoosu

ForsL, Hohnia a'IUjustijolia &0111. &..:., ubove whieh the flowering and
quite difietf'l1t ,ldult rises. are not very long-livod, but finally die and
,\II' ('ast off. In Home cas('s the distinctioll betwc(>l1 juvenile and adult is
I'quallv gl'('ut, ,18 ill the abov('. lmt the stahility 0:£ cadlloml is wt'llker, Rnd
the pO\\'er of th(' ('1.'11 d!.'rived through h('rl'dity to prOdU('l' ono or llu' other
ill pl'eRellt in every Rhoot, 110 matt!'1' how far from the oose, reminding onc
~omcwhat of the behaviour "f
,1 .. graft hybrid." Examples I1rp :
Draoophyllwm arboreum CockaYlle,
whipcord veronicas, POMcarpus
ifacrydioides A. Rich. AristoteZ'ia
jruticosa Hook. f. In Elaeocarpus
H ookerin.'fI.'Us Raoul reversion
shoots occur high up the tree,
hut I have not noted them in
the uppermost branches. In these
last-cited exampl('s an observable
stimulus does not seem necessary
to hring forth the speeial form;
it is rather 6S if ver\, littl!.' indt>ed
-probably soml' sii~ht internal
..:han~c---('an suffict:' to upst>t thE'
pqniliblium of the cell upon which
one or the. othCl' form depends.
Au a.nalogous example is a varie-
ga.ted form of T'eron ica salici/olia
whirh originME'd spontaneously in
lila. 3. - LEAF-FURIIIS 0.11' EuEOC.AlIPtr'3
the garden of the latl' Mr. W.
It, bllla.ll adult leaf; b, tl'ansltion to adult;
Gray, of Governor's Bay. for DlBUY
c and iI. early long narrow form; " I. years an enthusiastil' t'ultivator of
and (I, OIIrly obovate <thort form. 'J'Iw N('w Zelloland plants. Tltt· first
long llalTe)\\ doDd ...hort obovate ()r rotuJld lellvPs of eal·h shoot have all irrpgu-
!('doVC8 an.' olllhO(.'Jated \\ ith divaricatinj! Illr band of Arel'u dowlI thp c'c'lltrl'
hranchbl~. !..Jfe -.ize.
(If cv('rv It·uf. but liS thl'sl' b('('omt'
older I'hlol'ophyll grad\ullly illvudc's
tll(' pl~h' JlO1'1iOll until tlu' IE'ld bl't'l,mes 1l00'lnally AreI'll, Hha<1c' It'IIWS art'
at first withnut amy ,·hlol·ophyll.

Handly anything is known as to the o('(:urrence of wild hybrids ill New
Zealand. But field observations 011 this head are, in allY ('uSP, merely
l:Iuggestive, lind, at most. pave the way for experiment.
Long ago hybrids were raised in (.'ultivation by Mr. Anderson Henry
IIolld others in Great Britain from some of the large-leaved lowland species
of VnoHica. What I take to be hybrids-one especially from V. pitM-
looidE's Hook. f.-have originated spontaneously in the eemi-wild collection
of indigenous plants in the Christchurch Domain. Mr. D. L. PoppelweU has
sent mo a. hybrid from his garden which he considers V. salid/olia x V. de-
cumbt'ns. It is somewhat of the salici/olia. type, but with small glossy leaves i
I have not seen the flowers. Recently Mr. A. Lindsay, of .Edinburgh,
has raised one or two hybrids of which the parents art' known. The
COCKAYNE.-Ecological Studies in E~'ol'Ution. 31
most important of these is V. Hectori Hook. f. (a .. whipcord "eronica")
x V. pimeleoides Hook. f. (a small glaucous-leaved straggling rock-plant with
blue flowers), and the result is a plant said to be identical with or
near to V. epacridea Hook. f. If this is true, it opens up much suspiciolL
as to tho validity of many species of the genus ill New Zealand, and, at
any rate, in the case of variation in general. as some of the species art'
gynodioecious,* hybridism may be the simple explanation.
Mr. McIntyre, who had cha.rge of the famous collection of New Zealand
plants of the late Mr. H. J. Matthews, raised a good many hybrid forms
of Oelmisia, all of which appeared to have the so-called C. t'PrbaBci/oliat as
one of the parents. I have seen a Oelmisia on Jack's Pass which was most
likely a hybrid between O. spectabilis and O. coriacea. Also, C. tHollis
Cockayne is possibly of hybrid origin, with O. speclabilis as u parent. In
short, hybridization may account for some of the \'ariatioll in Oelmisia.
Acaena, again, is a very variable genus, which suggests h)·bridization.
Buchanan was the first to call attention to this matter, and he described
a supposed hybrid between A. Sanyuisorbrt.e Vahl. and the introduced
A. ()vma A. Ounn. (1871, p. 208). Kirk reduced this to yar. ambigua of
A. avina, notwithstanding that the inflorescence is altogether different from
that of that species. Bitter (1911, pp. 297-321) describes fifteen hybrid
forms of Aooena, illustra.ted by figures of leaves, ill which yarieties of
A.. Sanguisorbae, A. micropkylla, and A. u1nhra arc pa.rents, one or the other.
These forms have originated spontaneously in the Bremen and other Con-
tinental botanica.l gardens. Bitter is convinced they are true hybrids, and
that the only question that can be raised is itS to the pllorelltagl' that he
suggests for them. A lull account is given of each form.
I have seen, judging from the capsule, what appear to hl' wild
hybrids between Phormium tenaa: Forst. and P. Cookianum Le Jolia.
A good denl of the variation in P. tenm; may be due to hybrid ele-
mentary species, for that it is madl' up of many such entities seems very
Me'h'cope Mantellit' Buchanan is supposed by some to he a hybrid
between M. simplex A. Cunn. and M. ternata Forst. (see Kirk, 1889, p. U8).
I have proved that it comes true from seed, and ill the absence of experi-
ml'ntal evidl'nce it is quite as reasonable to suppose it is an ell'mentary
species connecting M. sitnplez and M. ternata. All thr~ haye ternate
juvenile leaves; M. temata remains at this stngl' but with much larger adult
ll'aves, M. Jll]fln,tpllii has both simple and tenlatl' leaves ill the adult, and
M. 8'ltnplerr is it dh'aricating shrub v,-hell ",dult \\;th simpll' Il.'1wes.


Plant-ecologists have many opportunities for observing yarious ph8.8l'8

()f the struggle for existence. They have also some opportunity of judging

* I am indE'btod to Professor I. Bayley Balfour, F.R.S., for oailing my attention

to this pheonom.enon in our veronioas, whioh he was the fir&t to dit!eover. I had pre-
vious1;r. wondered why certain specie& in my garden never produced r.eed, and othel'b
-very little, and had ascribed it to the absence of the proper pollinating in'leOt. How
-far the phenomenon is Pl.'8lleI1t in wlld plants has not bet-n 0., yet IllK't'rtained.
t Probably O. wfia8cifolia Book. f. = O. Brownii Chapman.
t The Chatham Island form, with ita thin broad )(0.v8. i'l di-tinct, so far III I know,
.rom any of the mainland forms.
32 'l't'allMu'fIOll ~,

at! to tht' lik('lihood of I'xtremely lI'naIl'" vcl.riatlOns being presel'ved IIr tlU'
l'ontrnry, It must 11(' undcrstood that tIlt., " struggle" is not only betwl't'u
thl' individuals of tlll' ('ompeting sprC'i('s, hut also betwl'C'1l these and their
C'l1vironmcnt. This \\IIM c1illtinctly stntrd by Darwin, who rC'{ers to the
'1h'ul!,gil' for life ll~ainAt the <1ronp,ht 011 the ('dge of a dE's('rt (1899, p. 46),
]n mUllY lIIAt.mC·I'M thil! tlh'uggl<' with outer l'irc'U1l1stnncl's IS the morE' im-
porhmt; it is nlao tht' 11I'<'iding fal'tor liS to what pIn nt-form ('Oil P;llill II
Jooting in thC' first instllnl'<',
The iormntions tllCn18t'lvcs offt'T vm:iOllS ('Ondltions Ill'col-dmg ItI! th<'y
.Ill' "opcn " or " clos('d," for in thE' fOl'1Ut'1' thert' is apparently room for
new-comers, whert'a8 in the latter it is almost impossihle for a IIp~lJics
from without to gain admittance. This fact is of major importance,
fOI', amonl"rst other mlltters, it has a stl'ong bearing 011 the muoh-d<'hatt'd
question l'egal'ding former Id.lld C'ollntl<'tions with distant islands 3S op-
posed to bird ('81't'1I1ge, &c" across '0idet nreas of ocean. The case ot
Nc'w ZE'aialld as 8 whole is of ~reat intt'l'est in this regal'd, espel'ially
liS many misst8tl'nll'lltl!t havc ('rept into evolutionary writings regarding
the spread of th(' intl'udw'C'd plants Itnd their rapid .. rep7aCI'tIU'llt" of
thl' indigenous fiord. I will Statl' hl'lPfiy what I llC.'IH'Vl' to hC' th" tl'ue
stllte of ttf£mrs.
There hllvc lIl'ell rt'C'orded fol' New Zealaud up to till' P1'('Sl?llt &oml' 555
species of lUt1'odlll'l:'d plantll, but less than 1M can bl' c'onsidl:'red l'OJnmOIl.
whilst oth('l'S arc lo('al, ral'l', 01' (,V(,ll uot tl'1lly established .IS Wild pllln11-1.
Lny at first sight appear better suited to the soil and rlimllh' th<tn are tht'
indigenous sp('cies, and oyer mu('h of thc laud they giw thC' clul.rl1.('(eristi('
stamp to the vegetation; but thi8 i8 only the ca8P where draining, C'u7twation,
ooMtant burning oj fore8t, scrub, and tU,8800X', and the (/mzi"'!l oj n lIIultitude
of dome8tic anima78 "atV' lIIadr absnlulRly 9Ie'IO edap}lIc rotltlitiO'll1l lllhirh a p-
proximafe tn tnnse oj Rump", and whl're it is no wonder that th(' RUI'ol"'Ull

• DUI'illg tht, diM'II"'IOII fnlJllwing thl' l't'dolling ot tlll~ pa.pel' till' ~XPI,(,""'lIl11 .. ('x-
h'C.IJlll'ly 'mall .. wa" crilioilll.'(l lUI not giviult n fBir l't'I'l'{"'<'ntaholl of till' viow~ (If I)nrwill
lind hi~ fllllo\'II'r~, I>al'Wiu, howov~r, wrihoq (ltI89}-1'. 45, .. Val'iatioll", how('wr hlil{ht ";
11. Gil, .. allY Ildv.minp,tl, howI'vcr slight"; p. :10, "cxtl't'm('ly Kliqht modifil'llotioll"";
p, fill, .. individllaJ. llificl'Illl(,I"M, too oJigbt to Ill' IIPI'l't'Oiailod by u~." WC'oonnllll IIlltK
thl' ('I\8C mill'!.' htrulI.~ly Htill (11110, I" 2,i): "Fol' thl' CIUllHtiull iN lIot ml.'roly wll('tiwl'
filli,lll'd IIli11Iltn1ioll' haw fI(')I'Otilln va hI(', but ~hl'the'l th.(' lI"'t IIC'uil1nillgH CIt the..""
&lId whl.'th(,1 till' hJllall, I might ahlloh1 My minimal. irl(,1'I.'IIIt·ulh whit'h havl' II~I 111'11'11111
thllhll bep;illllingif t(l the' }lllril,(·t adal'ttttioll h.i.VI· alHtl hu,d HoI(l(,tillU valul'.'· WUU"'('I',
011 t)U' oth('rhand (18811.1'1" 1211,127). rlaimhtho.t tlulllI~h ))cLrwin u'I('(1 thl' IIII!'!1 .....Iight "
and "hMall IIIIIO\lllt," lht'HC 1('rIWi u.n' "hardly jl1~tililod," ~ill()(' tht' vell'la.bility IIf
many: impOl-tal1t HIIl'l:'il... J~ of C'Onlliclora.bll' amonnt, and may \'ery "ftl:oll 11(' prl)p!'rly
dOl><!1'l bod 8011 larg<'.
t 'rhe CaRe of KrcLbtoa. i1n[lOl'ta.nt a~ it ollU.'rwiH" 1','m~ til mE' to h•• VII
but littlo bl'aril1lC on thill queruon, ~jl1Ot' tho dii!1:an('E' fl'om ihc' mailllo.nrl if! too
~ Wa.llaoe (11189, pp. 28, 29) refors to Trifolium reptl18 (txh'lminatmg Phormiu.1II
tenQx,' excellent pasture det'ltroy«!'d in years by H'II'JIOChom's rflllimkt, whil.'h OIIoU
oven drh"t' out whit<> oloY!!'r; amI S07lCll'lH oZtmc~u, gt'Owing all OVl'r thl' country up to
all elevation of U,OOO ft. Kirk (1896. p. 18) not only attribllteR thl' .. liihpIlJ.('('mont ..
ot P1&ormium to gr_ a.nd olovl'l'H, but aJ.'IO MllrillCI18 'IutUlntUH, IIml ovon Pterfdillm
CBCuie7ltum (bra.oItnn fom). Fu\'ther 011 (p. 19) he sta.tes that Acipl'1lUa Oole.1IROi iq
grsclua.lly rep1acod by Relf'lIOwn plautR. Bowl'vor, hI! a.L.o oaJllI at.tention
Lo the effect of grazing a.nd trampling by cattlo and ho1'lleh as a.icling th(' pia 11tH
ill their work, which, of COU1'RE', i'l a very difforont mattE'r from tbl' l'fk'ot of planh,
('O('KAYNK,-Bcol(J[1I('((l 8tllfhO III E l'olutlOli

invadeI ca.n replace thtl aborigina1." On the OthCI haud, although this
foreign host IS pr('sent ill its millions, and notwithstandillg abundY.llt winds
,\ud laud-hirds, t the indiYP'TIoufI 'VNJdation IS still viryin and the introduced
plants altoyethn absffli where gmzin(1 cmitnals have "0
access Md wker(' {ill'S
ha'l)(' ?1P'VeJ1' brt'n, On certain subalpine herh-nelds the indigenous form of
the dandelion (Tarnxacum otfic&nale Wigg,) is abundant, and yet the in-
troduced form, with its rcadily wind - borne fruit., has not gained a foot-
hold, nor evcn the abWldant HUpochot'fUJ rltdwata L" though it may be m
thousands on thl' neighbouring tussock pasture, less than OIll' mile away,
On Auckland Island introduced plants occur only ill thl:' neighbour-
hood of the depots for casta,vuys, but 011 Enderby Island, where there are
('attIe, they arc muth more widely spread. Even whele the ram forest
has belm felled or burnt, and eattle, &e .. are kept away, jt is gra.duall~'
replaced by indlp.'llOUS trl:'(,S and sltrult&-t'.e., ill 10c'IIlitics where the rain-
fall is sufficient.
Some of thl:' Illdigenous specics lire quite as aggressiw. Of eveD more
so, than any of the introduced. In primeyal New Zealand each would have
itb plal'f' in the association to which it belonged-there would bl' no aggrc&-
sion; but when the balance of nature wa.s upset by the fire or cultiva-
tion of Maori or Europeml, then the plants best equipped for oc-cupying
the new ground become dominant, their .. adaptations ,. for that purpose
fOl"iuitously present. Till' miles 011 miles of L,''}Jt08pt'rtllllfll 8Copari'UfrI and
Pte,"idi'Um e8culmuutn were absent in primitiw Nl'w Z~alo.nd. So, too, tht>
pa\ltures of DaIYIJJI.onul sem.iannularill R. Br.t in MArlborough. and the many
acres of CkrY8obactron Hookni Colenso (Lilia('.) in the lower mOlUltain
ftlgion of Canterbury. Oelmisia sp('r:tabt"118 Hook. f., an f1pparently highly
&pecialized herb :£or alpine fell-field or tussock-steppe conditions, is now
on thf' increase in many montane pcl.rts of the Ashburton-Rskaia mountains
and valleys, owing to its heing able to withstd.ud fire, the buds being
protected by a dose investment of wet dl:'cuyed lea.f-sheaths.
NOl' are all the mtl'Odu('l'd spec-it·s IIggressiYe, hy any means. Soma
('au barely hold thpir own j otherli limited to certain edaphic condI-
tions. Thus, Glullci'Ut1l /la'Vufll ('ra.ntz ot'('urs. as yet, only on the coast
of Welhngton, chiefly ill th(' ncighbourhood of Cook Strait. It is con-
fint>d to J(J"U.vl'lly or stony shorcs. and appears unable to grow on the clay
hillside And yet where the latter itl. ill olle place near Lyall Bay, ('overed
with gravd there i& u large eolon~' of the plant, whenc~ none have found
thC'ir way 011 to the adjacent hillsid(·. Lupit&1J8 aroort'1J8, now so common
011 New Zt'IIJaud dUllCS, appears Ullttble to spread beyond the sl..ndy ground.
The oft(,ll-quoted storjes (see footnote, p. 32) of white clover (Trifolium
r('pt'nB L.) being able to wIpe out Phormi'Um tena.J;, of Sali.:& babylonioo over- the watercress (Radicula Na&t'l.lrtium-aquaticllm). of IlypochoerilJ

* Now Zl."al<1olld may be roughly diVided mto three ",n:I1'>-VIZ., the c.ulth'o.ted, thl'
IId.,turl.' la.IlWl, and tho primitive. It is only in the pasture lands that a h'8l strugglt-
betWNlll tho introduced a.ud the indigenous pl&nts bI te.king placu, and even there the con-
tl!bt ilo very unequa.l, through the gra.zing, bunting, and seed-sowing fa.oto1'l:!. Many
:pal5l:ures, hOll'ove-r, are altogether new aq_ia.tionR, all in the case of forest being felled,
then burned, and the ground sown with ~-. &c.., even lx.fore the ashee of the tJ:to.eo,
are cooled, &0 that at onoo thoro i~ a forelgn pasture brought into existt"uCl' and subject
to an entUely new Bl't of ConditiODH from that wbil.'h 1tO'''eI"IIM the fol'el't. ThiH is certainly
not biological •• replacement."
t Introduced, not native, birds.
t The sp~oiN may be lJ. pilo8a, but 1 bav' no lip 'Clmona for irk-'difio .tiOJl..
34 T1"an~nctlonl!.

Tatlicata displacing ('very other plant of excellcnt pastures in Nelson, are

without foundation. P. tenaz has certainly been ('radiC'utE'd in many plaC'efl,
.and perhaps, in a S(,llSl', 1:l'plal'pll by white c·lov('r. but '¥lot IIntil firt' mul/t'Rcl-
1'ng of stock had I.:tlled Oli' plmw.
The greM flrrr(,lI, ('aUra loc'ally .. shingll'-ylips," whi('h ar(' SUdl a
charactrristir featurl' of mounb\in s(,6nery in mudl o[ th(' &uth Island.
possess 0. most sranty ane[ scatt<"rl'd vegetation, mndl' lip of soml' twenty-fivc·
highly specialize(l ypecies belonging to thirteen fnmili('s. of which twenty
species occur in no other formation. Hare the struggl(' b('tw('en thl' indi-
viduals is nil, but that with thc environment, l'specially the unstabl(' suh-
stratum, is most severo. I know of no instancE' wherl' a non-indigc·nous
plant has established itsl'lf on a true alpine shingle-slip. * In such a
1!tation no plant could gain a footing unless provided be/fYfehcmd with some
special "adaptations" fitting it for the severE' C'onditions. Th(' shingle-
sWp fJ8s00iation, morl'tnlBr, WI wher ehp cZim(J,J) 0/ a RUCOI'ssiO'l'& nor is it pant
0/ suck: it is nn Q811ociation complete in itself, fJlnQ co'MlRCtpa with no othl"l·.
Of a number of plants germinating by chance on a shingle-slip, the seedling
which possessed a slightly morl' x('rophytic structure than its fellows would
be none the better, but would perish equally. Grantinp, that natural scll'c-
tion can intensifyt c'haracters by slow degrees, thE' ('onditiolls would select
too rigorouyly-therl' would be no survivors. It is almost equally diffi.
cult to S06 how ('pharmony C'Ould work, either. A plant to gain a shingh-
slip must ('omCi from soml' specially xerophytic station. This is shown
hy the pres('nce of Veronica epacri,,u.(1, Hook. f. and V. tetrnstioha Hook. t,
rock _ xeropbytes. Perhaps the true yhingle - slip plant C'raspedia rUpi'fUl
Backh., a summer-green herb with leaves in rosettE'S and thirkly covert-d
with" dcep snow-white wool, also arrived from some othE'!' formation, and
its abundant wool and deciduous leaves have arisen cpharmonicolly. Th('
dimorphic succulent Olaytonia (1,ustralasica Hook. f. also occurs elscwher(·,
onEl form being found in ('old strE'ams and damp gravel. Its rapid response
to a XE'oophytic stimulus accounts for its prcspnce.
The seedlings of the true shingll'-slip plants ure, so far as they
been studied, strongly xerophytiC' I\t au ('arly age. Thus au examination
of 0, seedlinp; of Stellat"ia Rough;';' nook. f. raised by me under mesophyticl
('Onciitions showed, .. in the elastic stom, palo giauC'ous-gfE'on l(,o,Vl'II, Imd
Ilarly KWlCulence ot tho seedling, how hC'reditary a1'(' the most striking
peculiarities of shinglt'-slip plantR" (Cor-kayne, 1901, pp. 267-69).
An intnrt'sting point is th(' occunenc'(' of two distinct sp6C'il's ot
OoeulrJ, or vo.rictil'lI of one species, it mattcnl not, which arc cpharnlonit·-
ally equivak'ut. Tl\xonomirally they differ in colour of florets, aize of
flower-head, I\ud size of involucre as (lompllored with head. Aceumulll-
tive selectioll could do nothing here; both plants thrive cqually woll, Ilud
there is no competition except with the 1'llvironment. MutA.tion ",101\('
can explain this l('marlatble o&se, or some rause unknown. Another soml'-
what similar example is Notothlaspi Tosulatum Hook. f. and N. fJUltro.le
'Hook. f. and its var. 8ttllattm~ T. Kirk. Anisotome cal't\08'Ula is in appear-
anoe exactly like A. ilWersifoUa Coekayne, but there are technical differenc(,s

• Introduced plants ocour at times on smalll101'l'('h at bMl' of 1'00Jo., and OD -river-

tormoe HOl'Oe in the lowM' belt.
t Woismann writeA (1910, p. 61), co How often haH till! Ilen.aele<lH obj('otion Ix>ing
u~ against selEootion that it can oreate nothiD~; it can onl.v rojeot. • • • BlIL i.iI.
reJeoI;ing one thing it proeervell another, interullfiOil it, combines it, anti in We way
~rea.toe what was new."
('oCKAYNE.-Ecological Studies in Evolutioll. 35
in the umbel and the involucral bracts. A.. di'lJl!ll'sifolia has been found 80
far on only one mountain on which ..1. camosula is not known to occur ~
but the species are so much alike that they could only be recognized when
in bloom and examined closely.
To trace the evolution of the shingle-slip plants it seems clear that one
must go back to the origin of the shingle-slips themselves from their small
beginnings before the eastern peaks of the Southern Alps were disintegrated
into rounded summits. If for any reason the climate were wetter,'" there
,vould be a similar condition of affairs to what governs the shingle-slips
of Westland to-day where true shingle-slip speciE'S are absent. On the
embryonic debris slopes many plants could settle down, and to the be-
liever in natural selection nothing could appear more probable than for
these to have been gradually changed in accordance with the slowly chanfl-
ing environment, species after species going to the wall, until only the
few highly diffel'entiated should remain. Even these are absent over wide
areas of the most extensive and unstable of these alpine deserts.
An exactly similar argument to the above would apply to water forma-
tions, especially as there are cases where true water-plants-e.g., Pota-
mogetOfl, Ohees6'fllMl,ii Bennett-Bourish in situations where they are quite
uncovered for considerable periods. Even for unstable dunes, where there
is certainly no struggle between plant and plant, and where no non-sa.nd-
binding form could possibly become established, a similar argument would
apply, since all degrees of sand-movement exist in a dune-area. But ifI
aU the abotIe cases 'We do knot.o that ecological/actors can evoke structures suc1t
(J8 Me essential, and 'We do not 1mot.o for a fact that selection can ifll.emify a
c' beyond a certain limit. In the tussock - grass Poa caespitosa the
power to respond to sand-movement is already present, although its
adaptations fit it for other conditions; thus it has occupied the recent
drifting sands of Central Otago. Cases such as these, of stony debris,
water, and dune, should be decided not on preconceived opinions or
theories, but on the most reasona.ble conclusions from the observed facts.
Rock-vegetation, although open, affords plenty of scope for the struggle
for existence both between the individuals and with the environment,
since, leaving the lithophytes out of the question, the space for rock-crevice
plants is very limited.
On the recent roches moutlmtzie8 alongside the Franz Josef Glacier the
occuJ>ation of rock is now in progress. The pioneer plant is a dark-coloured.
speCIes of moss, which when it happens to grow in a crevice forms a soil.
an essential for the successful germination of seeds in such a station. The
first-comers are all plants of some neighbouring B880ciation, mostly xero-
phytes, sorne herbs, a.nd other shrubs, or even trees, whose long roots can
penetrate into the chinks. Exceptions to this are the filmy fern H,ImefItO-
ph,lZ7Jum 'mu7Ji,fidum Swz., the epiphytic or rock-d.welling orchid Earifta
autumnaZis Hook. f., and Lycopodium va,;,um R. Br.; but it must be re-
membered the atmosphere is nearly always saturated with water-vapour.
The above first·comers react one upon another, the most vigorous :finally
conquering; but this vigour depends rather upon age than on greater

* ~ht, in a carefull.v considered paper (1911). brings forward a good deal 01 very
suggestive evidence as to the probabilit.r__01 a wetter clhria.te on the than the pre.
sent one following the steppe climate. The most important fact adduced is the for:mer
presence 01 extensive forests where steppe aloue now exists, since such forest. could OJl].y
be eltabliahed during .. period with many rainy days, and no other apla.nation 8OelII8
to fit the ease.
7' r{1" ~l/r"fllI f.

suitabilitv fill' til(' 'Itation. ,\t anv ratt'. tht' l'hILII(,o fOl' nlltlll'.t1 ",election t~)
effect anYthing here is v('ry 1'f'lllOtl:, Ilithouv,h till' ('omp(·titiol1 ill POWl·I'ful.
The number of tru(' rO('k-pll\ntll in N('w Z('lIll1l1c1 ill l'ornplIl'lItivc'ly SIIIIIII i
but, 011 tIll' oth('I' hmul, 1\ grl'l1t 1lI1111~' xf'J'()pitytC'II, IIl1d ('VI'II mC'lIopllytt'tI, 1m'
('nool1nwl'l·d nil ch'~' 1'()I'kll. hilt tllC' laltl·r ar(' c'l'hlll'lIl()nic'nll~' lIlodific·d dmillf!,
th('iJ' illdividual dOVl'loP"lI'lIt.
IlJvon hygrollhyt.oll Illay gllill ,L foot,in"" as IIh'Plltiy IIC'I'1l in tllll t'Ulltl of
Hy1nl'nophylllllll 11II1IIi/i(lllfH. Thl' nWKt Hh'ikill", lind t'l'ul~' Ilmllzin~ C':I8(, is
th.o.t of the kidlley-fl'I'n (7'l'iclwlllam'l1 Tf!'I6i/m'lIU' !i'm'lIt. f.) lind 1l!l1ll("M-
phyUwm IItmgllinol('I&tum KYo'., whiC'h grow in tnt' lull blau 0/ tnl' sun upon
tho laVo. o{ Rllngitoto [sland, Am·klallu lIm·hoUl·. Thl' frondA of botll,
as I saw them on 1\ hot summer's day, werC' dry Itnd ('urlcd IIp tlO atl to
appear dead. hut Mr. Cheeseman informs me thti.t in wintr1' tht' kid.nllY-
fern covers t,lw I'od.. s with itll trn.lIAhl('(·llt fronds, ltnd thHt. thosi' of summer
are not de~d at all. ft SI'(,11111 l'vi<ic'lIt thttt in this ('asc' thl' protoplasm o{
these Il'TI s must bl.'havI· similarly toO t hilt or many li('hC'lls, I\nd this will bo
an epho.rlllOlli(·adaptntioll. TIll' qu('stion I~rilll's, do('s s\lC'h It POWN lit· latent
in these 1111'118 as normlll rllin-forC'At plunts, ferns whil'll ('annot tolcrau· a.
dryin~ wind or II hot 8un IUld ciJoy atlllotlph('re; lind, if so, how c'lIn it }Iavo
possibly 1'01110 ahout t Pmuuhl,v thl' porous fO('k c'ontuius II ",oocl dl'HI
of watel', :\1\(1 th(l I~il' iA IIsw~ll'y !lot dry. Although L do not, think that
any modifiratioJl through th(.' struggle' {oJ' oxitlwnc'c' t41k<,s ph~c'(' IIl110ngtit
tol·k-phl.llta, rot thill ('nsc IIhOWfl t11l\1, one ('annot t('11 !Jut t.lUlt 1111' llIOAt
unlikely spoc'i('s might sottlo in (·c·rt.lin tltlltiol1s, and so innugul'uh' It n('w
line of descent, no IDntwr how th(' evolution btl bL'Ought ahout.
In olos('d formations tho struggl(' for existollcC' h('tweell indh"iduals is
very keen. As I write, in my gIl rd('J1 , in 1\ bcd ('I'Owdl.'d with inc1igl'llOUS
plants, two rapidly growing a.nd fu.r-spl'l.'a.dill~ Clmtllll.m Islund h('rhll Imvo
encountered, Imd one (Pmtia, a,ren.a.ria. Hook, f.) is rapidly rllph\cin~ the
other (Ootlila. JJlUflleri 1'. KiI'k) , II happC'ning 'Iuite ill nC'C'ordnnc(' with thc'
fact that tILe fornwl' plmlt is 011C' of tho most widely spl'l'lId of till' Chl\thalll
Island pilluts. H.c'dueled ta its uitillllltt' f:wtc)I's. thl' strul!J!,l(· is chi~f1y Olll'
for nutriment in its willl·st 8111\8(1, lUi (tlcmWllis hllll showll (1905, p. 286) j
there is littlo Iwtw\l nllstru('tioll (1£ OJ1(l pltlnt hy anotlw1', though tlwy fU11I'-
tion illdirllutly hy 11l1tt.iug off light, using up Ilutritiv(' snIts, &c·. In somo
CQfIM thCl grN\tel' pRrt of t,hn Rtrllgglc> tl\kl'll plaUt· nmollgst t,hc yuun", phmtol'l,
I\ll(l it is on theil' l\dapl,l\tiolUl, whidl IMy tliiTlIr mu('h {rom 111()III' II( t,ho
adult, t.lmt tho 1"'1tA,hlishlllllnt of t.hll h,tt.ol· dopotl(lK. Thill iii IIPC'C'iI\U,v c'vidl'n('
in t.hOflC' hett'roblllKtiu 1:I11lloieli 1l)!'<'I\dy dl'nlt wit h whi<'h have· c'('ulogi('lllly
different, fOl'ms in thoil' clifft'l'nnt IIt~'gC'II, In 1\ £or('tlt thl' c'ontiiticHltl for
tho soodling "nel su,pling ('r('('s 1\1'(' v('ry diff('rent fr()m thotll' to whi('h the
adults Ino oxpos('d, A fuv()ul'"blc' v'llril\tion which might prl'Ht'I'V(! a S(I(1(I-
ling in the struggle' with ita onvinmment would possibly hk\v(' littlo to() do
with tho imperative domands of the Ildult. Smnll oUtwa.l-d modifications
of a very few individW\ls could hardly be preserved in the dense growth
of saplings* in an upland forest of Notkn/fJ{}U8 oliOortioiar8 Oerst. The
chief requisite of sUC'C'OBR here is rapidity of f!;rc.wth,t II physiologica.l

• The saplingll may grow II() oloFoly that olle aa.n hardly fOloo a. paHHagO 1hl'II1l8h
t The 0IlI:III deborlbed in my little book, "New Zo&Ja.nd Plants and their Swry,"
of a. spooiotJ of 1I'IfIJQ1JJ1JW.8 overooming tho eminently aggrcAAivo .Lept08fJ87'111um.llC01/(IrWm,
through its more rapid growth, bntll gc-rminating at tho Nomo tim.., iH ilUltruotiv(1 in
this regard
COOUYNB.-IJeologieal Studie8 in ElJolution. 37
charu{'teristic that, b.owover much intensified, oould bring about no specific
differenccs unless corr~la.ted with structural change. In point of fact,
thl! deciding factor in the struggll' amongst a close-growing mass of
t.hese tree seedlings iii probably ago. Could all commenco on exactly the
sllm~ footing, then the determining factor would be the llituation with
regard to t,ho food-supply and tho illumination. and 110 slight beneficial
lfiudifi('ation would count in compa.rison.
As for th(' adult forest-trees, ea('11 haFl, as 1\ l'ull.', its own rooting-plaC'e,
and it!:! death dl.'pf'nds chicfly upon its age, partly upon some disease
or other, and but little upon the superior adaptations of its neigh-
bour. Its growth-form, rertainly, does have something to do with it!:!
IOllj(evity, a.s wher,' spreading branches faVOUl' tho presence of abundant
epiphytes. whose wl':ght may lead to damap,e and permit the attack of
A mixed rain forest, I\pal'i: from modifications due to the nature of the
topography, might be expected to offer constant conditions extending
over a I'onsidorable period. But this is not so; topographically similar
pam of a fOl'cst may show dissimilar undergrowth, the result of conditions
which, similar at first. become dissimilar as the vcgl'tation develops. Thus
in the Waipoua Kauri Forest, of which I made a special study, a state
of change rulod. In one part there was little undergrowth, and in another
part, such in abundanc~. This latter, in time. will, through survival of the
fittt.'tIt, ('hango into forest with little undergrowth. ThoFie are two climaxes,
and are ~xprcssions of the light mctor, the dens~ undergrowth denoting
the maximum and the final open forest with tho close roof tho minimum
of illumination. Between thcs(' two climaxes there are ma.ny transitions.
Bring in moro light still and so inrrease the xerophily, tho hygrophytes will
1(0 to the wall, until, with excess of light, a transition forest and finally
a .LeptospB'rmum heath will hI.' f'stablished (Cookayne, 1908, p. SO). From
the above it follows that, even were Datuml seleotion at work amongst the
yotlng plants of allY species, owing to thE' varying change of conditions
brought about by these plants themselves there would be an insuffioient
1eU¥th of time for any more suitable va.riety to arise, or, if such selection
were very rapid, difforent typos would be solectod within a quite limited
area. The helievl.'r ill tho efficacy of opharmonir variation woUld say that
forest-t,rces have arisen from shrubs, or 'Vice IJ81'sa, owing to the stimulus
of cdaphic, climati(', and other factors, and that selection operated byelimin-
ating those individuals which did not respond epho.rmonicaUy at various
stages of the pl.llonts' development. And the special evidenoe put forth
would be that :many speries possess an unfixed epharmonic tree form and
shrub form, while it is known that stature and other features can be
through changes in nutrition. This, after all, is only Darwinian sel('ctioll
plus an assigned ('ause for rapid and sometimes favourable modificu.tioll"';
but it is far from bei~ neo-Darwinian selection.


1. .Distributioo in Gf!/II,6Tal.
The distribution of species is primarily a matter of eph.ll.rm.ony. tinch,
howl.'ver. must in .certain cases be referred to a state of affairs no longer

... I do not mean to infl-r that ..U lUoditioa.tiun i.. favourable.

:18 TrallsQ('tiOnB.

present,'" as in various Illstances of restricted distribution. Hl'lIt is a factor

of prime importance, and, so, many species have a definite southern or
altitudinal limit beyond which they do not extend (e.g., Agatkill,Ipomaefl,
Veronica elUptica, Knightia, SP'IIRCio rotunili/olius, &0.). This is not bet'ause
they cannot ('xist quit<> w('ll fartht'r to the SOllth, or at n higher a.ltit\lcll',
but that on approaching their heat-minimum they ('Itllllot ('ompete With
the other hotter epharmonically suited competitofs. FurthC' I, c}ulouges of
land-surface have afferted distribution in some ('oses, ospt'ciolly where they
have caused permanent Of temporary barriers. .
The annual number of rainy days is also a most important ~ontrollillg
.factor, and one whose effect is more plainly to be seell than that of h(!~t.
The densely forestl'd west of the South Island and the sparsely woodell
country beyond the averagl' limit of the western rainfall to the east of the
main divide stand out in startling rontrast. On the west the evergreen
canopy tr('e, and on the cast the brown,gtass tussock, reflect in their respel'-
tive dominanrc the prevailing ecological ronditions. The SlilXht differences.
too, of the rlos('ly related Galin. LyaZUi, Hook. r. and G. ",,"hi/olia Cockayne
are exrellent ('xamplt's of quit(' small but distinctly epharmonict distinc-
tions influencing distribution.
Wind is another most powerful factor in New Zealand, According t<.o
their relativc wind-tolerating power do certain shrubs, &0., repla(,l> one.>
another on the shoTes of Paterson's Inlet, Stewart Island, 80 that the shore-
line has become in its vegetation an exact index of the frequency and velo-
city of the wind. The above steppe district in the centre and east of thC:'
South Island is govl'rned quite as much by the wind as by its modl'rate
Quite eommon plants are extremely rare in certain localities. ('ora11-
'tine australis Hook. f., a tree of physiognomic importance in many partl.
of both the North and South Islands, occurs in only one locality in Stewart
Island. Leptospermum 8oopanum, usually 80 abundant, is represented by
but one or two individuals in the Chatham Islands, where there is tl1e idtltll
station lor it to form a heath.t The trel'-fern IIemiteUa Smitllii Hook..
80 abWldant in StC'WIITt Islalld, is confined, SCI fur as known, to one gully
in Auckland Islan.d. PsychrO'J!hyton erimillt,." Beo.uverd is abundant on low
alpine rocks 011 Mount Torlt-BBl'. Oantt·rhm·y, but is wanting in simihn
stations Oll thl.' Tango on the Oppositt1 sid(· of the valley.
In soml' cases thor!" is evidenl'o that a plant has bo('n much more
abundant, hut has huell replaced. by a.nother specics. This is true" replace-
mont," and vcT)' diffe1:ent lrom the so-(·a.ned replacement of indigenow,
by intl'Oduord plants. PodocarpuB spicatus R. Br. was all important
member of the Stewart, Island fOl'l'st, say, five hundred to a thousand yean.
ago. At the present time there remain only a few trees of that species.
but it is rommon to find old trunks of this taxad on which are growiutl,

... It is from the very uture of tho caRe that perfect harmony 0ILIl novel' 00
_bliahed 'be1.wecm the growth.forma a.nd the ha.bita.t, since eba.nge, progressivt' or
retro~ve. is & feature of all formatiow!, and growth.forms once epb.&rinonic will
persist long after their epharmonio relation is wP&keiled or destroyed.
t G. Lgalli' has l&ri8r. thinner, a.nd much less hairy loaves t&.a.n the eastern O. ,.ibi-
folia. '!'hey have also, whioh are frequently 6trongly developod. The juvfl1i1c'
forma aM aom.ewhat aixuila.r in the two trees.
t This term. " hoath " 1 used in my writUurs in default of & better. wellmowhlg
the formation is not truly analo~us, except after 1i1'8. with the heaths of Europc.>.
the settlers. when fun 8!'Own, it 18 known &8 "manuka .. or " tea·tref> scrub." At tb."
stage it ill rather foreRt than bf'&th.
VOCKAYNM.-b'cologlcal Studies In b'l'oilltllJlI. 89
full-sized trees of WeitmUlnnia racemOBa L. f. Sophora tetraptera J. Mill. is
restricted in Chatham Island to the forest on limestone near the shore of
the Te Whanga Lagoon, though elsewhere in New Zealand it can grow
abundantly on rock similar to that of the rest of Chatham Island. The
'\ccompanying trees are the same ill the limestone forest as in forest of the
Island generally, but it is evident the volcanic rock of the remainder of
the island favours the other trees. which do not allow Sop'huta to become
.'stablished. Or it may be that Sophora is a comparatively recent arrival. *
The distribution of certain species shows that epharmony is by no means
110 l'omplete between plant and habitat in some cases as one might expect;
or. in other words, that a plant can live ill a position for whioh it is not
perfectly fitted. Thus, Mr. R. G. Robinson, Superintending Nurse-ryman
tor the South Island, informs me that the dominant tree of the Tapanui
Forest, Nothotagus Mtmziesii Oerst., cannot be grown in the adjacent State
DUl'S6ry, although N. /wea Ocrst., a comparatively rare plant in that
locality, can be grown with extreme ease; and yet I have seen N. Menzieaii
It,oowing quite well 011 the flanks of Ruapehu as an isolated tree in the open.t
The slow growth of many indigenous trees as compared with introduced
species is another case in point. On Antipodes Island the plant-associa-
tions are oot distinguished by their different Horistic componeniB so muoh
dS by the relative abundanoe of the different species. This word abund- tt

Jnce " shows that aU are not equally suited for eaoh station, but that if a
plant settles down on ground not. spooially fitted for its requirements it may
he able to hold itS place. the struggle for existenoe notwithstanding. So.
too. with various stations on the Auokland Islands. A highly specialized
species may thrive under conditions that might be deemed impossible.
Such a case is the already mentioned hygrophytio almost a.quatic Trioho-
lIla'11B8 renit0fm6 on the sun-baked rocks of Rangitoto. Here are a few
more pxs.mples: Orassula flwschata Forst., a coastal halophytic herb, is
one of the pioneer plants in the heavily manured ground just abandoned
l>y penguins on the Snares Island. OoZcibaHll,hw mvsc0ide8 Hook. f., a.n
herbaceous dense cushion plant growing normally on ooastal rooks, is an-
other early-comer on the above manured ground, but as conditions become
favourable .for less manure-tolerating plants both are replaoed, tussock
moor or Olearia forest being the climax association. Met1'OBiriHros ~
&1., a root-climbing woody forest-liane, grows in some places on rocks
close 00 the seo.. Griselinia luciiJa Forst. f., so far as I am aware always
aithl'r an epiphyte or a rock-plant, can be oultivated with ease as an
.ordinary gllrden-shrub.
The presence of olosely related species side by side in the same assooia-
tion has a strong boaring on the mutation question, for it is reasonable
to suppose with Leavitt (1907, pp. 210-12) that if natural selection, or
even epharmony, is responsible for species-making, only one type will be
present. .As Leavitt writes, .. Mutation breaks the species, and moment-
arily at least must give a polytypic aspect to the group within a specifio

• H. lL Travers (1869) was of opinion that this tree was a very reoent anivaJ,
espeoialJ.Y all an old :resident, Mr. Hunt, did not know it, and as he found a seed on the
!d1ore of Pitt Island. I have given my reasons for be e~' it aD a.noient OOllatituent
of the 8.ora. (1902, pp. 270-71), and h&ve seen no reaBOll to my opinion.
t The case may not be as strong as it appea!8. since the . are ahade-loviDJ.
whereas those of N. ftucq. oa.n tolerate far stmnger light. Th&1'e is al80 .. fiDe tree m
the dry Chri8tchuroh Do:rnam, wheze the olima.te is muCh mon unsuitable for indigeDoUi
.forest-plants than Tapanui.
4.0 'l'1'(lII~at:/IO'tlh •

ar(.'a" ('00. aa., p. 211). 1 uannot go fully into t.his important matter,
but th(' following are rather striking examples. Many would not (Jonsider
sOme of thE'sc plants .. specIeS," they art' so close; but so long 8S they ate
distinct C'nt.itics ",hi('h rC'pl'Oc} 11('C' t.h('mselvl.'s .. tru(''' they ml'...t the ell&'
1111 woll 01' [)('t.i('r.
Dracollh!lllutn lI(!npari'l.llll Hook. I.. Ilnd !~llothol' SPl'C'!('h c'()Jlsiderud by
(...t}}CCS(,llll1ol\ II form of this Hpc('ic'b (J909, p. 420) bui by Kirk a var .. of
n. Urvillel1ll&ulII, gl'Ow III the /:ll'ruh of Campbell Ishmds. ('l'lmill'ia /)(!'f''fIACosa.
Hook. f. lind O. rampbelleflais Chapmllll, Il very raro plant. grow sido iJ~
sid(' in Auckland and CampLell Islands. Ootula Traillii T. Kil:k, O. pul-
ehella T. Kirk, and C. (obscura T. Kirk) ? grow together on l'oastal moor
ncar Foveal1X Strllit. Two" species" of Acama grow side by side on
dun('s in Southland: the on(.' has more or less erect branches and long-
peduncled {iowelt.-it may Lo a var. of A. ,nt'crophylla Hook. f.; the other
is pressed lJ10st tightly to the gl'Ound, and has almost se88il(' flowers-it IS
A. mWrophylla va.r. pattciglochidial.a Bitter. Both forms kl.'cp their dis-
tinctive ('haJ'lLcters for yeurs when grown in garden-soil; intermediate
(orms occur amongst the wild plants which may bc variants, mutants. or
hybrids. Vatu/a airaJ.a Hook. f. and C. Dmdy", Cockayne lip. ined. occur
on the lIame shingle-slip. Soveral absolutely dist.ill(,t forms of VerOt'lica
bua:i/olia Bellth. grow on the same subnlpine herb-field (see Plate II
fig. 1). Rubus pl1ll'W8 Buell. and R. Barkeri Coekayne are in nt'IU
proximity in thl' neighbourhood of Lake Bnmncl', W(.'stland. NotllO/agw
fusca Oerst. and N. apiC'Ulata Cod.cayno grow in tOmpHny III thE' fOlll:lt ..
at Day'l! Bay (We-Ilington) and Kaikoul'a (Mal'lbol'OUgh). Alltflia li'l&l'af'I"
Hook. f. and A. 8ubulata Cheesem. grow side by sidl' on mountain·moorN 111
Auckla.nd and Stewart Islands. Raoulia aU8tralis Hook. f. and R. lutesCffll>
Cockayne grow side- by side on l'iver-b(.'ds of th(.' Sout.h Island OlRarw
Oolmsoi Hook. f. nnd O. Tra/iUn' T. Kirk grow mixed together in coastal
scrub in Stewart Island. 0fJ88inia albida Cocka VIlI', O. l'(IIIw&lU(f'8ti Hook. t..
C. luWida Hook. f., and othel: closely t('lated intcrm(>d.iate forms grow mixed
on Mount Fyffe, Seaward Kuikoura Mountains. Two tlistIDct. {OI'DlII of
(Yf.Ul8i",ia Vauvilliwsii grow just uhov(' the' forest-line ill Auckland Island
(SCI' Cockayne 1909A, p. 216). (IntIlLa lnmata Hook. r., U. propinqua Hook. t.,
ILnd O. plun&osa Hook. f. grow side by sidl' 011 the- sho]'E' of Auckland .lud
Camph(.'ll Islands. Olearia ilici/olia Hook. f. und O. mol/fa Uocko.Yll(· grow
tog(·thcl· ill subalpiul' fores1 of Westland. R(.'lut(·d Bpi/(}hia grow lIidc' by
sidl' ill nmny pla('cs; SOIllI' I kuow C'ODlC trm' from H(·(·d. POll 10111111(1
Hook. f. and P. TeflhWllltiu9lIJ grow ('Iose wp,ctlter ill Am'klund [Hl:mll.
Otl'llisi(1 lIessiUf/,ora Hook. r. IUld (1. QJ1'gentfa T. Kirk grow lIidl' by si<11.l
on ('ortllin alpin(.' moo)'s of the lIouthE"rn botani('ul provinc'(" Nolllllpa'fl.a.'C
simplea' Bellm. and N. panntm VockaYllc "1'1' I'ompanioll plun1.s in the tot('lSt
of l:itewart Island and W(.'stland. ('lia Mm&rn; Hook. f. and a
rl' but more robust species not yet. described* gro," sidl' by side on
steppe and. riv('r-bed of the Canterbury Plain and easterll Routhern Alps.
Oopr08t'1la Petrlei Oheesem. has two Corms, one with claret-coloured drUPC'II,
and the other with faintly blue drupes; they grow side by sid(.' on montane
steppe in the South Island. OOpr08tnfJ Oolensai Hook. f. and O. Bam,k8'ii.
Petri(.' OC('ur side by side in many forests. RafltfMl,CUw.s Lyallii Hook. f. and

... What I t.akt' to be thih pla.nt received tho herbarium !tam(' of O. lH6miUs from
D. 'Petrie XDA1I.y years ago. It has aJs4 been in cultiva.tion Along with (Y. Motll'Of' Book. f.
in tJuo (JhriRtehur('h Domain for a long peoriod.
VOCK.\YNJJl.-Ecotog~cal 8tud?6S m ElJolution 41
a. plant I considered R. Traversii, but which Cheeseman IS of opinion IS
either a hybrid· on a new species, grow together on the Snowcup Moun-
tains, Canterbury. Ranunculus BuchOlM'Tli Hook. f. and the closely related
R. Matthewsii Cheesem. grow in company on certain alpine herb- or fell-
fields of western Otago. Anisotome pili/era Cockayne and Laing and its
var. pirvnaJ,ifi,rJ/um T. Kirk grow in company on peat-covered rocks, &c.,
in the Southern Alps. Leptosperm'Um ericoides A. Rich. and L. 7i?&eatum
Cockayne grow together on northern dunes. Oonaria tmg'UBtissima Hook. {'J
O. thymi/olia Hunt. & Bonpl., and O. 'f"UBoi/oUa L. grow in proximity on
Westland riwr-bcds. Aoiphy11a Oolensoi Hook. f. var. conspic'Ua T. Kirk
and the val'. mazw-na grow near one another on certain herb-fields or in
scrub 011 the Southern Alps. Two forms of Ourisia sesBi7liflora Hook. f.,
the one densely villous and with large flowers, t the other d. smaller plant
in all its pam, the leaves darker green and less hairy cl.nd the flowers
fewer and smaller, occur on the same herb-field in the Southern Alpll.
PittospO'I"Um riuidum Hook. f. and P. rJ.ivarioatum Cockayn.· (see Plate I)
occur in the same forest-area on the volcanic plateau. /3opkOla micro-
phy11a Ait. and S. pr08tr'ata Buchanan grow side by side in the bed
of the River Waimaka.riri at the lower gorge. Doubtless a number of
other examples could be found. The coupled plants are in all cases so
closely related that they are considered by most New Zealand botanists
either varieties of one spscies, the type and a nriety, or forms not worthy
of or that have not yet received a name. They are quite sufficient in
number to show that it is fWt 'U7'6UB'Ual lor closely relafRd 11,prellitary p/mnt
mtities to eziBt side by siiJe lor COf&siderabZe periods.
The oocurrence of distinct races of the same species at dIfferent points
of its area of distribution is known in a few cases. As Leavitt say&, such
cases do not look like the work of mutation, nor can they he readily corre-
lated with epharmony. ·The following Ilore two stl'iking examples: Rubus
GUBtralis Forst. f. is a common plant both in forests a.nd the open through-
out the North, South, and Stewart Islands. In the northern part of the
North Island it has, a.& a rule, mueh narrower leaves than in the &.Outhem
part of its range-so much so that typical plants from the two areas
have a very different appearance. The primary seedling-leaves seem to bl'
identical in both forms: these are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, and coarsely
toothed; they are soon succeeded by narrow leaves, much resembling
those 01 R. POll'VUS Bllchana.n, even as to their yellowish or slightly brownish
marking. Seedlings growing in the forest-shade, and only 2'5-5 uDl. taU,
bear these narrow juvenile leaves, thus showing the form to b(' inherited,
and not merely an epharmonic sun form. Sinco heredity is undoubted,
the northern form demands a name. StypheZia, laMiAulata (Forst_ f.), a
heath-like small or tall shrub, extends from the North Cape to Canterhury
and Westland. The adult form varies but little throughollt its range,
but the juvenile of the Auckland district has altogether broader leaves
than that of the south. An example of a more local character is that of
the mountain-herb OeZmisia coriacea Hook. f., which from Mount Mau-
ngatua and other mountains in that part of Otago can be distinguished
at a glance 88 a cultivated plaut from other specimens collected on the

*ThB ooourronce of this on WaJkor's Pass far tram R• .iUonroi Boo!... f.
removes the suspioion of a. hybrid origin, whioh Cheeaemam adopted,"tly at my OW'll
Bugge'ltion in tho first instance.
t rro lim plant I gave the MS. naDlI! of O. spZeMldtJ some years '\(lU'
42 'l'ra'l/,SftCf10IlB.

actual dividing·rang~. The lowland form of thl' plant growing ne~r tlle
6ea-cli:tis a.t ChaTleston, w<!st Nelson, is also distin(·t in appell,rancc.
2. 18olatiO'l'l.
'rhis spcuial forlll of distrihutiOll ill l'OllSidcl'l!d by !!lome to hl' III tht·
~rea.tClst evolutiona.ry importIUlCl'. TIll' New Z('I~hmd biologicl~1 urclL ofic'r"
many ideal localities for geographical isolation, difieriJlg in d('Il,l'('(:', and it
is intC'rt'8ting to soo 8S to how far they u.:ft'ord ('xampl('s of rclu.u,d IIPCOit·!>
which a.ppear to have either diverged recentl!l from II stE'm form. or Ollt:
of them to be the actual parent plant.
(a.) The Kermacleo IBlafIGs.
The total number 01 species of vascular plantS is 114, of which tWl'hre endemic.* These latter, one cxcepted, are closely related to, and iu
IIOme instances almost identi('lIl with, Now Zeo,land, Polynesian, or Norfolk
Island plants.
(b.) The Three King' l,lCIfIIU.
There is strong geologica.l evidence that a.t no distant date th~ islands
werl' united to the North Island.t The total number of species of vasoular
plants is 143, of whieh five endemic; with these A ledJryon e:rcelsunl.
Gaertn. vaT. graMtll Cheesem. may be included. Cop'08ma mo.crocarpa
Llb-eesem., one ot the five, is related to (I. grtmiii/olia Hook. f" and 1ll0r4'
distsntly to O. ,obusta, both of which are present on the island. Pittospo1li1ll
FtWrcMtilM Cheesem. is allied by P. clCJ8sijolium A. Cunn. and P. UllIbpllntulII
Banks & Sol. Veronica insularia Cheesem. is related to V. diosmae/ollfl
R. Cunn., a. species of the neighbouring mainland. and Parof"opkis Smithil
Cheesem. to P. opaca Brit. & Rend .• while the fern Davallia Tasmani Field
is not allied to any New Zealand species. None of the endemic pl!l.nh,.
then, except the A1ect'7lon, particularly dose to their mainland allies..
(0.) Tile North Oape.
This high promontory was undoubtedly quitE' J'ooently 11.11 island. The1l'
are three endemic plant&-IIalorrhagis oartilaginea Chcesom. (a Ilear relativl:'
of H. erecta Behind.), GHl.iostflllla ligtlstr·ijoli'll.m A. Cunn. va,l'. crMlllWI
OheeAem.,* and OaBB1'nia amocna OheesllDl. (probably relnted to (1. l'llu-
tJilliersii Hook. f., but which lattur is not (olllld nl'al'cr than tilt' '"oil'Nui(
(u.) islands lying tl) tilP ltJnhtu'Urd of .tllcklalld.
Veronica .BoUonst·i Co('kaYlle. n spol'ios closuly l'ell,ted 10 r. IJltUJrUUTll
Hook. E., is cndumic on the' Poor Knights Islands. Pittollporwm int6l'-
I'II6flium T. Kirk, intermediate between P. teftui/oliu.m l~nks & Sol. and
P. ~ T. Kirk, is found ollly Oil Kawau Isltmd; only OIlt' phmt
has been found, and this bas been d('.stroyed.§
(e.) 1.'116 OTUltliam /lllaniJB.
The tota.luumber of species plus named varieties is 286, of which thirty-
one are endemic. The genera M'IIosotidium and Oo:eelZa are endeJ1lic a.nd
monotypic. The following is a. list of the endemic plallts; those related

• Set- Oliv('r, 1910. p. 130.

t See ("'heeRman, 1891, pp. 419, 420.
t Were not Mr. Oheesema.n oxtfeml'ly Oa.UtioUll regllorwng tw., "or(.'cLtiull" of
lI~les, &0., I ahonld suspect. this to be aimply an unstable arophytic form not very
dlifermt from that with tlIiok loa.ves oommon OIl the la\"a of Raugitoto Island. .
10000000an might ooMider this a. hybrid wero it not thAt P. tlliptiru1n ,.. not.
kllown efthl'f in Kawau or thco Dl'ighho\lrhood (1906.1" 64).
('OCTllYNE.-Ecological Studie, in llf)olutio/~. 48

more or letlS closely to New Zealand species are marked with an asterisk:
Adiantum affine WiUd. var. chatMmicum Field (Filic.). *PO(], chathamica
Petrie, Festuca Oozii Hack. (Gram.), *Oar6Z appr6B,a R. Br. var. ,ectoideB
Kiikenth., *Phormium te1'&tlZ Forst. var. with broad thin drooping leaves
(Liliac.), Geranium T,ooer,ii Hook. f. and var. elegans Cookayne (Geran.),
*unum monogynum Forst. f. var. o1wtkamicwm Cockayne (Linac.). *Plagi-
",mnw betulinus A. Cunn. var. ckathamicw Cockayne (Malvac.), AciphyUa
Tr(Jf)(fl'rii Hook. f., oouZZa Dieffenbachii Cheesem. (Umbel.), *Oorolda
InGC'fOCMpa T. Kirk (Cornac.), *Styphelia robusta (Hook. f.), *Dracophyllum
arbo'feum Cockayne, *D. paludo8um Cockayne (Epacrid.), *Suttrmia Oozii
I~ockayne (Myrsinac.), *Gentirma okotJw,mica Cheesem. (Gentian.), Veronica
DiefJenbaohii Benth., V. Barm Cookayne, V. DO'I"I'ien-Smithii Cockayne,
V. ohatkamica Buch., *V. gigantea Cockayne (Scroph.), *Ooprosma okat-
hamica Cockayne (Rubiac.), *Olearia semidentata Dcne., "0. ohatham.ioa
1'. Kirk, O. T,aversii Hook. f., *OotuZo, Muelleri T. Kirk, C. Featherstonii
F. Muell., *Stmecio radioZatw F. Muell., *S. H'l.lmtii F. Muell •• "Sanehus
granilifolius T. Kirk (Compos.).
The nineteen .. species" marked with an asterisk are closely related
to forms found elsewhere in New Zealand, while sixteen of these are very
close indeed. Veronica gigrmtea would certainly be considered a variety
af V. ,alicifoZi,a Forst. 'Were it not for its distinct iUtJenile form, which stiU
perrists up to a BttJtu,e of at least 80 om., and its arboreal habit. It is the
I)nly true forest-veronica, and it may be that the juvenile form is a direct
adaptation to forest-undergrowth conditions.
(1.) Btewa.rt Ialand.
A number of species have, as yet, been collected only on Stewart Island,
but in the face of the fact that year by year shows more of the plants
thought to be endemic fairly common on the mainland, &c., it is quite
possible that the island contains no endemic species.
(g.) The IBlanda of New Zealand.
'l'here are 195 species and named varieties, of which fifty-one aro
Ilndemir., nineteen of these being closely related to New Zealand species.
No list is given here, as these endemic species are treated of by Cheese-
man with considerable detail (1909, 'Pp. 463-66). With regard to special
endemism in the various groups, the Auckland Islands have six speoies,
the Campbells four, Antipodes Island four, Macquarie Island three, and the
Snares two.
(h.) Isolation o~ tke Main Ialarula
Endemism is not confined to isolated islands, but the various floral
districts contain their peculiar species and forms. The most striking
examples are western Nelson and western Otago, with thirty-three and
thirty-eight endemic species respectively. The northern part of Auckland
(thirteen species). Marlborough (fourteen species), and other localities show
a distinct local endemism. It is obvious, then, that a strong endemism
can exist apart from such a barrier as a wide stretch of ooean. But :figurea
.such as the above uro not :final; further investigations may decrease or
oven increase them. Also, it is certain that not aU the species included
have originated in the .. isolated" areas; some of the most distinct have
probably been much more widely spread, and are ., relics" merely.
The continuity of distribution of species of the New Zealand fiora varies
from those with a fairly continnous distribution to those which occur in
only a few localities far distant from one another. Notable examples of
extreme discontinuity are: DamAotMa fJfttarctica Hook. f., common in
'flI'O'flSflCtiOtll •

Auc.k:la.nd ILnd Campbell Islauds, hut eOllfull'd (list-when' to II. tew rocky POlllt"
ILnd small islands in the fur north of tlw North [glaud; Urtica (Justt'td?$
Hook. t, common in Chathu.m, Antipodes, nnd Auc'khmd Islands, but in N('w
Z(.'aland pl'Opl'l' occurring only on Dog and COlltl'l' Islands, Fov('lJ,ux Htrall j
/)roset'a p!I(/maea D.C.• only re('orded from 1l01U' KaitailL ill tItl' l'xtrl'ml'
north and the Jlluii Hill in thll extl'l'lllC' south. I'ittosporum o(JOlJrdatum
Raoul, ()('c'UI'S 8parillAlv noal' Kuitaia, and Aklloroa, 13lmks PllIlimmla j Pla'll'
allikuR eymosu/J T. KiJ'k, only I'ecordl,d from J)unpdiu. Lytteltoll, SOIliC'
of the Marlborough Souuds, and Ktt.itaia; S'IIIJ,mwl. cilafJlUmica Moz, com·
mon in tho (Ihlltham Islands, and fotnld ill two 10('ulitips in Hh'wart Island;
l.epyro(Jia Traversii F. Muell., common ill Chatham Islllml, and fotnld ill
c'ert&in bogs of the.> Wnikato and Itt OllU locality nellr Ko.itaill: StY'Pke1ia
Rickei Lahill., ('ommon ill Chatham Islalld. clnd found elsewh(.'rc only neal
the North Cape, Melic/pus macrophylluH A. CunD., l'ommon in ('(.'rt&m
Auckland forests, but absent oisewhor(', oxcept one 10(,lllit,y I1l'a1' DUlll:'din.
Other !.'xamples uf dilIcontll1UOUb diHtl'ibution, HlOUgl1 mol'C' COlUlC(.'wd
than tho above, iu('ludc RloPOC~((riH Rphaoelata R. Br., DraoopltyUum lati-
folium A. Cw.m., (!lelllatis «foUata Bu('h., Quinliflia oouti/olm T. :Kirk,
Velmisia Traversil IIook. f., l'RPUlio1)fJ7'&(J(J' fet'o:J.) T. Kirk, Oarmio1w.elia
!I"uilis J. B. Al'mstg., ()oprosmll rubro Potl'J(." Vet'on;ca speciOS4 R. l1ullll.,
&('. Wen' thero merely 0111' Of two (lILSC'S thl' disc'ontilltlOllS distriilutio1l
might bo attributed to Chl).l1('O, but as thore Ul(' Humorous ('I.\St.'8, and ~b
these gradually merge into examples of greater and Arl'atel' continuity.
it is p:oobo.ble that the species in most cases werl' at Olll:' t,imll mOft' widely
gpread, and that in the extreme cas(.'s as abov!.' w(' are face to fae'l' with
the phenomenon of a speoi<.'s llI\turll.lly on the' V(.'rp,e of ('xtiDction,


The New Zealand flora, as alre.>ady pointod. out. posst.'sscs many gOllel'eli
(Jontaining very" variable species," which are of mu(·h intcrc.'st for cvolu-
tig:uary studies. Of all suoh, Vercmica is the most ins~rUl'tiv!.', illustratinp"
Il.~ it does, th(' ",ell('ru1 prinC'ipl('1:! of evolutioJl apart ll'OllI UrlY t,heori(,11 liS
to method.
Ohcescmull udnuts "ip,hty-folll' hpe('iCII, hut tlic' Yle" Ill' tukl'b ill l\ TllORt.
llOllSOTVlJ,tive 0111'. I\ud probably withoui fClrllakillf.!, i,lw i(ll'l\lll or orthodox
tI~xoDomy SODl(' tllit·ty 11101'(' speciPh could bt' cOllvolliontly add('d 10 tilt'
ist, W(.'I·O, how('v('1, that school (If hotany whil·h is clealing with Rtnlo,
ItubUII, IJit.Jrooium, "lid Oratae.gus ill the Nort.hern llcmil!ph~lrc til study
tho New Zeulalld Corms, seveml huudrcda or spec lOS would bl' forthwith
.. (Iroatod." Should this OWl' l)e done without l'xpcl'imcntnl ('ulturc' of
c't\ch proposed form t}u' work will hI:' biologicl&lly useless.
'rho species diffOI' hoth opharmollic:ally und lioristiC'ally. The fOtllll'}'
clOncorLlS distinctions betwocn groups of forms ruth('r tJUIll hetwOl'n speoi~'8,
while the latter tl'OlLts of tho specific marks.
'rhere a1'O two maiu classos-the shrubby and thu herba.ceous-together
with the su:ffruticOIIe, The multitude of fOl'l'DS, with but few cxceptiol\s,
are oonneotcd, and IJ. f.!,roo,t numbor more or less inwrgracil' in a linclI.l
series. There is every evid('nce, then. of dosoent from 0. common 3no(.'stor.
which, ('onsidering tho f.!,ellUS beyond New Zealand as well as withill its
confines. would probably be an h~rbaceous plant with 8 didymous ca.psule.
such as V. Uknmaetlrys L. Further, tho plo.stirity of many "Specit.'lI·'
and the l\stonishing varia.bility suggGSt that clunlges or form 1\1'(', blll-
logicaIJy sp('lIkillJ);, ill rapid progress at thi." pres('nt timc',
('CWK.uNE.-Ec:o!ugiral Stlldle~ In 8,'olullOli. 4:5

' New Zeslalld bpccies. Wlth but few exccptions, IeproJuce them-
selves readily and rapidly from seed. um be easily grown from cuttings,
nnd are not restrIcted to any special soil. Some respond qwckly to chang(>
01 !.'nvironment. The genus oc{'urs III 1I11 parts of the New Zealand region,
except Antipodes and Macquarie I&lands. It has representatives in almost
every plaut formation, hut there is ouly Oll!.' true forest species (V. gigamea,
of (''hatham Islllnd). Au ll11alysis of distribution shows that seventeen
species arc {'oastal, thirte!.'ll do not Ilbct'nd beyond 300 m. altitude, ten to
between 300 m. and 900 m .• thirt(,!.'ll to 900 m. and less than 1,200 m.,
and forty-three to that altitudc lind up,vards, whIle fifty-two of the
ninety-six may bl' considered strictl~· mountain species.
Regarding th(>u' growth-fol'Ill.8, pClhaps blX species mi~ht be consideredl
herbaceous; the l't'mainder cl.t'l' all more or Il.'ss woody, thl.' great majority
being shrubs. Beyond New Zealand there is one shrubby Veronica in
Fuegia and th(' Falkland Islands, r. elliptica Forst. t, Identical with or
closely related to one or other of that beries of forms known as V. elliptica
III New Zeal.loUd, and 1'. formosa R. Br. and V. dem,/olia F. Muell. of
Tasmania alld south-east Australit\ respe{·tively.
Leaving tho hl'rhacoous cushion plants, formerly referred to the genm.
Pygmaea, 011 om' !:lid!.' for the prl.'sent, the remainder of the herbaceous
lIud sufirutl{'Obl' wro11lcas (Divisiou EUlJf!ronica J. B. Armstg.) are dis-
tinWlishod by theu' dtdy1l'&o'US capsul(>. But the shrubby V. loganioiiles
J. B. Armstg. halo Il. similar capsule. This plant resembles in many
respects a juv£'llile form of th" whip!.'ord section of Division I, Hooe. There
18 anothel' cphllrmonically snnilal' plant. V. CaBSOOOide8 HorL, which has a
capsul(> of the IIebe type, and which represents a fixed juvenile form of a
whipcord Yeroniou, such as that fixed or semi-fixed form of V.'l'agqna
Hook., which OCCUTb occasionally on the volcanic plateau (see Plate V.
fig. 2). Still mort' IS the relation to whipcord veronicas shown in the
toothed leaves of reyersion shoots. With a broadening of leaf, a not un-
('OmmOIl occurrence, thel'l' is a close II.pproac'h to V. bt.£zi/olia, Benth. In •
considorlllg the phylogeny of the species of Ymmwa the change from herb
to shrub would be I.'pharmonic, as may now be seen in the series of forms
from just sufirutwos(" to almost shrubs. III such manner V. logamoideR
might Misl', ,md, tho form of C'o.psule cho.n..,';'nl': by mutation, there would
he 1r. cQ8sinwidl's, which 011 the OllCl hlmel could develop by war of V. "buzi-
/(llw illto th!.' nJcsophyti(' spc('ies, or througll pressing of leaves to the SteDl,
11nd n l'(>l1iaiu amount of rwuctioll, into the xel'Ophytic whIpcord forms.
Of l'OUl'bl', I do not lDu1ghll' thesl' art' the actual 11ncI.'stral species, but it
do!.'s !lot sC(,lll. ILhsul'd toO tak!.' them as approximative to such, Som-e-
further details mny shod a httle light on the matter.
The shrubb~' wrollico.s full into three opharmonic classes, using Cheese-
man's synopsis. The first would include n'Om }'. 8pecioBa R. Ounn. to r.
pimeleoiile8 Rook. f.. the second from V. Gil1i68iana T. Kirk to V. WIVI.'fIqra
T. Kirk, aud the third fl'Om Y. macrantha Hook. f. to r. Raov.lii Hook. f.
ThC' first class shows a leaf gradually decreasing in size, and varying from
the willow form, broader 01' narrower as the case may be, to the small morc
or less oblong or ovate leaf of so many of the subalpine species-that is,
there is a. reduction of leaf-surface in lI.{'cordance with inerease of xerophytic
conditions. Where lowland species Ol'CUpy xerophytic stations large leaves thickened in texture, as in V. DieDf!fIbn£hii Benth., r. spetJ/OstJ R. Cann.,
and V. macroura Hook. f., all plants of coastal rocks; or reduced and
thick(>ued. ILS in r. chafhamica Buch., a.nothel' t'oastal-rock plant; or mut'h
46 Tran~(lct10n.1l.

reduced in size, as in V. di,ostnae/olia R. Cunn., a heath-plant-indeed, there

are few species whose leaf-form cannot be referred to evident £,pharmony.
The general habit of the sp£'cies is often strikingly epharmonio. In
point of fact, all branch on the same plan, but density or 100BeneBfl of
branching in its ('xtremes makes very different plants, as in the far-spread
ing, open, and stragglingly branched V. OookUmum Col. and V. .DieDen-
btJohii Bent,h., and the close ball-like V. lYuxi/oftia var. odura T. Kirk,
V. Traversii Hook. f., and many of the subalpino semi-xerophytic I!peoi(·s.
Still more xerophytic species have th(' prostra.te form, as V. cAathutJ&iC'(I,
a plant of wind-swept and spray-swept coastal rocks, and V. pingtd/olifl
Hook. f., in some of its numerous forms, as it hugs dry alpine rocks or the
stony surface of fell-field. It is instructive, too, to see how ono and the
same Linnean species varies in the growth-Iorms of its components. Thus
V. blni/olia "Senth. may be either a ball-like shrub, a low ereet open little-
branched shrub, or sparsely branehed and prostrate. Its leaves, too, vary
from patent to imbricating; while as lor smallieaf-va.tiations, they are with-
out end. The degree of imbricating of leaves is a striking epharmonic
feature in these small-leaved veronicas, and Cheeseman uses it, but in a
guarded manner, as an aid to identification. But the truth is, the indivi-
duals of a w(:'U-defincd form vary much in this regard according to their
surroundings, while thero appears also to be non-epharmonic va.riation of
this character.
A mOTe xerophytic station in general than that of the subalpine species
of claM 1 is demanded by those of class 2. Here reduction of leaf and
imbricating reach their :maximum in the whipcord forms. These have fully
developed though small leaves a.s seedlings and on reversion shoots, and thus united to Veronica GiUie8iaM, T. Kirk, Hook. f., and others whose
leaves are not'so much reduced. ClaBSCs 1 a.nd 2, as here defined, seem to
be conneoted by V. "buai/olia Benth., as a study of its seedling form shows ....
But this latter is also related to V. casstmoides Hott., which, as already
Ilhown, is a juvenilA 0]' ancestral whipcord V6'1'omca which may be linked
,vith suffruticose and herbaceous species by V. logtmioides J. B. Armatp,.
The relation, then, if my supposition be accepted, botween such a species
as V. bum/olia 01' some form such as V. catllli",ioitles is 80 close that favour-
able epharmonic conditions should COllVOTt the one into the other in course
of time. The t1uprCBBoid growth-form or these whipcord veronicas may
ODoSily have a.ppeared epl.lUmlonically soveral times. Ea('h time tho],ll
would be lIom6 slight difJeronce in the form evoked, aud thus some of tlLe
flp(lciCl:l of whipcord Vl'Tomca may have originated independently and noi,
from OI1C ancestl' ('upressoid Corm, and ther(> may have been actual
* l> givon by mo (11J01, pp. 282416) under tho namo Y. odora. Hook. f ••
which, howoVOl', is now known through t.he l'I."IIl'Gl'Chos of Cheeef'man (1909) to be distinC't
from the plant in q_uostion, whil'h lR Y. lnu:ifolitJ Bollth. vo.r. orJorq. T. Kirk. PL II
in tho above pa.per Bhould be oonAultccl, as it ShoW8 tho relo.tion in form between the
juvonile loa.vos of V. bw;ifolia var. orlora and V. Arl1lllmmgii '1'. Kirk, a whipcord Veronlca.
t Regarding polygonotic orip, Chilton wrote (18M, P. 166), "Suppose the
marine ancestor of tho terrestial1IDpoiG to be widely spread, and to inha.bit the- shores
of. 8ay, Now Zealand and Enldand. and that in aach oase animals began gradua.lly
to tho BOa a.nd 'IIl&ko tlieir holllb on thI- l.a.nd., at first keeping within the ra.ugE' of
the spray, as Ligia still does, but afterwards lea.ving tho 80a altogether, would not tJu..
new conditions in whioh these animals would be pJ.8.oed, being practica.ll.y the .a.m.e in
both oountries, produ.oe in oach case thE- 88ilDO efloat,80 tha.t tho variations whieh wonkl
be presor'ftd would be the 1la1llb in tho two oases, a.nd hence the animals, althouah arising from tho same marino ancestor, might 80 far reat'1Dble one as to
bo pJ.aoed in the> Ramo p,enUB or OVl'l1 in tho sarno species?" Cuppy (1007) should also
be llOnaultl'd.
('OCKAYNE.-b'coluglcal Sttldlel'. IlL RvoZllf/()/I. 47

polygenetic development of species. This polygenetic origin of form, if not

of species, is the more likely, as the form eXIsts in other families, while the
distribution of the species shows that, though some are widespread, there
are a number ot spe('ies of restricted distribution-e.g., V. Langii Cockayne
(Stewart Island), V. Hectori Hook. f. (western Otago), V. propinqua
Cheesem. (Mount Maun~atua and some other Otago mounta.ins), V. ,ali-
CfJI'fI,ioides Hook. f. (Nelson), V. A.stoni (Tararua Mountains), V. tetragoM
(volcanic plateau), and others not yet described.
Veronica Haastii Hook. f., V. epauridea Hook. f., and V. Pekiei T. Kirk
are not definitely connected with the rest of class 2, and may be considered
a side branch, with modified leaves.
01asa 8 form a distinct line of descent to itself, and its connection with
any other branch of the genus is not clear. Two species are moor-plants.
and the remainder rock-plants; their growth-forms are epharmonic. The
branched panicle of V. HuZkeana F. Muell., V. Lavaudiana Raoul, and
V. RaouZii Hook. f. remove them from the rest of the class. Nevertheless.
branching of the inflorescence is merely a question of degree, and OCCur6
at times in various species-e.g., V. T'I'fJfJersii Hook. f., where it is un-
expected-while in others a similar inflorescence is a specific character
{V. diosmaeJoUa, V. Menziesii Benth.}.
Regarding the herbaceous species, V. pulvinaris Benth. & Hook. belong-
ing to Pygmaea, their leaves are not arranged quadrifariously. By some
they are regarded as forming a distinct section of the genus. At present it
is impossible to assign them a place in the direct line of descent. They arc
cushion plants, and epharmoni('ally similar to M1I08otiB puWinaris Hook. f.
Tb.;a sufJruticose veronicas (V. catarractae Forst. f., V. LyaZUi Hook. f.,
and 'V. BidwiZlii Hook. f.) are closely related to one another-so closely,
indeed, that it is hard to assign limits to any as a Linnean species, and the
simplest method from that standpoint would be to unite all three.

The objec.:t of this paper is to supply material for consideration by
students of evolutioll culled from a field which, although not altogether
neglected, is much less cultivated for the supply of evolutionary pabulum,
especially by English writers, than is the wide domain of zoology, whence
come the bulk of the facts of so many works on evolution.
Whatever of value there may be in this ecological material lies in the
fact that it is drawn from an isolated and virgin vegetation, and one, too,
where the grazing animal played a most insignifiC'ant part compared with
its rOle in the Old World.
The details have not been selected to support any particular theory,
though, of course, as ecological observations are the basis of the papor, the
relation of plant to environment takes the l~ place.
By one celebrated school of biologists the ultimate inheritance of cha-
ractem. evoked by stimuli affecting the body-cells is either considered
impossible or an occurrence so rare as to be negligible, while such evidence
as I have advanced, is looked upon as worthless, or, at best, as quite

* For .Henslow

aoq,uired che - 'I___
ha6 ba.ttled strenuously for the caU8e of the inheritance of
. . _'"
.&. ~.L" .1.. .. _ ........ _ ..: _ 1...z ... _ _1.... ..J _ _ _ :_ # .. AP

altogether his much more convinCing" Origin
lugpatdve material.

insuffioient. But another and equally tamous sl'hool bl'hove hucll inht'rit-
ance to b<, ,\ more or Ir811 frequent O('(,UrTt'n('(', hot,mists, as it rull.', bl'in~
more in its favour than are zoologista.
Sp<'llking of thl'Oril'S or evolution generally, there SN'ms 1I,00d r('ason
to rOllsidl'f that such. if not pr(,llmturl.', I~rc ('hil.'fl.y of Va.llll' ..IS a stiml11118
to biologiclll mlcardl. Our ignornnc(' I\S to thl' minute strurturl', tht.'
chl'mistJ'Y, ILlld the physiology of the protoplasm is pr010llllu. N()thlll~
il5 known as yet J'eglLl"ding tho Iwtual 1',\UlII' 01 v,Hiation. All ephllrmollu'
tltimulull could do nothing wore it not that thl' innl'1" l'Ollstitution o( tht.'
plant is "'ready<' to respond-i.p., thl' ., mnehillllry" iR thllrl.' ready to
produr,' the possibly rphannonic variation so tlonu itS it ~cts tltl' lll'CI.'ssar\'
The ronstrU('tioll of 1'1ll.borak' theories is not the method. by wlm'h
progrl.'SS ('all be made. Actual experimonts in the gal'<il'll, thr laboratory,
a.nd the field can alone lead to thl' truth. Even in taxonomy, only expl.'l"i-
fllent ran artually decide lUI to stabll.' nnu hl'feditnry forms. But OLRI'I'YII-
tiona from nature o,rc also demanued, and here croloAY coml'S in, with tho
attempt to makl' USl' of the wild-pJ.a.nt world, where thert' spl:'dl's in
the making, as II. sourcc of obsel"Vntion. Thl' duty of thl' c('ologist is tiLl'
eollocting uf facts ;n 11S a('curato n manner rs possihlr. TIll' KtllUY of
cpharmollY in its manifold phl.scs is urp,ently requin·d. Itl:! vigorollK PI'(,tI(,·
cution should yield a ri('h hn.l"Vcst of ohsC'rvatiollS, to 1)(' l'x.tmilll'd ill tbe
light of exprrilll('ntul evolution.

Annstronp; ••J. B. 1881. .t A Bynopsis of thr N('\~ Zl'I\lllnd HPl'I')('h of
VerolUca Linn., with Notes 011 New Sperics." Trl\Jls. N.Z. IIIS1., vnl. 13,
Balfour, I. B. 1879. "The Colll'etions from Rodriqut'z- Boto.m·." Phil.
Trans. RoS., vol. 168, p. 302.
Bitter, G. 1911. .. Di!.' Gattullg .1CQ.Pl1a."
BJaringbcm, L. H107. ~< JI[ut.1tion I'L 'rrl\umatir,ml'." i>lIr·".
Huehmmll, J. 187(). Intmdurtory Rt'nmrktl to .. Lillt of PIIlU1h fount!
in the Nortllcrn DiKtril't of tltl' Pl"OVilll'O of Altl·kIIUIIl." TruIlK. N.Z.
rnst., vol. 2, p. 239.
--- 1871. "011 IIfnm' Now SpI'I'it,tI nlld'S or NI'W 7"('ul.llul
PhUllfl." TranK. N.Z. rIlKt., vol. :J, p. 20R.
UuruH, <t p. 1\)11. •• lMaphi,' (Iondii iOIlK in 1'('111, BOilS of Houtill'l'Il
Mil·hignn." Jlot. Gaz., vol. 1i2, p. 101i.
OhCI'SI'l1I1Ul, T. F. lS!l1. .• .]i'uri hl,t Not('s 011 thl' ,]'hrl'I' Kingll IHlandK."
Trnnll. N.Z. Iust., vo]. 23, p. 408.
11106. .. Mununlllf th(, Nl'W Zl.'aland Flol"l\." Wl'IlillAtoll.
- - 1907. "(I.ontrilJUtic)I1s to n [j'uller Knowll'dge of thl' Flora nf
N('w Zoaland." TrSlltl. N.Z. [Ubt., vol. 39, p. 439.
-- --- - 1908. Tbid., No.2. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 40, p. 270.
-- 1909." On th(' SystematiC' Botany of the lslu.nus to the South of
New Zl'Bland." The Subaut.. Islands of N.Z., vol. 2, p. 389.
('hilton, C. 1884.. Thf' Distribution of TClTl'Stial ('ruslact'I.I:' N.Z.

JOlll1l. Sci., vol. 2, p. 154.

(lIcments, F. E. 1905. "Rt>sea.r('h Methods in EcoloAY." NubraskB.

• Works consuitro. but not r('furrt'd to in the- W'xt. "1'(' not inoludt'd, t'xoopt In a r,..w
COOKAYNE.-Ecologuat S'Vtut/(~B in EIJol,tftolt :1:9

('ockaync, L. 1901. "An Inquiry into the Seedling Forms of New Zea-
land Phancrogams and their Development, Part IV." Trans. N.Z.
Inst., vol. 33, p. 265.
- _ - 1902. .. A Short Account of the Plant Covering of (,hatham
Island." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 243.
1904. "A Botanical Excursion during Midwinter to tlte Southern
Islands of New Zealand." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 36, p. 225.
- - - 1907. "NotE' on tht" Behaviour in Cultivation of a Chatham Island
Form of Oopr08n1« propinfJUa." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 39, p. 378.
- - 1907A. "On the Sudden Appearance of a New CharactE'r in an
Individual of LeptoBper'TJtUm 8coparium" New PhytoL, vol. 6, p. 4:3.
1908. "R('port on 0. Botanical Survey of the Waipoua Kauri
Forest." Wellington.
1909. "Report on a Botanical Survey of Stewart Island." WE'I-
- - - 1909A. Tho Ecological Botany of the SubantarctIc Islands of
Ncw Zealand." The Subant. Islands of N.Z., vol. 1, p. 182.
- - 1910. .. On a Non-flowermg New Zealand Species of Rubus."
Trms. N.Z. Inst., vol. 42, p. 325.
- - 1911. .. On thE' Peopling by Plants of the Subalpine RIver-bed
of the Rakaia (Southern Alps of New Zcaland)." Tra.ns. Bot. Soc.
Edinb., vol. 24, p. ]04.
Cook, O. F. 1907. "Aspects of KinetiC Evolution." Proc. Wash. Acad.
Sci., vol. 8, p. 197.
Costantin, J. l898. "Les Vegotaux et les Milieux Coslluques." Paris.
Cross, B. D. 1910. "Observations on some New Zel:l.l<Lnd Halophytes."
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 42, p. 545.
Darwin, C. 1899. "The Origin of Speoies.' London. (6th 00..)
- - 1905. ., The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestica-
tion." (Popular edition, edited by Francis Darwin.)
D.:l.lMn, 11'. 1908. PrMidontial .Address. Rep. Brit. Assoc.
Dendy, A. 1902. "'rhe Ohatham Islands: a Htllth- III .BIolooY." :r.If'm.
and Proc. Manch. Lit. and Phil. Soc., vol. 46, pt. n.
-- . - 1903. "The Nature of Heredity." Rl'p. R.M. A.A.S., vol. 1.
Diels, L. 1906. "Jugcndformen und Bliitenrc·lfe im Pflanzenreieh."
Goebel, K. 1889-93. .. Pflallzenbiologisuho Schilderungell." Marburg.
- - 1900-5. "Organography of Plants." Oxford.
- - - - 1908. .. Einleitung in die Experimentelle der P&nzon." LeipZig
and Berlin.
Griffen, E. M. 1908. .. The Development of /:Iomo New Zeamnd Conder
Leaves with Reg&.ro to Transfusion Tissue and to Auaptution to En-
,ironment." Trans. N.Z. !nat., vol. 40, p. 43.
Guppy, H. B. 1907. "Plant-distribution from an Old Standpoillt."
Author's copy of paper read before the VIet. Inst
Hall, H. M. 1910. "Studies in Ornamental Trees and Khruhs." Umv.
of Cal. Pub. in Bot., vol. 4, p. 1.
Haswell, W. A. 1891. .. Recent Biological Theories.' Rep. A.A.A.H ..
vol. 3, p. 173.
fTenslow, G. 1895. .. The Orig;n of Plant ~truutures." London.
- - 1908. "The Heredity of Acquired Characi;(>rs in Plants."
50 T I "flMltt IOUb.

Hooker, J. D. 1853. .. Florn Novu,I·-Zt>lltudilH'." rol. 1. lntroduotory

Essay, p. i.
Kirk, T. 1871. .. On the Bollmy 01 thl' Northl'l'll Pnrt of the PI'QVlIl('C
of Alll'khl11d." Traus. N.Z. Illst., vol. 3, p. 166.
- 1889. .. rrhe For<.'flt Florn. of Nl'W Z('aluud." Wl%nf.,rtou.
1896. .. The Displul'oDll'ut of Iilp('('i('s ill Nl'\\" ZI"l\);md." '1'ruJlS.
N.Z. Illst., vol. 28, p. 1.
Klebs, It WO:t .. Willkiirlic·h(· .Enh'l('k('IUJI~ilndl'l'llIu(I·1I h(·i Pfu~nz(·J1."
1910. "IlIiluE'IWC oi ElIvirOllllll'1I1 011 the' Fonlls of Plmlts."
Darwin and Modem 8('ionco, p. 223.
Ll'avitt, G. G. 1907. "The Geograplu(' DisiributlO11 of (tl()sel~' RouLtod
Species." Am. Nat., vol. 41, p. 207.
Mac'Dougal, D. T. L911. .. IllheritaUtlc of Habitat EJiJ(I('ll:! in Planhl.'·
Plant World, vol. 14, p. 53.
Massart, J. 1910. .. Esquil:!St" de Ill. Geogrnphic botaniqul' Ul' 13 Belgique."
Oliver, R. B. UHO. .. Thl' Vegetlltioll of the' Kerlllllll('(' lsh\nds."
Trans. N.Z. Illst., vol. ~2, p. 118.
Romanes, U. J. 1893-97. .. Darwiu and Aftl'l' 1>8or\\,I1I." Londou.
Scott-Elliott, G. F. 1910. .. 'rhl' Waning of WC'ismmlllism." .lourn.
R. Hort. Sor., vol. 35, p. 327.
I')peight, R. 1911. .. Tho Post...gla.cial Olimllt(· of ('mrt(·rhury." rrrllllti.
N.Z. lust., vol. 43, p. 408.
Thomson, U. M. 1901. •• Plant-ac;clinmiization ill Nt'\\' Zealand." l'1'alls.
N.Z. lust., vol. 33, p. 313. (Conta.ins various supplcmenwy notes by
D. Petrie.)
rr:ra..vers, H. H. 1869. "On the Chatham Islands." Trails. N.7-. lust.,
vol. 1, p. 173.
'l'ravOl'S, W. T. L. 1870. "On tho Changes effected ill thC' Naturlti Features
of a New Country by the Inirodu(,tioll of Civilized RILC(.'R." rrmllll. N.7-.
Inst., vol. 2, p. 299.
Vries, H. dc. 1901 3. .. Die Mutn.tiollilthool'ic." Loipzig.
- - 1905." HPOri(,K nlld Varieties, thC'il' Ori~ill by MUh\tion." (lhiuago.
Walla(.'t', A. R. 1889. .• Dllrwillism." Londoll. .
Wn.rmin~, E. 1909. .. Oecolo~y of Plants." Oxford.
Weismallll, A. 1910. .. Tho &·1(·('\.iOlI ThC'ol'\'." Dllrwiu :~Ild Modonl
~d('nt·C', p. Itt .
Williams, W. L. WO·I, • Abnofnml Hrowth of It Plant oj Plwrmifm,
('olenso'." Tnms. N.'z. Inst., vol. 36, p. :!33, alld pl. 21).
UOOKAYNB.-Somt= Hitherto-lii/I'rrorded Pta/~t-",abitaf,; 51

ART. II.-So,,~ Hitherto-unrecllrdPd Plant-Juib#ats (VII).

By L. COCKAYNE • .Ph.D., F.L.S.
lRfati be/ore the Philosophical 11l81""~ 0/ ('(lnlplbury, 4th Octobel, 1911.1

Tms paper is divided into three sections, the first containing the usual
general plant-habitats, the second devoted to the neighbourhood of the
Franz Josef Glacier, and the third to the plants of the Omeroa Saddle.
My list of plants in Dr. J. M. Bell's report on the Franz Josef Glacier
is, as is therein indicated, most incomplete. With the addition of the
species here published and those recorded only for the Omeroa Saddle the
total is increased from 287 to 356, while a fair idea may be gained of the
vascular flora of that part of Westland from the sea-shore to an altitude
of 1,200 m. Doubtless there are still many mountain species not re-
corded, since, so far as the higher land was concerned, I was only able
to visit the fell-field, &c., on the right-hand side of No-go Creek, where
the slopes are very steep and much broken, and the vegetation merely in
The Omeroa Saddle is situated on a spur which is crossed by the bridle-
track leading from the Franz Josef to the Fox Glacier. Its altitude is
about 330 m. There is a small amount of open boggy ground, but the
bulk of the vegetation is forest. The occurrence of certain subalpine
shrubs is remarkable for so Iowan altitude, but it must be borne in mind
that every Westland lowland river-bed contains a percentage of plants
which are generally to be found only at a higher altitude.
To Mesars. W. Willcox, D. L. Poppelwell, W. Wilson, and C. Foweraker
I am much indebted for various specimens mentioned below. Mr. Poppel-
well further has sent me full lists of his collections on the Garvie, Eyre,
and other mountains, but these are so extensive and important that it is
better that he himself should publish them.


Alsophila Colensoi Hook. f.

South Island: (1.) Nelson-Forest nc~r Reefton; L. C. (2.) Canter-
bury-Forest, M.akarora Valley j L. C.
Anisotome Haastii (F. Muell.) Cockayne and Laing.
South Island: Canterbury - Herb-fi.eld of Mount Ernest, he-ad of
Lake Wanaka. The MisseB Ewing!
Anisotome intermedia Hook. f.
South Island: (1) Otago-Curio Bay. near Waikawa, on cliff; L. C.
(2.) Westland-Big Bay; L. C.
Australina pusilla Gaud.
South Island: Canterbury-RemaiM of forest near Waimate. C.
02 1"(lIIHII f/(m,

Blechnum Banksii (Holik. f.) M.ptt.

South Island: Wl·stland-· ,'o('kson'l'1 Bay; PcLrlllp,U Bay. 1•. C.
Th('re OTC' no W"stlalld f('c'm'ds III OIU'c'b('mun'lI Manual (·ithl'r fo1' HUb
or B. atlt'tlfll.
Blechnum durum (MoorC') <:. Ohl'.
Kont,h Islana: W(·stlnnc1·-.ltll"kson'K BllV; Pcll'lIIlJ,lI BII\'. L. (',
Carex Buchanani Bl'rggr('on.
South Island: Ca.nt.erbuTy-t'an106l'Uury PIHill. hy bid,· 01 wawr-rar(·B.
almost to sea-level. 1.. C.
This is an exampll' of an indtgcnoUH plant becomm~ morl' widely sprl'ud
through the farming opet'ations of the 8<'ttlel",
Celmisia bellidioides Hook. f.
South Island: Otago-Ocr II Penk, L3k(' Wu.ku.tipu. W. Wllll'ox!
Only tJlre~ hn,hitlttfl ILre gW('n by PetTlr ill his" I.u,t 0:1 thC' Flowflrillg-
plants of Otogo " (TT,lnb. N.Z. IllRt.. vol. 28. p. G5U).
Celmisia densiBora Hook. f.
South Island: C'antrrlJllry -Mount HtudholmC'. Hunte'r'e Hillll. l:.
~'ow(>raker !

Celmisia mollis {'ockl~ynp.

South Island: Nell:lOo-Mountaills IlI'l\f HlliITIll'l. W. Willcox!
Celmisia pseudo-Lyallii (Ohoesem.) Oorkllynl.'.
South Islalld: Canterbury-Mount Studholtlll.'. Hunter's Hills. V.
This is, so far. the most southem record lor this species. Mount Stud-
holme is only 1.085 m. high, but it ('out~\inB, hesides the two species
already llot~d. e. roria.cea Hook. r.. e. LyaUt'i Hook. f'J Imd O. H]Jl'ctabililo
Hook. f.
Celmisia ramulosa Hook. I.
lj()u1 h Ishmu: ()tl\~()-( 'I·(·j] Ilt·uk. IWll r sUlllmit. W. WiIl('()x!
Celmisia Walkeri 'r. Kirk.
Houth lsltl.lld: ('llllh'rlmI'Y' M01lnt ~}l'JlI''1j, hl'nd 01 f."kt· WlLlu.kll.
Tlw Millll('K Ewillj.l ! '
Corallospartiunl crassicaule (Hook. I.) .1. B. Arlllhtg.
Routh Tslnnd: OtRgn- -MOI1ll1 Roy. T~nk(.' WmUlkn; I,~ m. IIltituue.
L, t'.
Coriaria angustissima Hook. i.
South Island: Wcstland-(I) Hubalpino ol'lt. of mouutains bounding
Ta.ramakau and Otira Valleys; (:-J) river-bed. of Otira, at 300 m. a.lti-
tudl.', in rompany with the two othOl' SpC'cit'B. hut much less Ilhundant.
L. C.
Dacrydium laxifolium Hook. f.
South Island: Otago-Near Curio Bay, W'a.ikllwlL, within a mC'tr!' or
1~'O of aea.-lf'vf'l, in B'P'htJf/'iWm hOJ!. L. C.
COOKAYNE.-Some llith,erio-T67uecol'd~d Plal/f-llQblf(lf~ .'58

Dracophyllwn virgatum (Cheesem.) Cockayne sp. nov. = D. 'I.l.niflorutn

Hook. f. var. 'Virgatum Cheesem. in ., Manual of the Nt'" Z!'slsnd
Flora," p. 427 (1906).
South Island: Westland-Swamp nt'ar Lakt' Blwmer. 1•. C.
Fuchsia Colensoi Hook. f.
South Island: Westland-Near Lake Ianthe. L. e.
F. Oolenaoi appears to be quit!' an uncommon &pecies m Westland.
For other stations, see II below.
Gahnia rigida T. KIrk.
South Island: Westland-What I take 1.0 be thi£. speCIes 18 common
as far south as tht' Waiho Rivt'T. L. C.
Gunnera dentata T. Kirk.
South Island: Canterbury-Riv(,r-bed of River Makaroru.. hf'ad of
Lakt' Wanaka. L. C.
Korthalsella Lindsayi (Olivt'r) Engler.
South Island: Otago-Cresrellt Island, Lakt' Wanakll.; paIdtiitic on
PseuiJoPaMfE /eroz. L. C.
Leptolepia novae-zelandiae (Col.) Kuhn.
Stewart Island-In rimu-kamahi forest. R. B. Ohyt'l !
Librocedrus Bidwillii Hook. t.
South IsIa.nd: Westland-One of the mt'mbel'S of the low riv(,J'-b<'d
forest in the Otira Valley. L. C.
The most important trees of this asSOCIation are PhUlloolallu8 aZptfW8'
Hook. f., PoitocOlTp'U8 Halli';' T. Kirk, and Psetldopana.r C1'asBitolilllrl &>em.
Lycopodium fastigiatum R. Br.
South IsIa.nd: Wt'stland-Otira. YtlU('y, 011 old riYel'-iJ('d. L. C.
Mazus radicans (Hook. t.) Oht't't!em.
South Island: Westland - A characteristic plant oj lowlanu and
montan(' river-beds. L. C.
Myosotis Goyeni Pt'trit'.
Hauth Island: Otal!,o-Mouut Roy, Lake Wanaka, 011 dry lock-face,
at altitudt' of 450 m. L. C.
Nothofagus Menziesii (Hook. t.) Oerst.
South Island: Canterbury-Vallt'y ot the Makarora, forming a pure
fOTt'st. L. C.
Olearia Haastii Hook. t.
South Island: (1.) Westlaud-Otira Gorgt'. m subalpine scrub: only
one plant noted. (2.) Canrerbury-Bank of Slovtm's Creek, Waimakariri
basin. L. C.
O. /{nastii, although evidontly widely spread. is a l'8rl.' Spe<.'lt'B, ha\'ing
llE'f'll l't'('ordeod from seven loralitius only, including the ahove.
.54 Tran,actiont .

Pennantia corymbosa Forst.

Routh Island: Canterbury-Makarora Valley. L. C.
Pittosporum divaricatum Cockayne sp. nov. ined.
South Island: Westland-Otim Vallf.'Y, in low forest. L. ('.
This attains considerable dimensions. Ont) example was 2'5 m. tall,
and hll.d a trunk 12'5 cm. in diameter. 1 am not sure but that the West-
land form is distinct from that of the steppe climate of Canterbury. The
set-dling leaves more deeply cut (SOl" Plate VIII, Article I, in this volumE').
Poa imbecilla Forst. f.
Stewart IsIand-R. B. Oliver!
Podocarpus spicatus R. Br.
South Island: Canterbury-Makal'Ora Valley; formerly common 10
lowland forest. L. C.
Pseudopanax ferox T. Kirk.
tiollth Island: Otago -Crescent Island, Lake Wanaka, on rocky slope.
L. C.
Roth old and young trees are plentiful.
Rubus cissoides A. Cunn. var. pauperatus T. Kirk.
tIouth Island: Otago-Crescent Island, Wanaka. L. C.
Schoenus pauciflorus Hook. f.
&uth Island: Canterbury-Kaiapoi Island i Canterbury Plain, almclst
at spA-level. L. C.
Trichomanes Colensoi Hook. f.
South Island: (1.) Westland-Mount Rangi Ta.ipo, on rock, at about
~IOO m. o.ltitude, L. C. (2.) Otago-In forest, .Anita "&y; L C.
Thl' number of records for this fern are few, but it is easily overlooked.
Uncinia uncinata. (L. f.) Kiikenth.
Stewart Island. R. B. Olivor!
Veronica Buchanani Hook. r.
~uth Is!lmd: Otago-Lindis Peak j on summit. I.. C.

Veronica dasyphylla T. Kirk.

South Island: Otago-(1.) Cecil Peak; W. Willcox:! (2.) ~ummit of
'Mount Roy, Lake Wanaka. i L. C.
Veronica epacridea Hook. f.
South Island: Otago-Mount Roy, Lake Wanaka; on summit, 1,560m.
altitude. L. C.
Veronica odora Hook. f.
Stewart Island-Exact habitat forgotten, but perhaps Lord's Rivor.
D. L. Poppelwell !
Veronica subalpina Oockayne.
South Island: Canterbury-Mount Ernest. The Misses EwinS!
COClKAYNE.-SOlnl' Hlfherfo-lllll'ecol'rl~d Plullt-lwbltlltil 55



Anisotome pilifera (Hook. f.) Co('ko.yne and Lo.illl!,.

Subalpine fell-field.
Arundo conspicua Forst. 1.
Astelia montana (T. Kirk) Cockayne.
Forest; subalpine fell-field.
Astelia Petriei Cockayne.
Subalpinl' fell-field, forming extl'nsive patches.
Calamagrostis pilosa (A. Rich.).
Rooke mOIU0m&6e; moraine; fell-field.
Carex Cockayniana Kiikenth.
Carex comans Berggren.
River-bed; very common.
Carex dissita Sol.
Near pools of water, at about 210 m. altitude.
Carmichaelia (two species).
River-bed. These species are probably" new." Onl' is prostrate, and
the other semi-prostrate. I have only fruiting specimens.
Celmisia petiolata Hook. f.
Subalpine fell-field.
Celmisia Sinclairii Hook. f.
Subalpine fell-field, forming large patches.
Celmisia Walkeri T. Kirk.
On rock where there is covering of soil, forming ('xtensive patches.
Cladium teretifolium R. Br.
Lowland moor.
Claytonia australasica Hook. f.
Small wet stony debris in subalpine belt.
Coprosma brunnea (T. Kirk) Cockayne.
River-bed near terminal face of glacier.
Coprosma ciliata Hook. f.
Subalpine scrub.
Coprosma serrulata Book. f.
Rade ,nmdomlk, l\t 650 m.; old moraine, at 900 m.
l' rail ~actlOlI ~

Coriaria angusdssima Hook. j.

Fell-field. ,1t 1,200 m.
Cotula dlOlca Hook. t.
~l\lt m(·llduw. Okaritu.

Cotula squalida Honk. I.

Old nWTaillf.'; river-bl'tl and fell-tield up 10 1,20(1 m
Dacrydlum Colensoi Hook.
Lowland forest.
Dacrydium intermedium T. Kirk.
Lowlnnd {or(,81.
Dracophyllum Kirkii Berggrell.
Il(H.'JII! mIJuiotln6f.

DracopbyUum Urvilleanum A. Rich. v•• r. montanum ChOCllOlll.

Roehl! f'IIO'IdO'fVllfe.

Epilobium cbloraefolium Hll uHsku.

Epllobium microphyllum A. Rwil.
Epilobium sp.
This 18 the western plant included by Cheeseman with It:. f}f'OOU"'Jl('1I
T. Kirk (see Ma.nual, p. 181). I hope to publish a description of Lilia Bp('eicCo
shortly, and point ouL its distinguishing characters.
Fell-fiold. 1,20n m.
Euphorbia glauca }i'urlli,. f.
I:!llon', Okariio.
Euphrasia Monroi TInok. f.
Ff'lI-fiold. 1,200 m.
Fuchsia Colensoi Hook. f.
NOllr lJukf' Mnpourika.
Gahnia rigida. T. Kirk.
Forest; lowland moor.
Gaultheria perplexa T. Kirk.
Old rivt'r-bed.
Gentiana sp. (perhaps G. beUUUoit/& Hook. f., but not in flower) •
.Fell-field, at 1.200 m.
Geum parviflorum 8m.
Old moraill(,; ft'll-field. at 1,200 m.
('OOKAYNE.-8onlr IhtherflJ-ulI'T( cornul Pla'1lt-halJlt(lt, 57

Hypolepis millefolium Hook.

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.
Juncus maritimus La.m. var. australiensis Buchen.
Salt meadow, Okarito.
Loranthus micranthus Hook. f.
ParasItic on various tr('os and shrubs.
Mazus radicans (Hook. f.) Cheesem.
On river-bed!.: abundant.
Metrosideros scandens l:iol.
Sea-cliff. Okarito.
Muehlenbeckia axillaris Walp.
Myosotis Forsteri Lehm.
Rocke tnot.ltoMk.
Myosotis macrantha Hook. f. & Benth.
Fell-field, at 1.200 m.; rare.
Nothopanax anomalum Hook. f.
Nothopanax parvum (T. KIrk) Cockayne.
Olearia moschata Hook. f.
Subalpine scrub; ab~dant.
Ourisia caespitosa Hook. f.
Fell-field, up to 1,200 m.; (·ommon.
Ourisia macrocarpa Hook. i.
Fell-field, at 1,200 m. and lower; common.
Oxalis magellanica Forst.
Fell-fiold, at 1,200 m.
Pennantia corymbosa Forst.
River-terrace forest.
Poa Astoni Petrie.
Coastal cliff, Okarito.
Poa pusilla Berggren.
Podocarpus Hallii T. Kirk.
58 Tl'lIIn(1l'fion~

Ranunculus Godleyanus Hook. i.

R('d of No-go Cr(.'('k, at a.bout 1,000 m. a.ltltudt'.
Ranunculus LyaUii Huok. l.
Fell-tit'ld, n.hundant from .1 hOllt 900 m. upwMcls.
Ranunculus lappaceus 14111. v.n·.
Raoulia austrabs Hook. r.
Raoulia glabra Hook. f.
Rubus parvus Bucho.ndn.
(1) Open ground ncar La.kt' Mapourlka.. (2) bed of River Omoroa.
Both in open Rnd amon~t shrubs.
Rubus subpauperatus Cockaynl'.
S('rub of rivc>l'-t(,rL'ItCtl.

Schizeilema Haastii (Hook: t.).

Ft'll-field, ILt 1,2(JO m.
Schizeilema nitens (Pot-rlC~).
Wombat Pond. on old moraine.
Senecio Lyallii Hook. f.
Fell-fipld, a.t 1,200 m.
'Prisetum Youngu Hook. f.
Fell-field, at 1,200 m.


Aristotelia fruticosa Hook. 1.
Astelia montana ('I'. Kirk) CockaYlle.
Blechnum capense (L.) Achlocht.
- -.- fluviatile (R. BI'.) f.owe.
- - - penna marina (Poir) Kllll11.
Carex Gaudichaudiana Kunth.
----- ternaria ForKt. t.
Coprosma cuneata Hook. t.
- - - foetidissima Forst.
- - - parvifiora Hook. f.
- - - rugosa Cheesem.
- - - species with yellow drupe.
Cordyline indivisa (Forst. f.) Stelld.
Dacrydium biforme (Hook.) Pilger.
- - - Co1ensoi Hook.
Danthonia Cunninghamii Hook. r.
- - - semiannularis R. Br.
l'OCKAYNE.-8ome llltke'l'fo-Imrecortled Plallt-habitatR 5~

Dicksonia lanata Col.

Ikacophyllum longifolium (Forst. f.) R. Br.
- - - Traversii Hook. f.
Drimys colorata Raoul.
Elaeocarpus Hookerianus Raoul.
FuchSla excorticata Linn. f.
Gaultheria antipoda Forst. f.
- - - depressa Hook. f.
- - - rupestris R. Br.
Gleichenia Cunninghamii Heward.
Griselinia. littoralis Raoul.
Hymenophyllum Malingii (Hook.) Mett.
- - - multifidum (Forst. f.) Sw.
Hypolepis millefolium Hook.
Leptopteris superba (Col.) Pro
Libocedrus Bidwillii Hook. f.
Luzuriaga marginata (Banks &; Sol.) Benth. &; Hook.
Myrtus pedunculata Hook. f.
Nothopanax anomalum Hook. {.
- - - Colensoi (Hook. f.) Beem.
- - - parvum (T. Kirk) Cockayne.
- - - simplex (Forst. f.) Beem.
Olearia Colensoi Hook. f.
- - - ilicifolla Hook. f.
- - lacunosa Hook. f.
_ - - nitida Hook. f.
Pbormium Cookianum Le J olis.
Phyllocladus alpinus Hook. f.
Pittosporum divaricatum Cockaynt'.
Podocarpus acutifolius T. Kirk.
Polystichum vestitum (Forst. f.) Pr.
Pratia angulata (Forst. f.) Hook. f.
Rubus australis Forst. f.
Senecio eleagnifolius Hook. f.
Styphella acerosa Bol.
Suttonia divaricata Hook. f.
Uncinia dparia R. Br.1
Veronica salicifolia Forst. f.
Viola filicaulis Hook. f •
.. I understand from Dr. 0. Skottsberg that the New Zer.l&nd '!)]ant is d.ietinot from
tMt of tempezate South Amerioa. That bem, 80, the New Z_lana species must receive
a Dew Dame.

Am'. III. S,ll/it' XO(I'H 1m Ihl' BlJlooll oJ 1111' SI'I'lI.JIt'I· il.flllmlaitlH, ,0'/1,/1 fl
T-illt of Ihl' 8pt'Oif'1I (loll.rctl'd.
B) R. M. I,.UNO, B.S,·.
I Hi'I"/ 111'/011 II" 1'llIlo'lOpMrlll In~flIlljp IJj (illll/prlmfli. 18t NouemlH'r, ISiI 1.1

IN December-JI\IllULry, UHO-H. w~ arru.uged a tUlmll party· to take pank-
horses and asc~nd the headwaters o( the Waiau IUld the 01arenM Ri\'"ortl.
We left Hanmer, and went I>~. way of Jark's Pass I~n(l Fow]('J"s 11as8 to
the out-st.'ltion on the Ada. We campl'd near thl' foo1, of tht' saddli·, nnd
explor('d thl' surrounding rOlUltrr I>otnnicall~·. 0111' n('xt camp was ill
Glacier Gully. 1\ tllllUll tribuml'Y uf the Waiau, tlomt' nw milefl farth~r to
the east. 'Phenrt' we crossed Maling's Pass to Lnkl' Tellnyson, in tht'
neighbourhood of which several days were Bpent. Bad weather, unfor-
turmtely, pr('vontrd the !\Scont of allY o( thu highlll' ponks. The highl'.st
point nttain~d was probably under 6.()OO ft., on Mount PrinCI'BB. Rome
of the upper !llpinl' plants may, thert,foro, have escaped oUsol'VlLtion. Thl)
return 10 Hllnmel' \\'IIS made via tho Olu1'('n('1' Vallay.
Tho Speruwr MOWltainti form a little-known district of tho Southern
Alps, lying at the headwatel'B of tho Wuiau. ClaI'enee, a.nd the Wairau.
The district was first explorE'ld by Mr. W. T. L. Tmvcrs during the end ()f
February and the beginning of Mlm'h. 1860. An I\roount of this explora-
tion will bo found in the Nelson E:tamNnR1 of the 14th Marrh, 181)(). During
the trip hI' named "thl' Sp<'llsor Mountains in honollr of the poet of that
namt'." The name is 11011" Oftl'lI misspelt ., Hpcnccr." Maling's PU.SII is
so designated iu honour of Mr. 0. Malin~, who "cl(lOmpaniHd Travel'll, und
who had 80nu thl' pUlIS on n proviolls trip with Mr. Domet,t,. Maling'K
PI\BB 11'.a<iH frolll the wM.ol'llhGd of t,ho Oh,renc:o into thlLt of tho Wll.iau.
'l'ributaril'fI (If 1,ho W"iall WI'I'll lllLnlt'U lIy Mr. Travors nftAr his chilclrlln
-(.ho Ada, tl\<, Honry, and tho Anno. Oc/.m'sia TrCWCfrsii wnll originally
tiisC'overc>.d on ti1(' summit of j,he mountain betwet'll tho A<hL nnd t.ho Anile.
()tll<'r novc)til·t! ditlcovert.'d by Trave1'll in the dist1'iot W(II'Q Roou'llOulw
"I'iIJvtM!oliWl, R. lit/aTli, VILI'. TrtWt'rMi, R. Hi'llOlairii, PiU08ptlrtlhn. patulum,
(htapMZium nitiduillm, ImtI Walllcmbtlrgia ClJrtilagiftea. Of those. G'M'p'halimn.
mtidtaZtwn. hl\s not, again been found, unloss, u.s I'ppoars likely (8<'1' subjoinod
list), it is ImlongKt, thtl specimens collected by us.
Since tho time of Tmvers tho district has apparently BOvero.l timos
been visited by collect,ora and botanists. However, there is no published
aooount of its botany, a.nd the only list olspeeies drawn up for it is a short
one appearing at the end of an artido on the asoent of Mount Franklin by
Park (Trans. N.Z. Inst.• vol. 18, p.350). This contains seventy-eight speoies,
idontified b~' Buchn.nan. Of these, about a :I:ifth were not collected by us,

• 'l'he party oOllllMod of Mr. W. W. H.owntroe, my brothor (Mr. T. M. Laing).

Mr. O. E. Foweraker, and myself. My best thankK a.:ro cluo to Mr. FoW'erakor for
much valuabk> a8llilltanoe In tlie flold. Without it the work could IIIlarooly havt' boon
lII>l'ried OD.
L.\IN(I.-Botan!l of the ''''IJ(',,~pr Jlollulailn. 61

but it has not ueen thought advisable to include them in our lillt. Indl't'd.
it appears to us that several of those there recorded are most unlikely
inhabitants of the district-e.g., DodO'n(J('(I V18008a, Gentiaw, oon0i7ma, G.
S(U1;()8a, Dracophyll'l.l.1n U'I'villeanufIL (typical form), Veronica otWra, RatI'I.I.n-
oulus pVng' Various species. also, which we had t'xpected to ~et were not
found by us. Amongst these may be noted Oelm:isia Traversii, of which,
however, we SllW specimens from Mount Percival, at the back of Hanmer,
and Ram.moulus Itgallii, which we did not se~ at all, though we were
assured that it grows in the district. It is quite clcar that neither of these
species are common in the Spenser Mountains.
There are several reports on the geology of the district. References
to it will be found in Haast's " Report of a Topographical and Geographical
Exploration of the Western Districts of the Nelson Province," 1861. He
visi.ted the Buller and Grey Valley in 1860, and saw the Spenser Mountains
from their western sides. He speaks of .. the high mountain-('hain, called
by my friend Mr. Trnvers the Spencer [sic] Mountains, whose highest peak,
clad. with etel'nal snow, rose grandly above the low hills in front of it. I
Mmed this mountain, Mount Franklin, in honour of th~ late Sir John
In the ., Reports of Geological Explorations during 1888-89" (Wel-
lington, 1890) there is an article by Mr. A. McKay on the .. Geology
of Marlborough and the Amuri District of Nelson," which describes the
geology of the eastern slopes of thf' Spenser llountains (throughout the
report spelt " Spenl'f'r ").
The Spensol' Mountains are some twenty-five miles in length, aud are
generally rcgllordcd as lying between the saddle of the Ada (3,300 ft.) and
.Mount Franklin (7,671 ft.). The peaks are of a nearly uniform height of
7,000 ft., with a.n upward tendcncy towards Mount Franklin. The height
of 10,000 ft. allotted to Mount Franklin by some of the earlier explorers
was an error, doubt,less du(' to its t'xtellsive snowfields and alpine magnifi-
cence. The Waiau. Olo.l'(,11('e. Ilud Wairau all converge upon this peak, and,
indeed, their chillf SOU1'l'CS lie upon it. To tho south arc Mounts Guinevere,
Aeneid (7.050 ft.), Pl'incf'SS (6,973 {t.), Una (7,1).1.0 ft.), Imd Faerie Queene
(7,332 ft.). The Telll1ysonian names are duo to Governor Weld.* In the
valley of the:" Wailm lies L'1.kc Guyon, and in thl:Lt of the Olaronce Lake
Tennyson. Both urI' glacier lakes, due to thl' hanking-up of the waters
by morainil' dcpositA. Indeed, thl' wholo ('ountry gives evidence of
having at 0110 tim<l boo11 heavily glaciated. Tho Ado. Stream runs
through n wide glacial valley, and therl' has been a large terminal
moraine aoross the Waiau about 0. mill' and a half below its junction with
the Ada. The head of the low saddle lied also in a fiat open valley, a.bout
200 yards wide, bAving at its highcst portion a Sphagnum bog. This valley
shows no terracing. Opposite its mouth there are a number of parallel
lines extending up to !l.bout 800 ft. on the left ba.nk of the Waiau. These
arc perhaps lines of ~lacial pressure. Glacier Gully has doubtless at one
time carried a sel'ondllr~' fl;lal'ier, but now it ('an scarcely be regarded as
true to name. It opens out at its heud into 110 large cirque on the ftanks of

..... Account by F•• \. Wlilil of an Expt.'Ciition with a View of Discovering 8 Direct

Route between NOlHon anI[ Canterbury" (" Ca.nterbury Provilloial Oazette," vol. 2,
No. 13, p. 111). Wl·ld'h trip WIIJI made in 18/1:1.
62 T"allllartwlIl! .

Mount Una, and the bed of the stream (about 3,300 ft. altit.ude) contains
fragments of melting Nve about 10 ft. thick. Judging by l~ppC'arances.
this neve would scarcely last through t.he summer. The low('st portion
was detached from tho rost, and WaR :.Lbout 100 yu.Tds long and 25 yards
wide. It was bisoctod by tho strea.m. A little clear icc was visibll' at thl'
foot of the neve. .A pronounced hanging valley on tho J'ight HI t.lw stream
and i,he remnants or a lateral moraine shOWl'd tbat at 011(' timl' u. glacier
.){ respectable dimensions had filled the creek-bed. Tho valley is an open
une, about 100 yards wide.
Thl' country becomes progressively drier as we go oastward. from the
Waiau to the Wairall Valley. There are few shingle-slips to be seen OJl
MOIDlt Faerie Queen. as looked at from the Ada Valley. Those on Mount
Una, as viewed from Glacier Valley. arc a little more extensivo, but in the
neighbourhood of Lake Tennyson they become more numerous and O('('up:v
a larger area. The Wairau Valley, from a saddle abovl:' Lake Tennyson,
appeared as dry a.s the region in the neighbourhood of Mount Arrowsmitll.
Doubtless the westerly rains pass over the saddll' into the fl'rtil(' .Ada VI~lloy
and Stanley Vale, but are llnable to pelletrate to thl' l'ollntry ut i,ll1' head-
waters of the Wairau.
The greatl'r denudl\tioll in thl' Waiau Valley prl'vl'nts thc' Iwcumll!atioll
(If shingle-slips there.
In the ausene<> of Dlctcol'ologi('al statistics, it is, of COUI'80, impossible
to show directly how climatic conditions are affoct4ng the v6glltation, and
indirect evidence only is available. Thc conditions in the d.istri('t, however,
resemble those that prevail in the Mount .Arrowsmith region, as the plant
formations are very similar, and a large number of species are ('ommon to
both distl'icts. Indeed, the general description given of the plant fonna-
tions in thE" Arrowsmith district* would apply to this with but few modifi-
cations. Rock, river-fan. river-bed. tussock steppe, bog, la.k<:,. forest, fell·
field, and shingle-slip pl'<.'8f'nt similar features and similar plant·ussociations
ill both districts. suba.ssociations of the .Arrowsmith district wele,
however. not notieed in the Spenser Mountainll. Dwarf O(JNlltiolmeZias were
ohserved only in the Waiau Riv(lr bed near Hanm(lr, and thore only a few
plllnta of an unidentifiE'd spC'cics. ThE' lU'rompanying Bpedes of the Moullt
Arrowsmith wstri(lt- (I.fl. V(J7'onica pinlt61eoiileB Vilr. minor and MfJl'hlM-
iJfrM epkNlrm.·de8-wllrc not, observed in tIll' more northern arca, nor did
W(\ se(' in the SpC'.tlflcr MOlmtains lilly such forest as tho subalpine totara
forest of thn Opper Rakaia Valley .• Indeed, forest-trees of tmy kind, with
the exception 01 spooirs of N otkofagus, N otlttYpamJfD. Gaga, IIond PiU08'POf"Utn..
were completely abBl·nt from the Spenser Mountains. 'rho complete a.bsence
of I'ny of the species forming the usual coastal forests of New Zealand is
perhaps the most remarkable feature of the district. The subaJpine scrub
is also poorly represented both in quantity and number of species. River
steppe. fell-field, shingle-slip, and rock occupy nine-tenths of the district_
The N otkofagus forest was found only in the river-valleys, and deoreasllCi
in quantity from west to east. Only a few acres are to be seen in the
Upper Olarenco Valley. close to the sjdes of Lake Tennyson. The upper
portion of the .Ada Valley, however, contains considerable quantities of
the forest, and has contained more; but some has been destroyed by fire

, Cooka.ync lind Laillll. N.Z. lnat., vol. 43, p. 345.

L.UNG.-Botany ot the Spenser .llormfains. 63

and some out out for timber. A fuller description of this forest and of
the Sphagnwm bog on the Ada Saddle are given, as they differ ('onsider-
ably in composition from the similar associations observed in thf' Arrow-
smith district.
The district has been in occupation by runholders almost sincE' ita
discovery, and as a result many changes have been effeoted in the general
composition of its vegetation. On the river-flats of the Ada and Clarence
Valleys English pasture grasses have been sown, and flourish luxuriantly.
displacing to a large extent the native plant covering. The lower portion
of thE' Ada Valley contains beautiful pasturage of cocksfoot and white
clover, with here and there a considerable admix.ture of Yorkshire fog.
Occasional patches of Acaena miarophylla, A. SMlguisorbae, Asperula perpu-
silla, OrefYffI9j'l"1'l/f's antUoola, Ootula dioica, O. squalidtJ, and specimens of
StaokhO'UB'ia mWnw. Rammculus Joliosus, &c., ocour in the midst of thc
pasture. In the stonier portions it is crossed by lines and thickets of
DiBCOIf"i,a semb, which rises to a height of 15 ft. to 20 ft., intermingled with
occasional specimens of Ooprosma propinqua and Veronica C'Ulpressoides.
This pasture in the Ada Valley passes at its upper margin into Yotl!o/agw
forest. The original tussock steppe and the forest-area has been much
altered by burning. Severe burns have evidently taken place from time
to time, and much of the southern beech* is second growth, with the stumps
of the older and heavier trees still standing above it. Sorrel is rapidly
gaining gl'Ound in many places, and is even invading the shingle-slips.
Above the bush is Dantlwwia steppe, which has a.Iso in some places
been subjected to severe burning. The fell-fields, too, have suffered occa-
sionally from this cause, and new shingle-slips have sometimes formed
where the old vegetation has been burnt out. It is difficult, however, to
say whether consolidation from shingle-slip to fell-fields is not taking place
at an equal or greater rate in neighbouring 10calitiE's.


Tho forest of tho Ada Valley may be taken as typical of this llSSOCia-
tion. I therefore transcribe my notes upon it, with a fow omissions. The
river-flats have to a larg~ extent been denuded of forest, and that on the
sides of the valley has been much burnt and run through by stock. At its
msrgin the ground-floor is covered to some extent with introduced herbage;
native plants, however, occur, such as Bt-aMytJ0m6 SinclaWii, Erec1d.iJa
pr~. HYMoootyle t\OVtJ6..zeltmdilJ6. .As we go further in we find a
large number of young beeches, showing that the forest tends to replace
itself. Amongst them are often plants of Oreomyrriis, .4.sperulcI perpusiUa.
&c., and many introduced weeds. ElyttrMlthe tetrapetala is also abundant
amongst the foliage of the southern-beech forest. Here the largest beeches
have only a diameter of 6 in., and doubtless replace the primeval forest,
which has been destroyed by fire perhaps thirty years ago. The forest-
floor where otherwise bare is covered with beech-leaves, spread over a rich
brown humus, fairly free from stones. There is also abundant upon it
Veronica verm'cosa var. canter~ (.Armstrong). In more open spaces
Epilobiutn pubem and He'Utilwys'Um bellidioides appear. As we go deeper

• I am using. a.t Dr. CoCkayne'1I suggestion, the term .. southem beech .. (NoIlIofagu)
to distinguish our fo1'8lltll from tho beeCfi (Fllgu.r) fol.'ellta of the Northem He-millphere.
Tf'orttrartWnI .

into the forest thc mtroduced grasst's disappear, tho lo)"('st-fiool" hct'onlt's
damper, and moss appears on it. Th(' husli ill still fairly OpOll; distan('('s
of 10ft. i.o 12ft. often occur bI'tw(lI'n Tlt'l!!,hbouring trOt's. Horn III'C' putc'hclfI
covered with a C'lIlp<'t of moss. wi1h YOlmg h('<,C'h<,s growiJU.\ 1hrongh ,
IJlt'('l~"""'1! IX'lllIa marU/I1, ('Oprll~III" Hlm/(lt~~a, .111<1 C)('C'ItSiOlllll plllnts of
C. v1trI'R('('fIII? now app<'nT, wi11L h('1'c' lind Ol<'r(' 1\ YOllll!!, plnnt of N(lt1l.o-
P(f,fI,(J,X arborl'lItn. Through nll tllill poniol! of till' fOl'PHl (':~111(' haY!' hO('l1
In paflSiuj.( mto th<' portions Clf th(' fon'st whi('h bio('k Imvt' ilot
destJ'oY('d, th(' undNgrowtll b('c'onl(,s d('ns('l', hut still oonllis1s ()f b<'ech(·s
in all stag('s of dev<,lopm(·nt. Oorylsa,lth('s tril()ba, .AIll'flocMlu8 Ijracllill,
and O/~ilogl(lftis corfl,ufa arc now to be found. AI. we ILBcl'nd hom the
Tiver-ftat. which is WE'll coV<'rcd with soil, ihl.' torl.'st now hl'comllll
stonier; the trees bocom(' largt·r, out mBlly of tIl<' lurj.!,('r Ofl('fI
(1 ft. to 2 ft. in diamctE'r) haw fallell from lIonll' ulldch')'milll'd l'lmll('.
About ,I quarter of It milc' fronl th(· lllflJ'gin II hund of NofJwj(Jytls
Mmziesfi is found, while Oc'('usionai plllllts of ~(j('fl,('Cf() II('llir//(I/t/('S tl.IlpSnT
on the mossy :6.001', Vmmicll 1Jl'f'ni('(ls(£ llCconws 0101'(' ulmlltll~llt, alld II f('w
sppcimclls 0'1 ('O'PT08flla lifiariifCllia ILppco.r. Ht'rl' the t'dgl' oj ,~ llusll-
"reek is IJ'ing('d with MflellletWl'C'kill WGlllMis, Al"Owillg illto Ion!!; ()V('rhallging
flPra.ys, giving th(' plant II v('r~' difil'reut ILppt'lmlllC(' from its riv(·r-bro
form. NOfhojat.JU8 jf.l.8(:a, in ('lumps, is found higll('r up 1.110 riwr-fl.nt; but,
neithE'r it nor N. Menziesi, ultug(·ther r<,ph~l'l' th(' N. oliDorliniliRs, wluc·h
prohably forms the grea.ter hulk of th(' forest, on to Ittl uppl'r nungill. TJli"
at least, wtlofl the cas(' in Olaoi('1' Valley, wh('re it l'ltss('s up int!) 0011a
Lyallii.. but thp upp<."r limit of tbl' forest was not examined in the .Ada
Valley. This may hi' placed at 800 ft. to 1,000 ft. above tho bed of the
v~ney, and the sides arc so st('('p that they arc often sw('pt by I~valan('ht's
of stones, which carry away th(' beech-trees. Their phlce is taken by
plants of the shingle-fan. I\nd thE' beeches grow into this vel!,otlltioll Irlllll
thplsidcs. and pl'obably in ('out'lle of timl.' will 1'('O('('upy t.}\(' whole arl·U.

HI'RAGNUM Bon A'r 'I'IIE IlJMIl 01>' 'l'UIt AVA liAIll>I,I~.

'rll(' uPller porti()J1 of j,h(' Adu Saddll' ill a Hnt 0P('u VILU('y about :100
yllrds wido, with English }l1.atllTILgt· (oocksroot, Yorksllirc' fog, ('lClwr, I:I<lrr('J,
lllllKk, &c.) und BOutl\<."Dl be('c,lI (Nutho/agUII olitfo'l'tioitil's) forI'st (If II Himilar
tY}I(' to t,hllt, desc'rilwd in th(' Ada Vall<,y lIomc' BOO ft. b<'low, AriHt<Jlc,{ill
/n/'1008(1, Azof('lia trijolio{atfl, and AC(Xt'fU6 Sat&g1lill(lf'ilar ()c'c'ur 011 tho forc'st-
tI(lor, 1~lonA witJl man.,- of fh(' plants "ITOILtly ml·nti()l1od.
'rh(' 1\(':1<1 of t,h(' IItLcldl(' is ()('cupi('d hy a 8pllagwufII hOA ahout ~I()
yards squaro, which divide'S thc' ('"stem aud w('stel'l1 WI\wrsh('ds. A slnlLll
pond a.ppears in the C'elltTl' of tb(' bog. TIl(> t'clgel:l ItT(' fringed with
Dracwphgllum 'UfI,';'{lon/tll, P()rl~arpu8 'lVivali8, PhyllocladUII alpitws, a.nd
DfIhf'Yditunn Ridwillii. The bog is evidontly risillp', as in many places thp
DracophyUut'll is being buried. ThE' Sphagnum is dotted with cushions of
Oreobolfl8 pectinatw Illid O. strictus, and clumpo 0:( (!elmiBia longilolia var.
alpina. Round thE' edges ar(' Ourisia maoropkyUa, OI'I'l1i81", oori.aclta and
O. 8pectabiUs, HelicMy8um beUitlioide8, MitYroseris ForstDri, 8enecio lagopus,
8~a tt.itens, and Pratia cmgulal.a. Other spE'cics growing in some
quantity on tho hog art' OalfJd.etm·o bi.loUa, Rost~'ooia gracilis, B~
(JflNliflg'lw.mii, 8ohoeM68 p_flqrus, 00lft'a) rteUulatfJ, O. GOAJt!i<'1wudirmt',
('a,.~.;,fI,(' hetef'otp1lylla, For8ft!f'Q BiilfltilTfi, and DrOllt"l'o, arct1Wi.
'_AINt..- -Botany of the Spenser .lfoltlttaim.

I appt'nd sOIn!.' notes 011 forms of special interest, and Q li&t of species
gathered. •
1. Gunnera densiflora (!) Hook. f.
There occurs in the forest of southern beech on the western side of
Lake Tennyson and on the margin of the lake a species of (]u",,,,era, which
is probably the imperfectly described G. ilen8iflora Hook f. t The plant
grows in C'onsiderable abundance on a sloping bank at the water's edge.
It agrees fairly well in character with the description of G. deft8i{lora.
The following is a fuller description:-
GUfllTl,Cfa sp., with short succulent rhizome, herbaceous, creeping, root-
ing at the nodes, with rather stout villous stolons, 7 cm. to 10 cm. long.
Leaves clustered at the nodes. Petioles stout, with rather short silky
ho.loirs, somewhat :flattened, 4 cm. to 6 cm. long. Petioles stout, with rather
short silky hairs, somewhat :flattened, 4: em. to 6 em. long, straight or
recurvC'd. Blades cordate, reniform to orbicular, 2 em. to' 3 em. wide,
glabrous or with a. few white or brown hairs on the margin and midrib,
sharply dentate to dentate-sinuate, auricles bent upwards towards the
upper surfuce of the leaf, though not appressed to it, veins distinot,
paImate. Flowers monoecious, in simple spikes, which are usually uni-
sexual, but occasionally a. few female :flowers are found at the base of
the male spike. Male spike 4: em. to 7 em. leng, ascending from the axil
of the leaf, the peduncle usually shorter than the fertile portion, and
covered with a soft woolly pubescence. Flowers shortly pedicella.te, pro-
vided with a minute linear acute bract, 2 mm. to 3 mm. long, arising
from the base of the pedicel, and 2 minute linear sepals smaller than
the bract. Petals 2, linear-spathulate, larger than the bracts, hooded with
blackish scarious tips, S mm. to 5 mm. long. Stamens 2 or S, :filaments
shorter than the anthers, anthers ellipsoid, 2-colled. Female :flowers sessile,
densely crowded with bract, as in the male, calyx-lobes 2, deltoid, apiculate,
pl'tals wanting, fruiting-spike elongating to S em. to 5 em., and covered with
a \ .llous brownish pubescence. Fertile drupes 2 mm. to 3 mm. long, rather
spa.rse, pyriform, seBSile or shortly pedit'ellate, C'rowned hy the persistent
Mr. Cheeseman has drawn my a.ttention to the {act that the plant is
ptlrhaps identical with Tasmanian G. cordi/alia Hook f. (Benth., Fl. Austral.,
2491; M,'Uiganiat ooriUloUa Hook. f. in Ie. Pla.nt., t. 299). This is more
fully dl'scribed by Schindler in his monograph on OW1/hl,era in the Pflan-
zenreich. The description ill the " Icones Plantarum" is very imperfect, and
differs from that given by Schindler in sevt'ral important points. Schindler,
also, has not seen the mature drupes, and his account of them in this key
to the species is not consistent with that given in the specific description.
Doubtless the identity or otherwise of the two species cannot be determined
until a definitt> description of the fruit of the Tasmanian plant is obtained.
H the description of the Tasmanian species in the P:fl.anMnreich is to be
relied on, the drupe is ovoid und costate. The drupe in my plants is
pyriform, rounded, and without (·ostae. My descrjption was drawn up
on the spot from fresh specimens, of which there was abundance.

• M1 thanb are due to Dr. Oookayne and :MesirrN. Cheeseman and Petrie for much
kmd aHIIlBtano(', freely given. in the ldentifioa.tion of thp HpeOil'llo
t HAIldbook N.Z. Flora. p. 68.

'rhe following 1ll1llOl' diffcl'('ucI''_ ,LpJ!(;'af 10 exist bCtWt'llll tht' Now

Zea.mnd and Tasmsnillll formli: III G. oorilijolia th ... petiolClIl Ill't' shorter
than the luminu, ill (J. flet18iflom ({) they nrt· 101l{l,(.'r. 'l'h(' bludl' ill t hI'
Tasmaniall phmt if! mol'o triangullLl' and Icss l'ouud(.'d than in till' N(·w om'. ml\l·1I mol'l' 111\iry 01\ thl' mllor~in, l\1ld 111(.' KiolollR hHVl' 11Ill('h
lihortel' intt·l'lIod('h. Th(' null(· spik(,K of th(' ono 11('('111, lIowl'v('r, to nAr('('
\VeIl with tllllHI' (If tho othel', und the genoml rrsI'1llbhml'(' iK lIt1rioubtllci.
It will. how('vl'J', be hoi,ter to l'Cgllord our plallt 1'1'1 <litltiuC'i uutil hri.t('I'
"videll(,(, of iU(.'lltity is Obtllill6cl.
Mr. Chees(.'lllall informs me that my plant IS clistiu(·t from Ulut l'OlIedud
by Dr. (Jocknyno on tho Craigiehuln Mountains. und idl'ntifh·d hy th(·
Kew authoritieli as G. ilemiflom Hook. f. I have. unfOl1.ul111tt·ly. KI'('n 110
hpecimens of Dr. Cockayne's plant.
I hav... d(.' 1\ specimen ill tIl... Oa.ntc:'rbul'Y ~Lual·\lIll .
.:3. Anisotome Enysii ('1'. Kirk) Lilillg (C'omh. nov.).
Cockaynl' lind IJaing (loc. cit.) hlLV!' 1'('lIicll'<'Ci th(· gl'UUH ,l'l'lllwtome for
tho southol'll spocics of l.IigllstiCl(/I1: hl'll(,(' HI(' 1I('(·('slli1..,· fol' \.h ill nItN'M,iOll,
,md t,h(· following.
3. Anisotome Enysii (T. Kirk) l'llilll( (romb. nov.) val'. tennysonianum
Follis pinlllLtis, Ilmilitu deltoid(·o-ovILtili. pillUill iufol'iol'ihuh Irlfoliolat,is,
Ioliolis minus argutt· delltatifl milH1R NIIRHif!qu('. 'lunnl in fonna typi('lIo,
latioribus autcm rotllndiorihusqu('.
I have hesitated. whetht:'r to des('1'ibe tius plunt lloll H frl'Rh species or
only as a variety of A. E'~y8ii. I have adopted thc lattcl' (,OUl'SO, berausCl
on examining specimens of .d. Enysii from Centl"cl.l Otn.~o nnd Banks
Peninsula I find that they diffor considerably. lind probably ('ontain moro
than one elementary SPOCil'B. Fllrtlll'r, I havr not lieelllUlY typ(' specimens
of A. Enylfii from Castle Hill, lmd ronsrqu('utly ('mlllol, bo 11111'(' thai, any
of my spel'ics truly rl'prellellt tIll' ol'il!illitl typ('. Until. thl'rl·for{', tho limits
oj tht' SP!'CiNI A. Emyii arc I>ottl'r d('iiJll'<l it will p('rhallfl he' flaIrr toO
inrludc this und!'r it uS a variety.
A. Emyii from tho Lytk~ltoll Ilillil iK II liwlLrf chn..'4ll1ophyle with miuutu
IillCal' involucml bruC'ts, ullitt·cl only at '!.Ill' bIllIC', Ilond with wllll-mn.rk('(l
l'idgc'H Ol! t.h!' fruit,. A s~(l()lIcl (01'111 iH found growing ill t,il(' t urI on t,llo
Almrcm - Il'lea BIl)' ridgo; tIll' piullI\(' al'c' mOI'I' dialn.nt, t,hc' wiwln pl"nt is
taIlor IIollll It'Xt'I' than t.h!} J,vttoitcm OIW. nnd tlH' illvuhlC'rlll hl'l\(:t.B 111'0
usually free. '
Tn till' plants fl'oUt Na8t)u~' giv('Jl IIW br DI·. PULI'ill Ill!' tHut,hillS of tho
leaves itl l('.BS sharp and Joss d('op than in til(.' ohhn)' forms, lIud tbo termim.l
segment is broader IIolld roulld(,I'. whilst the illvolu('rul hrl~cts I~ro usually
sheathing, as described 11)' (qu·('serultll. Wh(\ll suell diffel'('nc'('R u.s these
exiflt, in the forms already groupnd lUld('r A • .Bt'l.ysii it seemed unwise to
make n. fresh species of this plant, pa.rticularly us it Wdll found ill only OnA
locality, in the upper river stepP<' 011 the western f!id(.' of TJI\kl' Tonnyson.
Though differing ma;rkedly from A. Et'I..l{sii in tho form of tho leaf, the
floral charaoters present onlr sl41:ht variations. A fl111 ...J' d!'scription is
A. Et'l.ysii. vnt'. te't'lt'l.Yllrmi(6'ntUlt&.
A small plant 5 (lUl. to liS em. high, wi1ih stout tap-root.
Leaves suhcoriaceoua, glau{'oOW:I, glll,hrons, aromatiC', pinnate. with lower
LAINIl.- !Jotllng of tlu Hpelillu Jtoulltailll.'. 67

piDlLlloe teruately divided, upper ternately lobed, the whole leaf deltoid-
ovatiC in outline. Petiole as long or longer than the blade, terete, strait,
with short broad mmnbranous sheath, 6 mm. broad at the base. LoWOl
petiolules 10 mm. to 15 mm. long, upper shorter, ultimate divisions broadly
cuneate, flabellate, dentate, teeth subacute not piliferous. Flowering-
stems, sovel'al, compound, much exceeding the leaves. Peduncles with
1 or 2 bracts, the lower, if present, one-third of the distance from the base,
usually with 3 linear lobes and a "broad clasping base, upper bract set
midway on the poduncle and smaller. Umbels compound, primary rays
2--3, with a simple linear bract at the bas\! of each ray. Secondary rays
5-7, somewhat unequal. pedicels rathel longer than the fruit, 1'5 mm. to.
2'5 mm. Fruit surrounded with an involucre of small linear acute bracts.
Head heterogamous, the central florets generally male. the ouwr her-
maphrodite. Calyx of I') lobes, teeth dc'ltoid. acute, minute. Petals white.
Styles subulato. equl1,lling tho ovary in length. slightly rc('ul'ved. fl'uit ellip-
t:loid, carpels with 5 equal ridges.
011 the upper riwr steppe, Mo\ult Princt'ss, above Lak(· TC'llnysuJI :
nitit ude, about 3,000 ft.
A specimen is dC'posited in the Cnnterbury Museum.
4. Myosotis Laingii Oheeseman.
A hithC'l-to-uudC'lIcribl'cl spE'ci('s from Lake Tennysoll. now Milled br
5. Haastia pulvinaris VIlT. minor Laing (val'. 110\'.).
In omnibus partihus minor quam typllS: rami unaculll toliis 6 mm.
nsq11c' ad 15 nun. IlLt,i. Pappi capilli nOli supra incrassati, magis autem
sC'..abricii, pene nmbriati.
Two distinct. forms of this spccietl .'ppear 011 Mount Princess (alt .•
5,OOOft. to 6.000ft.). The smaller fornl is apparently distinguished by the
pappus ha.irs being scabrid, almost fimbriate at the tips, and not thickened
I1.S in the typical fornl. The tomentum of this variety in the specimem
we got is much whiter tllan that in the normal variety.
A specimen is d('positc'(l ill the Cantc.rbUl'Y Museum.
6. Clemisia petiolata Hook. Val'. membranacea Kirk.
'[ wo {(lrms of this vltril'ty wero ohsC'rved, 0110 with the lea! nearly
glabrous on hoth surfaCC's, and tho other with margins covered with & ful-
VOUIl PUbCBl'On(·t'. The I('IWl'lI in tho glabrous form are often cordate at
the base, and 1m' hl'Ol\del' und shorter than ill t,he form with marginal
FAll-fiold, Glacior Gully; about 4,000 ft.
7. Gnaphalium nitidulum Hook. f.
Specimens of a species of OMphaliu"" were collected on the upper river
steppe of the Clarence Valley, at an altitude between 8,000 ft. and 4,000 ft.
It appeared to me to agree fairly well with G. mtidulum in its characters, a
plant that has not been collected sinco first obtained by Travers :fifty yf'ars
ago. I sent a specimen of it to Mr. Cheeseman, who thus l'eports upon it : -
.. No. 1760. GMpktitium sp.-The female florets are many times more
numerous than the hermaphrodite, and the pappus hairs are very numerous,
scabrid at tho bue, and the aohenes faintly downy. These chamotera
place tho plant in the: genus ''ih41'llalium. The lea.ves a.1'O about i in. long,
6t! l.'ra",,,actIOla!

hnear-ohiullg. uhtutlt·. IOWt'f I thUl and mt'lIIhron()lIh. Uppl'I' ~ nt'lIl1ely

('overed with whitt· ft'itcd tomolltmn. TIIC' }J('l\ds lin.' Kunk amollA thl'
uppermost It'av('s, Imd art' ahout ~ in. !lmlJ1t"t"r. It nmtrhrl:! tllt· ti(,lIcription
of O. rr.i/idululII, (·It(·('pt ill tht" si?I' of thl) hl'ad.i, whi('h nrr 1!,1vrn Q.fI ~ in.
broad, 011 vrry ilhort sit"lldrf pt"dllIWil''1 BlIt ill tlll' nllil'<i (J. T,·tlIIJ('rsil
the involucral sm}t'll sprrrul after thl' fall (If thr nC)J'('UI, IlIllking thl' iwu<is
in that stat!' look very mu<'ll In.rgt'T t}Mn till y do III nOWt·l... It whi('h tim('
the Booles ure (Ired. Hooker's sl)('('lm('ns ot a. rr.itl(l"bltl~ Wlll'(' I'Vi<il'lItiv
past. flownT, for hi' MVII • fiurets lIot suell.' I think it ill v('ry likely to prt)~t'
to be G. nitid'lll""".. hut spr('iml'ns "hould hI' I'lI'lIt to KI'\V for c(tmplIorillOlI
with the type."
I hav(' sent spt'mmena to Kl'w .... ;mn d('pollltpd ,I rM~'llWnt in tIll' Call!A'1
bury Musl"um.
1l'If'MMPII!fllum mll/ti/idllttl (Forst. f.) My.
viUosum 001.
0YBtoptnix j'f'agillll (L.) St.·mh.
Adiantum It?aphanum. Rlum.,.
PtcritUlml aqltili7lum I •. YilT. (l8cmlmillm lI'C1r11t•• f.
Blec'JwI,um cc,pen,s,. (1•. ) I::Ichiecht.
peYmll tI1arina (Poir.) Kuhn.
Asplenium. (tabellif()liutr, Ol\v.
Hookerianum 001.
Polypodium. pwnilum (.J. B. ArOllltmnp:) ('ouktl.ynr,
Ophioglos8"1Il h68wnicum I •.
Lycopodium fasti.giatll,1t/ R. Hr.
Bcariosum Forst.
,/OlUbil,. ForRt. f.
PlmOl'(·,rpu.'1 I&il1all.'l Hunk.
Daoryclmm Ridl/lillii Flook. r.
Ph.lI/J()('/millR (llpmllR f1uok. f.
Hir.r"ch./o(! rf'llofC'IIS (!i'm·tlt. f.) B.. Hr.
Fr(lS('ri. Hook. f.
Tf'isti'Ul/& IJlI(,n,rctic"l1I (!i'orllt. f.) Trill.
YoungU Hook. r.
Da,n.tluYfI,uJ Raoulii St!'uti.
ff,av68oen.S Hook. f.
auatrali8 Buch.
R8Iniarr.n.ularts R. Sr.
Paa Oolemoi Hook. f.
Kif-1m Buch.
imbeoilla Forst. f.
caell~a Forst. f.

·The Kbw l1.uthoritiCII now (March, 1912) I't'JII'Iri tho specImen u,rwa.l'Ilpd to be-
identioa,l with the typI. of Q. "uitltiNm.
I.AINfL- Botnn11 of the 8peft,er llountl7l""

KOf'krflJ K,.vr/:m Hack.

FestUM omna L. yc\r. llo'lXM'-'U.>lcmdiru> Hack.
A(If'opyrMl soafmAm (R. "Hr.) ReRUY.

l!:laeochaft8 Vwnninqham&1 Boeek.
OarpM alpiM H. HI.
8ckol'/ll'U8 paUciff,m"U8 Rook. {.
OreobolUR pectiMtUR Hook. f.
strict'll8 Berggr.
UflCinia tmeinata (L. 1.) Kiikenth.
jusco-vaqinata Kiikenth.
rubra Boott.
lepfostaohya Raoul.
C'arn stellttlata Good.
Gaudichaudiana Kunth.
temaria Forst. f.
Raoulii Boott.
Petriei Cheest>m.
luoida Boott.
t"Bfacea Sol. A ycrv aberrant totm, or new (D. Petri!')'
.')irwlairii 0. B. Cl.a.rke. Immature.
Roatkovla gracilis Hook. f.
LlZUla camppstris D.C.
JU'1UJU8 f!ntl(l('-'U'ltmdiae Hook. t.

PoUWllugetoo 01wt>lIf!1t11anii A. Bl'un.

AslRl,a montana (T. Kirk) CockaynE'.
Phtmniu,,~ (Joo":itmllm IJe .Tolis.
('hrysobactron lll)o/(('ri 001.

Thl'lY'tlltm lonIJI/oli(l Forst. t.
Mictotill u'lli/olia (Forst. f.) Reichrnb.
PrMopklllll.Wtl Golensoi Hook. f.
PttrUBtylis Bcmksii R. Br.
Valadt'nia LlIaUii 11ook. f.
hi/olia Hook. f.
ChiZoglouis comuta Hook. f.
Adenockilu8 (fl'a(yjUs Hook. f.
CorgBanlk"B triloba Hook. f.
Gastrodia OuMinqhamii Hook. t.

Nothojagus oUtJortwides (Hook. f.) Oerst.
/USCCl (Hook. f.) Oerst.
MfflZie8ii (Hook. f.) Oerst.
70 /1( "' ((flOl/l

Thllt" /(lI.'a POIT

Ellftllln.lll£ tttrnp(IIII(' (F01~1 I) Ellul
{ttll'1I7,! (Hoo!' t) Engl

Exat'ul pu, RI(IUl~llfl lIoo!.

(llaytoYlw IIIu,tlula"C(I Huo). I
1.11ontw lon.tana L
BtellaulJ Ilouqkn Hook I
Oolohallf/lus Bdlald'l."." Fpnzl \ II fllpl'IIII' l' KJlk
aotCUlat II> Hook f
Bc.lRr«lfltllu\ IliflOlIl~ Hook f

('kIm!'" au\/lah, T Kuk
Ran.ufu ,!III'I .,'SUjfUb Hook i
Monro, Book t
MonrO? Hook f Vell tkntutu, T. K'll
Bmclmt1/& (l) Hook t IdE'lltJilfl hun not epriam In thE' ,\b"l'l1l'l> of
flowers clIld fllnt
..p S('orc.dy poBSlbl(l to IdpntJiy In the Ih.,(nl.t til flOWI'I .. dond lrult
/urtUB Bank.. &; Sol
lappaoeU6 bnuth
JO/WU8 T Kirk.
l'tWimt8 Bonks &; !:!ol
CketN'MOOI'6 T KuL.. TIll'> I'> pu}taps ouly do h)t!l!Iphytl( lUI iii of
R loko6U8 It IS evelY\\ IU.'I< ,a1lUllcl.m1 thlc)Ul!,llont HII' OI'1t 1I 1 ID
pool'1 ,mei '1low-nmnmg 'Wdt€>\

{'arda'NlI!( hftuopkut1n (FoUI1 t) I:ichult.1 Vdl lIIuHllltlia 1-1<111111/.
ht'krnphljlln (Fo1ll1 r) Fkhllltz val UN/flora Hook. t
deprl'~'Q I fook f
JastlQ10lu Hook t
Ent/\II Chc eaeul
Notothlabp'l rosulatum Hook. 1
o.U8tu,l(' Hook £
DrObt'ra ard,,1'/, Hook.
Cras8,dtl S11'bmatltJ &hultz.
PtIiW8JHHllm pntululII Hook t.
Lu" -Boto'fllj of the YpenMI 1l01lllfaml> 7l

111lbll6 IlIHt I alu. EO! st j
,thlll1delICY/,dt ~ A Cunn Vdr (%latU8 r KIrk
"lbpaWPi'latlt\ Cotuvn('
P0'fu(lotfltn Suuth
Pote'llt./IO 07lserttIQ L Vcl.l mneHnoule~ (Raoul) T Ku k
4((11/&((' bar&f/Uuolbai' Vahl Ven p1losa T Kn1.
mCI fms Hook f
IM71111b Hook f ViI.) [ont/neapa B)ttof>I
1II,clophylia Hook 1
/ltlblO Buch
l"l~CM\(l(,TI\ (7) Hook 1 non Vahl

f)l/IlIIlthapl,a \ubu/ata T. KIrk
(.,l'lanIUm 11II(,lophVll'Ulil Hool.. {
1/10111' L
(h al'l> colt~uJulala L
fflflQl'llaftlo((' FOlSi
t (/1 lalla ,u80l/olta L
thl/t'llt/olta Hum!> & Roup
Ultqust/,8stma Hook f

DI \('m 10 toumntou Raoul
Amtotplw IW(lcoso Hook
f7tMJfl Ilbi/ulto (F Muell.) «)C,kavn<.
LIfOl'" (Hook f) RaJrf'T
Twla (.lunumgMtlul Hook f
H !JfIlPlulintlu Ta rll'fltato 'R Br Vcl.l G"'lush/olta Benth.

Punelea rtaueisli Hook f.
Lyall", Hook f
sl"f1CeO-tI&llosa (forma) Hook t
StItet't (7) T KIrk
Dtapl'ie8 1)1110'10 Cheeseru val mulfA.flora Cheesem
72 7''1'a'~B(U: f I tJllX

Epilobwm pllllidif/orum HoI.
BilltlrdinianulII APT.
ill'''~'lItll 1401.
p"IH''I1/I A. ltil·h.
flumumioulII. IluUKllk."
pit" 11ft! Pl'l rit'.
tl'1liUi1J6S 1100k. 1.
alHitltJitU'lI A. Cunn.
li'M&al'oit/ps Hoole. f.
ll'UmmularijoZilum R. (Junn.
macropus HooI.:.
graci.lipt.'11 (t) T. Kll'k.
cras8W'tI Hook. f.
vemwoSUIII m ChCC8f'1Il.
micropll!Jllum A. Ric,l,.
glabelht7t1 Forst.
fI,(J'I)(lt'-Zl'lamliae Huusllk.
i'his was c'olIcctcd by (lhl'('Bellum ILt Lako
'P'!I(JfI.()8tachYIIIII Hlmllsk.
TC'unyson. hut not c()II('CtC'd by liS.
lJalfnrhOl.Jis ikprt'.88a W111p.
(I'~Mf'I'a rtemifl,ora (') Hook. f.t
dffltata T. Kirk.
NotkopWflt(Jtl' aroorewm (Forst. f.) Sl'om.

Hydrocotylt.· t&OOaNe/Miliae D. fl.
(J8iatira L.
A"lchiuiletn,II llol(,flhii (Hook. I.) Domiu.
paUidUfIt (T. Kh'k) Domin.
tf'i/Qliolahml (Hook. f.) Oomiu.
nitefl., (pI'i,ri(') Domin.
Ort'omYN'ltil:J anttw(JUr End!. vaLl'. Oo/,"",s(n (Hook. f.) 'r. Kirk.
andi(''(Ila, End1. var. f'OIIfWS" (llook. r.) T. Kirk.
A O'iIphylia (lown/Illi Hook. J.
8quarf'n8(J Fot:At.
MOMOi Hook. I.
AMllotomt' llaa8lii (F. Muoll.) (Joclka.y"C BlId Laing.
fiU!olia (Hook. f.) CoCkU.YII6 1\11d Luing.
~(J (Hook. f.) Cocka.yn(· and LaiJlg.
fWomatica Hook. f.
imbrioata (Hook. f.)
&ysii (T. Kirk) Laing VIU'. t#!tmllBomt.mitlm (Luilll().
piUjtll'(J (Hook. f.) Cocka.ync and Laing.
AflgeUca Gih&gitUum (Forst. f.) Rook. f.
tkoipitms Hook. f.
• He"' W!Od to include the Now ZoaJa.nd formll of tho lJubantal'tltit' /C. fXItI.terti/olilWl.
t Yide "Floristio NotoR."
~ A wry distinct ah.ingle.s1ip form (01' new 8~), of whioh, howover, only OD.O
Kpeoim(l1l was obtained. It iA therefOl'O not further deaoribecl at preRenl.
r~ArN(1.-Botanll of the SpenRer JirmntaVnI1. 73
Ooro'kia OotoneaBter l:taoul.
GriBelima lit/oralia Raoul.
Gaultheria antipoalJ ForKL. f.
rupestris R. Br.
pentaclwndrll pumila (Fol'st. f.) R. Br.
Btypll£U,a aoeros(J Sol.
Oolensoi (Hook. f.) Dinls.
/lJ8eWulata Forst. f.
FraseN (A. Cunn.) F. MuoU.
Oracophyllum rosmarini/olium (Forst. f.) R. Br.
uniflorum Hook. f.
GentilJna corymbi/era T. Kirk.
patula (T. Kirk) (Jueescm.
bellidi/olia Hook. I.
dWisa (T. Kirk) Ohooscm. var. 'fM{Jflifica T. Kirk.
My080tis au&tTalis R. Br.
Forster? Lohm.
Travers';'i Hook. f.
laPta Chcosom.
macrantka Hook. f.
T~i Chellsem.
Mentha O'mMtagMmii (A. Cunn.) Benth.
MfaUI radioa7&8 (Hook. f.) Cheosom.
Veronioa subtJlpintl Cock.'lyne.
dWer!lm~ mChu1l8cm.
saliDi/olia FOlK1. r.
tll!'l"lMcl»la Hook. f. var. oanterbtmemis Armstr.
buwi/olia Brnth.
buwi/nUa Bllnth. var. patem Oheoscm.
eup1csHoiar.a nook. f.
epaeridl'a llonk. f.
macrantka Hook. f.
Raoulii Hook. f.
puWinaris Hook. f. & Benth.
lifIi/olia Ilook. f.
catarractae Forst. f. var. ltmooolata Hook. f.
Lyallii Hook. f.
Bitlwilli. Hook.
deoumbem Armstr.
pingui/olia Hook. f.
leiophylla Cheesem.
Gilliesiana T. Kirk.
lycopOtlioitk..a Hook. f.
Haaseii Hook. f.
74 Transactions.

(Juri8ia tll.uCf'ophylla Hook. t.

ooespWlsa Hook. f.
E'Up}lT(uia Monroi Hook. I. Thus listed by us, but pt l'hap... .E. [,(11'/,(/11 l

lltriculaNa ml1Xl('-:iwlalldlUc' Hook. f.

Plantago .Raoul", Decne.
BrO'W'l&ii Rapin.
8pathUlata Hook. t.
lMigera Hook. f.
(to-prm,rna 8e'I'f'Ulata HooJ....
rhamnoides A. Cunn.
paroiflm(!, Hook. £.
ramtlloaa Petrie.
'Direscens m
bruMea (T. Kirk) Coc·kayn(·.
propinqua A. Cunn.
linarii/olia Hook. t.
repeM Hook. f.
Petrie;. Cheetlem.
aalium tenuicaule A.. CWln.
,unbrosum Sol.
Pratia angulata (Forst. i.) Hook. f.
macrodon Hook. f.
Lobelia Roughi;' Hook. f.
forahlntbt'Fl/ia cartilagi'flR(( Hook. l.
l'hgllaohllR clatJigel'a .F. MuC'11.
Oolensoi Bcrggr.
/t'orstt'rtl BitlwilTii Hook. l.
TAyenClphclfo, pff.wlcUu Hook. t.
Barke71 T. Kirk.
BrOl:hyc0m6 pintlflla Hook. r.
Thomsoni T. Kirk Ysr. mrmbranl/oha (?) 'r. Kirk.
Sinclairii Hook. f.
Olearu& oymbi/olia (Hook. f.) (1h_eesem.
~/oli(, Hook. f.
'fIirgata Hook. f. Forma with ri~id bl'auches and dpiny hl'lllchiett'.
Ot'lmwa Walkeri rr. Kirk.
latmilis Buch.
discolor Hook. t.
lfacana Hook. f.
i,i('ataQ. Hook. f. var. petiolata 1'. Kirk. *
",tMata Hook. f. wr. membranaet'll T. Kirk.
• Vide .. Floristic Notf'~.·'
',AlNG.-Botany of flit SpenBer .1lOllllfn;'nll. 76

(Jel,TUsia C07"1uooa Hook. f.

lonui/olia Casso Shin~le-slip form.
longilolia Casso var. alpiM T. Kirk.
larici/olia Hook. f.
bcUidioitle8 Hook. f.
M08a nook. f .
•e.sifi/lrnn. Hook. r.
• pectabilis nook. f.
Vtttadinia australis A. Rich.
Ha.astia p'IIZvit&aris Kook. f.
rmlviMriB Rook. {. vaT. minor L3ing.*
GnapNiliwn. T'I'fJ'V6f'sii Hook. f. var. Mackayi Buob.
mtiduwm Hook. f.*
luteo-album L.
c()l7inUfn. Labill.
Raoulia australis Hook. f.
apice-nigra T. Kirk.
tenuioaulia Hook. r.
e:x;.mia Hook. f.
Monroi Hook. f.
glabra Hook. t.
gramiliflO'l'a Rook. f.
bryoides Hook. f.
HeUchrys'lJlf1l. be7litlioides (Forst. f.) WilJd.
gra.ndioepB Hook. f.
tlepr68B'1J1m Hook. f. (Benth. &: Hook. f.).
microphyllwm. Hook. £. (Benth. &: Hook. f.).
8elago (Hook. f.) Bonth. &: Hook.
OassWa albirla (T. Kirk) Cockayne.
fu7AJii4 Hook. f.
(}raspedia wniflora Forst. t.
alpina Baok-house,
Ootula ntrafa Hoole. f.
atrata. Forma with brown B.orets.
squaZirla Rook. l.
dioica Hook. f.
B"ecktit68 prenanthoides D.O.
soaberula Hook. r.
glabrescen.s T. Kirk.
quadriden.tata D. O.
Heneoio lagopus Raoul.
bellitUoides Hook. f.
Lya7Ui Hook. f. •
scorzrmeroirles Hook. f.
OfJ8sin~ Rook. f.
BidwilZii Hook. f.
gemifUlttuJ T. Kirk.
Jiicroseris ForstBf'i Hook. f.
TMGa:1JC'IIIm glabratum (Forst. f.) Cookayne.

* 17ide c, JrloriBtie NoteA."

76 '/' rflllllflrf lOl"

AR'r. IV. -Nfltf'1I (19' the Plan'/ Oooo"''''fl 01 Oudfi,HiI iF,lllffd (ifill tilt {lvI/qed
By D. I•. POPPII11.WIilI.L.

I Rlllri bf/nlf 11,r 0/",,0 lin',!,IU, ard ()toWill'I. 1S11 J I

I'late rx.
<':OllJl'lSH ISLAND and the Bugged. Islands he oft the north-west coast (If
Stewart Island, uud !orm practically the first barrier met by the south-
western storms on their long jOUl'llI:.'Y from the Antarclic icc. Unstuy ...d
by any break for thousands of milos, these fierce winds sweep aeooss thl'
waters. raising them in angry waves, which, gathering strength and bulk
as they travel, ultimately IItrikc thcse islands with almost irr<l8istihle force.
Thl' toru Imd ragged. nature of the western coasts speak eloquently of thei!
struggle with these keen winds and storms. The vegetation, too, has
through the ages found its place ill the struggle for existenc~ both a'l
tc!!.ards its form and distribution. Dr. Cockayne, in his splendid and
exhaustive report on the botany of Stewart Island, has cOllfinoo hunself
practically to the mainland, hence a few notes Oll the flora of 1hOllI' hith!'rtn-
unuotanized western ramparts may bl' interesting.
DurinI'. Easter, along with a Amall party of Gore roRid(,llts, inc'luding
Messts. G. J. Andel'son. M.P., and R. Fisher, to the lattor of whom [ am
ind('bt,pd for the photographs hore published, 1 had the good fortune, by
the cou.rtay of the Messrs. Hansen Brothers, to spend the best part of
two days at Codfish Island. We left Ha.lf-moon Bay by steamer early on
Monday, the 17th April, a.rriving at S!'alers' &y, (lJOdfish Island, at
10.30 a.m., and l('ft again at 3.30 p.m. on the following day. I spent
!laveral hours of each day examining thl' flora. and this paper is halK'd
upon observation and not('s taken on th(' spot.
Sealers' Ba)" ahout eighty yeal'b dgO was tho sitl· of a sealing scttlNIlI'llt ;
hence, no doubt, tho name. TIll" island has long sincc been d('sorted, hut
signs of the old sl'Ltlement arl' (·,;dent ill the clearings in the fol't'8t whul't,
1hI' h\11.8 once stood.
The indig(U1oWl speci('s notlld lllllllhl'l'l'(1 Ill, belonging t.o IIl'V('lIty-stX
genera and thirty-seven ordOI'S.
In addition to 1he indigclloub pllLutb, som!! five naturalized pln.uts W!'Itl$
obJKorved, all of which were confined 1(1 the open land, and all but one wen'
011 the snnd-dwws. Perhaps till' most Ilbundallt oJ. tllese plants wet('
Mentha spicatn alld .li'ooniculum oflicilnale. Both· of these SpeCll'8 arl-
used for flavourinll B8.UC6ll, aud no doubt were a survival of the old
settlement on Codfish Island. Two other plants were Orypt08t6mmo calef,-
tiulaaeutn and C",iCUB lcmceolatUB, the seeds of which were no doubt earried
by the wind. Tht· ftfth plant was the almost universal Poo yraknBi06.
probably introduced by tlattle, of which there are a few on the island.
Non!' of these colonists played. allY dominant part in the plant-asso-
ciation. although Mentha 8picata held its own with the £erns-Pteridium
aquiU,.um and Lomaria MpOOSiB-ill the forest clearings, and j'oen.iculul14
otpciMJe oc(:upied. t,lle position of iBolllted pllmts fairly plentifully dotted
O?er the snndbills. .
The physI('al features of Codfish Island are murh 1688 rugged thtIn thos\!
ot the shore of the ma.inland, distant about a mile, where the jagged
pt'sks of thr Raggedy Mount.ams, rising boldly from the SCB, are wild in
thl' eXlilome. The Rugged Islands form the northern extremity of the
range, :md partake of the stun(' natul'(' as the main chain. Codfish
Island is much lllore levol. a.nd, ILlthough about two miles and a half
squarc, no part of it i'caches a greater height than about 500 ft. It is
forest-clad, except in one or two pIat·os where there ar(' small beaches
ILLnked with rocky buttresses and backed by sandhills.

The vegetation may be fitly dealt with under the srveral headings of
(1) Dunes, (2) Cliff", (3) Fol't'st. I
(1.) Dunes.
The shore cl.t Sllalerb' Bay consists of a sandy 1I('ach about half a mile
long, terminating in rocky abutments, and having a row of dunes at the These dunes only a.bout 5 chains deep, and rise at their eastern
extremity to I~ hl'ight of about 100 ft. They are fairly sheltered by the
background of hIlls, but Itrl! exposed to the north and north-west winds.
Most of thr dunps arp fix('d, but in parts the sand is still unstable, and
towards the ('alit tlw dunes show evidl'll('e, in their greater height and loose
appearance, of thl' I'ifert of t.he northerly gales. The fore dune. as is usual.
is covered with the ('ommon sand-binding ScWpus frO'tlJd,08U8. Behind this,
however, Ii much mOl'C complex vegetation is found. 'rho principal plants
of the association UTe Poa tXJespttoBa, vdth on abundance of Linum mono·
gymtml, Ooprnsma, acerosn, and Pitnelea LJallii .. while dotted throughout
these arc 001"'os11la Oolensoi, Halorrhagis erecta, E9.IIph,orbia glauca, SoiRpuB
notlosus, Senecio lalltUS, and Anisoilwl(, i'/ltmnedia, with stunted forms of
Myrst'I'/R Urvillei. Coprosma ~erosa forms ill many places an aIni.ost COll'·
tinuous mat ruuning flat over tIle sllolld, and Pimelea Lyai/M, a.lso takes
on a. l:Iimilar habii, ('xcept it is dimlJing through some other plant, when
in places it rt'adu!s u heigbt of I~bout 4. ft. In damper situa.tions patcher
of IHeroohloo redolC'flS and IIydrocot1l1c nooae-zealantUae make their appear-
ance, while hl'r(' and th(']'(,' Acarna BfI'l'Ig'UiBorbae, G(!JI'am4um BetJstli'/l()ll'llrIl, or
M'lJeklefthPc1.-in colnplnn (·lCc.>p ove1' tht' sUl·facp. Tarna:acum o{fioit6ale var.
glabratum lind Erecktites prf'll(Jntlwidt>8 arc also fOllnd. with ol'casiona!
plants of Verollivn (,l/i,1)tica, C'aly8legt'a Solilanella, J.Altllnn'a alpfM, Epilo-
biuf'll 'Y&erlt'rioidf's, E. itlftCl'ul1I, GnaphaliAun tuteo-albuftt, alld G. iap(mitJu?n.
In parts therl' u.rc many plants of C'raspeiliA umflora var. robusta, with
the ]l<\tur;~liZl'cl FoonicIllu1l1 officinal!'. Where the dunes ara absolutely
"tabla the plant coyering changes somewhat, and the followi1l8 typical
assooiation is fouud: Pteridium aquilinutn ill patches, Poa tXJespitoBa,
&i,rpUB nod08U8, Pllormium Oookianum. A.etrel1.a SanyuiBorbae, Halorrhagi~
('recta, Veronica elliptica, with dWlI.rl specimens of .tl.riBtotelia ,.acemosa,
Di.cksonia sqUa.T'1'OBa. A.spidium I.H'stit'llm, Senecio rotundi/olius, Astelia
1wtW8(l, ]Mnaria cape'Mi8. A.splmium lucidum. Ora.spetlia umflol'a, and
MgrBim.e U'I'oillei Further hack, next thl.' edge of the bush, Lepta-
llpertnutrl sooparitllm is found, with here and there sUlalI pa.tches of Lagmw·
ph,ora 'J'U1IKla, G1J.nnera arenaNa. SOfU!lltlll littoraliB. and A.pitmt 1"'Ostral.ufII.
and nea.rrr tIl(' fI}lOre Rumea: 'lI'qiPrtIiH. Peg/tlca littoralis is also fairl~·
7H ]'1'.7 /1 ~Il r f ItJ " ••

plentifuL M their highobt point, where the dUlll'-plants merge into the
forest, a heath is found, ill which the principal plants arc EOf)lOHia caprp.91S.
LeptOBpermum scopar'illm, Mueh1enbeel'ia oomplexa, !Jycopodi/um, 'lJotuln"/t',
G®Ztheria amipodl.lln vaT. erecta, Aristotelia raoem08a, Oarpodetus serratus,
stunted Wf'il'lf?lfln,,,'11 rlloomosrt., DraoO'jikll11wm 10llflt·/oliu?n. and Ptl"l"l·rli'l.l'n'
(2.) OlifJs.
The Ilssol'il~tioll in these situations difiers 11 good deal according to tlll'
varying situation, the principal factor in the change being, appo.r('ntly,
wind. Thus, on the exposed points, where the wind. has most efi(,(:·t, Lhc'
principal plant is Olearia angusti/olia, which is so plentiful in placos us 10
form an almost pure association. Hitherto Olearia mr,gustifolia hat! bl'en
reported only from BOuth of Paterson Inlet, on the east coast of StC'w,Lri
Island, and from the north and south ends of Mi\son's Bay, on the ~('SL(,l'lI
coast. The only other localities where it has been observed, apart {rom th('
Stewart Island habitats mentioned, are the base of Bluff Hill and Puy&c·gur
Point. Not only is it the chief plant of the coastal rliffR of Codfish Isltmd,
but it is equally a.bundant on the seaward base of tho Rugg~dy Mountu,llUI.
It forms almost the solo plant covering of the Rugged Islands, whorl' thl'
whole clifi-sid('s for hundreds 0:( feet are one close mat of stunted wcatll('J'-
beaten plants whose handsome grcy-green rosette-like foliage and rounded
form stamp the physiognomy of the coast-line in a most marked ru.a.nner.
Dr. Cockayne, in his Stewart Island report, dl'&W8 attention to the differ-
ence in the size of the leaves on differont plants of this spl'cies, noting
two forms of leaf, one abont i in. to 1 in. in diameter and the o1her only
about l in. wide. This same peCUliarity was noted by me on bushes grow-
ing side by side, and seemed to me to be constant throughout all the
leaves of the particular plants, so as almost to suggest varietal distinction.
.Although Olearia angUBti/olia is the chief plant on cliffs, its prooominance
is confined to the water's edge, and even there in places it is much mixed
\\ ith 86'MOio rotuMi/oZius. Spenking generally, Senecio rotunai/olius in-
oreases as a greater height is reached, when Olearia OOl6'flBO~ croeps into
the a.ssociation. The threE' plants named {orm the basis of tho .. Scneoio-
Olcaria" Ilssociation so exllausti vely dealt with in Dr. Cockayne'l:I rl'port
above mentioned. Growing throughout this association 'Will bo Ioulld
numerous specimens of Vnonica clliptica, with horo and th('r(' pL'lnts of
Phormium Ooo/Cian'Um, Ani80tume illtf'f'lnedia, Dracop/,ultuln longifulitlm, and
. the shore-fol'Ilfl Lomaria t/;wra and Asplenium lucitlutn. OClOO8ionu.} speci-
mens 0:( Nothop~ OoleMoi push their green heads through the close-
growing scrub. Ou thc rocks 11.1, the foot of the clifis the plants llOted
were Ora8sula mosohata, Selfiom radicam, Apium prostratum, My080tiB
albiflora, Soi''P'US notlosua, and Gentiana SOtZ08a. Where the pea.t was drier
GnapMUum trineroe Bnd Aspidium fJB8titwm were also observed.
At the wostem side of the bay, where the cliffs are more sheltered, a
much richer flora was seen. Here, as before Olearia angustifolia and
StIMOio rofllJln,di,/olius predominated, but Olearia Ookmoi also appcared in
increased numbers, until, as the top of the steep faces was reached, it
took the place of the first-named. species in the lower formation. or
SmAller plants, the principal were Tetragonia trigyna, AniBolomr. inter-
f7I8dia (plentiful), Gemiana 8rJaX)8(J, Ora8sula mosonata, Poa Astoni and
P. Oo'leNoi (on the bare pointe), AspZemum luc:ULum, A. OOtuBatum, MlMlef1I-
bryantMmtSm a'UStnlle, PM /DZiosa, £amaria mwa, Phrmn.;'wfII OoolMftUm.
POPI·EI.V. ~Ll •. -Pll£l~t Cnl'el'mg, Oodfill/, illam' IIlId /I"!lfI,d IRtCII~h 7~

A8telta lI('tI'08a, .md Stilbocarpa Lyallt"l. The last-mentIoned was gl'OWing

III lauge ('olonies ill several places visible from the sea. Its magnificent
leaves, trom actual measurement, attained 17 in. in width, and the plants
were over 3 ft. 1all. Gl'ooually as the fock-[ace was receded from Ilond thr
soil be(·.l.n1o moro ppaty the scruh l)ecame morl' mixed, until it ultimately
merg('d m10 fOI'(,IIi. An almost similar formation to thllt dcscrlb('d above
"'ppal'('ntly COVOI'!> Hit' sl'awtud hase of '(he Ruggcdy Mountains, and extends
round the north-wl'st 1'08St of the mamland of Stewart Island, .t.lthough
the northern COUlit se(.'ms to want the Olearia (J,fU]I(sti/olia altogether. or
this latter [a('t I am not certain, 1\11 I did not land, lind was scarcely closl'
('nough inshore 10 be SUl'e. •
The Rugg~d Islands vegetatIOn may all be desrribed under this heading
doS the lshmds are !lothing more than great rocks. The clift-faces fOI
hundl'eds of fcet are absolutely hare where the .full blast of the south-
western wmds strikes them, but on the n0l1hern and eastel'll sides, wherl'
there is a little sht'ltel', 1hl' clrffs arl' covered, as hefore mentioned, with
II close mat of Ole(j,ria ang'Usti/o/ia. In places VerO'l'lica I'lltpt,'oa clmgs tt,
the roc'ks, with SOUlt' plants of Phormium Oookian'U'fII lind a lew tussock-
~rasses. An otlcasiolll).l htUDtro plant of Metrosii1Rr()ll 7ucida appears te.
maintain a precarious t:'XlstellC'O ou the higher poiute, With a specim£'D 01
two of OlRttria O()lensoi, and probably some Senecio rotllllw,/olius. Anistoml'
intermedin and some of tho smaller plants also ILppeal' III the crevices.
The dominunt fNt.tUfC, however, of thcse wild and inhospitable rock-face"
is Oleana anquhitjotia, which is flattened against the ('lifis ill small and
stunted growth III till' stormy area, and in proportion all shelter is found
III the !lOOks it bccomt's largE'r, aDd covel'S tIl(, nakedn('BB of tIlt· rocks with
II. groy-~rcpn mantI!'.

(3.) The Forest.

'rhe general l1t1pect of the torest of Codfish Isht.nd prellents do lIucces,s;ou
of low ridges of sage-green colour, here and there relieved by darker patches.
The exposed pointh, on the contl'aCY, are of much lighter ('olour, and when
the wind blows 1m' traversed by waves of white by the underside of 1he
leaves being thrown up to sight. The top of the fo]'(>st proper presents an
uneven surfacp, while that ot the exposed points is rounded and smooth
on 1hl' SUL1U,C'l'. The dominant colour ILnd uneven surface ot the forest are
brought about by the superabundan('e of Da.crydi'lJlfll cU'prt'8mnufll, whose
tall yellowish-grc£,l1 heads !;Lre lifted high above thc general level of
the fol't'st. 'I'he darker patches repl't'sent patches of Mf't708ideros lucida.
although till' lighter-gr6E'u foliage of Wei~a raC6t1l08o, is also notiC<'-
able. The !!,!'llt'ml fort'St ma~· be placed under the category of thf'
.. RiIllU-Kal/lahl," and the more exposed scrub as belonging to the" 8et&eOio-
OleMia" asso('iation of Coclcayne's report. Of these divisions, thE' lattt>r
may fl\irly ht> t'ull(>rl "coastal scrub" and tho former tIle "forest."
* Goo ,tal Scru7·.
The ('oustal st'rub, as before mentioned, is comprised principa.lly ur
OleaNa t1IY6{J'U8ti/olia, Senecio rotuftdifolius, and alearia Colemoi, but 1Jfaco-
pkll'llfJ.,n, toJ' also p1a~'8 a part in it. Close in their foliage, with
bent. weird stems and bmnches, these plants have almost an eerie look.
H~gestive of some <.'Ontest with tan,'wJulB or other powers of darkness.
Wht'n, howeyor, after 1\ struggle up th~ clift-side. one fairly penetrates
so 7'ra'1l8flrfio7lR.

the semb, the growth of lovely plant forms which groets the visioll is
delightful. Here the coast-ferns Aaplenium It.It:idum and Lomaria dura
grow to perfection, while straggling plants of Pkormiwm Oookianwm are
found seemingly somewhat out of their station, which is usually on the
r.oastal (lliffs in this region. Great ooloniea of Btilbocarpa LyallH make
their appearanco, in places over 3 ft. tall, and with their large renifonn
leaves suggesting more a tropical growth than a subantarctic one. These
latter plants are extremely abundant, the pat6hes in places extending
over areas almost a quarter of an a(lre in extent. As we ascend the hill
the association changes. AaplefliulI& obtusatum of large dimensions put.ll
in an nppearance, along with Lornaria discolor, Hypolepia f.efrIId/olia, ABtelia
tlervosa, Polyponium BiUardicri, NotliopooaJ: Oolensoi, M!psi'llf Uroillet.
OoprOBma luoida, and DioksO'flia squarrosa. Here there is evidenco of bird-
life. The burrows of the mutton-bird (Puffi;tlus griseus) ramily in all direc-
tions through the peaty soil, and no doubt affect the plant-association by
draining and aerating the soil, while the traffic of the birds themselves
must destroy much of the usual undergrowth of the forest. What appeared
to be a direct efteet of the nests of this petrel was noticeable in one place
where a mass of the fern Lomr.vria dura was growing on a heap of humus
whi6h was literally honeycombed with burrows. The plants were much larger
than usual, and each had a distinct caudel: about 12 in. high. At a height
of about 250 ft. the forest became more mixed and the undergrowth thicker.
Nertera i!.ic1&tmaKae/olia grew on the logs, OoprOBmtJ foetidissima became
common, and Aspidtwm tJUtitwm was added to the former aasoci.o.tion. At
300 ft. the first Me/,r08iiJ,erOB Zuoida was encountered and DraoopkyU!Jm
became fuirly plentiful. NotkopUlf&(1ll; Edg61'le'IJi also appeared, and M!pBiIIe
Urvillei, DiokBooi,q. squarrOBa, and Notkopcmu,z Oollm.8oi became plentiful.
Tho forest-:8.oor now became cevered with Lomrmia CIJ'[I6'II8i8 nnd Lomana
discolor, the former especially attaining large dimensions, whilo the spooi-
mens of Asplenium obtusatum booomo larger also. As the top of tho ridge
waH roached Pittosporwm Ooltmsoi var. /asc1oulaium appeared, with a few
plants of ~ aquiUmim nnd Rubus austra.lis. From the top a fine
view was obtained to the south-west. Looking over the forest-top, one
could see the wind-swept appentnnce to the south-west, the principal plants
being stunted MeflrosiiJ.ero8 luoitltJ, Olearia. Oolensoi, BtIA8IJi,o rottmditolWs,
Draoop1ly'llwm lOtlgi/oliwm, with ocoasional specimens of M'IJ"Me UrvillIli.
Proceeding along the ridge, WeitlmlJMia raoemosa became more plentiful,
and ABtelia increased on the forest-:8.0or, along with Lomrma oapemis,
Aspidium ~, Aaplenium bulbi/uwm, and A. obtusotum, the general
depth or the :8.oor-covering being about 4 ft. In hollows where the
ground was damper a strong growth of fom-trees (Dioksonia 8qucm'OBa),
with No!1wpUlf&(1ll; simpls:», B'MfflerG digitata, and a broad-leaved species of
O~ tmlaria., was seen, while the logs became covered with Lv.zt.wi,aga
margillala, and :6.1my ferns. Here also a few examples of Podaoarpus
I~ were seen, and the tangled atems of the RlWpogonum BOIJtIIlIms
blocked the way, and marked the edge of the forest proper.
•• TAlI " lUmti-KIDIICIM" l'oruI.
Lying to the back of the sandhills, an extensive area of forest of this
class is visible. Its outer fringe touches the sand-dunes, and it extends
to the highest parts of the ialand, although tho trees become stunted on
the heights, and rooks show through the low scrub on the very summit
The lowland bush consists prinoipally of GriseWMa 'littoralis, M~
'fRANS. N.Z. IN~'!:, VOL. XLIV.


I'odfish Island in dlStanGe.


Olealia aIl01l,ti/o1Ia in bloom. Ohmia Col< nsui on summit.


'I'he exposed parts aI's practioallv dovoid of plant coveling, but. crevices full
of stunted. Olea/ia anIlUllti/olia•
.Ii..... ". BO.]
POPPELWIllJ.I,.-Plant Oou8rimg, Oodfi8k islarul and Rugged Islands. 81,

ootllpli'Xa, Diokscmia squarrosa, HcmiteLia Smithii, Fusohia e:ccortioata, ('ar-

poO,e.tus serratus, Weinmannia racemosa, Pittosporwm OoZemoi, Myrsme
U"I'Villei, Ooprosma luoida, A1'iRtotelia racemosa, SOhefllera tligitata, Pseudo-
pafl,(1g) arassi/olia, Rnd Rhipogcmum soantle<ns. Some plants of the latter
were resplendent with their scarlet drupes. The principal undergrowth
consisted of T.J!,maria dura, L. lanceolata, Asplffliwm bulbiferwm, N erlera
tliihO'fWl,rae/olia, Asplenium fiacoitlwl1&, PolypoiUum BillMdieri, P. australe,
Lomaria CtJpe<n8is. Hymeoophylllw£ demisswm, H. ililatatum, H. sanguioo-
kmtum, and n species of Urwinia. In the damper parts I also noted
NotlwpOlMZ OoZemoi, Ooprosma Qlf8olata, Nothopanatt EtlqerZeyi, Alsophila
OoZemo;" Rubus sOhmidelioiiles, Leptospermwm sooparium, Myrtus peduneulata,
1.llJIIU'riaga '1&QIfyinata, Suttonia divarioata, Ooprosma Oolensoi, O. propinqua,
O. rhamnoicles, !Iond Metrosiileros hyperioi/oZia. After cros8in~ a flwampv
creek the ground became drier, and Potlocarpw Hallii, P. /errugineuB,
and DaoT'ljilMum o1.l,pr(,,sllinum joined the association, while the floor became
covered with Lom,Qlfia, discolor of immense size. An occasional plant of
aa.ultheria antipooo var. ereota wa.s also seen. Daorytliwm oup7'e8Mum here
tops the {orost, some of the trees being of large size, with fine clean boles,
and in many cases no branches for a height of 40 ft. to 50 ft. There was
little growth of intermediate height, the principal being Metf'OBiileros Zueiila,
"!Vothopa'fIt(JZ Oolensoi, and, strange to say, dwarfed specimens of Sen.cio
rotwnrLi/oLius; but the forest-floor was covered by a strong growth of
ferns, principally Lomaria oapensis, L. discolor, and Polypoitiwm Billardieri.
A.stelia MT1IOBa was also plentiful, with quantities of the beautiful :6.lmy
lems. At a height of about 850 ft. a plant of StypkeZia aoerosa was encoun-
tered, and from this upwards this plant became fairly plentiful. We
ultimately attained a height of about 450 ft. with little change in the
association, but W~ raoemosa became less and Metrosider08 luoiila
more plentiful, while the fioor-covering alternated between JAmaria oapen.si8
and Polypoilium Billarilieri, each almost pure. On our return we traversed
.an oxposed open rooky spur, where a small heath made its appearance,
the principal plants being Lomaria cap6'llSis, Leptospermwm 8COpMium,
MuekZenbeclrtia complea:a, Lycopodium voZu1»le, GfJ'Iiltheria tmtipotlum, stunted
AriRtoteZia raoemoSa and Weimncmnia raoflm08a. DraoophyUwm longifo7i.wm,
Peeris irwisa, and Pteritl~um aquiLim(,fll.


Thero are, on tho whole, apparently no very marked differences in the

flora of these islands and the adjoining mainla.nd, except, of course, the
number of species is limited 011 the islands. The greatest aurprise is perhaps
the abundance of Olearia angusti/olia and the immense size of the ferny
undergrowth in the forest proper. The dune association is fairly WE'll that
of Mason's Bay, and the mat-like habit of Pimelea LyaUii, Geranium sessili-
{lonvm, and Ooprosma aoeroS(J is precisely that mentioned by Cockayne in
his reference to the dtme-covering of Port William. The wind factor is
the principal olle in determining the distribution of the plants, and the
I( wind-tolerating" theory of Cockayne receives corroboration by the way
that Olea.ria. Ool6'NIoi gives way to SBMOio rotuMt/oLius and the latter
to Olear1a ~folia, according to the degree of exposure. Where the
wind is sufficiently direct OZearia aRgVBti/olia itself disappears, leaving
practically bare rocks, as on the exposed sides of the Rugged Isles.
LI~'l' OJ<' HPE<'I EH .\'O'f.h:lJ.

HymnlOph!lllulII dPlIIll!IIUJII (Forst. t.) Sw. On logs III damp fOll'lt
tlzlotatUll1 (Forst. f.) Sv.-. On logs III damp forest; plentiful.
sanguinolPn.tum (Forst. f.) Sw. On logs m damp forest; plt'ntiful.
tunbrirlgense (L.) Sm. On loll,s in damp forest; plentiful

Dt.ckso'tllU squafTosu (Forst. f.) S". Abundant III fOI'I:!&t.
HemiteUa Bmithii (Hook. f.) Hook. Forest; not pll'ntitul.
A.lsophiln COlpll,oi Hook. f. Forl''1t: rare.

PolypodfulII Billardierl R . .81'. Plentiful III forest.
/lUllfral" Mett. Logs in damp forest.
Pterirliu)11 aquill1/.uI7I Kuhn. Heath and stable dunes.
Pteris inelsa Thunb. Damp forest.
A.spidium vestitum Swartz. Fai:rl~· abundant in forest.
A'plemum bulbi/eruln Forst. f. Abundant in fOTest.
fllWCiilum Forst. f. Abundant in forest.
luoidum Forst. f. Coastal scrub; plentiful.
LJmaria alpina Spreng. Dunes; rare.
dura 1\Ioore. Coastal scrub: abundant.
/fmreulatta Spreng. Forest; abundant .
.cllpplIsis WIlld. Forest: abundant.
dUlculor Willd. Forest; ahundant.
Hypolprpis felllli/alia (Forst. f.) Bernh. Forest: abundant.

LyCllpfldwill t'Oluulle .Forst. f. Stony heath; plentIful.

(~.) ::)PERllOPHYTA.

Pndooorpu8 ll(ulii T. Kirk. In forest; commOll.
jerrugineull Don. In forest; fairly common.
DtJC'fI{dilt'fll ('ullff'ssimmt Sol. III forest; abundant.

Hieroohloe ,,&ioltlts (Forst. f.) R. Br. DaDlp dune-so
Poa /OUOBa Hook. f. Coastal clifis •
•4.Btoni Pt'trie. Coastal cliffs.
C~spit08a Forst. f. Dunes; abundant.
c.'olensoi(n Hook. f. Coastal elifis; rare.
FelltuM It'ttflralil! LabiU. Dune-s: f:lirl~· ple-ntiful.
POPPBI.WELL.-Pla/~t COI'erlllfl, Codfill/I /IIWnd IJntl Rugged Island.. 8S

Scif-ptUI nCH1.osus (R. Dr.) Rottb. Dunes; plentiful
/"~8U8 Banks & Sol. Dunes; plentiful.
Uncmia pedicelloUr Kiikcnth. Dl\mp forest.
Oar~ lemaria Forst. f. Wet ground; common.
trifion Cny. Damp ~tro\md; open forp8t.
Rhtpogoou1/l Ilcandem }.'ore.t. Plentiful m forest.
Luzwriaga marginata (Banks & Sol.) Benth. & Hook. 1. L06s lD Iorest.
Alltelia fIeI"Vosa Bunks & Ro1. Dunes, sht'ltered rocks, iorc·st.
Phormium OooHa'1ltVtn Lp Jolis. Coastal rocks and scruh

Rlmltz negleotus Kirk. Stony beach.
Mu('1I7.en.lJeckfa cmnplea'n (A. C11nn.) Meissn. Dunetl, damp forest, hpatil.

MesembrycmthetllU111 austrn[r Sol. Coastal lOclal; rart'.
Tetragonia trilJlItln Bunks & Sol. ('oastal cliffs; ral'<'.

Vms8ula moscnata Forsi. f. Coa.stal rocks.

Oarpodetu8 serratus Forst. Forest; plentiful.

PiU08pOJW,& ten.ui/olilflltl Banks &; Sol. In fOl'<'st; ran.
C'olensoi var. j(J8CiCfl7atfll'll (?) Hook. f. In for<.'st; rare.

"Wt'inmamua facemosa L.!. Abundant in forest.

RtIbus australis Forst. f. In damp wrest.
sc1wnMeZioides A. eunu. In damp forest.
Acaetla Sangtti8MOOe Vahl. Plentiful on stable dunes.

Geranit.vm Be8silifiMutn Uav. Dunes; abundant.
Lmum ,lltmOIJplum Forst. f. Dunes; abundant.

Buphorbia glauca Forst. {. Dunes; ahundant.
A",stotl'ltU raU1IImta (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. Plentiful: tstahlc dUDt'f! and tOI'OIIt-
Ptf'llRka Lyall;! Hook. f. Dunes; abundant.
Leplospermum scopanuli/ Forst. Edge of forest; plentIful.
Mel.r08iileros luoida (Forst. f.) A. Rich. Abundant In for(,Rt.
kypetioifolia A. Cunn. Rare in forest.
Myrttlll pedtl!1lCulata Hook. f. Damp forest. rarti.
EpilobiulII nertenoide8 A. Ounn. Dunes; faIrly plentiful.
;ut&06lJm Sol. Dunes; rare.
linnaeoidell Hook. f. Dunes; rare.
Fm·hBia l!ZOariicata L. f. Edge of forest; 1'8rt'.

Halorrhagill ereota (Murr.) &hindler. Dunes; plt'nhful.
~ftef'a flrl'1tnria Cheeseman. Dunes.

Stilbocarpa Lyallii J. B. Armstrong. Coastal &crub; almlHlant.
StltAopana:& simplez Forst. f. In forest; rare.
Edgerleyi (Hook. f.) Seem. In forest; plentiful.
C'oleMni (Hook. f.) Seem. In forest; plentiful.
,schsfftera digitafa Forst. Damp forest.
Ps£uoopanax crassifolium (Sol.) (I. Koch. Pl('ntiful in forest.
Hydrocllt"it IW!YJI!-se'tdandiae D. C. Damp dunl'&.
Apium prllstratum Lab. Coa&tal rocks and dunl's.
AnmMtt( i"tl'I'ml'flia Hook. f. Ooastal rocks; plentiful.
tflotselmUl ',Uoralis Raoul. Forest; not plentiful.
Gaullhena antipoda Forst. f. var. erecta Ohel'sm. Forest; oomparatively
o't1Jikelta Sol. In forest; fuirly plentiful.
Dracophyl1um longifolium (Forst. f.) R. Br. Coastalscrnb; abundant.
Myrsinc Uf't,illtl (A. D. C.) Mez. Dunes and forest, coastal scl'Ub.
l~mttmia ditlQrtca'a (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. Damp forest.

SaMOlw, 1epffl~ Forst. nf. p1'OCtlmberis, R. Knuth. rocky situu-
tiona noor short·.
POPPI!IMvHLr•• -Planf ()Ollulng, (.'odjr.JI 1.1)md ami R1tgged 1.1400.. In
GtflttutW SaXON(( FOl'Kt. l. (lolLstal rocks: plentiful.

Va111steglQ Sn/tf(11l('11a (I,.) R. Hr. Dunes; lah'.

Mgosot'UI alhiflnra (T. KII'k) Ch(>t'Rt'm. Rod{l, ncsr sea.

I'mJntca BaZ,eijoUa F01'St. t. In damp iort:st.
t'llipti~a Forst. t. Plentiful on ('oallhtl l'Ol'ks.

l'Q'jJrQllm.a iucula F01'St. f. III iorest; rare.
arooiata Checsem. Damp forest.
foetidis,,'ma Forst. Abundant in forest.
ihotmnoideB A. Cunn. Plentiful in damp plaC<'s.
aeet'OSG& A. Uunn. Abundant on dWles.
propinqua A. Cunn. Damp forest.
{lolensoi Hook. f. Plentiful in damp lorest.
N('T(erQ deprt'88o, Banks & 801. On logs in forest.
tlirn()ntlrat'/olia (A. (illlll.) Hook. f. 011 logs ill forl'st.
8rllit!l"a I'ad,Ctmll (.lay. Dlunp places on rOBstal wt'kt..

LagenopktJla pumikl (Forst. f.) Cheesem. Stablo dUlles.
Brae1lyoollle T1AomBorvii T. Kirk. Stable dWles.
O/('aria angllsti/oUa Hook. f. Coastal cllifs; abundallt.
Oolemoi Hook. f. Coastal scrub; abWldant.
iJnaphaliUtn. triner'OO Forst. f. Dunt's; plentiful.
[ltteo-album L. Dunes; plentiful.
japonicum Thunb. Dunes; plentiful.
(}ra8pedia unitf,ora Forst. f. var. robusta Hook. f. DUlles; abundant
Erechtite8 prtmafftboideB (A. Rich.) D. C. DUDf's; fairly plentiful.
Senecio la'Utt18 Forst. f. Dunes; rare.
rotundiloZiIus Hook. {. Coastal scrub; abundant. In forest; raJ't!.
Tarazacum glabratum (Forst. f.) Cookayne. Dunes; airly plentiful.
BO'flchm 7ittora1is (Kirk) COCkayllf'. Dunes.


Met&tka 8pioata L. Old clearings.
Foeniculum officinale Hook. f. Sand-dunes.
OryptOBtem'J1U1, calendula,oeum R. Br. Sand-dunes.
omcU8 Mlceolatu8 Willd. Sand-dunes.
PM '[Jf'oteMIII J,. Sand-duDt'II.
146 1'f'Q1WUtiOnl.l.

ART. of Ltc'heM (md FUll,,' collected 11/ fhe Kt'rmlltf,'O 1/lIQl~d,

[RllOd ftfore 1M A.uclrlaflll In!diflltt, 28th Novemb8l", 1911 J
THROUGH the kindn('ss of Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, F.LJ:!., \vho forwarded
the lichens and fungi which I collected on Sunday Island to the Director
of the Rew Botanical Gardens, and subsequently {urnished. me with the
names of the species represented, I am able to publish the following list.
The fungi were identified by Mr. George Massee, and the lichens by Mr.
A.. D. Cotton. I know of no record of fungi from the Kermadecs, but in
the" Handbook of the New Zealand Flora" (1864-66) Sir J. D. Hooker
has recorded two lichens-Oladonia /urcata and Leridea intermi:l:ta-collected
by Mr. J. Milne, who visited the group in H.M.S. "Herald" in 1854.
Neither of these was collected by me.
Lichens and the fungus Scoriaa spongiosa form a conspicuous featurp
of the forest on Sunday Island-not by the number of species represented,
which are few, but by the abundance of individuals. In the UppOI' wet
forest almost every stem' of palms and. trees is covered with mosses and
lichens. Of the latter, those especially common are the foliaceous Sticta
uariabilis and Lepwgiwm cyanescens, and the crustaceous Baeomyces
pertem,uis and Physcia speciOBa. In exposed places, as on ridges and cliffs,
where more light penetrates and the wind is more desiccating in its
effect, the tree-stems support chieft.y the foliaceous Stiaa aurata and the
drooping US'MfJ barbata. On rocks along the sea-coast Xaflthoria parietima
and Physcia pulveruZenta are frequent. All the upper branches and twigs
of the pohutukawa, especially in the lower dry forest, where they are the
dominant trees, are completely clothed cith SCO'I'ias spongiosa, which.
showers its black spores copiously on the {Ol('st below.

Baeomyces pertenuis Stirb.
Forest j on stems of nikau-palms and trees.
Cladonia capitella Ba b.
Forest; among moBSe8 on horizontal branches of trees.
Cladonia Florkeana Fr.
On logs in open.
Cladonia aggregate. Eschw.
Forest j on damp ground.
Leptogium cyanescens Kbr.
Forest; on nilmu-palm stems, in damp situations. Thallus soft and
moist, like an algo., and. in dry weather shrivels at the edges.
Sticta variabilis Ach.
li'OfflSt; abundant on tree-stems.
01.1' J<..R.-LII·/UIIR alltl f',m!J1 roll,.,·tul III Kfllflftlitl Isla",l. 8'7

Sticta aurata Slll.

FOI'cst; abundant 011 trel'-bt!'mb, III dry oppn sItuatIOns.
Ramalina fastigiata Ach.
On rocks.
Ramalina farinacea Flo
Scrub: on tree-sten ... , III dry opt')} plaCE>!!
Usnea barbata Fl.
Forest: abundant 011 trecb 011 cli:ffs and oth~r exposed plac!....
Xanthoria parietinia T. Fr.
On rocks on &ea-coa&t, from just ahovl' hlgh-,vatel ma.rk.
Physcia pulverulenta Fr.
On rocks and trCeb. in opell pla.ces.
Physcia speciosa Nyl.
Forest; abundant 011 palm-stems lind trees With smuoth bark.

Arcyria punicea PerA.
Trichia fa11ax Pers.
Forest-floor; on underside of dead leaves of nikau-palm& (Rhopalo-
I>tglUJ Baueri).
Scorias spongiosa Fr.
Forest: on pohutulru"'a-trec& (Jieb'()8iikr08 lJill08a). Thlb tw.tgUb com-
pletely covers the upper brunch('s of the pohutulmw3-tl'el:'s with a soot~·
black moss-like growth to a depth of i in. to i in. It continually sheds
its black spores, so that the 1t'3ves of all trees Ilnd !lhrubs below :trl'
('overed with a black dust. Locally it is called .. pohutukawa !loot,"
which well expressc.>s its appearance." and habit of ('odtinj;! j'vprY1:hing with
1\ layer of black.

Auricularia polytricha Mont.

On dead trunks of Oor!jfl()C(,rpub lael'igtlla.
Fornes zealandicus eke.
Fomes applanatus Fr.
Polystichus hirsutus Fr.
Polystichus tabacinus eke.
Daedalia subsulcata B. & Br.
Favolus rhipidium Sacco
Schizophyllum commune Fr.
Forest; on decaying l<>g!l.
Clathrus cibarius Fisch.
On ground, in forest.
.A.B.T. VI.-A Revision of the Olassiticat'Wfl of New Zwl(mcl Caradrininllo.
By E. MEYIUrK, B.A., F.R.S.
(Read be/ore tile Wellifl{Jttm Philosophical Society, 4th. October, 1911.J

I HAVE here revised the genera of Oaradri'lVina occurring in Ncw Zealand,

taking into consideration the large amount. of work. done in the group
of late years especially bv Professor J. B. Smith and SIr George Hampson.
Both these ~uthors ha~ done admirable work in the ca.reful investiga-
tion of structural cha.racters, but in my judgment both have made too
many genera, and have thus been led in some cases to rely upon points
of distinction that indefinite, slight, unimportant, unnatural, or
even illusive and imaginary; and Sir George Hampson has unfortunately
adopted 8 principle of generic nomenclature which I believe is not now
held by any other leading lepidopterists, and is never likely to meet with
general acceptance. It will be well, therefore, to begin by making some
general remarks explana.tory of my own principles and pra.ctice in these
two subjects.
In the matter of generic nomenclature I hold as follows :-
(1.) A generic name is void if published without description. Hampson
agrees, but there are writers who do not. The names of Hiibner's
Tentamen are therefore void.
(2.) Where an original genus included more than one species, and the
author has not in any way expressed which species was typioal, later
writers can limit the meaning of the genus at pleasure by expressed
intention (accidental limitation by casual mention has no effeot), such
limitations taking effect in order of priority. Hampson assumes the
first species of those mentioned by the original author to be the typ6,
which is certainly simple, but has no other justification whatever, and
it would be equally simple to assume the last.
(3.) Fifty years' use in a particula.r sense establishes a title, and bars
claim of priority.
On these principles a reasonable and legitimate use is obtained with-
out much disturbance of recognized nomenclature.
As to the characterization of genera, no doubt the subject is a v~'
difficult one, and there will always be room for much difference of opinion.
But a genus must represent a definite section of a branch of the gene-
alogical tree; it must not be made up of two sections tied together, or it
will be unnatural, and, whilst it is certainly not always possible to define
absolutely the distinction between two genera, all author must have struc-
tural grounds :[or referring any species to one or other, or the genera will
be impracticable. A genus must be geographically consistent: it must
have originated in one place only, and have spread thence to other regions,
and its geographical distribution should not be incongruous j if it is, the
supposed genus shollld be regarded with suspioion. Closely allied species
mlJBt nat be placed in genera regarded. as phylogeneti.cally remote. The
value of a character for generic definition can only be determined pmc-
tioally; in one set of insecta a particular charaoter may be fixed and. sufii-
oient for generic and even family limitation, and in another the very same
MEYRIOK.-Re1Jision of the New Zealand Caradrinina. 89

character may be variable even within the limits of the same specil's j
therefore we must not assume that if a character separates natural genera
in one instance it will also do the same in another. There is no scientific
reason why secondary sexual characters should not be used to definE'
genera in those cases where they are found to indicate natural genera in
accordance with the above-mentioned principles; tufts of hail' (probably
scent-producing) in the male sex are, however, found in practice to be of
specific value only-at any rate, as a general rule. Hampson oddly and
inconsistently refuses to use any sexual characters for defining genera.
whilst invariably employing these same characters, even the specific tufts
of hairs, for forming sections of genera; whereas these should in any case
be limited on exactly the same principles as genera, being of smaller value
but precisely the same nature.
I will gi~e one or two specific instances of the unsatisfactory nature
of Hampson's results, to illustrate my meaning. Hampson makes a new
genus En'opygor1Rs for two European species and the Hawaiian euclidias
Meyr. This could only be explained geographically by supposing that
at some former period a straggler of the genus from Europe had reached
the Hawaiian Islands, which is unlikely, but, of courso, possible. Bul;
euclidias is an insect of striking appeara.nce, and two other Hawaiian
species, oompBiaB Meyr. and wipluldopa Meyr., are structura.lly and super-
ficially so close to it that it is impossible to doubt they are closely related.
These are placed about seventy pages 0:11 in the genus Hyssia, which con-
tains about fifteen North American, European, and New Zealand species.
and a separate origin from another straggler is required for them. The
difierence stated is that HysBia has the thorax clothed with sca.les mixed
with hair, the abdomen with dorsal crest on first segment j Eriopygodes,
the thorax clothed with hair only, abdomen without aresta. But euclidias
(of which I have a long series) certainly has Ii small abdominal crest. and.
the difierence in clothing of thorax is imperceptihle. I conclude that
eucUdias must be transferred to Hyssia.. But the only distinction be-
tween Hys81'a and the cosmopolitan genus Oirphis. with 140 species, is
that Hyssia has the thorax clothed chiefly with hair-like scales, and
Oirphis almost entirely with hair. This is a distinction ,vithout a
difference, and, in effect, I am quite unable to distinguish the species.
assigned to these two genera by this or any other structural character.
though they are separated by two hundred pages, and plsced in widely
remote branchetl of the phylogenetio tree. I am therefore obliged to unite
them, which makes the Hawaiian species a local group representative of
a cosmopolitan genus. and puts quite a difierent face on the matter. But
on examinjng '&ri,opyga, with 100 species (chiefly American. some European),
only stated to difier from the above by absence of abdominal crest, I find
that some at any rate (e.g., the European Tu?ca L.) certainly possess Ii
small crest (no doubt the character is often difficult of observation, beca~
the base of abdomen is clothed with rough hairs, aud the thoracic hairs tend
to conceal it also, but when present it is formed by scales of Ii different
character and difierent colour), and must be referred to Hys8$a also. I
am not well supplied with the American species. but the genus at
requires cleansing. And BoroWt, with forty species, mostly A.frican and
Australian, is only stated to difier from Eriopyga exactly 80S H1J88ia. does
from (Arrpkis, a distinction found to be inappreciable, for the supposed
difference in form of wing (more oblique termen) cannot be seriously rt"-
garded as a generir oharacter, and therefore this a]so needs reconsideratioJl.
90 TrOHso('t,ons •

FInally Sideridis, adnutt.ed. to have the basal crest of cl.bdoml'll. 8l1.d

only stated. to ~iffcr from the above genera. ~~r h_a'\'"ing thorax ('lothed
"utilel'\" with halr (for wc are called upon to dlBtmglUsh three genera sol(.>ly
by their having the thorax clothed respcctively "entir(.>ly with hair."
... almost entirelT" with hair." and "chiefiv with hlur-like 8(,8oles "-80 hair-
splitting task indeed), certainly pOSBeS!eS hair-scales in the thorax of at
least some spe('ies (e.g., the European lith argyria Esp.). and must, in my
opinion. be unitt'd with the Hyss1a-Ci'1'tphis group as one j!;ellUS, for which
the name AZelia has some authority of use. and must be o.dopt.ed.
Kow we will take an instance from tht' .\grotid group. HeZiothis, in
the sense in whi('h Hampson uses it, ie. die.tinguished from Ohloridea, which
includes most of the species usually regarded as typical HeliotMs, by having
the eyes small and renifolm, whilst in Ohloriaca they 8or~ large d.ud rounded.
The term c, reniform" (kidney-shaped) I regard af> maCl.lurate. I have
never seen an eye to which I could applY that description. Smith calls
them oval. but perhaps ovate would be more correct, or suboval. But
the species placed in Heliotkis are considerably smaller insects, and the
reduction in the sizl' of the eye is hardly. if at all, more than proportionate
to the redu('tion in thc size of the insect, whilst the alteration in shape is
very slight: and in onowia F. the eye is really small. more reduced relatively
than in Helt'othis. a.nd similar in form (this is admitted by Smith, but not
mentioned at all hy Hampson), and yet this species is assigned to Ohlorirka
on superficial appear.mce. I would unite these genera under the name
of Heliothis j but eyen if they were kept separate I should still use He.liothis
for what Hampson calls OklO'l'idea, and I gather that Smith would agre('
with me, such being the established use. Probably, however, HeliookeiZus,
a group rharacterized by a special type of seconda~T sexual characters
but included by Hnmp80n under Ohlmidea, should be separated as a good
gt'nus. Pyrocleptrirt (Hampson) is no longer distinguishable from the com-
bined He.liotkis-C'kloridea group. ,md must be merged in it. The presence
or absence of a corneous ridgP across the frontal prominence or a corneous
platt! ueloW' it lIeems to me of little importance in this group, leading to
a multiplic'ation of small similar genera without significance, and I should
treat is all of little more than specific value. On that view Hampson's
genera Melaporphyria, Yeooleptria, RkoiJocleptria. RhodophMa, and Me'ti-
cle-ptria would also be merg!'d in Heliotltis, except that the OOlflikylidia group
of Meliclrptl'l'Q w'ould ue tenable as a distinct genus. This combination of
eight genera would. after all, only make a genus of some thirty-five species,
and would be natural and coherent; whilst I would similarly write another
ch.aracteristically ..American group of genera, yarying in the same way,
under the name ScM)lia Hb.. distinguishable from Hel.iothis by the pos-
session of s"verall'la,,-s un outer side of fore tibiae instead of one. These
two natuml groups are unnaturally intemdxed in Hampson's arrangement.
I could multiply these instances, but perhaps the above will be suf6.cient
to sbow why I am unable to accept Hampson's general results without
considerable sifting. I am in no sense denying the value of his work, and
the following classification will exemplify' that I found poin1:6 for
&(.'ceptanct' as well as for rejection. •

I adhere to my ,iew that the namo N, carrying with it the group-
Dames and Noct.v.ina, is inapplicable in this connection, and it
haa now heen abandoned by most authorities; but Hampson proposes to
MXYRIOK -RI!,I"~'OII of fIll .\'/"11' Zealnl'u l (!SI.IIl!·ininll. 91

118t' it in a sense in which it haH ntlvor betln used by an~' 011e, a result (If Ius
principle which can only induce confusion.
The OaraiJrimina are a highly developed modern group of iIlLmt'lllItl
extent, Lut, with the exception of the Melanohrid group of the Carad'fl-
nidae, they are represented in New Zealand only by a very few scattered
stragglers, and some very extensive families and subfamilies are not repre-
HE'nted at all. There can be little doubt that these stragglers dre the
outcome of accidental wind-borne immigration over a wide expanso of
sea, which accounts for their scantineBB. If Ne,,- Zealand ever had easy
communication with any land, such land did not at that time contain any
of these poorly represented groups; but, as these groups art' of relatively
recent origin, such communication may have existed in earlier tunes. Now,
as the Melanchrid group pOBBeSBeS no sort of advantage that \\ould explain
their easier introduction, and as this group is, on the whole, quite .\S well
developed in New Zealand as in any other region, I eonsider it good e...idence
that an easy communication with some land did once exist, clond that thc
Melanchrid group then existed ill the land in question and made their
way into New Zealand. It does not follow that the Melanchrid group is.
older than any other group of the Caradri",ina, because any or all of the
other groups may have coexisted at the same time in other regiens cut off
from New Zealand and the land in question by wide seas. This raises the
mteresting problem of determining where the land ill questIon Wdl:I, and
Ii proper comprehension of the classification and geographit·al distrihution
of the Melanchrid group would enable us to solvE' it with tolerable cer-
tainty. We do not yet possess this comprehension, Lut offer the following
considerations. The only possible lands seem to be four-viz., .Australia,
the Pacific islands, South America, and the Antarctic Oontinent. Australia
may be excluded; the Melanchrid fauna is pretty ,,-ell known, and llU:Lkes
no near approximation to that of New Zealand. The South Pacific islands
are certainly incompletely known, but there is no evidence that what exists
of them at the present day pOBBesses any special Melanchrid fauna such as
might be expected on this. assumption. The Antarctic Oontinent naturally
poBSesses no existing fauna, and, althougll it may haye served as a rout"
of communication, there is nothing to show that it ever had one of an
aboriginal type. We are therefore reduced to look to South America.
and the few species known from Chile, Patagonia, and the Falkland Isles.
(probably only a small fraction of those existing) are of a cha.racter which.
in my opinion, agrees well with the New Zealand types, and probably
indicates real affinity. I suppose, therefore, that the Melanchrid fauna
entered New Zealand from South America, probably by way of the antarctic
land, where it may have undergone some modification during a perhaps
prolonged passage, at a date so far remote that considerable speoific and
IIOme generic development has taken place since. With it doubtleBB came
XOIIIikO'l'noe, Notoreas, SeZidoBema, Orambw. Diptyc'hopnora, Scoparia. and
Bor1rJulIuBenia, the largest and most characteristic genera of the New Zeals.nd
lepidopterous fauna. Probably the original source of this fauna was the
temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and it travelled to South
America by the great mountain-chain of the Rocky Mountains and Andell.
At the time when this fauna left North A..m.erica probably the Indian region,
which has been the principal source of lepidopterous evolution, was isolated.
amd extensive developments may have· been going on there; but, as the
C",aiJlf.maae as a whole must have originated in some one region, it cer-
tainly seems that the Melanchrid group must have bf'6D. spe&k:in~ generally.
th,· earliest·h of the famIly, and I propose to regard it as such on
this ground, since the IItructuraJ chamcters are such as t.o give no help
either for or against the theory.
The generic characters gi\'en below are, for simplicity, drawn to apply
to ~ew Zenland specit'fI only.
Vein 1:1 of hindwin~ anastomosing with upper margin of cell from baHe
to near middle .
.A. large cosmopolitan family, which is barely represented, whilst the
allied Syntomid. ~olid. and Lithosiad groups are entirely absent.

1. Metacrias Meyr.
Jlttactias MeYl·., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1886, 749: type, erickrl18tl
Tongue obsolete. .Antennae in ~ bipectinated to apex. Palpi short,
hairy, concealed in long hairs of head. Thorax and femora densely hairy
beneath. .Anterior tibiae with apical cla.w, posterior tibiae without median
spurs. Forewings with 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 sometimes connected with
9 above 7. Hindwings with S, 4. 5 nearly approximated, 6 and 7 connate
or short-&talked. 8 anasromosIDg to .. of cell. Wings in !j! rudimentary
or absent.
This interesting endemic genus is of doubtful affinity, but appears to be
nearest to Ocnowna. which is a genus of about a dozen species located
round the shores of the Mediterranean: Hampson also assigns to it one
species from Peru.
I. M. Hutto," Bud.. Cist. Ent., :l, 487 j Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W.,
1886, 750; Huds.. N.Z. Moths. 5. pI. 4. 6: Ramps .. Cat., 3. 468.
LA ke W'akatipu.
2. M. mcllrYBn lIeF" Pro!'. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1886. 74:9: Nuds .. N.Z.
Moths, 4, pl. 4, is: Hamps .. Oat., 3, 469.
Mount Arthur; 4:.000 ft. Larva on Senecio.
3. J1. 8trategica Huds., Entom., 1889. 53; ib .. ~.Z. MothR. 4, pI. 4:, 4:;
Hamps. Cl1t .. 3. 468.
Richardson Ra.nge j S,OOO ft.

2. Utetheisa Hubn.
Utetlwilla Eubn.. Verz.. 168 (1823) j type, omatrUr Lilm. Deiopeia
Steph., Ill. Brit. "Ent. Haust., 2, 92 (1829) ; type, puZolzella, Linn.
Head smooth. Tongue developed. Antennae in d ciliated. with longer
setae at joints. Palpi moderate, ascending, with loosel~' appt'essed scales.
Thorax smooth beneath. Posterior tibiae with all spurs \'cry short. Fore-
wings with 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 connected with 9. HilIdwings with S, 4,
!.S rather approximated. 6 and 7 connate or short-stalked. 8 anastomosing
to middle of cell.
A small cosmopolitan genus.
4. U. pulohelltJ Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, OM (1758); Meyr.. Tra.ns. N.Z. Inst.,
22, 217; Ruds .. N.Z. Moths, 3, pl. 4, 3.
Wellington district. .A. recent immigrant, doubtfully established ;
occurs throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and South Paciflc
islands. Larva on J'liyOBOti,s, grasses, &C.
M.JlYRICK.-Revi8ion of tM lYe1/) Zealand Caradrininllo. !I~

rein 13 of hindwingll connected with cell by bar near bllde.
A rather small family, chiefly tropical. The following gellus ~
tormerly placed in the A'I'ctiadae. the approximation of vein 8 being SCI
"rOSE' that it appears to be anastomosis.
:1. Nyctemera Hilbn.
lactioi",~a Cram. Leptc-
Nyctemera Hiibn .. Verz.. 178 (1823) j type,
BoiRd.. Voy. Ash. 5. 197 (1832) ; typl". annulata Boisd.

Head smooth. Tongue dc,·eloped. Antennae in & bipectinat(' to apex.

Palpi moderately long. subascending, with appressed scales, terminal joint
moderate, cylindrical. Forewings with 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 connected
with {I by bar. Hindwings with 6 and 7 sometimes stalked, 8 closely
appresMd to cell towards base. connected by bars at each end of appressed
An Indo-Malayan genus of Bome extent, sprewng into AUlItrcltl~ and
Africa j the New Zealand species is endemic, but approaches AustralirUl
5. _Yo tmlllllll.tU Bolld.., Voy. Astr., 5, 197, pI. 5, 9; Meyr., Proc. Linn.
Soc. N.8.W'.. 1886. 760; Rude., N.Z. Moths, 2, pI. 4:. 1. 2:
tloubledayi Walk.. Cat., 2, 392.
North. South. and Stewart Islands. Larva. on Belleci.).

Vein 8 of hindwings shortly anastomosing with cell near base. thtlnce
diveTging; I) obsolete or imperfect, rising from middll' of tnt.nsverse vein.
A.n extremely large family, of which, as explained above, only one sub-
family is adequately represented in New Zealand.

Subfam. 1. AGROTIDJilS.
Eyes glabrous j tibiae spinose.

4. Heliothis Ochs.
Heliotkis Ochs., Schml'tt. Eur., 4:, 91 (1816); type, tli,pBfMJB(J Llnl1. West",".. Jard. Nat. Libr.. 32. 198 (1841) j type,l1lr68CtIl8
Face with rounded prominence. Antennae in ~ ciliated. Thorax and
:iI>bdomen without crest. Interior tibiae with apical inner and outer clsws.
A rather small cosmopolitan genus, of which some species range very
widely; one of these has reached New Zealand. There are about a. dozen
other generic synonymB. which it seems needless to quote: some anl
.explained in the p:rt'limina~' remarks.
.6. H. aNnigera Hiibn., Samml. Eur. ~hmett., 370; Meyr.• Trans. N.Z.
Inst.. 19, 34: Huda., N.Z. Moths, 32, pl. 5, 4:0, 41: conferta. Walk.,
Cat.. 9. 690.
North and South Islands; a l'osmopolitan insect. I.arva. poly-
phal!ous, on seeds and flowers.
94 TransactIOn •.

5. Euxoa Hiibn.
Eu.eoa Hulm .. \Terz., 209 (1823); type, df'cora Hiibll.
Face ,vith small truncate-conical prominence Wlth ralBed lllll. Antellllae
In If bipectinat.ed, towards apex simple. Thorax w'ith rathel sprClnding
anttrior and posterior crests. Abdomen without crests.
An extensiye cosmopolitan genus. There are auout twenty generic
i. E. radza'M Guan., Not.1:., 1, 261; In'Uttaa W! Oat., 10, 348; 008'-
,.,otata, ib., II'S, 1686; turbulenta, ib., S2, 70S; iwitmcta, ib., 32, 70S;
scapularis Feld.. Reis. Nov.• pI. 110, IS.
Dunedin. Common in Australia; also from Friendly Islands and
~orfolk Island.
~. E. adlldratio1,i8 Guen., Ent. Mo. :Mag., 5, 38; Hudb., N.Z. Moths, 31,
pl. 5. 37: sericea Butl., Cist. Ent., 2, 490 j Huds., N.Z. Moths, 31.
pl. 5, 38: incoMpicua Butl., Cist. Ent., 2, 545.
Christchurch district.
!to E. ceropac1wiik8 Gllf'n., Ent. Mo. Mag., 5, 39; Huds., N.Z. Moths,
32. pI. 6, 1.
6. Agrotis Oehs.
Aqlotl8 Ochs., SchD1ett. Eur., 4, 66 (1816); type, upsilon Rott.
Lycopnotia Riibn., Verz., 215 (1827) j type, strigula Thunb.
F8.(.'e \\ithout prominence. Antennae in cr bipectinated, towards apex
.imple. Thorax with anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen without
cream. Anterior tibiae short, thickened, not longer than first joint of
tarsi. A rather limited but generally distributed genus. Hampson
separated Agrotis and Lyoopkotia by the "rather flattened" abdomen
of the former. but it is quite impossible to distinguish them praC'tically
hy this indefinite test.
10. A. gpsllml. Rott., Naturf., 9, 141; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. 11ll1t., 19, 32;
Ruds .. X.Z. Moths, 30. pI. 5, 35, 36: 8uf}usa Hiihn., Samml. Em.
~hmett.. 134.
Xorth and South Islands: a cosmopolitan insect. La.TVa poly-
11 .•4. iM(lminata Huds., N.Z. Moths, 31, pl. 5, 39.
Wt'llingtou. Christchurch.

7. Grapbipbora Oehp..
GraphiphMa Orhs., Schmett. Eur., 4, 68 (1816); type, ob8cUr(1
Face without prominence. Antennae in a
ciliated. Thomx with an-
terior and posterior crests. Abdomen ,vithout crests. Anterior tibiae
moderate, longer than :first joint of tarsi.
A large genus, of universal distribution. Hampson includes this genus
in .Agrotw, hut I think the sepamtion is natural and practicable. This
is the group to which the name of NOc!lua ,vas formerly applied, but it has.
now been genemHy discarded. There are numerous ~eneric synonyms.
MEYRIOK.-Retluion of the New Zealand Cal'adrinina. 95

1:&. o. ('()'milia Wall .. ('at .. 10, 404: ltntnUntB, 1b •. 10, 4-30 Huds .. N.Z.
Moths. 7. pI. 5, 29: quadrata Walk., Colt .. 11, 745: mnocua, ib.,
15. liLO. '·Icipr()ca. tb .. 32, 672: brtviu80ula, tb •. 33. 716. ,'Of,,·
IIIW&tcata, ib., 38. 716: (J(J(>tlt&rl Feld .. Rl'lS. Nov., pl. 109. 6.
North and South Islanru.. Common III Australia, and reacb.iJ.1.§£
N('\\" Ht>hl'ldt>lI. L.lrY8 on Frlica.

:5ubfam.:3. POLIADE'I.

E~'l'b glahrous. hut overhung uv lonfl cilia from mar¢.ns; tibiae not

8. Austrarnathes HampEl.
AU8tramatne8 Ramp!!., Cat .. 6. 4:92 (1906); type, 11urpurea Butl.
Face without prominence, Terminal joint of palpi rather long.
Antennae in rS ciliated. Thorax with divided anterior and spreading
posterior ('rests. Abdomt'n without crests. An endemic genus of some-
what doubtful affinity; it is not very distinct, but the palpi are rather
13. A.. pwrpurea Butl.. Clst. Ent., 2, 490; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 8, pI. 5, 32 :
Oef'amOikB Meyr .• TrllDs. N.Z. Inst .. HI. 31.
Wt'llin¢on, Dunt'dm.

9. Hypnotype!!.
Hypnot.qpe Ramps., Cat., 6. 411 (1906); type, placetlB Walk.
Face without prominence. Antennae in rS ciliated. Thorax with
d.nterior anAles ridged and projecting. and with anterior and posterior
crests. Abdomen without t'rests.
This Ilcnus is founded on a single South American species. I can only
refer the following species to it with considerable doubt, as I have not a
specimen for examination, and Hampson, unfortunately, had not seen
a. specimen either, but his ('onjectural reference of it to Sympistt'll is, I
think, undouhtedly woon!!..
14. H. pe880ta Merr. Trans. N.Z. Inst .. 19, 29; Hud!!.. N.Z. Moths, 6,
pI. 5, 26.
W('lJjn~ton. OhristchUTl·h district.

10. Homohadena Grote.

Homokaik~J(l Grote, Bull. Buff. [Soc. Nat. Sci" 1, 180 (18i3) i type
badiBtriga Grott>.
Face without prominence. AntNlll8e in it cihated. Thorax without
crests. Abdomen without crest.
A small American genus, in which the following !!pec.ies seems better
placed than in Sympisti8, where Hampson refers it, attributing to it the
.character of .. eyes small and reniform," which I do not consider justified.
15. H. fortis Butl., Cist. Ent., 2, 549; iota Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 85,
248, pl. SO, 3.
Wf'llin¢on. Marlborough Province, Invercargill.
96 7'ransoctfons.

Rubfam. 3. MELANC'uRIDEs.
EYNI hairy: tibia.e:' not spinose.

11. Ichneutica Mevl.

Ich'l&emi,oo Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 13 (1~87); type. Cf"7'aumtJ~
Face without prominence. Antennae III r$ strongly bipectinated til
apex. Thorax clothed with hair, without crests. Abdomen without crest.
An endemic genus, doubtless a local development of Leucania.
16. 1. dume Huds., N.Z. Moths, 14, pI. 4, 27.
Mount Arthur; 4,400 ft.
i7. 1. cerawn.iaIJ Me,\'T.. Trans. N.Z. lnst., 19, 13; Huds.,"N.Z. Moths. 14.
pI. 4, 25. 26: .
Mount Arthur; 3.600 ft.

12. Leucania Och8.

Leucanta Ochs.. Schmett. Eur.. 4, 81 (1816); type. pallel'68 Linn.
Face without prominence. Antenna.e in ~ bipectinated with apex
snnple, or ciliated. Thorax dothed with hair, without crests. Abdomen
without crest.
A considerable genus, of universal distribution, as now :restricted. I
mclude here nearly all the species of Hampson's Borolia .
. 18. L. Purdii Fer., Trans. N.Z. Ins1., 15, 195; Hude., N.Z. Moths, Hl.
p). 4, 11.
\Vellington, Dunt'din.
19. L. aco'lttUti8 Me",r., Trans. N.Z. !nst., 19, 9: Huds., N.Z. Moth. 11.
pI. 4, 14:. •
CastlE.' Hill.
20. L. untca Walk., Cat., 9, 112; Hude., N.Z. Moths. 12, pl. 4, 17: iUflCI'
oolor Guen., Ent. Mo. :Mag., 5, 2.
Blenheim, Rakaia, Ma.cetown.
21. L. torO'l.eura Me~"l'.• Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1001, 565; Hamps .. Oat ..
5, 591, pI. 96. 1.
Mount Cook.
22. L. li880zyla Meyr.. Trans. N.Z. Inst .. 43, 70.
Mount Arthur; 4,000 ft.
23. L. p1w.ula 1Ieyr.• Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 10; Hude., N.Z. Moths, H.
pl. 4, 15: duttedineMs Hamps., Cat., 5, 591, pl. 96. 2: netlftJe
Philp., Trans. N.Z. !nst., 37, 880, pI. 20, 5.
Ohriatchurch, Dunedin, Inverca.rgill. Larva on tussock-grass.
24. L. alopa Merr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19. 11); Huds .. N.Z. Mow. 12,
pL 4. 16.
Lakes Cole:'ridge and Guyon.
~. L. bkMeimeMiB Fer.. Trans. N.Z. lnst .. 15, 196: Huda., ~.Z. Moths.
IS, pl. 4, 23.
Napier. Blenht'im.
'b:YRHJK.-Rel'!bioll of tlit! .r(II Zealand eu radl illi lI.l. 97

26. L. sf'mwittata Walk., Cat., 32, 628; Huds., N.Z. Moths. 13, pI. 4,
21, 22.
North and South Islands.
27. L . .mlcana Fer., Trans. N.Z. lust., 12. 267. pI. 9, 3; Huds., N.Z. Moths.
13. pl. 4, 19, 20.
Akaroa, Dunedin.
28. I.... stulta Philp., Trans. N.Z. lnst .. 37. 330. p1. 20. 1.
lnvercargill district.

13. Aletia Hubn.

A.lrlw Hubu., Yel·z., 239 (1823); type, conigem Fa.u. Siderw.UJ
Hiiun., Yerz .. 23!:? (1823); type, e't:itif'Tl8 Hiibl'. Hyssia Guen ..
~O(t., 1. 345 (1852); type, cavemosn Ev. ('habuata Walk.,
Ca.t., a, 1034 (1857); type, umpla Walk. Cirpllis Walk., Cat ..
32, 622 (1865): typl:', costalis Walk. Alysia Guen., Ent. Mo.
:Mag., 5, 3 (1868); type, nuUi/era Guell.
Face without prominence. Antennae in J ciliated, or bipectinated
wIth apex simple. Thorax clothed with hair or h'loir-seales, with anterior
and posterIor spreading crests. Abdomen with small crest on basal seg-
A yery large and cosmopolitan genus. Hampson includes mtcrastra iII
PhYBctica, on the ground of the increased size of the spines of the anterior
tibiae; the difference is, however, merely comparative, and. as there seems
to be no ncar relationship in other particulars, insistence on this particular
character produces an artificial and unnatural eollocation.
29. A. mlcrastrn Mew., Tlan&. Ent. l:!or. Lond., 18~7. 383; Hurls., N.Z.
Moths, 12, pI. 4, 10.
30. A.. LoreYI Dup., Lap. Fr., 7, 81. pI. 100. 7: Hamps., Ca.t .• 5, 492.
Kermadec Lllauds. Widely distributed in Europe, Asia.. Africa.
,llld Australia.
31. A.. tlntpullcla Huw., Lep . .Brit., 174: Huds., N.Z. Moths. 13, pI. 4, 24 :
e.rtratlea Guen .• Noct .• I, 77.
~ol'th and South Islands. A l'osmopolitan spl'eies. Larva on
3:.!.•1. 1&tllli/era Walk., Cat .• 11, 742: Huds., N.Z. Moths, 9, pl. 4. 9:
specifica Guen., Ent. Mo. Mag.. 5. 3.
Taupo, Wellington. Mount Arthur (4,000 ft.). ('hristehurch dis-
33 .•1. moderata Walk.• Cat., 32, 705: Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Jnst., 20. 45:
sisten8 Guen .. Ent. M.o. Mag., 5, 39: miti8 ButI., Pmc. Zool. Soc.
Lond., 1877. 383, pI. 4-2, 5: griseipennt's Huds., N.Z.. Moths, 9, pl. 4, 8.
North and South Islands.
84. A. qriseipennis Feld.. Reis. Nov.. pl. 109. 22; L'i'1'eBCPIlf> Butl.. Cist.
Ent. 2, .,1.89.
\Vellington, South Island.
35. .d. temP7l.auUJ .Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 39, 107.
Rakaia, Dunedin.
36. A. packyscitJ Meyr., Trans. N.Z. lust., 39, 107.
Mount Arthur (4-,700 ft.), Lake Wakatipu.
.37 . .A.jalndl(;(l Meyr.. Trons. N.Z. Inst., 43, 70
Mount Arthur, Lak .. Wakatipu
38. A. BmuI.thiBttB Hampb., (.;at.. 5. 280. pI. 86 17.
Locs~tv unrecordpd
39. A.. lucun9ians Butl., (}i",t. Ent .. 2, ;)4;)
Welhngton. Ma.rlborough
40. A. o'UC1411~tla Guen. Rnt Mo. MB~ .. 5, 40; Hud:.. N.Z. ~loths, 27,
pI. 5. 23.
Chrlst<.hulYh dIstrICt, Mount A.rthur (3.600 ft.)

H. Physettca lIevr.
Physt!l.ICfJ Mt'vr.. Trolne.. N.Z. rn~t.. HI, ;) (1887)tvp . . , cfU'ruu.a
Face without pronunPllCt'. AnteWla.e In a ciliated. Pelolpl III a WIth
tenninsl joint greatly dIlated, with orifice on outer SIde (mstead ot apex).
Thorax clothed with hair, without crests. Ahdom('n with 'lmnll crest on
ba~l se~ment.
Probably an endemiC dpvplopment of A~tta.

4.1. P. caerulea Guen .• Ent. Mo. Mag., 5.38. Hudb.. N.Z. Mothb, tI, pI. 4,7.
\\ ellin~ton, Blenheim, Rakaia.

15. Dipaushca n.g.

Face wIth strong horny bifurcate process. Antennae In a
ThOrax: clothed with hair and hair-scales, with strong triangular divided
anterior crest. Abdomen with orest on basal segment. Anterior torsi
with spines unusually small snd slight.
A distinct endeml( ~enus; a development of Alf'tlfl.
42. D. epiastra lIeyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 43, 58.
Makara. T.alva III stems of Af'ufldo OO"'

16. Persectania Ramps.

PerBeCtanw Hamps .. Cat., 5. 386; type, 001111pOSita. Uuen. (}rapkalna
'Ha.mps., Oat., 5, 469; type, rlisjU'1M}en8 Walk. TmnnTuphnto
Hamps., Cat., 5, 470; type. '[YI'opria "alk.
Face with slight rounded or subtruncate prominence with ridge below
it. Antennae in is ciliated, or bipectinated with apex simple. Thorax
clothed with hair aud hair-scales, with anterior and posterior crests
Abdomen with crest on basal segment.
Apparently a development of Melanchra. Hampson mcludes ill
GrfJllihtmia an .African species, and in TmetoZophota a South Americall
one, which I have not seen.
43. P. disjtmg6'1l8 Walk., Oat., 15, 1681; Ruds., N.Z. Moths, 15. pL 5, 43:
net"VtJta Guen., Ent. Mo. :Mag., 5, 40.
Ashburton, Rakaia.
44:. P. 8&eropa8tis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. lost., 19, 2~; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 23,
pl. 5. 10, 11.
Napier, South Island.
),h:llUCK -Rel'I~IOIl of tht' .Yew Zenlal/d Caradlln1ll8 99

45. P. compOBita Guen., Noct., 2, 114:; Ruds., N.Z. Moths, 22, pl. 5, 8, 9 :.
lJW&ngii Westw., Proc. Ent. Soc., 2, 55, pI. 20, 1: aAJef'8a
Cat., 9, 113: maori Feld., Reis. Nov., pI. 109, 24: peracuta Morr.~
Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. SOl., 2, 114: dentt'gela ButI., Cist. Ent., 2, 542.
North and South Islanda; common also in Australia. Larva on
grasses. I see no reason to revive Westwood's forgotton name
m face of the established use, still less under Hampson's unrecog-
nizable amended form evingi.
46. P. arotis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 11; Ruds .• N.Z. Moths. 12
pI. 4, 18: aulaciaB Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19. 11.
Wellington, South Island.
4-7. P. atriBt'l'iqa Walk., Cat., 33, 756; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 10, pI. 4, 12'
ant!poda Fcld., Reis. Nov., pl. 109, 23.
North a.nd South Islands.
48. P. plopm Walk.. Cll.t.. 9, Ill: Huda. N.Z. Moths, 11. pl. 4, 13.
Blenheim. Mount Arthur (3,BOO £t.), Mount Butt.

17. Erana Walk.

Erana Walk., Cat. 11, 605 (1857); type, grami'1608a Walk.
Face without prominence. Antennae In c1 with scattered ciha. Thordx
clothed with scales, with anterior and posterior spreading crests. Abdomen
WIth strong dorsal crests towards base. Forewings with 10 not connected
with 9 to form areole. in c1 beneath with very long tuft of scent-producing
hairs from basal a~ea. Hindwings in ~ with costal area broadly expanded.
An endcmic development of Me'/,am,chra.
49. E. qrantim.oso, Walk., Cat., 11, 605: Huda., N.Z. Moths. 28. pI. 5, 24,
25: vigens Walk., 33, 743.
North and South Islands. Larva on Melu;.qt'IU fami;/lurw.

18. Melanchra Hiibn .

•1l"lam.o1Ira Hilbn., Verz., 207 (1823); type, pt rsuJO/TWe LInn. Jiete-
rima ButI., PrO('. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877. 385: type, pidNla
Face without prominence. Antennae in & ciliated, or bipectinated
with apex simple. Thorax clothed wit. hair and scales, with anterior and
posterior crests. Abdomen with dorsal crests towards base.
A very large genus, of universal distribution, but chiefly in temperate
regions. Hampson calls this genus Polia (whereas this name has been
nniversally employed in a quite different sense, and is barred), but separates
all the New Zealand species except pictula and rkodopleura, together with
six from North America, as a widely remote genus Mornsoma, on the
alleged character that these latter have I f the tegulae dorsally prodnced
into a ridge." I am quite unable to separate the two groups on this or
any other character, and think the division unnatural, the species of both
being very similar in all respects. The use of the name M amae8tro, for this
genus is not practicable; it is founded on Guenee's use, but under a mis-
apprehension of it, as Guenee himself specified the type as /uroa Hiibn..
which does not belong to this subfamily a.t all. There are a number of
generic synonyms, which I do not quote.
1UO Transnrtionll.

;;0 ••1ItI. JllctuZa WhItt'. T.ld. N,''A Zea.l.. pI. 1 3; Huds .. N.Z. Moths. l!l,
p!' 1. 3i.
L! Coleridge.
S1. M. rnodoplellra 1\11.';\"1 .. N.Z. Inst .. Hl. 19, Rude., N.Z. Motlul,
19. pI. 4, 38.
Auckland, XdoplCI. Wellington. Hampson oddly umtes this and
the preceding as sexes, which is certainly incorrect, as I have males
of both. Thcy are also not only distlllct and apparently constant
in colouring, but differ somewhat in the form of the spots, occur in
different Islands, and my type of pictula has the tt-gulae distinctly
ridged, and would therefore be placed by him in a different genus
from rhodopleura, in which there seeDlS to be no ndg(', however,
on this last point I lay no stress myself.
52. JI. nquisltrr PhIlp., Trans. N.Z. lnst., 3D, 246, pI. 32, 2.
5;). Jl. plena, Cat.. H3. 744:; Huds., N.Z. Moths. 17, pI. 4, 32:
spnagJ!(,(/ Feld.. Reis. No"., pi. 109, 17: l'ir1i1i~ Butl., Cist. Ent ..
Welhllp,ton, South Island. Larva on grasses and low plantb.
53A. Jl. pall(a PhIlp., Trans. ~.Z. lnst., -1:2, 54:4.
Wairarapa. Invercargill.
54 .•l:l. octans Huds .. N.Z. 1\Ioths, 25, pI. 5, 1.
55. ~ll. grfJllldima Philp .• Trans. N.Z. Inst., 35, 246, pI. 3:3, 1.
56. JI. ileoorata Philp., Tra.ns. N.Z. Inst .. 3i, 329. pI. 20, 2.
5i. J1. maya Huds., N.Z. Moths. Ii. pI. 4, 31.
Mount Arthur (3,500 ft.). l\Iclocetown.
58. 31. zanthogram1lla Me~·r .. Tranb. N.Z. Inst .. 44, 117.
59.•11. illsigllis Walk.. Cat .. 33, 724; Hud:... N.Z. MJthil, 16, pI. 4.. 29. 3U;
Hampe., Cat. 5, 368, pI. 88, 2(): turbida Walk., Ca.t., 33, 754:
skelloni ButI.. Cist. Ent., 2, 54:7: polllcnroo Mpyr., Trans. N.Z.
Inst., 19. 16.
North and !:!outh Islclonds. Larya polyphagoUli on low plants.
fill. J1. mtltans Walk., Cat., 11, 602; Huds., N.Z. Moths. 18, pI. 4, 34:-36 :
Hamps .. Cat .. 5, 369. pI. 38, 21: lirrniJusca "Walk.. Cat., 11, 603:
spurcata, ib.. 11. 631: veJ:ata. tb., 33, 755: anqllsta Feld., Reis.
Nov.. pI. 109, 18: acceptri.1), i'b., pI. 109. 19: debilis ButI., Proc.
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 385, pI. 42, 6.
North and South Islands. LeuTa polyphagoUl:l on low plants.
en. Jr. bromias Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond .. 1902, 273; Hamps .. Cat.,
5, 370, pl. 88, 22.
Chatham Islands.
62. M. tlstistriga Walk., Cat .. 11. 630: Huds .. X.Z. l1oths. 26. pI. 5, 20:
Hampe., Cat., 5, 377. pl. 88, 29: ligniBecta Walk., Cat., 11, 631.
North aud South Islands. Lar,"l1 on Lonioera.
63. M. paracausta Mey].'.. Trans. N.Z. lust., 19. 16; Huds .. N.Z. Moths,
15, pl. 4:. 28.
Mount Arthur. Castle Hill, Invercargill.
UEYnICK.-RtVI81011 of fh~ Xw' Zealand U,\r'l.dt"illllL,l.. 101

64 .•U: coeleno Huds., N.Z. Moths. 26, pl. 4, 89.

0:> • .If. dzatmeta Hudb .. N.Z. Moths, 21, pl. 5, 5.
66. M. ,'n!ensa Walk., Cat., 11, 748: Huds .. N.Z. Moths, 23, pI. 5, 12;
Ramps., Cat., 5, 376, pl. 88. 27: OIT'Qcnm'Q8 Meyr.. TranB. N.Z. Inst.,
19, 28.
Napier, Blenheim.
6i . .11. mnoplaca Meyr., Traru.. N.Z. IIlbt .. 19. 24; Huru.., N.Z. Moths.
23, pl. 5, 18; Hamps., Cat., 5, 882. pI. 89. 2: umbra Huds., Trans.
N.Z. Inst., 35. 248, pl. 80, 7-9.
Wellington. Lake Coleridge. Invercargill.
68. ]1. rilcyone Huds .. N.Z. ){oths, 24. pI. 5. 14.
nil. J[. rubescens But]., CIst. Ent .. 2. 489; Huds., X.Z. Moths. 25, pl. 5,
18: Ramps .• Cat., 5, 876. pl. 88. 28.
Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Dtmcdin. Lake Wakatipu.
70. JI. hfl'Ml1&a Walk., Cat., 11. 758; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 26, pl. 5, 19;
Ramps., Cat., 5. 888, pl. 89, 8.
Wellington, Blenheim, Mount Hutt.
71. .1I. I.Itipata Walk., Cat., 83, 758; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 25, pI. 5, 17.
North and South Islands.
7t . •1I. meTope Huds., N.Z. Moths, 19, pI. 5, 2.
73. M. otniOTO'1I. Huds., N.Z. Moths, 22, pI. 5, 42.
74. .1[. dotOila Walk.• Cat .. 11. 522; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 24. pI. 5, 16;
Hamps .. Cat., 880. pI. 88, 81.
75. .11. a.sterope Huds .. N.Z. Moths, 24, pI. 5, 15.
Mount Arthur (3,600 £t.), Lake Wakatipu.
76. JI. tanOlT'ea Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 18n, 384, pl. 42, 2; Huds.,
N.Z. Moths, 21, pI. 5. 6; Hamps .• Cat., 5, 881, pI. 89, 1.
Murimutu Plains, Christchurch, In,crcargill.
77. M. agorastis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 18; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 18,
pI. 5, 30; Ramps., Cat.. 5, 87l, pl. 88, 23.
Wellington, Akaroa. Lake Guyon.
78. .M. uitiosa But!., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pI. 42, 3: pruteastiB
Mevr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 20, 45; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 20, pI. 4, 40.
Christchurch. Hampson. by confusion, attributes the larva of
the following species to this one, and misquotes the names of
Hudson's references.
79. M. oohthiBtis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst.• 19, 20; Ramps., Cat., 5, 880,
pI. 88, 32: fJitio8c& Buds., N.Z. Moths, 20, pI. 4, 42.
Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin. Larva. on MeUoope .implet».
80. M. mMoaa ButL, Oist. Ent., 2, 543; Ramps., Oat., 5, 384, pl. 89, 4:
peliBtis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 20; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 19,
pl. 5, 3, 4..
Wellington, Paekabriki, Akaroa, Lake Coleridge.
102 7' ralll«utlOlIX.

81. M. let·is Phllp.. Trans. N.Z. Inst .. 37, 330, pI. 20. 4.
82. M. litkias Me",r.. Trans. N.Z. lnst .. 19. 17; Huds .. :S.Z. lloths. 17
pI. 4. 33. .
Castle Hill.
83. M. hcmW80ia Meyr.. Trans. N.Z. lnst., 19. 21: Huds .. N.Z. Moths
21. pI. 5, 7: Hamps., Cat., 5, 378. pI. 88, 30.
Wellington, Blenheim. Larva on Pomade1'ri8 erun/oUa.
84. M. wlI'perata Walk., Cat.. 15, 1648; Hamps., Cat.. 5, 385. pI. 89. 6:
1f1cept'IWtJ Walk., Cat .. 15. 1736: decepflu:ra. ,~ .• 1737.
Locality unknown.
85. M. pricmisti8 Meyr., Trans. N.Z. lnst., 19. 27: Hude .. N.Z. Motha,
27, pI. 5, 21; Hamps .• Cat .• 5. 384, pI. 89, 5. .
Wellington. Rakais..
86. M. phricias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst.. 20, 46; Huds .. N.Z. Moths. 27.
pI. 5. 22; Hamps., Cat .• 5. 385, pI. 89, 7.
Manawatu district, BIl'nheim, Christchurch, Lake Coleridge.

19. Dasygaster Guen.

Dasygaster Guen., Noct., 1. 201 (1852); type, hollat'Uliaf' Guen.
Face with slight rounded prominence with ridge below it. Antennae
in c1 ciliated. Thorax clothed with hair and hair-scs.les, with anterior
and posteriol ClestS. Abdomen with dorsal crests towards base, and dense
lateral tufted fringes, especially in a.
.A small characteristically Australian genus; the following spedes is
perhaps a recent immigrant.
87. D. ltollafidiae Guen., Noct., 1, 201; Hamps., Cat.. 5. 476: lRueil'nioi~
Guen.. Noct., 1, 202: faeilis Walk., Cat., 11, 745.
Waipori. Common in south-east Australia and Tasmania.

Eyes glabrous, without marfdnal cilia; tibiae not spinose.

20. Bityla Walk.

Bitgla Walk., Cat., 33, 869 (1865); type, defiguM/a Walk.
Face without prominence. Antennae in c1 ciliated. Thorax clothB4i
with hair, without crests. Abdomen without crests.
Apparently endemic.
88. B. deftgurata Walk.• Cat., 33, 756; Huds., N.Z. Moths. 29, pI. 5, 33:
tkONJOiea Walk., Cat .. 33. 869.
North and South Islauds.
89. B. sericea Butl., Proc. Zoo}, So('. Lond., 1877, 387, pl. 42, 12; Huds ••
N.Z. Moths, 29, pl. 5, 34.
. Wellington, Christchurch, Lake Guyon.
90. B. paUida Huds., Trans. N.Z. lnst., 37. 355: Hampe., Cat., 7, 42,
pI. 109, 6.
MRYBHJK.-Rt'uillilJn (If 'he .rpu· Zeatand ('Il.radrinin,\ lOS

21. Ariathisa Walk.

A,.iathiBa Walk., Cat., 33, 747 (1865): type, ea:oi8a Herr-Schiff.
Nitocris Guen., Ent. Mo. Mag., 5, 4 (1868): type, comma Walk.
Face without prominence. Antennae in t ciliated. Thorax clothed
chiefly with scales, with small posterior doublc crest. Abdomen without
A rather extensive characteristically A.ustralian genus. The single New
Zealand species is apparently endemic, but oxtremely close to Australian
91. A. cotmna Walk., Cat., 9, 239: Huds .. N.Z. Moths, 7, pl. 5, 27, 28;
impleza Walk., Cat., 10, 405: plusiata. 10., 3~, 74-2: bicomma Guen ..
Ent. Mo. Mag., 5, 4.
North and Routh Islands.

22. Spodoptera Guen.

Spodoptera Guen., Noct., 1, 153 (1852): type, mauritia Boisd.
Face without prominence. Antennae in t ciliated. Thorax clothed
chiefly with scales, with posterior spreading crest. Abdomen with dorsal
crest at base.
A small widely distributed ~enus, of which two species have a verv
extensive range. .
92. S. mauritia Boisd., Faun. Ent. Madag. Lap., 92, pI. 13, 9; Hamps ..
Cat., 8, 256: margarita Hawth., Tra.ns. N.Z. Inst., 29,283; Huds.,
N.Z. Moths, 6, pI. 5, 31.
Wellington. Common throughout south Asia, Africa, Australia.
and Pacific islands. There are sixteen specific synonyms, which I
do not quote. Larva on rice, and perhaps other cereals.

23. Cosmodes Guen.

Oostnodes Guen., Noct., 2, 289 (1852): type, elegfllnS Doll.
Face without prominence. Antennae in & ciliated. Thorax: clothed
chiefly with scales, with anterior and posterior orests. Abdomen with
dorsal cream towards base, and large crest on third segment. Forewings
with scale-tooth at tomus, termen angulated on vein 3.
The single species occurs apparently naturally in both Australia and
New Zealand, but probably the former country is its home. It apptooLChes
the- Asiatic Oawn.a.
93. O. elegQ/f68 Don., Ins. New Holl., pl. 36, 5; Huda., N.Z. Mo1ihs, 33,
pI. 6, 2.
North Island, Christchuroh. Common in eastern A.ustralia.

Vein 8 of hindwings shortly anastomosing with cell near base, thence
diverging, 5 well developed •
.Also an extremely large mmHy, but more espeoially ohamoteristio of
tropical regions.
Subfam. 1. HYPBNIDBS.
Hindwings with 5 nearly parallel to 4.
104 l'raIlB(lctIOIlB.

24-. Hypenodes Guen.

HypeMdes Guen., Delt., 41 (1854); type, albi8trigaZis Hs.w.
Head with frontal tuft. Antennae in ~ ciliated. Palpi very long.
porre(·ted. second joint thickened with rough projecting scales, termmal
rather short or moderately long, cylindrical. Thorax with appressed
scales. Abdomen with small crest on basal segment. Tibiae smooth-
scaled. Forewings with 7 separate, 9 and 10 out of 8.
94. H. costist.,.igalis Steph., Ill. Brit. Ent., 4, 20: pzsulans Meyr.. Traus.
N.Z. Inst., 20, 46.
Taranaki, Kermadec Islands. Widely distributed in Europe. ~o\sIU.
and Australia.
95. H. antiolina Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 566; octim. Huds ..
N.Z. Moths, 37. pI. 6, 7.
Hindwings with 3. 4, 5 approximated at base; mIddle and bom('tlDll'1-
posterior tibiae spinose.
25. Ophiusa Ochs.
Opkiusa Ochs.. Ikhmett. Eur., 4, 93 (1816); type, aZ1wa Lmn.
Aohaea Hiibn., Yerz., 269 (1823); type, m.elicerte Drury. (hnm-
modes Guen., Noct., 3, 275 (1852): type, qeometrica Fab.
Antennae in ~ ciliated. Palpi moderately long, ascending. e.econd
joint thickened with dense appressed scales, terminal joint moderate. some-
what pointed. Thorax clothed with scales and hair, without creat. Abdo-
men without crest.
An extensive genus, of general distribution, but principally tropical.
96. O. meZicerle Drury, DI. Exot. Ins., 1, 46, pl. 23, 1; trOAJe78ti Fer..
Trans. N.Z. Inst., 9, 457, pI. 17.
Wellington; a casual immigI.'ant. Widely distributed in Aslli.
Africa, and Australia.
97. O. ]YUlIJkm-ima Luc., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1892, 258; Huds .. Tr,U1s.
N.Z. lnst., 37, 355, pI. 22, 4.
Wellington, once; probably an accidental introduction. OJ'('U1'&
in eastern Australia.

Subfam. 3. PLUSIADES.
Hi11dwings with 3, 4, 5 approximated at hase: tibiae not spiuose.

26. Plusia Ochb.

PluM Ocbs., Schmett. Eur., 4, 89 (1816): type, gamma Linn.
Antennae in ~ ciliated. Palpi rather 1011g, curved, ascending, second
joint rough-scaled, terminal moderate 01' short, more or less rough-scaled
in front, somewhat pointed. Thorax with large central or posterior crest.
Abdomen with one or more crests. Tibiae rough-scaled.
An extensive nearly cosmopolitan genus; the two New Zealand specles
are immigrants.
98. P. ckakiteB Esp., Schmett., 44:7, pI. 141, 3; Hude., N.Z. Moths. 35,
pl. 6, 3: t!f'iosoma Doubl., Die:!. N.Z., 2, 285: verticillata Guen.•
Noct., 2, 344: rogationis, i'b., 344.
North Island, Blenheim. Nelson. A t:f>!lmopolitau !nspct. Larva.
on various plants.
}[ElrRrCK.-Revil1071 of the X W' Zealand Caradrinina. 105

39. P. ozygramma Hiibn., Zutr., 37. f. 769, 770; trOlll.8fi,za Wlllk., Cat., 12,
884; subchalybaea, to., 33, 833.
Thames River. Widell distributed in Asia, Australia, and Pacific
islands. .
27. Opbideres Boisd.
OpMrLerea Boisd., Faun. Ent. Madag. Lap., 99 (1833); type, fullo'Nica
Antennae in ~ ciliated. Palpi long, ascending, second joint thickened
wIth dense appressed scales, terminal joint moderately long, slender, some-
what thickened towards apex, obtuse. Thorax clothed with hair-scales
rather expanded posteriorly. A.bdomen without crests.
A rather small tropical genus, of which some species have a wide range.
100. O. fullonica Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, 812; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Insli., 19, 37.
ChrIstchurch, one doubtful specimen. Widely distributed in Asia.,
Africa, Australia, and Pacific islands.
28. Dasypodia Guen.
Dasypodia, Guen. Noct., 3, 174 (1852); type, selenopkora Guen.
Antennae in ~ ciliated. Pa.lpi long, ascending, second joint thickened
with dense scales, terminal joint modera.tely long, slender, somewhat
thickened towards apex, obtuse. Thorax clothed with long hairs, with-
OUli crest. Abdomen without crests. Posterior tibiae densely hairy.
An Australian genus; probably of only one species.
1111. D. selenopkora Guen., Noct., 3, 175; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 35, pI. 6, 4.
North Island, Nelson, Christ~hurch. Common in south-cQst
tralia. Larva on Acacia (~).
29. Rhapsa Walk.
Rkapsa Walk., Cat., 1149 (1865); type, BCotosialis Walk.
Antennae in ~ bipectinated, towards apex simple. Palpi very loDf§.
",bliquely ascending, olothed with rough scales throughout, second joint
above in ~ with tuft of long projecting scales above towards apex,
terminal joint moderate. Th.orax olothed with scales, without crest.
Abdomen without orest. Posterior tibiae with appressed scales. Fore-
wings in ~ beneath with large broad costal fold on anterior half.
A. closely allied sp3cies occurs in south-east Australia, 80 similar that
it might be thought identical, but with the antennae of ~ furnished with
long bristles instead of pectinations, vein 8 of hindwings anastomosing
with cell to beyond middle; the characteristic palpi and costal fold of
the forewings are similar in both species.
102. R. 8OOtoswis Walk., Cat., 34, 1150; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 36, pI. 6. 5. 6 :
Zilaoina Butl., Proe. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 388, pI, 42, 11.
North and South Islands. La.rva on Piper ezcelsum.
In the following indices the numbers refer to those attached to the
genera and species in consecutive order. Names italicised are synonyms.
A.chaea Hiibn. 25 Bitvla Walk. 20
Agrotis Och8. ..' 6 OhGbuatlJ, Walk. IS
Aletia Hlloo. 18 I Okloridea Westw. 4:
Alusia Guen. 18 OirphiB Walk. 13
Ariathisa Walk. 21 Cosmodes Gue'1l. 23
Austr&mathes Hamp8. 8 Dasygaster Ourll,. 19
1(6 TranMt:tloIl8.

INDEX OF G.lIlNE:RA.-contitlued.
DlIosypodJa Gut",. .. 28 Lycopkotia Hiibn. 6
Deiopeia Steph. 2 Melanchra Hiibn. 18
Dipaustica 11.'.1. 15 Metacrias Meyr. ]
Emns Walk. 17 .}[eteraM ButI. 18
Ruoa Hllbn. 5 Niiooris Guen. 21
GTammode8 Guen. 25 Nyctemers Hubrl. S
GrapkOlll.ia Hamps. 16 Ophideres Boisd. .. 27
Gmphiphora OOhs. 6 Ophiusa Ocks. 20
Heliothls Dohs. -! Persectania Hamps . .. 16
Homohadena Grote .. 10 1 Physetica Mert. a
Hypenodes Gum. . . .. 24 Plusia Ochs. 26
Hypnotype Hamps. " 9 Rhapsa Walk. 29
HyBsia Guen. 13 Side"idis Hiibn. 13
Iclm.eutica lUegr. 11 Spodopterll Guel1. 22
Lept080t'lta Boisd. 3 Tmetolopkota Hampe. 16
Leucania OenN. 12 Utetheisa Hl/brI. 2
acceptri:& Feld. 60 cucullina (}uen. 40
tu:etiM Feld. 12 debili8 But!. 60
acontistis ~l1eyT. ., 19 deceptura Walk. 84
admil'atiOrus Guen. 8 decora.ta Philp. 56
agomstis MCYT. n defigurata. Walk. 88
alcyone Buds. 68 dentigera But!. !5
alopa. Meyr. 24 diatmeta Buds. 65
tmg'lJ8ta Ft'ld. 60 dioneHuds. 16
annulata Boisd. 5 disjungens lYaZk. 43
anticlina MegT. 95 dotata Walk. i4
amJ.-vpoda Feld. 4; dO'l.lbleday~ Wt:ill:. 5
lSracknias M.~yr. 66 dunedinensis Hampo. 23
armigera H ubn. 6 elegans Don. 93
u.rotis Megr. 46 epiastm MaYT. 42
asterope Buds. 75 erichrysa Meyr. 2
o.tristriga Wall'. 0:1:7 eriosoma Doub!. 98
aulaciaa Meyr. 46 6tOim.gii Westw. 45
a_sa Walk. 45 exquisita Philp. 52
basinotata Walk. 7 e:uularis Mew. 94
bicom.'ltl Guen. 91 em-cmea. Guen. 31
blenheimensis F f!f. 25 /acuis Walk. S;
brf1Jiuscula. \Valk. 12 fulsidica l11eyr. 37
bromiaa Meyr. 61 fortis Butl. .. 15
ca.erult.'a Guen. 41 fullonica Linn. 100
cerQllnooes Merr. 13 graminosa Wal~·. 49
cere.unin.s Meyr. .. 17 grandiosa Philp. 55
ceropachoides GuI'Il. 91 griseipennis Feld. 34
uhaleites Esp. 98 hollandiae Guen. 87
coe1eno HtttllI. 641 homoscia Meyr. as
L'OlIlDla 91 huttonii Butl. I
commumCGta Walk. 12 immUftis Walk. 12
composita. Grmt. 45 implno. Walk. 91
compta. Walk. 12 itteeptura Walk. 84
CtlAjeffa Walk. 6 inconspicua But]. 8
rostistrigaJis Stt"plr. 94 inconstans Blltl. 3~
!\IEYRICK.-Rt'vision of tile .V flU Zealallil Caradl·inina. 107

INDEX OF SPEOIEs--continued.
infensa. Walk.,. 66 I p"oteastis Meyr 78
mfuncta Walk. 7 pulchella Lirvn. 4
inMCua Walk. 12 pulcherrima vile. 117
innominata Hudll. 11 purdii Fer . .. 18
insignis Walk. 59 purpurea Butl. IS
iota Rude ... 15 quailrata Walk. 12
iunieolor Guell. 20 radians Gum. 7
leucanioiiles Guen. 87 r601lproca Walk. 12
levis Philp. 81 rhodopleura jJeyr. 51
lignaua Walk. 70 rogationis Guen. 98
ligni/usOG Walk. 60 rubescens Butl. 69
Ugnisecta Walk. 62 sCf1l[Jularis Fl'ld. 7
lilacmIJ But!. 102 scotosialis JValk. 102
lissoxyla Meyr. 22 selenophora Guen. 101
lithias Megr. 82 semivittata Waa·. 26
loreyi Dup. 30 s67'ioea But!. 8
maori Fold. 45 sericea Butl. 89
margarita Hawth. 92 sistens Gum. 38
mauritia Boisd. 92 skelloni But!. 59
maya Hu"",. 57 sminthistis Hamps. 38
melicertE' Drury 96 specifica Guell. 32
merope Huds. 72 sphaqnea F(.'ld. 58
micrastm Megr. 29 spurcata Walk. 60
mitis But!. .. a3 steropastis Meyr. 44
moderata Wan·. 33 stipata Walk. 71
morosa Butl. 80 strategies Huds. 3
munda Walk. i stulta Philp. 28
mutans Wall·. 60 su1Jckalybacn Walk. 99
taervata Guell. 48 suffusa Hiibn. 10
neurae Philp. 23 sulcana Fer. 27
nullifem Walk.
ollhthistis Mf'!IJ'.
. 32 tartarea Butl.
79 temenaula Melli'.
octans H1~ds. 54 temperata Wall.:. 84
octiaB Huds. 95 thoraci(.'a Wall·. 88
omicron Huds. 73 toroneura Mellr. 21
omoplaca. illegr. 67 tf'MlBfi,za Walk. 99
oxygramma HI/bll. 99 traversii Fer. 96
pachyscia Mfl/r. 36 tlJR'bida Walk. 59
pallida H udll. 90 turb"lRnta Walk. 7
paracausta Me.llr. 63 umbra Ruds. 67
pauca. PMlp. •• 58,A, unies Walk . 20
peZistis Meyr. 80 unipuncta Haw. SI
peract.lta Morr. 45 ustistriga WaU,. 62
pessota Megr. 14 'IJ61'ticillata Guell. 98
phaula. Me!Jr. 28 vezata Walk. 60
phricias Megr. 86 'I1igms Walk. 4:9
pictula White 50 But).
'I1ir68Cl''M 84
plena Walk. uS viridis But!. 58
plusiata Walk. 91 vitiosa But!. 78
poIycIwoa Meyr. u9 'Ditiosa Ruds. 79
prionistis Meyr. 85 xanthogramma JIpyr. 58
propria Wall:. 48 ypsilon Roti. 10
lOt! Tl'flm(lctloJ/~

A.RT. VII.-On IhR .Vom-melll/ure 0/ Ihe Lllpldopterd oj :VI'U' Z,·t/hl/ili.

By It. B. LONG&T \'FF. 1I.A.. M.D., F.E.S.
L'ommwll('ated by lteol'ge Howes. F.E.:4.
[Read before tllp Otaqo iMbtutt.., 6th .TUIIP, 1911.1
DURISU the &lrly palt of 1910 it was my good fortune to spend eIght weeks
in New Zealand, during which I visited mcl.D.Y places in both Islands. Natu-
rally enough, my attention was somewhat distracted. from entomology by
the other attractions of the country, but in spite of these, and in spite of
the shortness of the time Jot IIIYdisposal. I was, la.rgely owing to the kindness
of Mr. Augustus Hdomilton. ~Ir. O. W. Howes, and Mr. n. Y. Hudson. able
to obtain some slight knowledge of its insect fauna.
Since :returning to England ma.ny hours have been spent in the British
Museum nannng my cdptures. Moreover, I have had the opportunity of
examining large wnsignments of New ZeaLmd Lepidoptera recently recei-reci
fronl Messrs. Hamilton ,\nd Howes. III ,ldditlon, 1 have had the invaluable
asBlstance of Sir George F. Hampson. Bl\rt .. and Mr. L. B. Prout, in the
settlement of knotty points.
Mr. Howes suggested that I might give some of the fruits of my labours
to my brother entomologists in New Zealand. Obviously, it would not be
possible to place at their disposal every determination of a specimen, but
perhaps I may save them some of the trouble that I had to go through
myself in seeking out the comparatively small number of New Zealand
moths in the serried ranks of cabinets at South Kensington.
All concerned in New Zealand entomology owe a great debt of gratitude
to Mr. Hudson for his .. New Zealand Moths and Butterflies," which was
published in 1898. The writer of a pioneer work of that description always
labours under great difficulties--difficulties which must have been in his
case greatly increosed by his distance from the vast c'olJections IUld rich
libraries of Europe.
This paper appears to he II. cri1ilcism of Mr. Hudson's hook, dond so. indeed,
it is; but it is ll. friendly criti(:ism. His book has bet'n most useful to me,
alike in New Zealand cl.D.d ill England: and, in spite of impel'fections, many
of them probablr unavuidable, no criticism ca.n destroy the value of the life-
histories and notes of habits and like matters. which find no place in such
works as Sir George Hampson's great cli.talogue. .All, I think, must join In
hoping that some dar Mr. Hudson may see his way to a second edition.
Here I would put in .a. W01U of encouragement to those who, like myself,
are not systematists, and are, naturally enough, much put out by the changes.
of nomenclature that are nowadays 80 frequent. The value of a generie
name is comparatively small, since genera correspond to the views of natu-
ralists rather than to the facts of nature, and witll increasing knowledge
the views of naturalists change rapidly. Some divergences of opinion are
due to the recognition, or otherwise, of the genera founded by older authors.
which may, or may not, comply with our rules of nomenclature. Sometimes.
it is discovered that the author's type of the genus was a species now recog-
nized as very different in structure from the otllers included with it. Some-
times a. familiar old name is dropped because the type species is clearly
congeneric with some earlier-described species. Many changes which seeziJ.
from a New Zealand or an English point of view to be meaningless are clearly
I,UNGtJ'l'AFF.-:.rOlllellclaflll'f! of flu Lt-Vino}>tE'I'a of S .Z. 109

eompl'f'hensible whell a. large fauna. is re'\'iewed. In short, generic· naDWI.'I

have rhanged, and, troublesome thougll It be. probably will change again.
With speries, however, the rase IS quite di:fferent. They correspond.
or should correspond. with natural fact&. There will probably always bp
both the" splitter" and the "lumpel.'· Nevertheless. while it is com-
paratively unimportant what generic name ~ou use, it is most important,
so fur as possible, that all should agree as to the specific nume. It is, for
example. most impol1"ant that you should an mean the same thing by vitW/t
But!., but it matters comparativelv little whether you include it in Me-
lar&ehra or M orrisonia.
It was a.lmost ine'"ltable that Mr. Hudson should have adopted Mr.
Meyrick's system of classification and somewhat reyolutionary nomen-
clature. Sir George Hampson's system differs :£rom Mr. Meyrick's, though
the difference IS not perhaps so great as appears at first sight. It is well
that I should state quite plainly that I am in nowise competent to judge
between the two systems, and make no claim to do so. My desigll in this
paper is a much more humble one, being merely to help New Zealand ento-
mologists to find out by what names their moths and butterflies are known
in the latest English sV'stematir work.
A few remcl.rks doS to the fornndable "Catalogue of the Lepidopte'ra-
Phala6nae in the British Museum" may possibly be of interest to the mem-
bers of the New Institute. The first volume was issued in 1898, the
ninth, completing the "SoctuidfU! Trifinae, in 1910. In these ponderous
tomes, each accompanied by 0. fasciculus of coloured plates, illustrating
species not previously figured satisfactorily, Sir George Hampson has dealt
with close upon ten thousa.ud specil's of moths. y 01. 3 deals with lour
New Zealand insects. ~ol. 4: with eight, vol. 6 with four, vol. 7 with three,
vol. 8 with two. Three of the volumes (1, 2, and 9) contain DO New Zl'a-
land species; but it is fortunate tha.t no less than forty-six species. aU
in the subfumily IIadewidae, are described in vol. 0....
Since Sir George's mOllluul'ntal work is likely to be the standard authorit~·
£01' many years to rome-at any rate, for English-speaking entomologists-
I have adopted his arrangement of the species in prelel-ence to thA.t of Mr.
Hudson. or that of the" Halld-list o£ New Zealand Lepidoptera."
On the left-hand sidl' will be seen the name of the species as it Standb
Ul Mr. Hudson's book. or in the original paper in which it 'Was described.
The pa~e, plate, and figure follow. Thl' mark ~ signifies that thel(' IS no
illustration of the spedes.
On the right-hu.nd aide are giyen :-
(1.) The number borne by the species in the <:at3logue. An as~
terisk (*) indicates that a.t the time of publication there was
no SpeClDlell in the BlitiJ:!h Museum. In the case of the speci('8
recognized by the author since the publication of the volume
the interpolated number is given in parentheses ( ).
(2.) The name in the ca.talogue or in the Br.tiah Museum collectIon.
(3.) The number, in parentheses ( ), of specimens in the collection
in Novenlber. 1910. This in most cases is only given when
the number is under six. When the mark !j? is added, the
~ is tmknown to Sir George, and thf're is therefore BOmt'-
doubt as to the section of the genus in which the spt'cies should
be placed.
• Vol. ;; 18 issUM .t 13s.; thl' accompanymg platH alRo f'OiIt 13,.: I'ither may b..
had &ep&r&telv.
no Transactions.

(4:.) The reference to volume, page, plate, and figure in the catalogue.
.. Fig." means that there is a woodcut in the text: the mark ~
that there is 110 illustration of the species. When the insect
has been recognized since publication, any oLsolete reference to it
is placed in square brackets [ ].
Ann. 1tIag. Nat. Rist. = .c Annals !lond Magazine of Natural Hit!tory."
Hmpsn. = "Catalogue of the Lepidoptera-Phalaenae in the British Museum."
Ruds. = c. Ne'v Zealand Moths and Butterflies," 1898.
Subantarc. b. N.Z. = "Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand."
Trans. N.Z. !nst. = "Transactions of the New Zealand Institute."
Trans. Ent. So('. Lond. = .• Transactions of the Entomologi<:al Society
of London."
Wellington list = ,. Hand-list of NeW" Zealand Lepidoptera. Dominion
Museum. Wellingtoll. 19()!):'
.J[etacrinB hllttollj Butl.• Buds. p. ;;. h-. II 20113. Jletncria8 hlfltolli Butl. (5), vol. 3,
p. 468; fill.
Metacliaa Htrrripuira Rudb.• Hud... p. 4,* 20!l4,. M etaeriaB Btrrrtegica Buds. (3),
iv, 4 vol. 3, p. 468. ....
MllllzcriaB eljrl,ry~u lIcyr .• Hudh. p. 4.... 201.1.). lJt[atacriQ6 mcl,rYBa Meyr. (1).
h·, G vol. 3, p. 469. ....
Utetke.isa p,ikkelill Linn.. Hud... p. 3. 2088. UtetkeiBa p"[(o1I,lla Linn., vol. 3,
iv. 3 p. 483; fie.
Nycte:mfJTQ unlmlata :8000.. Hulin. p. 2. - Deile:mera a'ntlulu.ta BoihCi.t
iv, 1,2
HeliotlliB armigera Hiibll.. Hudb. p. 112. ;;6. [Ohloridea al'7lligua] Hiibn., now O.
T', 40, 41 cib8tJleta Fab., vol 4. p. 4li; fig.
Evzoa radian, Guen. , 285. Euzoa radian, Guen. (I, from N.Z.),
vol. 4, p. 164. lx, 7.
AUrali8 admiratiOili. GUt'll.• Hud'l. p. 31, I 300. Euzoa admiratiOiliB Guen., '1"01. 4,
Agroti" .arieta ButL. Ruds. p. 31, V, 38 .• J p. 173: llyn. Btricea Butl. ~.

.dg'ff1ti. cuopachoid€8 GW!'1l., Buds. p. 32, • 301. Euxoa ceTopacllOidu Guen. (0)•
vi. 1 '-01. 4, p. 174. lxi. 7.
.dgroUB tf1Irilon Ratt., Buds. p. 30, v. 646. Agrotill tf1Irilofl Rott •• vol. 4, p. 368 :
35,36 fig.
tJrtli08ia i,nmu7IiB Walk.• Huds. p. 7. ,', 211 702. A(/rotlR c(1l1&ptn Walk., vol. 4, p. 409,
•4groti6 intlOflli7luta Hud.... Ruds. p. 31. 811ii. LyclTJlhot,ia illnOinillata Rudh. (1 j,
v.311 vol 4, p. 515; fig.
Ecto]'alrin a/lplTu WIOlk •• Wellington liSl 1123. Ectopatria aBpera Walk. (3 N.Z.),
vol 4, p. 61'>4. lxxvii, 27.
Ernlln qram,'uOBtl Walk., Rudf". p. 2\). '-, 1128. ETUfla graminosa Walk., '1"01. 5,
24.25 p. 8; fig.
JI,lu.lIcll1a rluJllopleuTD Ml'.\·r., BudJ,. p.I9, 1374. [Polia pictulu White] (3), vol. 5,
1'1", as p.174. 'If. MiB~lia pictttla White.~
JIdandlra pictrda Butl. et Huds.. IIPC (1374.1.) JIiBtlia meyn'cci Hmpsn. inetl.*
White. Buds. p. ]9, iv, 37 (2). fl.
Ltucu/lin gri.eipenui8 Feld., Buds. p. II; IJ26. H1JBsia griBtipumi8 Et'ld., T'ol. 5,
but iv, S. would appear to represent p.278. ,...
L. ,lIOIlernkJ

tThis iN placed by HampllOn in the H1JP,idae, but it is taken here for cODvenience.
is now restricted to cE' Afriean moths formerly called Otroeda, DOW plaoed
in thl:' Lgmtz Iitriidae.
t BamP'40D has reoently given the genlU'ic name MiBelia Tr. priority over Polia Tr.
With the imperfect matorial a.t hill dispoll&l whl"D. writing his oata.logtlE' he coDllidered the
North and I:iouth Island for0l8 sexes of White's speoiee. The type in the national col.
1eotion is thl' Bamo inaeot &8 Meyrit'k's ,.kodoplsllrG, so that name sinks. The dcsoription
ill tho ea.t&logue requires correction owing to tht> confusion of the two !IpeOies. ~
Ann. )[ag. Nat. Rist. (8). viii, P. -'21 (1911).
LONGI!TAFF.-.\'omt'ncttltul"( of tlte Lepidoptera of .v.Z. III
HIP8ia iltCOlt8tal18 Butl., Huds. p. 0, 1527. HY6Bia i1lC01l6tana Butl (3), vol. 5,
included under L. grf8Pipe7lni6 p. 279, lxxxv, 23.
LttlCGnia temeflaula :Meyr., Trans. ~.Z. (1627.&.) Huuia temenaliia Meyr. (1\. , .
1nBt. 1907, vol. 39. p. 106
J/elatlMra crllJullina GUl'll •• Hudo. p. 27, 15211.HYh8l'a woo.lli1l0 (hE'n. (4), vol. ,j,
v.23 }l.27P, !xxx, 27.
LeilCG'fIia padlYhcia Meyr., l' N.Z. 11li28\.) H1J88iapachU8iaM.eyr. (0). ~.
Inst. 1907, yolo 39, p. 106.
Leueanin moderafn W&Ik., Huru.. p. 9, 1529. HU88ia modwata Walk., vol. 5,
! iv, II p. 280; fig.
Hyuia IIminfhi8llh Hmllhn., W(·llington 1530. H!J88ia 8'mi7lthiBfiB Hmpsn. (I),
list ,,01. 5, p. 2S0, lxxxvi, 17.
.Leu.cania 71vJlijera WaJk., Huw.. p. ", 1531. Hy68ia nvJlilu(I Walk. (3), vol••i •
iv, 9 p. 281; fig.
J/elanc1wa plena Walk .• Hudh. p. J7. 1671. M omBOflia ]l/plla W &lk., vol. n.
iy.32 p. 367. ~i
(lfi71A.) J1.orri80nia cM.orodonta Hmpsn.
(I !j!). ~. Description in .\nn. MaIJ.
Nat. Hi~t. (S), viii,~. 423 (lAll).
Jlelatle/tra ill8'iglll8 Walk., Hudli. p. III, 1672. MorriBO'lIia in8'ignl8 WaJk., vol• .>,
iv, 29, 30 p. 36S. lxxxviii, 20.
JlelallMra ''''UtaI18 WaJk., Huds. p. 18. 11173. Jlorril101lio mutan8 Walk, vol. 5,
iv, 34, 35, 36 p. 369, 1::axviii, 21.
jJ elane/11'a CtIewno Huw.... Huds. p. 26. (1673A.) AIorri80nia caelI!f!o Huds. (1 !j!)
iv, 39. [voL 5, p. 612, ill"ot.].
•llelanc1wa beata Howes, TraUb. N.Z. lru.t. (1673B.) Jiorl'iBOflia beata Howes (1). ~•
1906, vol. 311, p . .>11, xliv, 2
JlelancMa levi8 Philpott, Tr&nR. N.Z.
InBt. 1905, vol. 37. p. 329, xx, 4
.JlelanMra pa'l'ru:QIl8W lfeyr., Huw,. p. IS,
(1073('.) JiOl'ri80nia leMa Philpott (2 ~).

• 1674. MorriBOflia paralla'UBtu. Meyr. (6),

iv, 2S, 2S.\ vol. 5, p. 370. ,.
(1674A.) J/orri.solliaoliveriHmpsn. (1~).
'lj. Desori1!tion in .Ann. Mag. Nc1t.
HiBT. (S), vili, p. 424 (1m 1).
.1fekmMra maga Huds.. Hud.... p. 17, (167411.) Morri80llia maya Huds. (1)
h., 31 Ivol. S, p. 612, i9'lot.].
(1674c.) .Jlol'ri807lia chUserythra Hmpsn.
(1). ,;. .~ •
•'li:elamlhra brumia8 llt';),'l'., 'l'ran... Ent. • 1675. JIOl'ri80llia bromiaB ME'yr. (0),
~oc. Lond. 1902, p. 273 vol. 5, p. 370, lxxxviii, 22.
Jlela'flMra agoralti8 lIerr., Hudll. p. 18, • 1676. Jlorri8t11tia agoram, Meyr. (0).
Y,30 voL 5, p. 371,lxxxviii, 23.
Jle'la7lc1tl'a profealltl'6 Meyr., Htldt.. p. 20, 1682. Jiorri80niu tJiti08a Butl. (3), vol. 5,
iv, 40 p.375. ,.
Jleltmchra injell8a Walk., Hucbo. p. 23, 1683. MorriBO'flia infulBa Walk. (1 ~),
v, 12 vol. 5, 376,lxxxviii. 27.t
.JlelanMM rubeBCI!f!8 ButI.• Hudh. p. 2:1, 16&1. MorriBUllia rubeac.ellil ButL. vol. is•
v, HI p. 3711. 1::axviii, 2S.
.JlelanMM ullti8lriga WaJk., Huilil. p. 21i, 11;85. MOl'l'i807lia uBtiltriga WaJk., vol. 0,
v,20,2OA p. 377, lx:uviii, 29.
.llelanMm lithia8 lI"'~T .• Huds. p. 17. • 1686. Horri8O'llia Uthias Meyr. (0),
iv, 33 ro1. 5, p. 37S. ,.
Mflall"'!!" homoscia lleyr., Huds. p. 21, 1687. Jiorrl8Onia Ml1I08Cia It...Yl". (5),
T", j '1'"01. 5, p. 37S. lxxxviii, 23.
Jlelancw atipata Walk., HudH. p. 26, 11lH8. .lIom8o'l1ia mpata Walk.. "01. 5.
v,17 p. 379; fig.
Jle'lanc1wa all'yone Rudli., BudN. p. 24, (16~A.) .llorri8Otlia alcuon6 Huds. (1)
v,U [voL :i, p. 612, ignot.].
Leucania aloJla Meyr., HudH. p. 12, iv, (161:18.8.) M orfi8011 ill alapa ){eyr. (3)
16 [vol 5, p. 611, ignut.J.
Jlela.f/.chra merope Rudll., Huds. p. 19, (1688('.) Morri801Iia merope Huda. lI)
v,2 [vol. 5, p. 612, 'gnot. ].;J:

t The male of this speoiea ill not known to HampllOn, who t.hinks it likeq to come
nea.r .Alopa.
~ I found this in the British HUBE'Um as M. r~, 80 deaoribed by Hampowu
in ADD. Mag. Nat. Hiat., 19O5, p. m, but he has lllince tIUJIk that nam!'.
112 TralllJartzoml.

3Ielanclira diullIIPl" Hudlt. p. 21, (168!!D.) .'tlorriaoniu diatmt/u Hud,. (1 ~).
\T,5 'If.
Jlelandlrll do/11m Walk .• Blld~. p. 24, v. 1689• ..Morrisollia dotala (1), vol. 5,
16 p. 380, lxxxviii, :ll.
JlelafIClIm t·",OIItt But!.. Hud~. p. 20. iv. 1690. MOrri800lu oclitJ.iKf,. l\It>vr .• \'01.•i,
42 p. 380, IXXX\"ili. :l::!. •
•11elallChm Inrtarea But!.. Huds. )I. 21. 1691. JIorri80lIia tar/(IIIII Butl. (3). vol. .i•
"f",6 p. 381, lxxxix, 1.
Jlelanekra omoplaca lIe:\T .• Bucb. p. 2:~. 1692• .J[orri80nia olll'JpT",." lll·\·r. (1).
"1". 13 vol. 5, ll. 382.lx"l:xix, 2.
JlelancMa decorata Philpott. Tre.ns. N.Z. (1693A.) Jiorri8ollin d(cQJ(/tll Philpott
Inst. 1905. "1"01. 37, p. 328, xx. 2 (4). 'If.
Jlela'1lwa li!1'1lana Walk.. Buds. p. 26, 1694. Mom8onia ligllallu Walk .• YO!. 3.
"1".19 p. 383, lxxxix, 3.
•Uelanckra pelillti" }I,,~ r .. Hud.e.. p. 19, 16115• .Morri80nia mor""a But!.. v..1. :i •
V, 3,4 p. 384, lxxxix, 4.
•11t1nnchra prioniBfia lIe.\"l'., Bud,. p. 27, • 1696. JIorri80nia pri01lllftj8 MeYI. (Ii) •
v,21 vol. 5. p. 384. lxxxix, :i.
Leucania tempe/ata Huds. p. I). -, 1697. 1l0rriBOflia temperata Walk. (3).
"1"01. 5, p. 38.), .lxxxix, 6.
.J[tlallckrn p}mc.n" lIl·~'r .. Bud.... p. 27. 1698• .l1orri8Oliia phricia8 lIeyr .• "Yol. :i•
"1".22 p. 385, lxxxix, 7.
(1698A.) llorri80llia lonurtatfi, Bow<l&.
Trans. N.Z. !nst. 1911, yol. 43,
p.128; fig.
(1698B.) .l10ITiBOIHa 8equens Howes. 'l'
N.Z. wt. 1912, vol. 44, p. 2<M; fig.
Jl elancltrn 1'01., JlO6ita Uuen., Huw.. p. 22. 1699. Ptraecta'llia n.jllgi WestVi., vol. Ii,
v.tI,!l p. 386; fig.
Leuoonia aroti8 Me~'T •• Huds. p. 12, iv, IS I 1700. Pll18eciallia aulae;a8 Meyr. (2).
~ia i,motaia HoWell, 'fre.ns. N.Z.
vol..5, p. 387, lxxxix, 8. Syn. uroll.
Inst. Ult/!!, vol. 40, p. J34 , lIeyr.; syn. ob8Oleta Boweb; llyn.
i'llnotata Howell.
JIelanckm Bteropaatia Meyr., Hud•. p. 23. 1701. Per8ectGnia 8teropa8h6 Men.. \'01. ii.
"1", 10, 11 p. 388, lxxxix, 9. •
LellOOllia ntrlhlriya "·aUt., Huds. p. 10, 1702. PU8ectlmia atriatriga Walk., vol . .i.
i"f", 12 p. 388; fig.
PAy.dica cae. ulee:: q'lt'U.• Kud.. p. 8, 1786. Physetica caeruleo GUl'll. (3), '\01. 5,
il.. 7 p. 445; fi@:.
1787. PkyBetica vil'ldimiali$ Uuen. (1).
vol. :i, p. 44.}, xci, 2. Ha.m}l!101l
b&yB, •• Hah. (1) U.~..A•• E. Jj'lorid.l.
lDoublcday). 1 ¥ 1.ype. Tho typt·
hal! the abdomen of a' of IIOmt·
other Spt'Cies stuck on to it, and will
probably prove to be from Nt"I'
Zealand." Vol.:i, p. 446.
Leuoollia ""cra"'rtl }Ie~'r.• Hud... p. I:!. • 1788. PliYh£tica lIIicra!tr(l. :Mt'~·r. (0).
i"f",l0 \'01. 3, ]'. 446, :xci, 3.
JIe1ancl"a di8junuen" Walk., Hud•. p. 13. 1811i. Grapha7lia. di8ju'1Igen8 WaJ.k., \'01. ;i,
v,~ p. 4611; fig.
Llluool'lia pro'P7i(l Walk.. Hud~. 1). 11. 181tl. TmelolopilOta propria Walk., vo!. .i.
iv, 13 p. 471; tig.
LetUJQ,niIJ unipullcta Haw., HudA. p. 13. 1913. Oirpkib IllliPllIICIa Haw., \'01. .i,
iv, 24 p. 347. ~.
IM1I8l1tica Urallllitl8 lleyr.. Blld... p. l-l. '" 2036. .wuca~da ctrauniaH Me~·r. (3),
iv, 25, 26 vol. 0, p. 590.
!cAr,,:lItica dlolle Buds., Bua... ]'. 14. h'. '" 2037• .Leuca'llia diOlie Budo. (0), vol.•'J,
27 P. 590. 'II.
Leltcll7~itz acrmti8t;8 Meyr., Budd. I" 11, (2037.01..) Leucanr'a accmt1Bti. lIe;:l'T. (3)
iv, 14 [vol. 5, p. 610, ign.ot.).
Leucania t0701111ura lleyr., Tran>. Ent.,
Soc. Lond. 1901.11. G63 '" 20311• .wucania IOFOlieum lIeyr. (J).
LellCUniG IISUral! Philpo1.t, Trallb. X.z., vol. 5, p. ~1, xovi, 1. ~~-n. te~callltl
Jnst. 11105, vol. 37, 330, :xx, :i Mllrall p.wpott.
uKCQRia 1IfI1"ca Walk•• Hudl.. p. 12, iv, 2039. LeucaRia 'Unjcll {iil, "01. 3,
17 p. li91 ; fig.
LONGSTAFF.-/.YomellcZatlll'e 01 thf Lepinoptol·1!. of S.Z. 118

Uluania dlllletiinell8is Butl. 'U 2040. Lellcanla rJ,ullealll<'1I8;. HUl[hn. (2),

vol. 5, 1) 59]. xovi. 2.
Leucania 8muvitmfa Walk., Hucf.l,. p. 13, 204.1. Leucania 8smlr.ittfl/11 Walk. (3).
iv, 21, 22 vol. 5, p. 592; fig.
LtfUcania blenlieimenBi8 Fercda.y. Hurl.... ... 2042. Leu.cania ble7l/ieimslI8i8 Feredav
p. 13, iv. 23 (0), vol. 3, p. 592. xcvi, 3. •
.Leucania pllrtlii "Fcreday. Ruds. p. HI. (2042A.) Leucania purdiei Fereda~' (1)
iv, 11 [vol. S, p. 611, IU1I0t.].
LMUJania 81lkana Fereda.y, Rud". p. 13, 20.1,3. Leucania ItlllcallB Fereday (5),
iv, 19,20 vol. 5, p. 593; fig. •
j f18600 peBBOta Meyr., Ruds. p. 6, "1', 211 ... 2606. ! 8ympi,tis pel/sola Meyr. (0),
vol. 6, p. 412, i(lnol•
JIi8elia iota Ruds., Trans. N.Z. Imt. • 2607. 8gmpiBtiil iota Rudb. (0), vol. 6,
1003, vol. 35, p. 243, XlCI:, 3 p. 413, ~Iot.
Orthosia fortis Butl., Meyr. Trans. Ent. 2608. 8!J711piBti8 forti8 But1. (2). vol. 6,
Soc. Lond. 1901, p. 363 p. 413; fig.
Xallthia 'PI'rpurea But!., Buds. p. 8. \1', 32 2715. AuBtramalhe.. pllrpllrpa Butl., vol. 6.
p. 492; ~.
Bltyl11 defigurata Walk., Huds. p. 29. \'. 33 2773. Bitgl,a deJi:Jllr(&ta vol. 7,
p. 41; fig.
Bltyla serlcpa But!.. Hudl!. p. 29, v, 31 2776. Bityla 8erieea Butl. (1), vol. 7,
p.41. 'U.
Ortli(Mia ptlUida RudA., Trcl.n... N.Z. 111,t. 2777. YBItJ/lrS pallida Ruds. (1), vol. 7,
IIlOiI, vol. 36, p. 333 p. 42, ea. fl.
0081lloaeR Clkllun8 Donov., Rud.I:.. p. 33. 3.')91. 00871meb tlegall8 Dono\·., vol. II,
vI,2 p. 17; fig.
OrthoBia comma Walk., Rud!!. II. 7, v. 27. 4071. AriathiBa GOtn771a W'lIolk.. \·ul. II,
28 p. 400; fig.
PluBia chaloites Ellp., Ruds. p. 35, vi, 3 " Plll8ia chakttes Esp.
lJasgpodia 8elenophora Guon., Ruds. p. 35.
Hgpenocles e:uulari8 Meyr., Ruds. );I. 30,1,. HypeJloaes er811lariIJ Heyr. (0).
Hgperaueha oetia& Meyr., Ruds. p. 37, H'Ipenoae' ,"-ntir:liIlQ Meyr. (0).
(Rhap8tJ oeM8, Rude.) t
Rhap8l! BCOto8"a1is Walk., Hurl" p. a6,
""i, 5, G
Sir George Hampson has not seeu any of the follov..-ing thirteen species,
the types of which would appear to be in New Zealand, t'onsequently he is
unable to give any definite opinion about them. His difficulty is the same
as Mr. Hudson has often laboured under.
AgrotiB ueda HoWell, Trims. N.Z. lnst.
1906, voL 38, p. 511, xliv, 3
0rth0Bia margarita Hawthorne, Huds.
p. U, v,31
.Jlelanilhra e:I:I11&i8ita Philpott, Tr&Jlll. Hmpsn., vol. 5. p, 612 (~ul'lIor Polia
N.Z. Inst. 1903, vol. 35, p. 24«, pictulG).
Jlelan.chra omicron Buds., Ruds. p. 22, Hmpan., vol. 5, p. 1112 (Y Hy&;a. neal
v, 42 cu.cuUina).
Jlelanilhra a&terope Huds., Hudd. p. ;20,1" Rmpsn., vol. 5, p. U12 (? JIorri80Ma,
v,1G near dotata).
JlelanehragrtJlldioaaPhilpott, Trant!. N.Z. Rmpsn., vol. 5, p. 1112 (t J/orrisonia),
lnst. 1003. vol. 35, p. 246, xnii, 1
.Jl.elmlilhra molli8 HowllII, Trans. N.Z.
100. 1908, vol. 0,1,0, p. 533
Jlelallch.ra octan8 Rude., Hudl.. p. 23, Bmpm.. voL J, p. tll2 (? XylomaJua,
v,l near natalen8i8) •
.J(elanehra erebia Buds., Subantaoro. Is.
N.Z. 1009, p. 68, ii, 15

t Mr. Meyriok (Tmus. Ent. So!l, Lond. 11101, p. 5611) conf08llll8 to ha.ving led MI.
Hudson WIItray.
114 1'ram,lIrflQn· .

Le1Icallta pagr.tCl a"d&, f>ub&ntall 1,.

N.Z., p. 67, ii, {l
Phy6etica lIIud8tmi Bo\\er., Tran~. N.Z. '\Ir. Howe& a.gxCC& with Mr. B.a.mllton m
In"t. 19011. vol 3S. p. 310. xli~. 1 regarding this as a form oi PhyBetica
cae/ulea Gucn.; but Sir George, who
has not seen the insect. thinks it ma~'
vos.qbly be a fOTDl of H7I8aia qriUt·
Leucallla 61rdta Phllpott. Tum'. N.Z.
Inst. 1905, ~ol. 37. 329, xx, I
LrlllJQ7lia p}!QtJla Me;\'l'.. Bnds. p. 11, Hmpbll., '01. 3. p. Ill! (Y Ilt'dr L. bieR'
iv. 15 helm'IlBIB).

At this place in lIr. Budsou's book the group that is usually called the
Geometridae follows. As Mr. L. B. Prout is still engaged in his great revision
of this group for Wytsman's Genera Insectorum" (0£ whIch one part

has already appeared). it does not appear expedient to deal with them here
svstemati(.alIv. but at the samE' time it may be convenient to mention threE'
points:- . .
(1.) XMltnorhoe cineraria Dbld., Huds. p. 6i, pI. viii, figs. 2, 2A.-Person-
ally I have no doubt that the larger form is semi-signata Walk. (pl. viii.
fig. 2A) and the smaller cineraria Dbld. (pI. viii. fig. 2), ,md that these
constitute distinct species.
(2.) Lythria euclidiata Guen.. Buds. p. 68, pI. viii, fig. 35.-My speci-
mens referred by Mr. Bowes to this species agree absolutely with Butler's
type of Af'Ctesthes catapyrrha (in the British Museum), an insect, in my
opinion (and, 1 believe, in Mr. Prout'l! also). quite distinct from the
Australian euclidiata.
l3.) Bestf'a 4wIleraria Walk., Buds. p. 89, pI. x, figs. 1, 2; and Bestra
f/ezata Walk., Huds. p. 90, pI. ix, fig. 37 (very poor .figure). - Walker'b
types are in the British Museum, and I have compared them with his
descriptions. There seems no room for doubt that, bv BOme unfortunatE"
slip. Mr. Hudson has reversed the two spedes. •

In conclusion, I have a few remarks to make about the butterBie&-

(1.) A7W8ia erriptl8 Cram., Huds. p. 102, pl. xi, figs. 1•.2.-The synonomy
of this species is extremely confusing. Dr. Jordan, who has gone into the
matter very thoroughly, says that the genus ..:I.nosia Hiibn. (and several
of Moore's genera) are not really distinct from Danaida Latr., which has
priority. It would be in accorda.nce with the best modem usage to ca.ll
the inse<-t DQII&aida archippus Fab.
(2.) AnoBia bolina Linn .. Huds. p. 104:, pI. xii, figs. i, 8, 9.-This is
of course, not a Daname, but (l Nymphalinl" of the genus HypoUmft08
(3.) r ane88(.1 cardui. Linn., Huds. p. 108, pl. xii, :figs. 1, 2.-1 qUlte agree
with Mr. Hudson that the form kerilwiu:. McCoy does not merit specific
rank. The Hope collection at Oxford contains a specimen from Cyprus.
one from Mongolia, and three from Grea.t Britain, lIith bluE' centres to the
black spots on the hindwing. The section of the old genus VafI688a to
which the three New Zealand species belong is now more commonly called.
Pyramtis Hiibn.
(4.) Jutt.tmia wUeda Fabr., Buds. p. 109, pI. xi, :figs. 16, 17.-Tbis is now
referred to Pwci.s. I agret' with Hr. Hudson as to the spelling of the namE' =
wllida is meaningless.
LONUbTAl"F. -.Tomellr{aflu·e of the LepidollW11I. of .\.z 115

(5.) Chrysop}w;nus saiustius Fabr., Huda. p. 117, pI. xii, figs. 18, 19,
20, 21; pI. xiii, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5.-Surely this name should be 8alZust,'u8: the
other spelling is meaningless.
(6.) Cnlrysophanus enysii ButI., Ruds. p. 117, pl. xii, figs. 22, 23, 24.-
The types of enYBii Butler and fS'f'eaayi Bates are both in the British Museum.
They are clearly conspecific, and Bates's name has priority. Mr. Hudson
IS in error in supposing fererJayi to be a form of 8(111ustius.
(7.) Lycaena phoebe Murray, Huds. p. 119, pI. xii, figs. 10, H.-This
IS indistinguishable from Zizera labraaus Godart, which has priority.
(8.) Lycaena o:cleyi Feld., Huds. p. 119, pI. xii, fig. 12.-This was
referred to ZizS'f'a, but has lately been placed in Nf'olllcia Waterhouse and

ART. VIH .-Descrvpflons of Three N f'W ,"Ipeclell oj Ll'pldoptel'H.


Communicated by Prof...ssor B...nham.

[Read before tke 0ttvpJ lMUttae. 3rt] Oclober, 1911.J

Chloroclystis lunata n. sll.
a. 18-19 mm. Head. palpl, thorax, aud abdomen dark grcenish-fuscoub.
Palpl Ii. .Antennae biciliated with long fascicles. ciliations 3. Fort'-
wings triangular, costa almost straight, termen slightly bowed, subsinuate
on lower h.a.lf; dark greeniih-/uscoU8; veins marked more or less with
black; lines obscure; some faint thin waved green lines near base;
median band ochreous except beneath costa, anterior edge from -i to =,
waved, hardly curved. posterior from 1 to t. bluntly projecting at middle
and concave on lower half; a thin dentate bluish - green subterminal
line: cilia. ochreous. barred with fuscous. Hindwings fuscous. sprinkled
with ochreous; veins with alternate black and white dots; a thin dentate
bluish-green subterminal line.
2 as ~, but median band almost obsoleto. Ilnd with prominent irre-
gular crescefttic white mark in miililll' 0/ /oT6'IlIing. the limbs du:ected
Wallauetown. in December and January. .A reddish-bl'OWll mT\'a fOUlld
feeding on Veronica on the 5th February pupated a few days later and·
emerged 80S a ~ moth early in the following December. Unfortunately a
fuller description of the larva. was not secured.
The species differs from most of its allies in its darker ground-colour.
and in the ~ the white crescentic mark is " I!;ood distineti'\"e character.
lUi TrWU,llctIOIiI.

Orocrambus subitus n. i>p.
~. 15-16 mm. Head dark brownish-{uscous. Palpl dark brownish-
fuscous, whitish above. Antcnnae fuscoUII. Thorax dark brownish-fuscous
"ith white lateral IItripc. Abdomen dark browmsh-fuscous. Forewings,
costa straight. apex obtuse, termen slightly oblique. golden bro\vn sprinkled
with white scales, densely il'rorated ",ith white in disc and along dorsum.
white irroration produced as a streak from disc to apex, dorsum narrowly
black from base to i; a thick black central streak from base to ~, apex
obtuse, margined beneath with golden brown; a short black streak above
apex of basal streak, anteriorly tapered; a few black scales before tornUl:l
indicating a black subterminal line: cilia dark golden brown with obscure
darker line. Hindwings dark brownish-fusoous; cilia brown, paler round
;!. Forewings with 'IJ.'hite irrofation l'xtending to costa,' streakll
as in 13. but margined 'With orange: cilia grey mixed \nth \vhite. Hind-
wings. grey, paler round termen; cilia grey.
Hump Ridge (Okaka); fairly common at 3,500 ft. in December.
~earest to O. tMmiastiB, hut differing from that species in the colour
of the streaks in disc, w'hich are white or ,ellow in thimdastis, black in
subitUR. .
Scoparia clavata n. hp.
5. 26 mID. Head and thoI'ax white. with a black lateral stripe from
eye to near middle of thorax. Palpi moderate, white above, sides and
beneath dark-brownish. Antennae and abdomen grey. Legs grey, ante-
rior pair sufiused with fuscous. Forewings moderate, posteriorly dilated,
costa almost straight. apex rounded, termen subsinuate, oblique; white,
irrorated with brownish-ochreous. costa narrowly brownish; a thick black
median streak from base of costa to lltlmost t, slightly constricted near
termination, apex rounded; a thick black streak in disc above middle,
ilTegUla.rly sinuate, beginning before i and ending at about! in irregular
dilatation; tJ, subterminal black striga, ilj,wardly oblique aM. rUlated beneath
c:fl8ta and abol)C dorsum,' all streaks margined with brownish-ochreous; a
terminal chain of linear black dots: cilia whitish 'with t,,·o grey lines.
Hindwings shinin~ ,vhite. ochreous round termen: cilia white, ochreous
11tlar apf'x.
Hump Ridge: ill £01'~st, at 3.000 ft .. in Decemb~r; Olle specimen.
Easily distinguished from S. rolueUa. its nearest ally. by the subterminal
black strigae: it is also hroader-wiIl!led than that species.
t.h'fRICK.-j)t!8rrlf!tiulI~ II! -,"tlj' Zealalld Lepidoptera.. 117

ART. IX.-Descnptulils of ::Vew Zeala,&t], Lepidopter~ .

.8:- E. MEYRIl'K. B.A.,

I AM again enabled by the kindness of Messrs. O. V. Hudson and

A. Philpott to present descriptions of a further series of new species
of Lepidoptera, representing the rt'sults of their labours during the past
season. These include some forms of remarkabl(' interest.
Me1anchra xanthogramma n. sp.
~. 37 mm. Head and thorax reddish-brown mixed with whitish-
ochreous, sides of patagia and ridge of collar streaked with black and
whitish irroration. Antennae bipectinated (a 2, b It), apical third
simple, ciliated. Abdomen fuscous, sides and apex tufted ,vith reddish-
brown scales mixed with ,vhitish - ochreous. Forewings elongate - tri-
angular, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse. termen rather obliquely
rounded, crenulate; light reddish-brown j subbasal, first. alld second
lines waved, indicated by interrnpted edgings of black irroration. lower
end of subbasal connected with base bY a bent dark red-brown Ilnd
blackish mark surmounted with yellow, second obsolete from !lear costa
to below reniform; an elongate:Oval suffused yellow spot beneath sub-
median fold between subbasal and first lines. and a streak of yellow
suffusion along dorsum from t to !; Spotll darker reddish-brown.
edged with yello",.. and then with blackish. orbicular short-oval, rathpr
oblique, somewhat paler - centred, ('laviform rather smaller, roundish.
anteriorly defined by first line, renifol"m with posterior hal{ palt' and
whitish-mixed; space between these darker, with some yellow and
blackish scales; u. dark-fuscous elongate patch extending from sl:'oond
to subtenninal lines above submedian fold; tlome whitish sufIusion
tov."3rds dorsum beneath this; three whitish dot!! 011 costa betw(.>en
IIEIcond and subterminal lines; subterminal line slender, yellow, straight
and edged with blackish posteriorly, towards extremities dentate and
unmargined, at 1- with a dilatation, below middle with a ,·ery abrupt
acute double dentation reaching termen; a terminal series of lunulatt!
blackish· marks: cilia reddish-brown mixed with paler and whitish.
Hindwings fuscous; cilia whitish, basal half rucous.
Wellington (Hudson); onp specimen. At first sight much like a
variety of insignis, but (as Mr. Hudson correctly points out) the
antennal pectinations in that species are somewhat longer. An easy
distinction is afforded by th(.> absence of the ,veIl-defined. short black
basal strpak of j'18igniR. •
Selidosema lactiflua n. sp.
S. 86 mm. Head and thOl'&X olive-greenish mixOCl with yellow-
whitish. Antennal pectinations, a 6, b I); about 8 apical joints simple.
Abdomen whitish-yellowish. Forewings triangular, costa slightl~· arC'hed,
118 TraTl8Qctiom

apex rounded-obtuse. termen evenly rounded, father oblique; 10 a.nd 11

separate; olive-greenish. sprinkled with blackish; costal area strigulated
with white from t to !; lines formed by blackish sufiuslon, first and
second double, wayed, first somewhat curved. second slightly and rather
irregularly curved. somewhat sinuate inwards towards dorsum, median
thick, somewhat curved; a blackish transverse discsl mark beyond median
line; sl'cond line followed by a white band strigulated with olive-greenish;
subterminal line slender, waved, white, preceded and followed by blackish
suffusion tending to form spots; a terminal series of black lunulate marks:
cilia pale olive-greenish, sometimes sprinkled with blackish. narrowly and
obscurely barred with white. Hindwings whitish-yellow-ochreous, towards
dorsum and termen sometimes finely and slightly sprinkled with grey;
a grey discal dot, sometimes faint; a terminal series of slight dark-grey
marks; cilia whitish-ochreous-yellow.
Lake Wakatipu (Hudson), in February; two specimens. A fine dis-
tinct species. resembling melinata and leucelaea.

Orocrambus pervius n. sp.
c1. 25 mm. Head, pa.lpi, and thorax dark fuscous, palpi mixed
beneath with whitish hairs, shoulder with a slight white mark. Antennae
shortly ciliated (1). Abdomen dark grey, apex whitish. Forewings elon-
gate, posteriorly dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, termen rounded,
somewhat oblique; dark fuscous, irregularly strewn or partially suffused
with ochreous-brown scales; costal edge slenderly whitish on median area ;
a rather DArrow white median longitudinal streak from base to termen,
beyond middle shortly attenuated or interrupted: cilia grey, with a white
bar on median streak. Hindwings dark grey, pectinations ochreous-whitish;
cilia ochreous-whitish, basal third grey. Hindwings beneath largely suffused
with ochreous-whitish.
Lake W'akatipu, 3,600 ft. (Hudson), in February; two specimens.
01....sely allied to catacaustus, which, however, is browner, with a white
shoulder-stripe (not mentioned in my description), and with the median
btripe only seldom showing a tendency to interruption; but the reliable
distinguishing character lies in the form of the forewings, of which in CQta-
(J(JUl)tU8 the termen is not oblique on the upper portion.

Scoparia triscelis Merr.
This distinct species, origJ.D.J.lly described from Auckland Island (•• Sub-
antarctic Islands of New Zealand," p. 71), has now been found b", Mr.
Hudson at Lake Wakatipu: a very interesting observation. .
Scoparia locularis n. sp.
d. 21 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi 21, dark fuscous, basal
joint white. Antennal ciliations~. Thorax white .mixed with grey and
dark fuscous. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate-triangular, narrow at
base. costa posteriorly moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen sinuate.
oblique; lip:ht grey, irregularly .mixed with white, with some scattered
black scales: 1m oblique streak of black suffusion from base of costa; first
line white. rather oblique, slightly sinuate, posteriorly strongly edged with
black suffusion; oTbicular and claviform represented by elongate marks
MEYRIOK.-DeBcrzptionB uf IfelL Zt'fl/allt/ LppidoptOl a 119

of black suffusIOn connected with tb...s· disca.l tlpot 8-shaped, outlined

with black, upper half larger but leBs defined, couue<.,.ted with costa b~·
.a. spot of black irroratioll; second line slender, irregular, white, clnteriorl~'
mterruptedly edged with black, slightly curved, indellted beneath costa.
and more strongly on submedian fold; subterminal l:lUfiused. whitish.
strongly sinuate inwards in middle to touch second line and more or less
interrupted above the connection, the sinuation filled with a spot of blackish
suffusion: cilia pale iuscous, with blackish ante-median and fuscous post-
median lines, broadly barred with whitish. Hiudwings Ii, without hairs
in cell; pale grey, becoming darker posteriorly: discal mark and post-
median line faintly darker; cilia grey-whitish. with interrupb"d dark-
fuscous subbasal line.
Mount Arthur, 3,4:00 It., u.nd Lake Wakatipu (Hudson), m January
and February; two specimens. Allied to torodes.
Scoparia agana n. sp.
O. 23-25 mm. Head whIte. Palpi 3, 1"d.ther dark IUSCOUB, basal JOInt
white. Antennal ciliations ~. Thorax purplish-grey. Abdomen pale
greyish-ochreous. ForeVrings elongate, narrow at base, posteriorly dilated,
costa posteriorly gently arched, apex obtuse, termen straight, rather
oblique; fuscous, irregularly mixed with white; indistinct streaks of
dark-fuscoUB irroration along fold from base to .first line, and posteriorl~'
between veins; lines formed of white suffusion. first ('urved, oblique,
second rather curved, indented beneath costa aud above dOI'8unl; orbi-
cular and claviform represented by indistinct longitudinal marks of dark-
fuscous suffusion resting on first line: discol mark obscurely X-shapl'd,
formed by blackish irroration, lower half filled with whitish suffusion.
subterminal line broad, su:ffused, whitish, almost terminal, rather sinuate
inW'llords in middle but not reaching second line: cilia grey-whitish, with
interrupted grey ante-median line. Hindwings Ii, without hairs in cell:
grey-whitish, with brassy-yellowish reflections; cilia yellow-whitish.
Lake Wakatipu, in February (Hudson): one specimon. .A. second
taken by myself on Arthur's Pass. a.t 3,000 ft .. in January. Allied. to
Stenoptilia vigens Feld.
vigens Fold., Reis. Nov., pl. cxl, 49.
!jl.19 mm. Head pale brownish, sides whitish, face prominent. Palpi
21. ochreous-brown, lower edge whitish towards base. Thorax ochreous-
white, suffused with light brownish anteriorly. Abdomen whitish-ochreous,
towards base white. Forewings cleft to t, segments rather broad, apex
pointed, ,termen oblique, on second seginont slightly bowed; reddish-
brown. suffusedlv mixed with whitish in disc. "ith I), broad streak of white
suffusion along dorsum, dorsal edge tinged with reddish-oc'hreo1l8; costa
sufiused with dark fuscous, dotted with whitish from base to beyond
middle: a dark red-brown spot mi."ted with black on base of cleft, above
which is a pateh of white suffusion not quite reaching costa; posterior
area of first segment occupied by a blotch of darker red-brown suffusion
mixed with black. marked with a bar of white Sufius.iOD close before ter-
men; second segment somewhat sprinkled with whitish posteriorly: cilia
on costa dark fuscous, on termen and in cleft white. with a small blackish
pateh at lower angle of first 8t'lUXlent and Uppl't' angle of second. and A.
l~O Tr(l'Hortloll~.

blackish basal line on termen of second segment; ciha round tornus and
011 dor&um fusrous. Hindwings rather dark fuscous; cilia grey, base
Lake Wakatipu (Hudson), III February. This is an interesting re-
discovery. as F{'lder's species had never been recognized before, aDd his
localiti{'s ;ue frequently quitt' errOllE'OU!>. It is allied to charatlrias.
Stenoptilia zophodactyla Dup.
lh. Hudson sends a specimen of this nearl) cObmopohtan species,
taken near Wellington in November. stating it to be very rare. It has
not been previously recorded from New Zealand. It is common in Europe,
which is probably its place of origin; but I have also received it freely
from India. Australia, South Africa, and South America. The larva feeds
on E,ythraea. but must also be attached to other Gentianaceae, and is
probably artificially introduced. It may have reached New Zealand only
quite recently.
Carposina morbida 11. bp.
e!. 26 mm. Hea.d ochreous-whit.ish. Palpi 2~, porrectetl. ochreous-
whitish. ba.sal half suffused with dark olive-grey. Antennal Cllmtions 4.
Thorax ochreous-whitish, shoulders with an ochreous spot. Abdomen
ochrt'ous-whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, posteriorly some-
what dilated. costa gently arched, apex obtuse. termen straight, rather
olllique; silvery-whitish-ochreous, irregularly strewn with ochreous lIcales.
('osta and dorsum somewhat sprinkled with grey; a small brownish-
ochreous basal patch, edge parallel to termen; six small shots of
grey su:liusion on rosta bt'tween this and apex; tufts brownish-
ochreous. posteriorl~' white-viz., one bent'ath costa at -1, preceded
by 1.1 dash of irroration, one beneath thi'! towards dorsum, ~
In..-gllr Ohe lD disc beyond these, preceded h.... a black dash o.a sub-
median fold. two towards costa in and beyond middle edged with
black beneath. one below middle edged with black above, snd a ridge
on t1'8ns'\'"erse vein, irregularly edged with black anteriorly, between
thesl' in middle of disc is an elongate patch of grey sufiusion; some
scattered black irroration crossing wing at i; cilia whitish, with two
greyish shades. Hindwings and cilia whitish. Under-sumer of fol"t.'-
wings and hilldwings largely elothed on anterior half with modified
paIli' yellow-ochreous scales, on forewings anteriorly su:liused with grey.
Lake Wakatipu (Hudson), in February; one speeimen. Ca.n only
be confused with exoc1uma .. but the c1 of that spe<'ies has much longer
porrected palpi (4).
Harmologa tritochlora n. sp.
~. 22 mm. Head and palpi pale ochreous, palpi 3. Thorax whitish-
ochreous, patagia sufiusedly mixed with grey. Abdomen ochreous-whitish.
Forewings elongate-oblong, costa. moderately arrhed towards base, thence
nearly straight, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, somewhat ob-
lique; whitish-grey suffused with pale brassy-yellowish, becoming whitish-
yellowish towards costa and termen, irrorated with darker grey on dorsal
half towards hase: cilia whitish-yellowish. Hindwings and cilia creamy-
MJ<}YRWK.-IJescrlptiollll of lltw ZUlZulld Lepidoptem. 121

Lake Wakatipu, 4,000 ft. (Hudson), III Febrwuy; one specunen. Allied
to BiraM and aenea, but cannot be united with either; doubtless the ~,
as in those species, is very different, with dark hindwings.

Izatha metadelta Meyr.
Mr. Hudson suggests that pe:ronitis MeYl. IS the ~ of this &pecies, and
on consideration of the available material, having now several specimens
of each form, all the peronitis being ~ and all the metadelta !jl, I haYe no
doubt his view is correct, and they must be united as sexes.

Simaethis zomeuta 11. sp.
!jl. 18 mIn. Head and thorax bronzy-brown, sprmkled With whitIsh.
Palpi with whorls of blackish white-tipped scales, base white. Antennae
dc\rk fuscous dotted with white. Abdomen dark fuseous. Forewings
elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen
bowed, rather oblique; bronzy-ochreous-fuscous; some violet-white irro-
ration towards base and termen; a moderately broad darker median
transverse fascia, angulated above mIddle, edged by obscure shades of.
violet-,vhite irroration, hecoming more distinct on costa, where the second
forms a clear white oblique mark: eilia bronzy-ochreous. with two dal'k-
fuscous shades, and white patches on outer half above and below middlp.
Hindwiugs, becoming blackish 011 posterior half; a rather
incurved white streak crossing dorsal half of win~ from ! of disc to toruus.
and some whitish irroration between this and termpn; cilia ,vhitish, basal
third dark fuscous.
)lount Arthur, 4,600 ft.; one specimel1 taken by myself in JanUd.ry,
not in fine condition, but twenty-five years have passed without further
captures. Near oombinatana, but distinguishable by clear white streak of
hindwings, and the joints of alltt>nnae are- rt"latively lnuch more- elongate
and slender.
Simaethis ministra 11. sp.
a. 9 mm. Head dark fuscous, face spnnkled WIth white. Palpi
v,ith whorls of dark-{UtlcoUtl white-tipped sca.les, base white. Antennae
dark fuscous, shortly pubeseent-ciliated. Thorax dark fuscous. Abdo-
mt'n dark fuscous, st'gmental margins partially white. Forewings sub-
oblong. costa mod<>rately arched anteriorly, a.pex: obtUSf.'. tenneu slightly
rounded, somewhat oblique; dark bronzy-fuscous; five very undefined
irregular transverse shades of whitc irroratioll, first three rather curved
or bent, fourth forming a clear white spot on costa be~·ond middle and
then a fine silvery quadrangular loop passing behind a transverse linear
discal mark of white irroration, fifth straight, interrupted above middle;
two or three silverv-metallic scales before termen above middle: cilia.
white with dark-fUscous shade (imperfect). Hiudwings light fusoous.
becoming darker towards termen; dorsal half with scattered whito scalE'S ;
a well-marked irregular white streak extending across dorsal half of wing
from disc at ! nearly to tornus. its lower half approximated to termen;
cilia white, with fuscous subbasal and post-median shades.
Mount Holdsworth (Hudson); one specimen. This and the two fol-
lowing species are closely allied and very similar. agreeing toge-ther in
haymg the antennae of a shortly pubescent-ciliated, whilst In S. tllarmarea,
which is also very superficially. they 11.1'<' ciliated with long
fascicles (3). ns is usual m the genus. S. m1'mst'l'a differs from the
other t,,'o m huying the antennae wholly dark fuseous, the forewingt.
obviousl, broader anteriorly. with costa more arched than in either of
the others. the whIte markings of forewings less defined. tho white
&treak of hindwings bl'Oad(.'r and more irrE'gular. I'eaching termen at
t trom apex and contInued almost to tornus.
Simaethis microlitha Yep.
Q. 9-10 mm. Head and thorax llToratcd WIth wlute abo"\'e: scaletl
of palpi longer and more projecting than in (VI'uiloga " antennae dotted
with wrote: abdomen with segmental margins strongly white. Fore-
wings more narrowed towards base than in miniBt'l'a. fasciae of white irro-
ration more strongly marked. fourth slender, but more sharply marked
and brightly sil,ery-metallic above discal mark and at apex of dorsal
section. Hindwings with white streak slender, regular, well-marked, ex-
tending t across wing from ! of disc to middle of termen and thenre
running partially interrupted near termen almost to tomus.
Arthur's Pass, 3,000 ft., in January; two sp(.'cimens. In my descrip-
tion of this species I included also the follo"ing, which I now separate
from it. and therefore specify the more characteristic points which diB-
tinguish the true ftticrolitha from the preceding and following species;
the character of the marking of hindwings is the most obvious of these.
Simaethis analoga n. sp.
O'~. 8-9 mm. Head dark fuseous, face and sides of crown lrrorated
WIth white. Palpi with whorls of dark-ruoous white-tipped scales, base
white. Antennae dark fuscous dotted with white, in 6 shortly pubescent-
ciliated. Thorax dark fuscous, somewhat sprinkled with white. inner
edge of pata.gia white. Abdomen dark ruoous, segmental margins strongly
white. Forewings rather elongate-triangular. costa gently arched, apex
obtuse, termen alightly rounded, somewhat oblique; dark bronzy-fusoous ;
three CUX'\'"ed cloudy transverse lmes of whit!' irroration on anterior half.
two posterior sometimes irregularly confluent; a white line beyond middle
forming s quadrangular loop behind a transverse-linear white discal mark,
upper side of loop silvery-metallic, lower absent, a silvery-metallio dot
on upper extremity of dorsal segment; a straight cloudy line of white
irroration from ~ of costa to tomus, interrupted above middle j a trans-
verse silven--metallic mark before termen above middle: cilia white with
two thick dark-fnscous lines, and dark patches at apex, middle of termen,
and toxnus. Hindwings ruoous, beooming dark fusoous posteriorly j a
very short white detached transverse mark before middle of termen, and
sometimes a dot on toxnus; cilia white, with two thick dark-fusoous lines.
Mount Arthur, 4,000 ft., in Jannarv; ten specimens. As explained
above. I originally regarded this as a furm of w'cro'fIi:IAa, but now think
it distinct. Doubtless more species of this group will be discovered in
the mountains. and an attempt should be made to ascertain their food-
Ereunetis acrodina n. sp.
~. 14 mm. Head whi1.ish-och.reous, hairs of forehead slightly mixed
with dark fuscous. Antennae ~y-wb.itish, basal joint with a blackish
MEYRICK.-lJescriptions of New Zealalw Lepidoptera. 123

spot. Palpl whitish, second joint streaked With dark fuscous aboye and
beneath. termmal joint dark fusc'ous towards base. Thorax whitish-
ochreous. shoulders with a dark-{uscous spot. Abdomen ochreous-whitish.
Forewings elongate, narrow, costa moderately arched; apex round-pointed,
upturned, termen extremely obliquely rounded; greyish-ochreous, with a
few dark-fuscous scales; markinp;s fuscous mixed with blackish; four
oblique patches from costa, more or Ipss confluent with a broad irregular
submedian streak from near base to apex. first near base. second broadest,
before middle, third narrow, fourth reduced to a streak; an irregular dark-
fuscous apical spot surrounded with white: Clba whitish, with an inter-
rupted black subbasal line, and fuSCOUB post-median line, tips fuscous at
apex. Hindwings grey-whitish; cilia whitish, at apex With two dark-
grey lines.
Wellington (Hudson); one spccimel l • Iutel"mcdidte between prebil'lfill
(which has hitherto stood rather isolated) aud '''''lUI
Taleporia Rb.
The genus Ta1eporia haa not previously been identified fl"OID the
Southern Hemisphere, but the following species agrees fully with it,
except that veins 7 and 8 of the forewings are separate, whel'eas in tht'
typical European species they are stalked; in this group, however. this
character is of little importance, and I have no hesitation in regarding
the species as a true Talep()ria. a. very intt'restinp; discoyery.
Taleporia aphrostcha n. sp.
<1 22 mm. Head, palpi, snd antennae dark fuscous, antennal clllll.-
tiona 2~. Thorax dark fuscous, with several whitish dots posteriorly.
Abdomen dark grey, somewhat whitish-mixed. Forewings elongate, rather
narrow at base, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse,
termen obliquely rounded; all veins separate; white, mixed "ith grey
m disc and towards costa, coarsely reticulated throughout with dark
fuscous; the white colour forms a more conspicuous quadrate spot on
dorsum before middle, including a dark - fusrous dorsal strigula, and
preceded and followed by irregular dark-fuscous spots: cilia fuscous,
basa.l half spotted with white. Hindwings dark grey; cilia fuseaus.
!j1 apterous, active.
Hump Ridge. Invercargill, 3,500 ft. (Philpott); a pail' in De{'emhel'.

Porina copularis n, sp.
~ 38-40 mm., !j1 44-50 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreoUti, some-
times partially tinged with fusoous. Antennae in ~ shortly bipeetinated
with fiattened-wedgc-shaped teeth. (2), Abdomen pale ochreous, in !j1 in-
fusca.ted except anal tuft. Forewings formed nearly as in wnbraculata,
but costa more amuate; pale ochreous, in !j1 tinged with fuscous; a white
dot finely edged with dark fuscous in disc at !, and an elongate mark
beyond middle; in ~ sometimes a smaller dot beneath submedian fold
rather beyond :first; a faint pale irregular bllluate transverse shade at f,
sometimes marked with 8. few indistinct fuseous strigulae, and sometimes
a. series of indistinct fuscous dots beyond this: cilia whitish-ochreous,
barred with ochreous or greyish-o{'hreous. Hindwings pale flw>ous tinged
with ochreous; eilia 88 in forewings.
West Plains, Inwreargill (PhIlpott); five spe{'imens.
124 TranRaction~.

Porina jocosa 11. hP.

a 40-44 rom.. ~ 44-51 nUll. Head and thorax varying from lIght
fuseous or brownish-oC'hreous to dark fusoous, posterior extremity of thorax
sometImes whItish. Autennat' in c1 shortly bipeetinated with :fiattcned-
wedge-shaped teeth (2). Abdomen fuscous or ochreous. Forewings formed
nearly dS in copulari8. but slightly broader and less elongate; fuscous,
sometimes dark fuscous in disc. in one a ochreous-brown: a white or
,,,,hitish dot edged with dark fuscous in disc towards base (in !jl sometimes
absent), it second at i, sometimes enlarged into an Irregular spot or
lengthened posteriorly into a &treak, and an irregular longitudinal mark
somewhat beyond midCUe: in a some whitish suffusion or ring-marks
towards dorsum anteriorly; a confluent irregular series of small dark
whitish-rmged sometimes pale-centred marks ('rossmg wing about ~. more
defined in a. sometimes preceded in disc by n partial second series of
similar marks. sometimes connected ",ith a whitish patch beneath middle
of disc: a whitish ring-mark on costa. be-fore apex: a terminal series of
small dcl.rk semiLllcula! spots edged with whitish: cilia whitish or whitish-
ochreous. barred with fuseous 01' dark fuscous. Hindwings fuscous, in
(me a suffmed with light ochreous: cilia as in forewings.
\\' est Plains, Invercargill (Philpott); six specimens.

Sabatinca Walk.
This generic name supersedes Palaeo'micfa Meyr., but I haye formed
a new genus. JlJicropa'l'duliB. to contain i/,(Jrozena Meyr.
Sabatinca caustica n. sp.
1. 9-10 mm. Head and thorax bronzy-orange-ochroous, thorax some-
times marked with whitish. Antennae ochreous, towards apex blackish.
Abdomen dark purple-grey. Forewings ovate-lanceolate, costa moderately
arched. apex pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded; violet-coppery-
ochreous. in one specimen largely suffused with whitish; in one specimen
a spot of da.rk purple-fuscous suffusion on dorsum. towards base, one in
disC' beyond middle. and some irregular marking towards termen. and in
the whitish-suffused specimen the dark purple-fuscous suffusion forms a
blotch alonp: anterior portion of costa connected with a large oblique blotch
in middle of disc. a streak along dorsum from base to f. a subterminal
fasc1a enclosing a white llpot on costa. and a mark along termen in middle,
but in the other two specimens there no markings: cilia golden-
ochreous_ Hindwings deep purple; cilia pale golden-ochreous.
Seaward Moss, Invercargill. in October (Philpott); four specimens.
The amount of variation is remarkable. but all the specimens were taken
together. a.nd are undoubtedly the same species: the shape of forewings
is oharacteristic. being more pointed than in a.ny other species. The species
may be placed between ZOt'IOtloza and M'1IBm'gyra.
Sabatinca incongruella Walk.
This supersedes ckalcophanea Meyr.
Sabatinca calliarcha n. sp.
~. 12 mm. Head lliI;ht bronzy - ochreous. hairs extremely long.
Antennae pale ochrE-ous ringed with dark fuscous. Thorax clothed
Mnmf'K.-lJesrrzpflOIlS of .rtll' Zea[tl/u/ Lupiuopte)·.L 125

WIth long bronzy-ochreous ham" benE'ath which 1& a whIte Lent stripe
on each sidc of back. Abdomen blackish, apex ochreous - whitisl).
Forewings elongate-ovatc, costa moderately arched. apex obtuse, termen
very obliquely rounded j yellow j dorsum suffused with ferruginous-
brown, with H few black scales on cdge j four golden-whitish streaks
from costa between base and ~ converging towards posterior half of
dorsum, first edged po&teriorly with ferruginous-brown mixed with indigo-
black, hardly rea.ching dorsum. other three margined on both sidl's with
ferruginous - brown streaks and on costa. with black, second and fourth
reaching dorsum, third rea.ching a.bout half across wing; posterior area
ferruginous-brownISh somewhat mixed with pale yellowish, with an me-
gular black dot in disc ali i. and four black dots on costa edged
with golden-whitish j a thick black streak lying along termen from near
apex to tomus, edged with ochreous-yellowish a.nd interrupted to form So
long upper a.nd short lower portion, upper portion including two ~olden­
meta.llic terminal dots; cilia light ochreous-yellowish, with a violet-coppery
basal line edged externa.lly with grey. Hindwings deep purple. disc and
veins blackish j cilia blackish-grey.
Bluecliff, Inverrargill, in December (Philpott); one fine specImen.
This is a beautiful and remarkably distinct species, showing some super-
ncial a.pproximation to Mioropardalis aor(X1;ffl(J, but structurally a true
Sabati'l&Ca in all respects. 1 regard it. however, as the earliest form of
the genus. I entertain no doubt that other forms of this primitive family
remain to be discovered in New Zealand, and, as they are amongst the
most important and interesting elements of the fauna, it is very desirable
that collectors should make special efforta to find them. Probably the
larvae feed on mosses, and Conifer forcsts a.rc the most likely
locality, especia.lly in the early part of the season, perhaps before
collectors usually take the field. The perfect insects fly in the sunshine,
but in partiall~' shaded places, and arc sometimes extremely difficult to
Since writing the ahow. additional matlmal h&i> bcrll submitted to me,
which includf>s thl' two fonowin~ species ;-
Eucosma querula n. Bp.
S~. 21-28 mm. Hcad. palpi. aud thorax dark fuscoU&. Abdomen
fuscous, not hairy. Forewings elougatc-triangular, costa. gently arched, in
r1 with very short and narrow basal fold, apex obtuse, termen rounded,
rather oblique j purplish-bronzy-fuscous suffusedly mixed and strigulated
with dark fuacous j costa obscurely palc-strigulated on posterior i; a
whitish or ochr(.>ous-whitish dot in disc at : j two or threc variable curved
transverse series of small dark-fuscous spots or dots betwc.>en this and
termen ; cilia fuscous. with darkt'r line near base. Hilld wings fuscous.
posteriorly sometimes faintly darkl'r-strigulated: in c3 without speoial
cha.raeters ; cilia pal(' fuscous.
Christchurch and Wellington. in April (PhIlpott, Hudson) j four specimens.
I have also two !j! from Queensland which I refer with little doubt to this
specipsj I suppose it to be indigenous in Australia (and very likely in some
of the Malayan islands), and to have been reoently introduced into New
Zealand. It belongs to a group of several Indian and Malayan speoies
which are almost exactly alik(' in superficial appearancl'. hut possess good
charactl'r:. for disCliminatlOll III the secondary sexual structures of the cr
-viz., the costal fold of forewings, the folding and tufting of the dorsal
margin of hindwings, and the plesence of hairy tufts on the:> abdome:>n.
Sabatinca quadrijuga n. sp.
~. 13 mm. Head pale-greYlsh. Antenlllle dark fuscous. Thorax
purplish. Abdomen grey, lateral claspers and bupraanal projection longer
and narrower than in caustt'ca. Forewings ovate-lanceolate, less acute than
in ca'U8tica, stalk of 7 and 8 extremely short; deep purple, irregularly mlxed
with coppery-golden, darker and bluish on costa; four subquadro.te
ochreous-whitish spots on costa between base and 1, larger anteriorly, and a.
dot towards apex: cilia grey-whitish, with several dark-grey bars. Hind-
wings violet-grey, darker towards apex; cilia grey-whitish, 011 costa barred
with grey suffusion.
Invercargill (Philpott); onE' spE"Cimen received through thl! kiudnt.-ss of
lit. Hudson.

ABT. X.-Notl!lI nil SOIIIf' Draqm"..fltfS /roll/ tke Ker'l'tzadl'l' Islands.

By R. J. TILLYAl!.D. M.A., F.E.S.
,Read be/Mil 'lip WellIngton PhllOMJplllcal Society. 90, A.u(/u6l. 1911 ,

IN a small collection forwarded to me by Mr. A. Hamilton, of We1lington,

New Zealand, five species are represented, four being species of wide
distribution in the Australasian region, and the fifth (represented by a.
solitary female) probably & local race of tt. widely distributed oceanic
genus of which the species and races have not yet been correctly worked
out. They are the follmving.

Subfam. LmBlLLuLINAE.
1. Tramea sp., 1 !F (label No.2).
Somewhat immature, and of pale rolOl'&tion. The dark patch at the-
base of the hindwings is exceedingly 8lllall. and does not spread down-
wards into the anal area8 of the wing. The male of the insert should be
obtained, as from the form of the ~ appendages and p:enitalia. the species
could be determined with certainty. I am of opinion that this will prove
to be & local race of a. widely distributed oceanic species. The genus
is hlghly migratory. and one species is rapidly travelling down the east
coast of Australia, and getting a strong hold there.

2. Hemicordulia australiae Rambur (label No.3).
2 ~. 2 In good condition. & dark tt.lld handsome form, practically
identical in size and colouring with the speoimens found in the Sydney
distriC"t. This beautiful species. recogniza hIe by tht' brilliant metallic-green
TILT,n.R]) -/)rfl{loll-fhr, from tllr K rrmodec [,taMII. 127

frontal pa.tch on thc head. and the sharp spille on the underside of
the malc appendagcs, has never before been recorded outside Australia.
It rangcs {rom Victoria, through New Routh Wales, to northern Queens-
land, but does not occur west of the mountain-ranges. Its capturt'
in the Kennadcc Isla.nds IS therefore of conslderable interest. The genus
Hemicordulia is post-Miocene, so that the oocurrenoe of this species may
be taken as eVldence of la.te la.nd connection between Australia and the
Kcrmadecs. The species IS non-mlgratory, and does not oCCur in Tas-
mania, though exceedingly common on the northern short'S of B~s Strait.
The inference, therefore, IS that the Kermadecs may have been united
lD some way, possibly via New Caledonia and Queensland. to Australia
since the time (' Miocene) when Tasmania became separated. We should
also expeot, possibly, to find this species on Lord Howe a.nd No:rf.olk
I'liands. whose Odonate fauna llote still unknown. 1i
Sub£a.m. Al!:SCHNINAE.
3. Hemianax papuensis Burmeister (label No. 1, ~). J
l~. Immature. but a nne specimen (appendages broken). Common
all over New Guinea and AustralIa, except Tasmania, where it is absent.
A strong flier, but not migratory. This reinforces the evidence of No.2,
HertWmaa: also being a Miocene or post-Miocene genus.
4. Aeschna brevistyla Rambur, 2 ~ (label No. 1, ~).
One specimen immature, one mature. Tllis inseot 18 found a.ll over
Australia, except in the most northern pa.rts. It also oocurs in Tasmania.
In New Zealand a somewhat smaller and darker form oocurs, which, though
-clearly conspecifir with the Australian, may be distinguished at once from
it by its abdomen being exoeedingly pinched at the third segment, and
its membranule verv dark. with only a. little white at the base. The
Kmnadf'(' specimens' are idf'ntical with the New form.

5. Ischnura aurora Br,ner (= I. aeUoata SelY<I). (lnhel No.4).
5 &" 6~. A very beautiful species, of wide distribution, ranging
froni the islands nortJJ. of Australia, through Austra.lia, to Tasmallia. In
Western Australia a dimorphic female, coloured. like the male, occurs.
The male has a bright-red abdomen shading to black. with a blue tip;
the ordinary £emaIl' is dull-blaokish. These Kermadeo specimens are
practically identical with any series of this insect taken round Sydney.
In conclusion, therefore. thIS small (.'Olleotion shows the Kermader
Odot&ata to have a strong Austl'8.lian element (three species out of five), "
New Zealand element (one species), and an oceanic eleml"nt (one species)
128 Tramartlons.

A.Rr. Xl.- .YII,Cl'llulI(,()UI! Sotes on. some Selt' ZrII/r£TU{ (.'rul.itlicea.

By CHARLE~ CHILTON. M.A .. M.B., D.Sc., F.L.S., Professo), of Biology.
Canterbury Collep;e, University of New Zealand.
[RellCl before thl> Pllllo~ophicaZ III!btute of Oanterbwy, 8th September. 1911.]

TIDb short paper contains a few miscellaneous notes that helve been made
durmg recent years on some New Zealand C'I'ust{l,(l('a. Though there are
many othet questions that requir(' to be settled, and several groups that
need thorough re'\;sion. it has been thought "'orth while publishing thC8~
few notes as they stand. though they are necessaruy somE'what discon-
llE'cted. donO. 0.('11.1 'nth s('sttered members of the Ctwdacl'a.

Order DEC'APoDA.
Hymenosoma lacustris Chilton.
Elrltluna \~) lacustril> Chilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 1-:1., p. 172,
pI. 8. 1882. H?(,menosoma lacustris Chilton, Truns. N.Z. Inst.,
vol. 15, p. 69, 1883; Fulton and Gl·snt. Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria.
vol. 15, p. 59. pI. 8, 1902; Chilton, P.Z.S. for 1906, p. 'i03, 1906.
This lWlaU fresh-water cl'&b was originally descri1ed ll'ODl Lake
Takapuna (or "Pupuke "), near Auckland, which is quite nea.r the sea-
coast. and for a long time this was the only locality from which it
was known, and it was a little uncertain whether it ,vas a genuine fresh-
water form or a relict species that had only comparatively recently dE'-
yeloped in Lake Takapuna. In 1902, however, Messrs. Fulton and Grant
recorded the spedes from Lake Comc, in Yictoria, and about the
time I received s~yera.l specimens n'Om ~orfolk Island. Specimens
from a.ll these localities were examined by Messrs. Fulton and Grant,
and, although there are a. few shght differences, thestl were found to be
not constant. and they decided to consider all th... forms as b...longing to
the one species.
In 1903 two specimens of the crab were found by Messrs. Hodgkin
and Lucas in Lake Waikare, in Auckland, which is a considerable distance
from the coast; and in the early part of this year (1911) IL few specimens
undoubtedly belonging to the same species were sent to me by Mr.
Cheeseman from the Waipa River.
It seems evident from the above facta that the species is a widely
distributed inhabitant of fresh waters, and its occurrence in the fresh
waters of :Sew Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Victoria. presents a problem
of some interest in connection with the geographical distribution of the
C'1tlstacea. In connection with this point, it is, however, worth while
stating that the fresh-water shrimp in Norfolk Island and Victoria is
Xip1tooaris compreSBIJ De Haan, and is quite different from the species,
."t. cv.rtJi708tris Heller. which is found in nea.rl)· all the fresh-\vater streams
of New Zealand. and occurs also in tbe Chatham Islands.
UHILTON.-Note, on oomt .New Zealand CruEotaC6a. 12U

Munida gracilis Henderson.

11ltM1tda qracuI6 Hl'nderson, Ann. Ma.g. Nat. HISt .. sel. '5, vol. 16,
p. 4.11, 1885; and" Challenger" Reports, vol. 27, p. 143, pI. 3,
fig. 6, 1888.
Three imperfect speCImens found In the stomach of a fish, KlUkoura.
'fhese agree very closely with Henderson's descriptions. but they are
of much larger size. One of them, a female bearing eggs, has the follow-
ing dimensions: Length of body, 54, mm.; breadth of carapace, 16 mm. ;
length of cara-pace, 19 mm.; length of rostrum, 13 mm. : length of chali-
Two specimens wel'1l taken by thl:' .. Challenger ,. at Station 166, west
of New Zealand, at a depth of 275 fathoms. but so far as I am tht>
species has not been seen since until the specimens now described were
handed over to me by Mr. Waite. Curator of the Canterbury Museum.

Cryptodromia lateralis Gray.

Crgptoarom.ia Zateralis Miers, Cat. N.Z. Crust., p. [17, 1876; G. M.
Thomson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 81, p. 170, pI. 20. figs. 1 and 2.
1898; Hutton, N.Z. Journ. Sci .. vol. 1, p. 264, 1882.
ThIs specles was recorded from New Zealand by Heller, and specimen!!
in the British Museum collections were referred to it with Borne doubt
by Miers ,vhen he was preparing the:' .. Catalogue of thp New Zealand
Crustacea." In 1882 Hutton included It in a list of speclcs which had
been recorded from New Zealand. and might really belong to New Zea-
land. although at the time he wrote they were not represented in any
loca.l collections kno,vn to him. This ,vas still the case ,vhen Thomson
prepared his t. Revision of the Crustacea Anomm8," in 1897. Two or
three years ago, however, I rereivcd from Captain Bolloilli a specimen,
dredged in Hauraki Gulf at a depth of 22 fathoms, that undoubtedly
belongs to this species, so that, lill' sO ...le of the other e.pecies fust re-
corded from New Zealand by Hell'l a.nd since considered doubtful. it is
found 11l New Zealand S.!aB, though. apparently, only o('casionally. 'lhe
species it! also knowll from Ausi ralia and Tasmania.


Leucothoe traillii G. M. Thomsoll.

L'ucollloe traillii G. 1\1. Thomson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 14, p. 234,
pI. 18. fig. 1 a-d, 1882; Stebbing, DcIo!I Tierrt!ich Amphip .. p. 164,
1906. L. trirlens, Ste:'bbing, Rep. Voy ... Challenger," vol. 29,
p. 777, pl. 47, 1888; Chilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 38, p. 268,
1!:05; Stcbbinl!:, Das Tierreich Amphip" p. 166, 1906.
I have no doubt these two species should be combined. I had
identified specimens from Hauraki Gulf as L. tridens Stebbing, but T find
that they are the same as a Lyttelton specimen that I had years ago
referred to L. traiUii G. M. Thomson, and I find from comparison of these
with named specimens of this species since received from Mr. Thomson
that no difference ca.n be detected between them. Mr. Thomson de-
scribes the dactyl of the first gnathopod as being U finely serrated on its
inner margin," but in all m\· specimens it appears quite smooth. In Mr.
Thomson's mounted specimen the dactyl lies cloSt' up HF(Rinst the propod.
130 l'ranulrtionf.

and its inner wdorgill ('1l1111Ot l:>e clea.rly speno but it Il.ppeal's smooth then'
also. In his original des(mption l'.!tpbhill~ descriues the telson as haviug
.. the minute apex microscopically trid('utate," and figures it all distillrtl~·
tmlputate: in the .. Das Til.'tl'eich" uetlcription h(' simply says, •. apex
a. little obtuse," which perhaps more accuratel~- dellcribrs thc u.ppearlll1(·(·
(If rl.o telson in those specimenl! that I havp pxamine(l.
Hab.-Ha\U'aki Gulf (25 fathoJlll!). Paterson Inlet (10 fathoms). Tllk('n
ILIS(I III Nt'w ZPaland tleas by the .. Challeng('t" (2.000 fathoms).

Pontogeneia danai (G. 3I. Thonu,on) .

..tty/us dania. A.. danai G. lI. Thomson, Trans. N.Z. Inst.. vol. 11.
pp. 238. 248. pI. lOll'. fig. 1. 1879. Pontoyeneia danai Stebbing.
Dab Tierreich Amphip., p. 360. 1906. Atylu8 lippus Haswell,
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 4, p. 328. pI. 20. fig. 1. 1880, and
Cat. Aust. Crust .. p. :143, 1882: Chilton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W ..
"01. 9, p. 1037. 1885. Eusiroidl!8 lippu8 Stabhing, Das Tiel-
reich Amphip., p. 346. 1906; Stebbing, ResultR .. Thptis " Exped .
lleDloir Aust. Mus .. '-01. 4. p. 639. 1910.
Lvttelton, Akaroa. Dunedin (G. lI. Thomson), Bluff (L. CO<'kayne),
~tewart Island (H. B. Kirk). Also Port Jackson, New South Wnles, nnd
Portland, Victoria.
Very common ill rock-pools; colour very variable.
Closely allied to P. antal'ctioo Chevreux, from which it differs in having
overy 4th (or 5th) segment of flagellum of antennules dilated and the
dilatation more prominent.
A.tylus Uppus Haswell is put down b~' Stebbing as an obscure species
of E'llsiroides. I ha\"e. however, several specimens from Sydney Harbour
a.nd other pia res in Australia which seem undoubtedly to belong to Has-
\\-ell's species, and they certainly should be placed under Pomogeneia, and
a comparison of them with New Zealand specimens shows that they are
th<> same as P. ,lanai G. )1. Thomson. a species des('!'ibed a ~'ear earlil.'r.

Paraleptamphopus subterraneus (Ohilton).

Parall'pfampkopu8 8ubtl'l'J'!ttteU8 (Ohilton), Trans. N.Z. lnst., \'01. 4:1,
p. 5-1 (with synonomy).
III thc paper quoted abo,-e I gave the localitiel! from which the spel'ies
bad been found up to that time. Shortly u.fterwards, on the 24th De-
cenlber, 1908, I took it a.mong moss, &c., ill a. small mountain-stream at
Duck Cove, Dusky Sound. The specimens were perhaps slightly yellower
than those found underground, but showed no sign of eyes, and ill I),ll
other respects seem quite the same as those first found in the underground
waters of the OanterbuIT Plains.
In January, 1911, lir. W. F. Howlett sent me specimens from Eke-
tahuna, which had been obtailled from n well in the same way as those
originally got from the Canterbury Plains. The only previous record from
the North Island had been one specimen obtained in Lake Taupo, at a
depth of 700 ft.. by Messrs. Hodgkin and Lucas.
It is evident that this species is even now wide1r distributed through-
out New Zealand. usually inhabitin~ underground waters, but o('casion-
lilly found also in surfacE' stl't'ams.
CHU,TOX.-Xofl' Oil ;.IHIII' Xl It' Z"'Il/trlltl ('I'U<o,tIlCCI\ 131

Elasmopus viridis IHaswell).

Jloera t'iTldi,~ HaswE'll, Proc. Linn. RoC'. N.t:;.W .. yol. 4, p. 333.
pI. 21, fil.!, 1, 1879. J1. illcrrtll Chiltoll. Trulls. N.Z. Inst ..
yol. L5. p. 83. pI. 3, fig. 3. lR83. El((slno/,Ils t'ir;ciis Stl'uhinp,.
Das Tierrcich Amphip .. p. ·1-15, l!)o6.
&!wrll.l specimell!:! from Il:Ilnnd Bay. Wellill~t()n (Farquhar coIL), wor...
ill )11'. a. M. Thomson's colll,etion. Thc> IIp('('ies ill kU(lWll from Australia
\vhl'n I descrihed this species under the name Mocra incerta I had
seel! only specimens in which the second gnathopod had the palm straight
-i.e.. the female!:!. Since then I have seen a few in which the palm has
a slight central cavity, as described by Haswell and Stebbing. though the
l':n-rity is by no means so deep as that shown in Haswell's figures; I
think. therefore. that Stebbing is right in uniting, the two species. These
lI}Je('imens, are, I presume. males, and it is wOl'thy of note that in this
species the females have the secolld gnathopods approximatl'ly as largl'
as those in the mules. and. with the c'xception of thf' Jllllm. of the saml'
g_l>nf':ral ilha PI.'.
Phronima novae-zealandiae Powdl.
Phronit1w llO!'(/c-zcala"tlia(' Hutton. Index Fawlae N.Z., p. 25fi.
Thill is a common pelagic form often washed up 011 the sandy beRches
of New Zealand. In .Tune. 1911, two specimens w~r~ found at Sumner.
'\\"h~re Powell's type specimens were captured. and were sent on to m~ b~·
Pl'Ofessor Park, of Dunedin. III March, Mr. C. Ba.rham Morris, of Oamaru.
sent me a mounted slide of a small P1mmiflla taken at Tomahawk Bea.t'll.
DUlledin. This specimen appeared to be identical with the one referred
t-o P. pacifica Streets by Stebbing in the " Challenger" Reports (p. 1350).
As P. pacific(/ had not been preYiously recorded from New Zealand, I WI'ott'
to lUI'. Moms asking if he had further specimens, and in reply ,vas ill'
formed that the small specimens were taken along with ordinary IOl'gt'
Kpecimens which he considered to be P. novae-zw!andiae.
I find from the e:xnmination of one of the larp:e speciruPlls kindly
fOlwarded by him that this identification is quit(' corrcct, and it appears
!llmost certain, thereforl', that the small specimens taken at the sam('
time are simply immature forms of P. 11DVae-::ealandiae. Most of them
mea.sure about 4 mm. in length. The" Challenger" specimen, which wall
taken ill the Atlantic Or(,8n, off Sif'rra Leone, was" -/.; in:' in length, lind
was therefore probably an immature fonn also.
P. ]lacifica was originally desClibed b)· Streets from the North Pacifk·
l)t'ean. and was said to be distinguished from p, Bedentaria by tht! br08dl~'
quadrate form of the carpus of the third pair of thoracic feet and by
haying the carpus of the second gnathopods less produced anteriorly. It
was also pointed out that there was a striking resemblance of the smaller
specimens of P. pacifica and the corresponding pal'i:s of P. atlafltica, which
is said to be the female of P. sede'fIJatia. It appears, then, that there is
some suspicion that P. pac'ifica is not a distinct species, but perhaps an
immature stage.
(Tnfortunately, I am unable to consult all the literature necessary Ull
thill point, but the forms I have seen undoubtedly seem to be the young
of P. MOt't(k'-zt'a 1andial', and if not identical with P. pacifjea are extrt'mely
132 Tran"aceiont.

close to it. Trus sel!ms tu Illdke it more probable that P. l'WIJfJt'-u-a/anduw

is identical with P. sede9lfnrja. as was sug!!:ested b~' Stebbing ill the
" Challenger" Report.
Order IflOPODA.
Iais pubescens (Dana) vlI.r. longistylis nov.

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in t~le longer
uropods, which are fully half 8S long as the pleon; the peduncle 18 shorter
than the rami, and may be slightly dilated at the distal end; the outer
ramus is almost or quite as long as the inner, but slightly more slender.
and has long setae, usually at the end only; the inner ramus has long
setae both at the end and at a point some distance from the end.
Hob.-On Sphaeroma quoyana, Marlhorough Sounds and Hawke's Bay.
Also on specimens of the same species mm Sydney Harhour.
I have had specimens of this variety for severol years. The dif-
ference between it and the typical form of the species is sometimes so
distinct that I have at times almost been inclined to give it a different
specific name, especially as it appears to be always associated with a
difierent species of Sphaeroma. I find, howe-veT. that Inis pubescens found
on Spkaeroma giqas shows considerable variation in the length of the
uropods; I have one specimen from Lyttelton. which has them much
longer than usual, and approaching the condition found in the variet~·
now described, while others from Port Chalmers have the uropods much
shorter, with the outer ramus very small and only about half as long as
the inner one. I can, moreover, find no constant points of difierence
except in the uropoda, and therefore prefer to look upon the form found
on S. quoyntla as merely a variety of the species.

Haliacris neozelanica (Chilton) .

.llu,m" neozelat~ica Chilton, Ann. & lIag. Nat. Rist., ser. 6, vol. 9,
p. 1, pl. 1 and 2, 1892. Haliacris neozelanica ChiltOll, Subant.
Islands N.Z., p. 650, 1909 .
.A number of specimons that appear to belong to this species wete taken
at Waikawa Bay, in Queen Charlottf' Sound, near Picton. in JUly, 1910.
They were found in considerable numbers creeping 011 the under-surfac~
of stones in a fresh-water stream at a point a little above high-water mark,
the water at that place being at the time quite fresh, though it would be
probably more or less influenced by high tides. The animals were all very
small, and I have not been able to find one having the charaeteristic deve-
lopment of the first pair of legs of the adult male; but, 80 fur as can be
seen, the specimens are not structumlly different from those gathered at
the type locality in Port Chalmers. though the,- have the body rather
darker in colour. .
One similar specimen was also taken at Portage, on Kenepuru Sound,
also at the mouth of a small stream, and in both cases specimens of
Phreotogammarus propif&qU'Us were taken at the same time and place.
ltany years ago I collected one or two specimens in a similar situation at
Waitati Estuary, Otago, but they were so minute that an exact identifica-
tion at the time was impossible.
Structurally these fresh-water or brackish-water specimens do not
seem to differ from the typically marine form. but there seems not mu('h
CnIl.TO:Y .-.roled 011 home fl't!UI Zl'oZllIul U,·ulitace.a.. 133

douht that they do differ considerably in habit, and perhaps should be

looked upon as a special variety. All the specimens found were quite
small, not more than 2 mm. in length, Ilond it is, of course, possible that·
only the young stage is passed tID:ough in the stream, and that as the
animals be('ome older they take to the st'a.

Jaeropsis curvicornis (Ni('olet).

JfIt8ra curvwornis Nicolet in Gay's Rist. fis. y pol. de Chile, vol. 8,
p. 268, pl. 3, fig. 10, 1849. Jaeropsis neo-zelanioa Chilton.
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 24, p. 267, 1892. J. cwrvioornis H.
Richardson, Trans. Connect. Acad. ~ci., vol. 11, p. 298, 1902;
Stebbing, Ceylon Pearl Fisheries Report, pt. 4, p. 51, pI. 11 (0),
1905. J. patagoniensis H. Richardson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus ..
vol. 36, p. 421 (with figure), 1909.
I havt' specimens of this species from Akaroa., T.~ylor's Mistake, and
Lyall Bay. Tht' colour S6CIruI somewhat variable, the dorsal surface being
a light brown and legs whitish; in one specimen, however, the brown
colour was present 0111y on the posterior part of the head and the first four
segments of the paraeon, the remainder of the dorsal surface being whitish.
The Abron. speoimen, which I described in 1892 under the name J aeropsis
neo-zeZanica, is a very small one, only about 2 mm. in length; one of
the specimens from Taylor's Mistake is considerably larger, being 5 mm.
in length, and oomparison of this, which I have no doubt belongs to the
same species as the Akaroa and other specimens, enables me to give some
points in which the larger and presumably adult specimen differs from
the small immature ones. In the larger specimen the ilagellum of the
antennae is considerably longer than in the other specimens, and cOllBists
of about twelve joints, the first one being much the largest, as long as the
:remainder together, and being broadly expallded. In this specimen, too.
the sides of thl' pleon are smooth, except for a small tooth about a third
the length from the postenor ond. In small specimens the sides of the
pleon are somewhat serrated, the last serration, which corresponds with
the one still prt'sl.'nt in the older specimen, being slightly tho most pro-
All the spec it's of this gOllUti appear very closely similar, and from what
has been said above it seOlDS probo.blo that some of them han been esta-
blished on small and possibly imma.ture specimens. I think Mr. Stebbing
is right ill uniting J. neo-zeZanica with J. (JuTlJicornis (Nicolet). and the
specimens which he describes from the Gulf of Manaar certainly seem to
be close enough to be placed under this species. I have no doubt also
that the specimens more recently described by Miss H. Richardson undel'
the name J. patagcmiensis also belong here, the pleon agreeing closely with
that of my larger specimen; the other points she mentions, as regards
colour, &c., are hardly of specific importance; the lobe at the front of the
head is desoribed and figured by her as having a small point in the centre,
while in my specimens it is rounded in front. Nicolet his specimens
with this lobe slightly concave in front, and, in any case, the difference
appears to be very trifling. J. mMioms Miers, taken by the .. Challenger"
off Marion Island, seems to be pretty closely a.llied. but, as represented
by Miers, has the joints of the antennae much less expanded, and the
uropoda are perhaps rather different in strncture.
134 l' I'll II ~(/I'fioll".

Sphaeroma quoyana Milne-Edwards.

SphaetIJltlfl quotJfl1lf1 :\Iilne-Edwal'ds. Hist. Nat. del! Crust .. VIII. Ill.
p. :206. 1840: Heller, Reise del' Novara. D'Ust. p. 137. It-l68:
Hdsw~ll. Cat. Aust. ('rust., p. 287. 1882; Hedley, Rep. Aw-t.
Assoc .. yol. 8. p. 239, pI. 10, fig. 1. 1901. S. verl'uenudrt Whitt',
List Cmst. Brit. Mus .. p. 102 (sitU, deset.), 1847; Dana. G.F:.
Explor. Exped .• vol. 14. Crust., pt. 2. p. 779, pI. 52, :fill. I). 1853;
Miers. Cat. N.Z. Crust .. p. 111, 1876; Haswell. Cat. Aust. Crust.
p. 288. 1882; Hutton, Index Faunac N.Z., p. 263, 1904: Stpb-
bing. Spolia Zeylanica. vol. 11. pt. 5, p. 21, 1904:; Hallsell. Q.•J.
lIicro. Sor .. vol. 4:9, pt. 1. p. 116. 1905; Hedle)T. Rep. Aru;t.
Asso('.. yolo 8. p. 239. 1901.
Spnael'oma quoyalill was described hy Milne-Edwards in 1840 from
Australian specimens. but nothing appears to have been recorded hy him
Itbout its borinp: habits. Haswell had not seen tht' spccies when preparing
the" Catalogue of the Australian Crustacea."
In 1853 Dana described a species under the name of S. vel'rucaudfl.
from the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, his specimens having been found
.. in rotten wood in C8nties bored by Tel'edo." Miers, in his "Catalogue
of the Nt'w Zealand Crustacea," in 1876, records the species from" Aurk-
land, Hobson's Bay." and notes that these specimens inhabited" similar
cavities in a piect' of sandstone." He also mentioned that spt'cimens from
Port Jackson. Australia, were in the colleetions of the British Museum.
hut that the Yew Zealand specimens were much mort' hairy than thoKe
from Australia. :Many years ago Mr. J. Macmahon sent me numeroUR
specimens that I identified as S. t'effucauda, which he found boring into
soft sandstone on the shores of Kellepuru Sound, and in July, 1910. I found
similar specimens in the neighbouring Queen Charlotte Sound, and wa~
a.ble to see for mV'st'lf be,ond doubt that the holes in the sandstoll(, wer~'
bored by the Sp'itael'oma and not by a Teredo; the holes ,ary in size
from 2 mm. to i mm. in diameter, lind wt're occupied by SpnaermllllP
(If corresponding Hizes, and there was no trace of any Terer10 ill thf"
In 1901 Ht'dley. in a paper on the .• Marine 'Wood-borers of AUlitral-
.lsia," mentions both S. t,'errucm.ula and S. qtl.oyana, the latter hn\·inl!.
heen found borilljl, in wood in Sydney Harbour, and mentions that it
hardly difiers from S. t'el'rucauda. In 1903 I received from Mr. T. Whit~­
legge specimens of S. quoyarltl from S"dney Harbour, and in forwttrding
them he said, "S. quoya'lla is identical with specimens from Mr. Thom-
lIOn's collection labelled'S. verl"Ucauda.' ,. These specimens wer(' some of
those that had bet'n handed on bv me to Mr. Thomsoll.
I han now been able to compare specimens from different parts of
~ew Zealand, and also others, labelled ., S. fJuoya'lla." from Victoria and
Tasmania. and I quite agree with Mr. 'TIrltelegge that the two species
should be united. The species belongs to the same section of Sphaermnfl
I\S S. terebrans Spence Bate and the other species found boring illtl)
\vood in various parts of the world, and the fact that l:;' Qlloflfl1la ill
undoubtedly ahle to bore into sandstone 8e('ms worth" of definit",
reooM. . .
1ais pubescms nr. lfmgistylis (see above) seems to be regularly asbO'
claud "ith S. qllOlfafI.Q as a commensal or semiparasitt' just 118 the typical
form of 1. PllbrSft't11l is ,vith SpMeroma gigas.
CHII:I'OX.-J'otu 011 ~o11lr XI'II' Zf'(t/((IIf/ Cnll>hlcp,1 130

Exosphaeroma chilensis (D<.IoI1<\).

8phae:roma chiletl.sts Dana, U.S. Expl. Expoo., CrUllt.. p. 177, pI. 5~.
fig. 3 a-r. 1853. EX08phflPlOIII(l chilensis Chilton, Rec. Cant.
MUll., \'01. 1, p. 310. 19 II.
TIIl'tot, speCimt'ub of this I!pl'rll'lI Weft' obtained at the Chatham Islands
.lurmg the trnwling cruise of the" Nora NiYen," antI are detlcribed in mr
report of the results of that cruise. I ha.d prc'viously had spl.'c·imens from
Lvttelton and Auckland. the lattpr c'olloctrd by Mr. Suter.
. The occurrence of thl' species in New Zealand is noteworthy as anothel
"ddition to the mat'ine spl'cietl common to New Zealand and to South
Livoneca raynaudii Milne-Ed\\ardl'o.
Ln'olll'ca rU!Jnamdii M.-Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 3. 1840, p. 262;
Thirlemann, Abhand. K. Bayer. Akad. d. Wissensch., 2, SuppI.
Bd .. 3 Abhand .. p. -12. 1910; Chilton, Re('. Cant. Mus., vol. 1.
p. 309, 1911.
r have discussed the lIynollomy of this species, which has 80 long beeu
I,.·nmm in New Zealand under the name of L. notVJe-zealandiae, in the paper
quoted above. The species is widely distributed in southern seas. and
Thielemann records it also from Yokohama. odding that it is closely allied
to L. cali/ornioa Sch. & M.. from the coast of California. L. epi/m,eri,(18
Ril.lhardson. from Japan, also seems to be very closely ('Ilied, but., accord-
ing to Miss Richardson, diffE'rs in the shape of the head and thE' epimE'll'a.

All1.. xn.-RepOlT at& /:Jundry Invl't·tebra.tes from thg Kcrllladec [s/m"'s.

By Professor BENHAM, D.Sc., F.R.!::) .• Otago Uuiversity.
LRead be/ore till! Utt,qo I n8titlltf. 3rt[ UrWber. 1911.,
lIB. OLI\'ER was good enough to hand to me (for the purpose of identm-
~'ation, or description if need be) representatives of various classes of
non-vertebrata collE'cted by hiln during his SOjOurll 011 Sunday Island.
Pnfortunately, my time has not allowed me to touch the OligooAaeta, the
Po7yckaeta. Yemcnini's, or parasitic worms. In this brief report there
.ne out' 01' two points upon which I have to express uncertainty, owing
to the lack of necessary literature; but it seems desirable to present this
list. itS I do not see any prospect of being in It ht'tter position in the
immediate futurl' to dt'sl morE' ful1~' with them.

Physalia utriculus Eschscholtz.
Lesson, Voy. de" Coquille," vol. 2, pt. 2, chap. 15, p. 39 : Zoophytes
pl. 5, fig. 2. Haeckel." Challenger" Reports, 28, p. 351.
Cast ashore 011 Denham Bay, Hunda" Island. WidE-h' distributed in
thE' Pacific. •. •

Velella cyanea Lesson.

Lps&on. Voy. de "CoqUille:' yol. 2. pt. 2, chelp, ur. p. 54. ZouphyteK
pI. 6. figs. 3. 4. Haeckel.·' ChalleI1llt'r" Rpport&. 28, p. 83.
Thi~ common Pbci'fic ::Iperics w'all cast ashoTt- OJ. Denba1ll Ba,.

! Atolla br.
A single somewbat torn and wstorted specnnen. measuring 30 mm.
in diameter, with a heigbt of 15 mm. in the centre of tho umbrella, was
found on the shore of Sunday Island. It was so much injured that I am.
not quite sure even of the genus; but it agrees in so many fea.tures with
Atolla that I haw but little hesitation ill placing it here. I will not, how-
ever. nttpmpt to ~,\"E' a specific name to it.

Actinopyga (Muelleria) parvula SE'lenka..
JI. !lal:o-ca8lanea Theel: ~elenka, Zeit. Wiss. Zool., 17, 1867. .. ("'h.\l-
lenger ,. Reports. Holothuroidea, pt. 2, p. 198, 1886.
Fdtl'en speCImens were sent to me. Oliver notes that the .. colour
is dark brown to nearly black: common at Coral Ba.~·, under stones near
low-water mark; not seen elsewhere." In alcohol it is chocolate-brown
with a purplish hue. The majority are uniformly coloured, darker dorsally
and only slightly paler '\"'entrally; but in four individuals there is an
abrupt transverse line separating the dark anterior region from a posterior
paler region. In one specimen the change occurs at about I of its length
from the anterior end, in two others at t, and in one at " of the length.
Fl'Om the condition of the ventral ambulacra it appears that this hinder
end has been regenerated, for here the podia are in distinct narrow lines,
whereas in the normal darker part of the body these organs spread out
into the interambulacra, where there are about 15 in a transverse line,
instoad of only 2 to each ambulacrum. There is, too, a transition observable
as the ambulacra are traced forwards. indicating a gradual rt'sumption of
the adult condition.
Disirtoution.-Bedford, ill his report on the Funafuti Holothurlsns,
Rpeaks of this species as .. the most widely distrihuted circumtropical
species of the genutl."
Chirodota rigida Semper.
Semper, Reisen im Archi~l ut'l" Phihppinen, HolothllI1en, p. 18,
pI. 3, fig. 3; pI. 5, figs. 8, 18, 1868. Lyman Clark, "The
Apodous Holothurians." p. 117, 1907.
The wheels difier from those figured, in that there is a distinct con-
striction of the radii at their jWlction with the rim; but. as my specimens
agree in the general characters of the species, I have little doubt that this
is the correct detelmmation. Oliwr states that the ., goneral colour is
reddish-purple; it occura. in sand and mud under stones in rock-pools
and at low-water ·mark. It is not rommon."
LJ(l.-Meyer Island.
DiBtributiOfl.-Clark S&ys it is .. apparently well distributed through
the entire East Indian region." I
flElliHAM -fll"frttbl'frfes trom flu' Kfrmadfr Islands 187

Slpunculus nudus Lmnaeu"l.
This Mediterranean species is widely distrIbuted; it heLt! lIeen recorded
hom Singapore, Japan, and elsewhere.
Lo(.-Sun<iay Island.
Collected by Mr. R. S. Bell.
Physcosoma scolops. Selenks and Man.
Phascolosoma annulata RuttLn, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 12, p 278 188U.
PhymosoMa scoWps Selenka and Man, ., Die Sipunculidell," p. 75,
1884. Physcosoma annulatum Benham, Trans. N.Z. IllBt., 36.
p. 173, 1904.
When I described the Sipunculids of New Zealand (Tran". :N.Z. lust.,
\·ols. 36, 37) I had not the opportunity of consulting Selenu's monograph,
which was only pnrcha'Jed by the Otago Institute at a later date. I find
now that our common Ripunculid, whioh Hutton described in 1879, is
identical with Selenka's P. Boolop!J, a very widely distributed speCIes, which
was described five years later. Hutton's brief diagnosis, depending only
on externals, is insufficient for identification, and so must. give way to
Ralenka's specific name.
I note that, although FIscher (Die Gephyrca., Abhandl. aus dem Gebiete
Naturwiss., 13. p. 10, 1895) regards P. 8~olops a'J a variety of the Medi-
terranean P. grallulatum, Shipley still retains it as 1\ distinct specie"l
(Willey, Zool. Results Rep. on the Sipunculoidea, p. 156. 1899; a.nd R"p.
on the Gephyrea, Pearl Oyster Fishery, Ceylon, p. 174, 1903).
It is evidently very common on the Kermadec Islands, for I have
more than fifty I collected on various p.uts of Sunday Island and on
Meyer Island in the ordinary positions-that is, under stonos in rock-
pools, in amongst coralline algae, &c.
The distribution is very wide.
Aspidosiphon truncatus Keferstein.
Selenka and Man, ,. Die Sipunculiden," p. 118, pl. 13, IB8~.
Of this identification I do not feel quite certain, for the convolutions
of the intestine are fewer, and the longitudinal musl.lle bands rathor
more numerous j but as our specimens agree in so many features with
those of Keferstcin's specios, and do not agree with any other description
to which I have access, I place it here. The differences are so slight that
I do not feel competent to differentiate a new spocies.
Loo.-Sunday Island, in coralline algae. Six specimellB.
Distributitm.-Mauritius, Panama, JapBn (Iketla. Journ. (.'011. I:kli., 20).

Sagitta fowleri nom. nov.
Fowler, .. On Plankton Chaetognatha. of the Bay of Islands, New
Zealand," Ann. Mag. Nat. Rist. (8), 1, p. 240, 1908.
I received Seven specimens of a rather large Chaetognath whieh had been
cast ashore, and were somewhat injured, and had unfortunately been placed
in a tube rather too small for them, so that they nre not only damaged by
the sand, but also folded a.nd crumpled. At first I failed to notice the
anterior lateral 00, and took it for a species of K'1'ohnia .. but the formula.
given by Dr. G. H. Fo,vler for an unnamed species from the Bay of Island'!
j'1 fllIJlW'tW/lX,

agr~es so precj~ely with the Kermadec forIDs, and in SODlO rospl·(·tl> 11:1 bO ex-
ceptional, that I carefully went through all the sperimens a!!,uin. III only 0111.'
indh;dual could I detect th(' anterior fin, a.nd this cjuitl' plainh, ,llthoUl!h it
was folded against the body. Iu its extent it does not'ee with Fowlcr':-.
figure, though hI.' places a (~) ngaimlt his sta.tement ill thl' !I'xt. But mving
to the damagt' dOll(' to the post{'rior fin, and owing to the tenuity of this
ullterior fin, I should not presume to doubt Fo,,'ler's I:Itat(,)Ul'nt that thib
fin extf'nds forwards a& far as the level of the yentral ganglion. though.
1:10 far as my specimen shows it, the fill is of mUl·h 1('88 extent.
Fowler refrain('d from naming his two immature and somewhat
damaged specimens, aud did not even place it ill a genus, tho~h h(' srutes
that certain of its characters .. suggest ne:raptera," at the Scl.IDf' timf'
pointing out certain difIerencl's from that species. As the only genus with
two lateral fins is Sagitta, there is little doubt that he intended to comparl'
it with S. hnaptel'a, and I take the opportunity of naming it after }.im,
My specimens yary from 23-35 mm. in total length. with a diameter
of 2'0-3 mrn. Owing to fiacciditr of the hody, it fiat1f'ns casil~', and ha~.
liS I haye said, been crumpled.
The head is distinctly constricted from the body: till' <.:urn·d hooks, or
.. jaws," are 8 or 9 on each side; in one (,lise 8 on one side Rnd i' on the
other. They haye 110 distinct separatt' tip. hut th(' whole hook is gentl~'
curved and "dthout am' slllTations.
The frontal spines. ~r .. ,mterior te~th." arl' 011 ~ each ~idl·. thoulI.h ill
one case 4: 011 one sidp and 3 on the other.
The marginal spines, or .. hindel' series of teeth." form I.l. row of 3 ~hort
conical spines on the sloping anterior ma.rgin of tho head.
The tail fin is in all my specimens slightly notched; tIw posterior
latera.l :fin commences ra.ther ill front of the middle of tht· t~ul. ,IUd it!
widest just behind the !lUus. IX> far as the imperf(,(·t l'olldition allow"
one to judge, it has l of its ll'ngth behind and ~ in front uf thl' ItUUI:I.
The anterior fin is 0111~' 3 mm. ill length; it s('eml:l ,wll defined. ,llld
I fa.iled to see any f'yidl.'nc(' of its continuation fUT\nlrds; its antt'rior
margin is 10 mm. from tllt' tip of the heacl (the YOlltl'ul glll1~.lion hein~
about 6 mm.): its posterior limit if! 5 mm. in frcmt of thc' tllIus-th,lt i:.l.
rlose to th(' pol:lterior fill.
The fOl'lllula used b'\'" Fowl!'r iR -

Tuta.l r,.·ngth. Tail, a" .""·rcelltagt· XUIlIb..·r of Xumb'l' ot XUlllb 1 ot

of Total r_.,·l1l(th. Ja.w". AntE'rior '{c'{·th. P,,~tl'riorT('l'th.

35 20 ~

27 :W !I 3
25 20·3 R-!I :J--j.

Loc.-Sunda, Island.
Distrt''butiml.:_Bay of Islands.
{'I&llS EXTEROPxEt·tlTA.
Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz,
Willey. Q. J. )fie. Sci.. 40, p. 165. Punnl'tt, Entt'l'Oplll'U:.tll. :It'II1111U
Maldive and Laccadive Archip., vol. 2. pt, 2.
A single laceratoo bl'Oken indh·icluII.I, fonnel .. nlldf'l' stOlWI'I" ,It L'm-1I1
Ba.y, ~unday Island, Julr, 1908.
Dis'7'f'butinn.-Indian Oef'lIll.
HOUHEX.--E{ll'tltqllakf-lJril/ill. 1/1 tile S(lIIf 1t-II't'lIt l'al'ific. 139

ART. XIII.-Ertrthquake-oriqiwJ ill thf SrJllth-II'('sf PacifiC' m 191fJ.

fRmd be/ole tile Jrellillqlo,L PMloaopliicnl F/Q('letU• .Jill Ortaber, J91l.)
rHE most interesting problems in connection with seismology at the
present time are those relating to the paths of earthqMke-wRYcs through
the earth. The paths of the so-called long waves, which show thp maximum
.tmplitude, lie, it is generally agreed, along arcs approximately parallel to the
~arth 's surface, at no great depth below the surface. Their mean velocity
.,f propagatiou is in almost all cases very near to 3·3 kilomc,tres per seeond,
or 200 kilometres (or 125 miles) per minute. The velocity of the prelimi-
nary tremors is mueh higher-often four tim('s as great, or eyen more.
These waves, being the first to be recorded, must travel by the brachisto-
"hronie path from the origin to the places of observation. and, whether
this path be approximately rectilinear or not, the high speed of the waves
:;1.0\\'8 that they must he trausmitted through a medium or media of much
greater elasticity than that possessed by the surface rocks. The deter-
mination of the actual path of thetle preliminary tremortl is therefore the
point upon which attention is being just now especially directed. The
problem is mainly a geometrical problem, aud obviously the first step is
the determination of the positions of the epicentrn of the I'arthquakes
discussed. Thesl.! epicentra arc likely to be most correctly ascertained
when the data used are those from observatories so near the origin that
it may be reasonably presumed (a presumption to be tested by the agree-
ment of the results) that tho medium through whil'h tha waves travel is
homogeneous, or nearly so, and yet not so near the origin that the ol'dinary
errors of observation can substantially affect the results. If tho paths of
the preliminary tremors ca.n be ascertained in suc-h a way that we ca.n
formulate a general law, then we shall be able to draw, with a reasonable
degree of certainty, inferences as to the constitution of the ett.rth's interior
-as to the densitv, elasticitv. and thickness of the l:lUccessh'p shells of
whioh the earth is "made up ..
It therefore becomes the dutv of the seismologica.l observers in any
region of the world to as('ertain u's nearly I\S may be tht: positions of the
origiI1ll or of the epicentra of the principa.l earthqUllokctl occul'ring in that
region. Accordingly I havt: devoted myself during the last twenty yearR
to the determination 01 earthquake-origins within the New Zealand region,
and incidentally, at the request of the Seismoiogi('nl Committee of the
Australasian Association, to finding the origins of some other Australasian It will be of more sel'Vice to the solution of the probJl'nls
in hand, however, if this work is extended to a wider region. lind accol-d-
ingly the results of systematic inquiry into the oarthquakc-ori~intl of the
whole south-west Pacific are now placed beforE' you. Those in tIlt' present
paper relate to the year 1910.
The records used are those received from the lIilne beismogmph tltatiolls.
which are published twice a Yl»lor by the British Associa.tion S...illlllological
Committee, edited by Dr. John Milne, F.R.S.: also records r('ceived irom
the Directors of the observatories at Apia . .Batana, :Mauila, and River-
viow, Sydney (the instruments at all the last-named observatoril'S are of
the Wiechert type). For these I am indebted to the courb~s~· of the rcspective
Hovcrnments of Germany, Holland, aud the United States. and to the kind
offices of the Rev. Fathpr Pigot, Director of the Riwl'\"i..\\ Oh81·lTI\tory.

The waves used for determmmg the origins are the prehmmary tremor!>
and the long wavcs; the methods for the most part trial methods, such
BS the differential method a.nd that based upon the interval between thE'

and of the
those PI waves -;:=~:ii==~==~=::;:i~=::::i~=:;
of maximum ,. 110 ,.. ..I

The results tor eleven 1
.' . . . . :...
.. .. I
earthquak~s in which the I'.J :::--::---f___:=-=+:;__-t----L..:.
data are sufficient to -
determine the epicentra
. given below. Those
call e d "approXlDl.8.te "
are epicentra. probably
('orreet within the limits
of error of the observa·
tions; those called
"probable" are epicentra
fOT which there are re-
sidual errol'S somewhat
in excess of the limits of
errors of observation.
lIt should he noted
that the method of least
squares camlOt properly
be used UlIlt'ss the phy·
lIieal conditions are ap·
FlO. 1.
proximately the same.
For instance, we cannot Earthqllake-ollglllS III the Sout~-\\ebt Pacific, 1\:110
use it in reference to (G. BoqbslI.j
• Approltlluate epicentrum.
l·quations based upon ob- C Probable epicen;rum.
servatiolls fronl StatIOllS , OrIgins prevloulioly foulld.
varying greatly IlL their
distance from the origm; it should be applied onl~' to deductions from
obselvations of wavus p,tSbllltJ, along the samE' paths, or, a.ssuming the
l:Iymmetrical distribution of the various strata of the esrth. passin~ along
paths of nearly the same length.)
Tho oligin in each case moly, of course, han bCl'll a more or k'8B exten-
sive mass below the epicentrwn indicated on the map (fig. 1). Tb.e mll.p
",Iso shows the positiolls of pl'e\·iousl..,- ascertained origins in Australasia.
llale POIoltlon ot EPle,,"truDl. Remaru

1910. Lat.
13 Jan.

3 Feb.
. ,H· H.

32C' ~.
lifo"E. .\pproxllDat.· ••
l."i3° E. PInbabl,,·
::s'ot It'lorUl.,d Ul Eurupo 01' othor
diRtant btation'4•
nscorded at Ill'll.l and (h~tant oria·
80 lIaJ.'l:h
1 JUll~
18° E..
I). lbO° .E. .,
170" E. Al'pl'UXlDllitl." ••
27< K. 173· E. Probabll' .
" (Ill ••
(b) ••
11" K.
in!;: ~.
172° E. Approximatl' ..
1731° E.
Het\,wn CalDllbolll.J.uldt. Q.l1I1 Au
Hpod(.'b .ullln,,1.... .\11 'lto.til)l1~
7 &'pt. 32° M. liVe W. All ..1atiozl'.
{) Nov. 17" S. U17· E.
10 J~.
.. 5° S. 16Jo E.
2° N. 14tlo E. PtolJAhl,·
HooBEN.-l!:arthqualrl-orlgI'll8 m the South-u·e,t Pacific. 141

The most mt('restmg of all these eal·thquakes IS perhap& tha.t of the 9th
~ovember. 1910. thc origin of ,vhich appears to have been below the ocean,
It little to the south-west ot Espiritu Santo m the N('w Hebrid('s Group.
The 8B('ertained elements of the prehnllnarv tremor& of thiR Nrthquak..
wIth reference to ple\'('>l1 statIOns are giv(,l1 III thp tablp nplow.
Earthquuke of 9'11 SOWlibel. 1910.
(EpIcpntrulll, l7e~. Lat .. 167 0 E. LOllll. Tnnt' at Orip;m. 6h. 03·7mm.
..I.lcuaI' -~ ---I - - -
I'IOG< ul Obo.PI\atlon, D,'ltll.llce Chordal TIme ofl v (Arc) "',
.md latitude . l.ollgltud. flOID I Dl&tauce 16 : 1+ ,]i'iom. ~:)
In,trulll,nt Ougru ,(lUiom.). min pel min. J14."r mil;
(X,iom). "

Apia (\Vleohert) ..
S Y d n e y (Wieohert
113< 41:1' B'I' 171'
33° .~Il' Fl.
4t>' \Y.
151 0 12' E.
I 2,296
2,284 , 06·7 , ill.1 I'
2,436/ 06'1! 766
and Milne)
Wellmlrton (~mnc) 41' 17' B. , 174" 47' E. I 2,800 2,777 07'351 767 761
Porth (Alilne)
Honolulu (Milnp) .•
.. , 31° 57' S. 115' 50' E.
,210 19' N. , 158" 03' W., 5,305
I 10'0
I 804
778 756
Batavia (Wiechert) lie 01:1' S. lOll' 30' E. 6,317 6,063/ 11'7/ 790 758
Zlkawei (Wieohel1.) SI~ 1,')' N. , 121' 26' E. 7,235 6,850 ]2.-& 832 781
Vit'toria, B.C. (Milnp) 148' 24' N. 12S· 22' \Y. 10,056 9,030 14·6 923 I 836'a,& (Milne)
Eclinburgh (MihlC) ..
.. 10 14' N./
I,');)n .;7' N.
77' 2!{ E. 110,283
S" 11' W. 15,667
9.201 I 11H,
12,000 2.2·1
902, 807
851 652
So.n Fernando, Cadiz gllo 28'~. I h· 12' W. 17,889 12.1i60 : 22'6 665
(MIlnl'l 946
NOTIl,-P b preliminary tremors; VI' velooity ot PI WS.Vrt..

It will be seen that in this case there is a closer agreement betw(.>on the
velocities (values of VI) for paths calC'ulatcd along the chord than fol' those
calculated along the arc; in other
words, that the chords represent a o
closcr approximation to the actual
pathil than the ares. (It will be
understood that the chord cannot be
the actual path of a wave passillg
through layers of varying density,
and subject, therefore, to refraction
at the bounding surfaces.)
It will be seen that the velocity v
(P1) of wans, calculated along the
chord, for places not more than 600
from the origin is about 760 kilo-
metres, per minute; that for places
betwpen about 600 and 900 from the
origin the chordal velocity is
greater; that for distances over 90° FIG. 2.
it is considerably less.
Possible Pa.iJls
This enables us to formulate a 1910, to W~Ili:cgOOD, of PI Waves, \I.h November,
OW; Perth, OP;
hypothesis illustrated by the dia- Zik&wei, OZ; Vlctnria (B.C.), OV; Sm
gram (fig. 2). Disregarding the sur- Fernando, Ill, or 222, or 81 8. 0, origin.
face rocks. which I have elsewhere
shown to be not more than twenty-five to thirty miles in thickness, we
ma~' assume a shen of much greater deJlsity about liOO miles in depth (AAA,)
1.42 T 1'(111 ~flctiollx.
tmd below that a shell of still greater density about 630 miles thick (BBB).
Below the last· named shell there seems to be a marked change of physical
condition-either the density is much less (which is hardly conceivable) or
the centrosphere (CCC) is viscous. I have drawn hypothetically the possible
paths of preliminary waves reaching the San Fernando Observatory from the
origin: (a) They may have been transmitted along a path approximating
to the chord Ill, but with grl.'atly reduced speed through the central
portion; or (b) they may have bel.'n transmitted along, or nearly along.
the path 2 2 2, as internal surface wavl.'s for the middle portion of the
path-that is. along the surface of the centrosphere; or (c) they may have
been transmitted along a path 3 I" 3-that is, along the chords 0 r, I" S.F ..
being reflected at r.
I put this forw'ard as a mere trial hypothesis, based upon the examina·
t'on of the records of one earthquake, and examined only paltially by other
re('orcis. It is, however. I think, worth careful examination in the li5lht
of all the available data of othl.'r earthquakes. I propose to makc such an
examination (which may last months, ur e,'en years), and hope to place
the results. whether positive or negative. 11l.'fore you on a future occasion.
I should like to express my appreciation of the kindness of the observers
in ('harge of the }Iilne seismographs at Sydney. Adelaide, Perth, and Christ·
church in sending me copies of their records and seismograms. I regret
that I have been unaule to obtain any of the records of the instrument at
the Melbourne Obst'rvatory. .

AR.T. XI\·. - FblctufltimlX ill the Level 0/ th,' Water /11 some Artelliflil Tf('{1i1
in the (,hrisfellllTrll Amr.
By F. W. HILUENDORF, )l.A., D.Sc.
rRp·"J IIPlol~' tIe Pidlo-.op/w'"llIl,tllllle 01 ('alltprblt'!J. 8rl, DptBlllber. 1911.1
All pa.rt of the actiyities of the Artesian Wdls Committee of the Canter-
bury Philosophical Institute. observations on fluctuations in the silltic
height of the water in l:Iome flowing wells ill the Christchw.·ch artesian arell
well!' undertaken early in Janunry, 1910. The records or the wells will he
dealt with separately.
This ,,",,li is 341 ft. deep from the ground·level. which it! 38 ft. above
sea-If've!. It;s a 2 ill. pipe, Ilnd was sunk ill 181.13. The water rises to
about 8 ft. aboye ground-level.
There are in the district foul' oiher w('l1s of approximately the same
depth. The nearest of these is about three'lluarters of 0. mile' away. and
the next: nearest oyer a mile S,\\·RY. •
The ohsel'Yations were taken b~: means or u glass tube attnched to a tup
bored into the well-pipe. and tht> tube "'as backed by It wooden scalo
marked in centimetres. The h,draulic mlns worked by the well were shut
off for the purpose or ta.king tht' ohserYations, aud the watl'r in tht' 1uh~
,.llowed to come to rest. The OS("illl:ltlOlIS ceased in auout five minutetl. A
loose-fitting plug was placed in the top of both the ,vell-pipe and glass tuue
to prevent the wind hlowing down .md lI.gitating the lenl of tht' watE'r.
The readings were taken at 8 H.m. and 5 p.m., lllld only eleyell l'ead-
ings were missed dUl;nQ the year.
The. Jlo)lth7y F7uctuafiOOI.
DisregardinA the minor varitLtions, the well sallk grllduall:r from Januar~­
to Juno, durinl1, which time it fell 24- cm .. or 10 iu. On the 10th JWIC
and tho fonowing dars, 6 ill. of rain fell Itt Lincoln, and th... well tht'n
started to rise, and continued to do so fOl' four months, during which
time it rose 66 em .. 01' 2 ft. 2i in., on l:In average of the weekly readingb.
The lowest illdiyidual readiug was 71·2 em. on the 4th JunE', and the
highost 141·5 em. on the 25th September and the 17th Octouer. This giYl's
a maximum difiercu('e of 70'S em.. 01' about 2 ft. 4 ill.
The following graph shows the static level of the well for eaeh month
during the year. lI.11 the readings for the month being o.vel'8ged to find
the level for that month. Below the graph of the static It'yels there ill
shown the l1lonthly rainfall at Lillcoln in inches.

~ ~~ F. M. A M lIS. :r,. A , ~ IJAtI'L

1110 / '-.
/' ............
....115 7
110 I
• V

100 I\.. j
QS / ill"
QO J '1 0

u \.. I t..
I S·

• 0

')$ 4"'
. 3"
~'IO, l.-l:0liTIlLl."
A, DAGLS 01' HEWIIT OF WELL, AloD :llO!'TBI.l l'OT.6L1:1 (IF·

!'\LL AT LI.liCOL~.
14:4: Trn.n1actwn,.

A study of tws graph shows that the from Januarr to May
were not enough to balance the water drawn off from the reservoir sup-
plying the well: that the rains in June and July were sufficient to
replenish it; that the almost total absence of rain in .August waf> accom-
panied by a still further rise in the leV'el of the water, possibly indicating
that the heavy rainfall of tho previous months was still percolating tu
the reservoir; that the rains of September and October were accom-
panied by a slight rise, although they were almost exactly equal to
the rainfall of January and February, which were accompanied by a
fall in the IcV'el of the well; and that falls took place in NovelJl.ber and
These last mcts, and also, in pali:, the rise in .August, are probably to
be explained by the great amount of eyaporation in Novembt-r, Dt-cember,
January, and February. and its smlllier amount in August, Septcmb"r,
a.nd October; that the evapora.tion might have an effect 011 tho
tiuctuation of the well did not suggest itself to me early enough for me
to install evaporation-gauges. It seems probable that the evaporation in
thp summer months ,vould exceed the rainfall, and thus assist the lower-
ing of the static level of tho well; while in August, September, and Octoher
tho evaporation would be very slight, and thus all thl' rainfall would be
available for replenishment of the reserYoir. Thc following tablu by
Greaves, taken from Walring1.on's "Phygical Properties of the Soil,"
p. 108, is instructive :-

EVAPORA.TIO::'; from .1, Water ~urface near London (.Av-erage of Fourteen

----- -- --
llonth. Ramf"l(. j<x~~ratio~. :1 Month. &infdoU. I Evapora.tion.

Jan. 2·87 O·it) .Tuh· 1·77 3·44
Feb. 1·60 0'00 .\.ug. 2·33 2·85
March 1·94 l·ui Sep. 2·35 1·61
.April 1·-13 2·10 Oct. 2·73 1'06
May 2·06 2·75 Nov. 2·02 (I'7l
June 2'21 3'14 Del'. 2'42 0'57

Total rain, 25·73 in. ; total evltpol'lLtion, 2O·tl6 in.

I think it probable that a of the monthly rainfall minus

eyaporation would approximate the graph of the static level of the
well, and I regret that the importance of the e,"aporation did not occur
to me earlier.
This fluctuation of over 2 ft. during the course of the year is vel)'
llluch greater than that of 10 in. recorded by Captain Hutton, but is much
less than one mentioned by Mr. Home, of Leeston, who says that he had
there a well whioh in a dry season "'as 3 ft. 6 in. below ground-level, and
in a very wet season rose to 14 ft. above ground-level. A gravel-pit at
~pringston about 10 ft. deep is nearly always dry in February, and fre-
quently is full to oveTflowing in August.
HILGFJ:mlORF.-.d.,·ffBwn Wellv III tltt! (f/lrt~trhllrr/l AU'II 145

The Weekly F7'11ctuatwlI.

The following graph of the weekly averages of the readings of thl'
well shows clearly the relation between the static level of the wf'll nnd
the rainfall.
wr''::~ aa....


t .... , 'It "'6 III 1I.,.1L I. 10 ..... to 1~ #. U

IDO \ ,
"- ~

qo '\. J
" ,.,
as . \ , 6"
"\ S· .
AQ f' 4--
1\ .$"

""'- r--
,I I I . I 1
• I. o·

It is clear from this graph that th(' wpll rISes whenever rain falls. and
that the rise in the well is approximately proportional to the rainfall.
This result was anticipated from the work of Hutton* and Speight,t but
it was considered impossible that the rainfall at Lincoln could be respon-
sible for the rise in the well there, since, as before mentiou('d, the well
draws its water from 341 ft. below ground-level.
Lincoln is situated on the Canterbury, fourteen miles from the
sea. The plain is about fifty miles wide, and slopes upwards from the
sea to the mountains, at whose feet its le'\"el is about 1,300 ft. It is com-
posed of a coarse gravel interstratificd (especially in its coastal portions
near Christchurch) with clay, peat, &c., as described by Speight (Zoc. oit.).
On the supposition that the lower strata have been laid down at 0. steeper
angle than those now on the surface, the water-bea.ring stratum tapped by
the Lincoln College well should outcrop on the surlace of tho plain some
miles above Lincoln, and it would probably be the rain falling on this
outcrop that would supply the well. This idea is embodied in the following
diagrammatic sketch, where the heavy lines show the clay strata between
* Tran,. N.Z. IIl'lt.• vol. 28, p. tIM. t Trans. N.Z. In..t .• vol. 43, p. 420.
140 TI'IlIl'III'/IUII'

the shm~lc. If thlb \\l'll' .. LOl'l~(t sUpposition. It war. lonsldcled possIble

to locate the uutcrop uf the welter-bearing stratum by meal1S of obsel"'\'in~
thE' ra.JIlfflll at a. llUll1bt'l of pl<llcb between Lincoln a.nd the mountains.

}"I.. :l.-UI\U'H'( ()~' THE t-Tll.UlTt:nc U! THE l'LU'.

aud noting at which places the ralllfall most lll'clrly wrresponded with the
:8.uctua.tions in the level of the well. For tlus purpose rain-gauges were
msta.lled or eXlSting installations were used to obtain records of the daily
rainfall from the following places. RollE'stOIl, Lawford, Kil"Vlree, Dal'field.
Hororata, Glenroy, and Mount Torlesse. The pOSItions of these places are
shown on the following map. w'hich also shows thl' two rivers of the district,
The slope of the plain is from llorth-wl'st to south-t·ast.


t" " of ar-

FlO. ~.-lIAl' or POUTI'f' "r t'~,\T:cnllrm. I'L~n., ...lI'nW~G PO... lTW....b OF n.u~­
b It"OEOO:.
I, Lincoln: !!, HolJt.,toll: 3, l..awfo.rd (half-wd" Jx.tWe1l11 'rcedon'~ ,\1111 Web!
ltE'ltonJ: 4, Kirwt'(': ,i, D.u'ticIrl: H, HOYtll'R.tol: 7. mcnroy; S, lronnt Tor.
Itoq\oe It\\"11 Jmt.... ,\110\1 S}Jriuefidcll.
Hrr.OF:NDOI!F.-ArteR/(1/I Jrell~ III thp (.'/11"/('/'1,,,/1 A'UI. 147
14!:.l TrtIIlMlrtlom•.

Unfortunately. nil the lecords (hd not begm at the begInnIng of the
year, those from DadieH !lot commencing till the 1st April. and those at
Rolles10n till the bt June. Valuable miormation was thereby lost. The
records are, however, eomplete and Meurate for the period" they cov('r.
In the a('companying p.raph (fig. 5) the ayerages of all the readings of
the well for each \veek for five months are shown, and underneath them
the total weekly rainfalls fOL each of seven stations, Rolleston readings not
having been commenced. Zero for rainfall is made a sloping lllle, roughly
corresponding to the graph of the well, for the purpose of bringing the
rainfalls - graph near to that of the well. to facilitate comparison. To
simplify the figure, rainfalls arc shown. for only those weeks from which
conclusions mav be dmwn. The falls of Glenrov and Kinvee were identical
for the weeks 'shown, and therefore these two 'stations are represented by
only a single symbol-vIz., dots and dasheB.
Starting with the station nearest the mountaius-viz., ~pringfield-if
the rainfall at Springfield (squares) for the week ending the 15th January
was responsible for the rise of the well shown for the week ending the
22nd January, then also the much heavit-r rainfall for the week ending
the 26th February must have been responsible for the almost imperceptible
rise for the week ending the 5th March. These two results are inconsistent,
and therefore it may be stated that the rainfall on which the well depends
does not fall at Springfield, nor does thl' water-bearing stratum tapped by
the well outorop there. Similar inconsistenoies may be noted for other
localities, as follows :-Hororata : In the week ending ihe 15th January a
rainfall of 1 in. is followed bv a rise in the well of 1·5 em., and on the 28rd
April a rainfall of 2; in. is followed by a decline of 1 em. Glenroy shows
inconsistencies for the weeks ending the 15th January and the 28rd April;
Darneld for the WE'eks ending the 2nd and the 231'd April; Kirwee for
the weeks ending the 15th January and the 23rd April; and Lawford for
the weeks ending the 15th January and the 23rd AprIl. But when we
come to e:mmine the rainfall a.t Lincobl and compale that with the subse-
quent rises, or arrests of the decline of the graph of the well, a remarkable
degree of consistency is diselosed. The graph of the sta.tic level of the
well is as neal'ly parallel to that of thc Lincoln ra.infall as could possibly
be expected under the circumstances, and, being give.n the rise of the well
due to the rainfull of the 15th January, the graph of the 011e could be con-
structed with reasona.ble accuracy from that of the other. From this it
is evident that the stratum tapped by the well outcrops in a district with
a rainfall during the months shown almost e:mctly equal to that of Lincoln.
None of the stations recording for mt.' shows such an equality, and so
it seems evident that the water-bearing stratum Ullder consideration out-
crops nearer to Lincoln than to the nearest of the stations. That station
is Lawford, nine miles away, and so one would probably be safe in saying
that the stratum of shingle 84:1 ft. under the surface at Lincohl reaches the
surface seven miles or less up the plains. This would place the outcrop
somewhere about Rolleston-a district noted for its loose shingly soil,
direM:ly underlaid by coarse gravels, with no interposing layer of clay.
I:!uoh country is absorptive of water in the highest degree, and an ideal
catching-area for o.n underground water-supply.
The surface of the land at Rolleston is 134 ft. above that at Lincoln.
The water-1x>aring straium then rises 475 ft. in seven miles, or about 68 ft.
to the mile. The sudact" of the plains near their upper limit has a fall of
about 60 ft. to the mile. \vhile hetv.·t'en Rolleston and Lincoln it is onl~'
HILC,ENDOllF .--.irtellia II II" ell~ I II fIll' (Jh 1'1 Sft·11Il rrll .11"1'0 149

20 ft. to the mIl!'. At the time that the fall on the surface of the plallls
betwt'CD Rolleston and Lillcoln was 68 ft. to the mile-that is. when Ollr
water-bearing stratum was depositt'd-th!' whole plain must have had a
much steeper gradient than a.t present. This would probably be due to
the much greatt."r bupply of waste to the above-gorge waters of the rivers,
so that in those times the present plains would hav!' been mueh more like
the present-day shingle fans than like plains. That the gradient of the
plains was once much stet'pe'r thlloll 110W ill provtld by the high terraces round
Woodstock, and by Racecourse Hill. d. Tl:'sil1ud.l sllingle mound some 60 ft.
high. The cuttmg mto their bl"ds of the prosent rivers is merely a continu-
ation of the process of lesserung the gradient of the plain. the- bed of the
Waimakariri being virtually level with the plains at their lower edge. and over
300 ft. below them at their upper limit. It is therefore in accord with what
I suppose would be the expectations of geologists that at one time the surface
of the plains should be much more steeply inclined than now, but that the
supply of wdste should be so great as to form a deposit sloping nearly 70 ft.
to the Illlle forty miles away from the gorge is perhaps noteworthy.*
It was stated above dB evident that the collecting-ground for the well
is nearer Lincoln than the nearest rainfall-station is. On the part of one
unacquainted with the country, a possible objection to this is that the
collecting-ground might equally well be more distant from Lincoln than
the farthest station is. The COWltry between Springfield and the West
Coast, however, consists ot mounto.ins of greywaekes and sla.tes quite im-
pervious to water in large qUllolltities, and, in any case, this water would
percolate out into the rivors ftowing at the base of the mountains. The
a.mount of water in the Waimakariri is, moreover, a gauge of the amount
of rain !alling on these mountams. and I have been so fort.unate as to be
supplied ,vith daily readmgs of the height of the rlVl'r during several months.
Most of the ftoods that my records show occurred nearly contemporaneously
with considerable rainfalls on the plains, and th(' subsequent rises of the
well could not. therefore', be btated as dependent on, or independent of,
the rises in the river. On the 23rd March, however (see the arrow-head in
fig. 5), there was a heavy ftood, sufficient to stop the mails at the Bealey,
but, as fig. 5 shows, there was no sign of any rise or arrest of the declinl"
of the well until rain foll in the second week after the flood.
Although it is impossible that the rain :£alhng on the mountAins should
dirtlctly find Its way into the water-bearing stratum tapped by the well, it
seeml'd quite possible that after reaohing the river the water might percolate
into su('h a stratum wherl' the river runs across its outcl'Op. This, indeed, is
probably the common opinion held; but the observations made do not sup-
port the supposition, as f.l.r as the well at Lincoln goes. Thl' observations on
• At the meeting at wlueh thIS paper W&!o 11r. Spoight pointed out that the
oonulusion reached here is probably UI0'Jrreot. Hi... oLbervations on HI!." strata piercod
by wclls near Christchurch IIhows that the doep.l'yil1g strata are a1 practically the
.."me slope a... tho pror,ent surface of the plain. It I, a mattel· of common observation
that clay strata. though '·ommon near ChriE.t-
ohuroh, disa.ppea.r farther up the plain~, and it
It is probable tba.t Rollot-ton mo.rk., tho clitltance
from Lincoln at whiolt the oloy IItratum over tho
water·bearing stratum fadell away, rather than the
outcrop of a. rt·ries of ..trata ~guJar in thiokne1!8
from the base of the welJ to the outOl'Op. Thib
idea. is shown ill the aooomp.m;ring diapmmatic
llketch, where the arrow·head bhoWII the position of RoI1estoll. Mr. Speight'll in·
terprotation of the faots seems to me cor.reot, and iDvaJi,latt'~ tht" ,·oneluolion, abow
,bawn &8 to the fanner slope of thE' ~Ilna('e uf the p)ain~.
150 1'rc/llx(u·tinll '.

the height of the riYer wt're made great care, readings being tak~ll eneh
(lay to the nearest inch. On compariosn with the graph of the static level
of -the well no agreement ('ould be observed in any case, and the perfect
indifference of the well to the flood on the 231U March is typical of this.
Another possible objection to the placing of the outcrop at Rolleston
ill that thil! has been done almost entirely on the slight rainfall at Lincoln
aud the heavier rainfall at all other stations for the week ending the
23rd April. This is quite true: but occasions on which the rainfall is
markedly different at different points on the plains are rare, and some
vears of obstlrvations may be needed to secure a confirmation, hy thi:l
method, of the conclusion- dra\f"n. In the meantime, the accumcy of th£'
rainfall recorded at the various up-plain stations is sufficiently substantiated
by their mutual agreement, a.nd the accuracy of the record at Lincoln by
wmpa.rison with that mad!! by three other observers in the neighbour-
Tlu' Doily Fluctuation.
EYen during long p"r~ods of steady decline 01' rise of the "'ell its static
I1'Ye1 showed ('omparativl'ly largt! daily variations. On some occasions it
would rise 3 in. in twenty-four hours (without rain), and would fall by
the same or a greater amount by the succeeding morning. Varia.tions of
2 in. on successivtl morningl! were common, and usually the morning read-
ings showed variations of owr 1 in. The irregularities of the static lewl
within short periods of time during which no rain fell led to an attempt to
correlate the variations in the well with those of the barometric pressurt'
I)f thto air_ At length it was found that by turning the barometer-readings
upside down and multiplying them by four a marked degree of harmony
between the gmph of the well lUld that of the barometer was displayed---a
harmony so consistent as to establish the mct that the level of the water
in the well and thtLt of the lUerCUl'Y in the barometer are influenced b'v the
samc causes. The accompanying gl' (fig. 6) shows this clearly. -
w ..... 111M
.II~~ :& ."Il.-
c.". 2 :!'i' Ht as 2' 2.8 ::I! io 1 rz;'C.11

g, iJ.Q~ll)
'\. ·_-11_6

911 ·ltt

• 1\ ·11..
•\ J i\\ /~\ ' ••It
If .. •

.'. I"
. -~ .
. .0-/ :
". ,.~
\ "Y- .
: i\
t tt
J 1_\\

ell " \' t.. \

C • ·sft
001 - -
. I ~
Fn.. fI.-D ~n..\. RIHllfSU"; III' WCLL. B lR03111TEn, AND RAlSI'ALL AT LINCCILN.
The graph of the well is shown h~- thl' full line. and Itl:l YlI.l'latiolll:l ill
\'entimetres; that of the barometer In' a dotted liut>. !!.nd its vll.l'iationl:l ill
in{'he~. It will be obst>rwd that the seslt> for the well illC'rt:'sst>s upwards.
II.nd that for the baromett:'r dowll\\-ards ; further, tht> space hetwet'll 29·82 ill.
and 3O·S0 in. on tht> baromtltE'1' scale (\'irtuan~- ! in.) il:l the sumt' III1 the spSC'(,
hptwet>J1 86 and 82 on th(' well scalt>-that is. -! centimetr('s (\'lrtuall~' 2 ill.).
This mE'ans that the close agl'eeml'llt of the two ~Tap]u" l:Ie'en in fill. 6 has
ueen ohtained by turning th~ burollletl"l'-readinga upside dowlI and multi·
plying by four, as abow stated. Figure 6 is a portion of ,t graph that
was constructed for the whole year for the purpose of establishiufl. the
agreement between the fluctuations of the ,,-ell and the harometer.
The section 22nd March to 8th April was chosen tOl' illustratioll hecause
it is fairly t~"Pi('al of thE' whole graph, and because there is no complication
due to rainfall. Thert' were showE'rs 011 the 29th. 30th. und 31st March.
and on th(' 1st, Srd, 4th, and 6th April, but the three hett,·ie!.t of these
"'ere only 0·07 ill., ()·08 in .. lind 0·09 ill., and the remaining were (Hll in.
l'ach. These numerous rains, the ~reatest of which did not reach 0'1 in ..
cannot be suspected of influencing the graph of the ,,-ell, since in an~' ('ast>
ThE' well does not always rise after the rainfalls ShOWll.
That II. 10''1'' harometer is aceompanied by a rist> in thl' ~tati(' lewl of
Rhallow wells has becn t>x(,l"llently demonstrated by F. H. Kill!!:, and for
artt>sians is It-corded in tht' following sentence occurring in an ~rticle by
Professor J. W. Gregory in tlw " Journal of the Ro~-al Gl'ogruphi(·J.I &!cie1.y"
for August, 1911, p. 17] : .. Thc HOll. E. W. Lamh kindly tells IU" that all
increased flow has been obseL'ved ill some of the wt:'l~ of New South Wales
Itt times of low barometric pressure. The increased flow from springs whell
the baromett>r is low is a wcll-1o.10Wll phenomenon which has been est!!.-
blished, for example, by thE' work of Mr. Baldwin Latham Ilcar Croydon.
The increase is 110 dOUbt due to gas-pressUl"C. thc gases dissoh'ed in the
\'I"ater expandinp. when tIl(.' Iltmospheric prcssur,' is rl'duc·c·d, ll!-. Latham's
(>vidence thereforp shoW's that gas'prl'ssul"(' acts ('Yell on well:. of ,rhi('h tIll'
flow is maillly detl'rmint'd by ordinary water-pressur!'.'·
I haw eXII.mined this theory of the' l'ise of wellt! under diminiahed
atmospheric pressuft'. It appeal'i:! to assume that wa1(']' ill compressible.
ur, at, that the gases within the water lUI' compressible. Thill. of
('OU1'8e, is not so, If the pressure is diminished the ltal:ll'S "ill l'f.'main
dissolwd if thl" water is not already lIatul'ated with them, aud if tht>
water is saturated the' gases will l'Omt' out of solution Itnd fonn bubbles_
The wa.ter in the College well is saturated, containing :m·50 ('.c. of gases
per litre at N.T.l) .. madt' up as follows: Carhon-dioxide, 1·07 c.c. per
litre: oxygen, J·29 ('.c. per litre; nitrogen, 21·14: c.c. per litre,
It must be further remembered that the yo1ume of a ~a~ absorbed
hy water is inMpelldent of the prt'ssure, sill(,t'. although d()ublin~ the
pressure doubles the mass of the gus absorhed. the saml' doubling of
the pressur<> hnl'\"es its yolume. If, then, the pr(,RSUl't' were suddenly
diminished the volume of gases lihel'att>d ,vouid be proportional to the
diminution of pressure, and if tke gfl8f8 remained it! IIl1l1pl'nBion in tke
water the YOhUllE' of the water would be incrt>ased.
Calculation sho,,'8 that with a diminution of atmospheri(· pressure
from SO ill. to 28 in. of mercury-that is, from 151h. to 14lb. per square
inch - the bubbles of gas liberated ill this well 340 ft_ tl(,I!P would raise
its level by 1·8 ill. B'\" obseryation. the rise of the ,vell Wlder such a.
l,atometl'ir . fl\11 amounts to 8 ill., alld thl'rt'forl' the lil)('}'lltioll of gases
152 Trml~at·fIO'h.

theory is im,ufficlent to explam the fluctuations of the well with the

fluctrmtions of the barometer as observed at Lincoln.
In the above calcula.tion it was assumed that the gas-bubbles formed
remaiued ill the water, but since the changes in pressure are VE'ry
gradua.l. since the wa.ter is always flowing up'ward, and since one-third
of the total hbera.tion of gases takes place in the top 30 ft., it is
evident that. the bubbles of gas must escape. and therefore cannot raise
the level of the water anything like the 1·8 in. calculated above, murh
less raise it the 8 in. recorded bv the observations .
.An explana.tion of the rise of the well with decrease of baroroetnc
pressure more in accordance with the observed facts is as follows:
Water must continually be drawn away from the water-table at the
outcrop by the flow of ,vater from the ,veIl, and more particularly the
flow at the lower outcrop of the stratum under the sea. Well-sinkers
find that the water runs in certain fairly defined streams in the water-
bearing str.lta, and at Islington is to be seen a very large and freely
moving unuerground stream running through the shingle at the bottom
11£ an open wdl 4:2 ft. deep. Small particles of sand have therefore
heen removed from these strata, a.nd the water can move freely;
but the land over the water-tabll' at the outcrop is not thus freed
from small pa.rticles, and, as the wa.ter is removed, the ail' has a diffi-
culty in following the water downwards, and so a partial vacuum It!
set up over tho water at thl' outcrop, after the manner of the pro-
duction of a Sprengel's vacuum. The wa.ter in the water-bearing stratum
and the water in the well-pipe now form the two arms of a water-
barometer, at the open end of which the observations are being taken.
Since the open end is being observed, the water goes up when the
mercurial barometer goes down; since it is a water-barometer, it should
go up thirteen times as much as a mercurial barometer falls, but since
the vacuum at its closed end is not perfect its motion is not so great
as this. It goes up' four times as much as the barometer goes down,
thus indica.ting that the Yacuum over the water-table at the outcrop 18
about one-third of a .true vacuum-i."., that the air-pressure amounts to
olbout 10 lb. instE'ad of 151b. to the squarE' inch.*
The Evell~nt] R18e.
That the well at the Museum in ChristchUl'Ch is usually higher ill
the evening than in the morning is noted both by Captain Hutton
(loc. cit.) and by Mr. Speight (loo. cit.). By both these writers it \\1),S
thought possible that this evening rise might be caused by the shutting-
ofi of oth~r wells of the same stratum in the near neighbourhood in the.'
a.ftemoon, although Mr. Speight is not inclined to accept this explana-
tion. That the shutting-oft of adjacent wells causes any particular well
to risc is proved by Captain Hutton's observation that the Museum well
• This oxplanation met with a great deal of adverse oritioism at the meeting at whioh
the paper WclS rea.d. l\Ir. Hogg and Mr. Page suggested that changes of aeri8l pressUl'e
would be felt direotly by the Welter in the open pipe, but only slowly by the water at
the outcrop, owing to the fact that the air superincumbent on the water there is. entangled
a.m~ particles of soil. This, I find, is alSo Xing's explanation (" The Sou." p. lSO).
Warrington (" The Physics of the Soil," p. 1.29) appetLrB to prefer the explanation
attributed to King in the present paper in the &eetion on .. The Ev~ ruse "-viz.,
with a faJling barometer the air in the soil expands, a.nd the water Iilling the intersti08b
above the water·level if expeliI3d, and oa'Wle'fl a :rille in the water-level of the BOil. Either
of these exp_lana.tions i9 perhaps suftioit nt to clOOOunt for the fluotuations obaurvod, b'lt
I still:regard my explanation a'I a powbl,', and liven cl probable, OIlE'.
HILGENDORF .--.·:h·te81f11l Trtll~ M the UAr!8trhurch Area 153

was constantly higher on Sundaye. than on Saturdays aud Mondays, and

that even a public holiday was accompanied by a decisive rise in the
well under observation. Mr. Dobson, Christchurch City Engineer, has
lllformed me that the installation of a city water-supply has been
followed by the breaking-out of springs in numerous places about 1.he
city, and he explains this as follows: In the early ddoys of the city's
life wells sunk on some of bhe higher ground had a static level of I ft
or 2 ft. above the ground. As more and more wells were sunk to the
same stratum, the static level was lowered; those on ground a foot or
two lower continued to flow. but those on higher ground had their
static level reduced to below that of the ground, ceased to flow, were
abandoned and forgotten, and their mouths coyercd up. On the installa-
tion of the city supply many users of artesian witter stopped their
flowing wells, the static level recovered itself, and the old abandoned
wells recommenced their flow, sometimes in such inconvenient places as
cellars, public parks, and important streets. The explanation seems
very probahle, and emphasizes the interdependence of wells sunk to the
IIIIome stratum. Mr. Dobson further informs me that he on one occasion
fitted a pump to a particular Howing well, and started to work the
pump with a steam-engine, ,vith the result that as long as the pump
wa.s at work all the wells in the neighbourhood ceased to flow. It was
primarily to escape this interference of one well with others in its neighbour-
hood that I commenced observations on the comparatively isoIs.ted well at
Lincoln, and it was the evening rise that was the original object of the in-
quiry. As stated before, there are only four other wells of the same depth
as the College well within a radius of two miles: the nearest of these is
three-quarters of a mile away, and I felt that I could secure from the owners
of all these wells any co-operation necessary for my observations.
The object for which the investigation was undertaken has, however, not
been accomplished, since no light has been thrown on the evening rise, except
that it does exist, and that it is not caused by the shutting-off of neigh-
bouring wells. Out of the fifty-one weeks during which the observations
have been made, the weekly averages of the evening readings have been
higher than those of the morning readings on thirty-six weeks, equal on
four weeks, and lower on eleven weeks. The following table shows the
avemgcs of all the readings of each month, ,vith the evening rise :-

Month. :\Ioming Hl'ddull1.. "~\('IU1U! HI·ddulI.I. 1 .l<:'·I.'IlIIl!! ltu.e.

January 101·2] 101-61.1 I)·S9 cm.

February U5·08 95·20 IH2om.
March 88·47 88·61i 0·19 em.
April 82·10 82·40 U·30cm.
Mav 75·6(1 75·80 O·2Ocm.
June 95·10 95·30 1)·20 em.
July 104·80 105·20 0·90 om.
August 130·16 131·36 1·20 om.
Septembel' 136·84- 137-11 0·27 em.
Ootober 137·97 137-Sl2 -O·05cm.
November 134·38 134·80 (H2em.
- --
Average 107·88 107·76 O·38cm.
154- l' NIl! ifTrf 10/1'

Thl' ('velllng ru,t' 18 thus fcurly well marked. Durmg thc month!, of
Octobpl' and XOyemhel I personally secured that all the wells ill tht·
ueighbomhood WClt:' lUllDlllg continuously, with the exception ot onl'
(thrpl'-4uarters of a. mIle cIoway) which its owner was good enough tI
."hut off from i to !) c.L.lll. and 4 to 6 p.m. ever~· day. The readlllgb
dUling thesc two months ,vere taken exactly fit ROO a.m. and 5.30 p.Ul ..
so tha.t the well had an hour and a half to recover any rustUJuance
that might have been set up by the well whose :flow was mtemllttent.
That this int<.>rmittently flowing well could have any efiect on the
CollE'ge well. so far away, is questionable, and, in any case, it was not
(e\'cn during the month", I did not keep special control of it) usuall,'
running ill the morning or usually shut off in the afternoon. The intel-
ference of neigllbourinp; wells rna\' therefore bt' rejected as a cause of th,·
eypning rise.
Any ro:ru.tant variations ill temperature are similarly to be rejected.
I kept a record of the temperature of the flowing water just as it emerged
from the ground from the 10th to the 30th October. The temperature
varied from 12·81° C. to 12·90° C., and this variation was more probably
due to th.e effect of the air on the stem of the thermometer than that
of the water 011 Its bulb. In any case, the temperature never showed
any disposition to be regularly higher in the evening than in the
morning, and, if it had, a much greater rise of temperature would havt'
been needed to cause sufficient expansion of the water (inside an iron
pipe. on which the scale was carried) to accoUllt for the observed rise in
the static le\'"<.'I. The water in the gauge-glass is. however, practically the
same water all the time. and therefore takes on to a considerable degree
thl' temperature of the atmosphere. It varied from 10.00 C. to 23'9° C.
durmg the month of October. The higher readings were, however, on
all but three occasion& obtained in the morning, owing to the sun
shming on th~ gauge-glass and aboye-ground portion of the well-tube
in the morning and not ill th~ evening; indeed, the highest readin~
(23'!:IG C.) was obtallled in the morning, Ilnd on the samo evening the
temperature was 12·(1 ('. In any case, an average evening rise of
temperature of about 25c ('. would be needed to cause a 4: ft. column
of water (in a glass tube with a.n independent scale) to expand suffi-
ciently to account for the observed riso in the static level. A shrinka(l('
of the wooden scalp in the evening would also explain the rise: but
means to detect and measure this, if it occurred, were not at hand, and
the line of inYe8tigatioll held little promise. During the months of
October and Noyember, also. records were kept of the barometrIc
pressure in the mornings and eYenings, and it was found that the
readings werE'. on the average, lower in the evenings than the mornings.
The amOUllt of the decrease in the ba.rometric height in the evenings was
0{)7 in.. sufficient to acCOUllt for a rise in the well of 0·56 em., or more
than the actually observed rist'. The barometric observations were, hov,·-
ever. taken on an aneroid barograph, the mercurial barometer unfortu-
nately being out of repair. There is, I suppose, no question that the
temperature of a living-room is higher in the evenings than the morn-
ings, and I have rather good proof that increase of temperature de-
presses the record made by an aneroid barograph. The apparent fan of
the- barometer e3("h evening is, thE'refore, onl;V a temperature effect, and
1I1Ulot be used to ,·xplain the rise of the well. TIns tact 11> t'mphdSlzcd
iJy the following graph (fig. 7), obtained 111 Invt"rcarglll III HIlla it I"
pl'l"haps sufficil'ntly btrikillg to merIt puLhc ahon.
~.:.. _. -
A,... '2.1. 2B

- --
.lll. a .. Pl.,
... ",

- a..


10·1$ ~ j
V r'" IV ~ ~ I
IV ~

FIG. i. - BAMGR \lIf ~H(lWI~G DEPnEC,bION'I 1I1'I! TO RI... l: J'\ 'rmll'EH \.

TlTRIl ~T ~n(J".

Dllr1ng a temporary absence from home I placed the • barograph in .1

.vindow, so that an observer could read its records without entering tht'
house. The ,vindow happened to face north-north-west, and the sun ft'll
un the instrument just after midday. Oil each day the graph falls
Jlearlv 0·25 in. as soon as the sun strikes the instrument, and It rises
dgaiI\ about 5 o'clock, when the sun passes off. The small fall of the
barometric pressure recorded for the evenings durinp: the present obser-
vation is therefore not reliable, and cannot be used to explain till' cwnillQ.
risc of the well.
No explanation of this phenomenon can. therefore, be offered as the
result of these observations. Mr. Speight has suggested to me that it
might possibly be correlated with the expansion of the earth by the
heating effect of the sun, and the passing of an earth-\\'ave or enih-
hean to\\-ards the sun as it sets, as explained by Milne. No obser\'a-
tions or calculations have been madt> to test thp probn.hility of thil:!
F. H. King (vide •• The Soil," p. 162. &c.) fOUlld a morning 1'ISt' in
his shallow wells, and this is explained br the farf that the suil-
temperature IS highest in the morning. and that the expansion of the
lIoil-air expels some of the soil-water so that it reaches and raises the
water-table and thus the well. It is possible that observatio118 might
IIhow that at the outcrop of our water-bearing stratum the soil-tempera-
ture is higher in the evening, and this ,,"ould explain the evt'llillg risl'.
Tbis is another of the numerous points on whirh no ohsenTationll ,,"pre
This is a flowing \\"eU, 190 ft. deep. SItuated at the Canterbury MUbellm.
Christchurch. It 18 the deep \\"ell "Those behaviour was recorded b~'
Captain Hutton (Zoe. cit.), and Mr. Speight madt' further obsenTations on
It during 1910 and 1911. I have worked up both Hutton's and Spell!'ht'fI
o,bservations in the same way as I have my own, comparlllg them with
the barometer-readings, taking out weekly and monthly 8,-el'8.ges, &c., and
hllye found the following facts: (1.) The major fluctuations ill the static
]~yel of the well are small, the greatest anllual yuriation recol'lied during
the two series of observations being 101 in.. as compared \\ith 2 ft. 4: in. in
the Lincoln College well. (2.) Its If'Yel IS ('hanged by 1'6in in thc ~ll.lne
156 7'ra nS(lcfio1l I

manner a.nd to the Bame degree at! in the Lincoln wt'll, but there 18 a much
less decline in its static level during a similar period of aJm.ost similar rain.
(3.) There is no sign of floods in the Waimakariri in:B.uellcing the well.
l4.) There is no sign of agreement between the graph of the well and that
of the barometer, however the latter is mallipulatf'd. l5.) There is all
evening rise. Points (2) and (3) are illustrated by the tollowing graph
(fig. 8). \vhich is comparable to fig. 2. both graphs being on the same scale.
.~1. , ,IrAI"
c...... faa.... IS ~q 00J: ~ :n --"0 ~ 2.1t U.s :u. .I 5 14 f,:l ,IL 1'1.1 1 .......


:f' ~ ~
1'00 ~

. \
i'- I\. j,

" \ l/11"'" t\.. , .,
QJO 1"

• I"
11 • . II II I o·
FIG. tI.-W'nI:xr,y _-\'VIm.\OES Oll' HEIGHT 0.11' MUSEUM WELL \ND WBlCKl,y TOT.\UI OF
R \I!OO"FALL \T LINCOLN (] 894-!l.l).

The want of agreement between the gt' of the well and that of the.>
barometer may be explained either as the result of the Wo.imakariri assist-
ing the rainfall to supply the well, or as the result of the interference of
neighbouring wells. That such interference does take place has b,'en shown
in a prl'viuut! lIection.
The lack of pronounced declme during a comparatively rainless p~riod,
and the smallilcss of the annual variation (Wi in.), opens up serioll8ly
the question ILS to whether the Waimabriri does assist the supply of tho
.flowing wells in Christchurch. In favour of the raiIllall being the sol...
source of supply are the following facts: (1) The rise of the well after
rain; (2) the absence of effect of even the greatest floods on the river
(seo fig. 8, 1st December); (3) the diminution of the static level of thl>
wells as each additional well is put down. The Museum well has fallen
41 ft. in IHteen years, and there is a generally exp:ressed opinion that
all the wells ill the town are similarly affected. This would be thE"
natural efJect if there were a restricted supply of water, such as a rainfall
of 25 in. affol'ds. If the lowering of the static level of the wells is an
indication of the lowering of the water in the water-table at the outcrop
(and it is difficult to suppose otherwise). then the wells in the town are
robbing the crops in the country of the supply of water that they should
receive by capillary rise, a matter of some importance on light shingly ground.
HII,HKSDORF. Artesi(lll If",l" ill fhe CIII';Rtr/Htrt'/1 ArM 157

It has been often IIollSerted by mytlelf, along with others, thctt It IS meon-
ueivab1e that the rainfall should supply all the water outflowlllg at the
l.'hristchurch wolls. but I hllove madt· a calculation that. whatl'Vl'1 its fa.u1t~.
makes the case at least llot illconeeivable.
Population of Chrir.tchurch suburl!s WIthin the artesian areali
-i.e.. from SoC'khurn to New Brighton and froID Papllonul
to tht' Port Hill1l-R6.661 (say) 90. ()(}I)
Gallons of water used pel capita per duy, including hydraulic
lifts and cranes, strt'et- and garden-watering-
Auckland (1910) 58
Wellington (ma.ximum) 60
Dunedin (maximum) 61 ~
Say, 8vel"ag(' f01" Chritltchurch (where stl"eet-w!lterillA
comes from river) 60
Two rams at College lift wat('r an doverage of 22-1 ft., anu
waste water is sevell times thlt; pumped. .As this is
above average height. wo may say proportion of watt'r
used to that wasted .. One-tenth.
Then, total wat('r urawn from artetlillolltl in Christchurch
90,000 x 110 x 11 x 365 x 10
area pt'r year = "224i1 96.251.160 tontl.
Population having bet'n taken as from ~Ol'kbul'll to Nt'w
Length of catchment-area 10 miles.
First-stratum wells outcrop two miles up plain (Speight) :
deep wells (450 ft.) outcrop about eight miles IIoway;
:. width of catchment-area (about) 6 miles.
A.verage rainfall 25 inches.
1 in. of rain = in tons per acre 101
Then rain falling on catchment-area per year
= 10 x 6 x 640 x 101 x 25 96,960,000 tons.
If there is any approximation to accuracy in this calculation, then
(,lLoh additional well put down to any of the strata at present in use can
receive its wlLter only by robbing its neighbouts, a condition of affaits that,
in tho upppr strata has long ago been rea.ched. .As for the lower strata
they have probably not been largely drawn on so far. and there is eve1'Y
reason to suppose that there are still lower strata available but still
In favour of the Waimakariri t\ssisting the water-supply these
mcts: (1.) Water does undoubtedly percolate from the beds of some of
the rivers, as stated by Speight (loo. cit.), and I am a.ble to add that near
Bealey a considerable amount of the Waimakariri flows underground.
This water is almost certain to leak into every porous bed, especially where
the thin deposit of silt that fonns on the river's bed haa been removed
by scour. (2.) The great degree of constancy of the Christchurch supply,
and the smallness of the nnnual variation in the Museum well dUling
the three periods it has been under observation. I should. be inclined to
think that water from the!' river doE'S assist the Christchurch wells in
some degree, but the Lincoln well in no degree; but a longer period of
observations would b(' necessary to establish any opinion on thp matter.
158 l' IIl1lbC/CtWII ~


This wt:ll is bit1]d,t...d at the Canterbury Frozen Meat Company's works
at Belfust, ten mIlel> llorth of Christchurch, and ,nthin a mile of the Wm-
makariri. The ,wll was sUlik III 18~6.•lIld IS 96 ft. deep. It is not a
flowing well. but opellb into a rOllcrete sump, in which the water stands
about 4: ft. below the surface. Its construction seems to preclude Jony
iurface drainage. Obsel'YlI.tions "'ere made on it by Mr. L. P. Symes from
the 14th October to the 1st December, 1911. The controlling factor in-
fluencing Its fluctuations seems to be the level of the Waimakarirl, as the
following graph shows. The heights of the river are those noted at Bealey
on the day before they are entered on the graph, as the water in the river
takes ei~hteen hOUlS to flow from Bealev to Belfast.
ic~ ~. , a If. .. • 'if ,,<, i~::"
'" 1/6 2!1 • I
" n.
_5_1t . \

..,_ A iSl'

." liN
,. "I'
Itlt i\
t •
\ I.'



: 1\ \ 'f\, lA It\ , r..-... A II'
II 3'
· ., 'V "i'\ ~\
~ I\. V'
· ! \ ~


\_ A . ,i
, I'

... . i \ . • J \I \ , .. 1\
"IG. 9. - Hn ,PH .. ~ WELL \T BELF4.q<f (Fr'LL LINE) I:II C'ENl'I'lETRES, \"." til

The well a.t Lincoln depends fo)" Its supply almost entirely on rainfall.
TnI' wells in Christchurch depend on ramfall, probably assisted by percola-
tion from the Waimakariri. Thl' wells at Belfast depend chiefly or entirely
on the Wa.ima.ka.riri. The rain supplying the ,,,ells of present depth falls
on the plains comparatively close at hand-say. "ithiu ten miles of the
tOWll. The discharge from the wells prohably lowers the water-table III
the country. The ba.rometric preBBure influences the wells.
At the close of a paper that is largely a compilation of the work of
others I hnl! a long list of helpel'S to whom to offer thanks. Mr. Speight
Bnd Mr. Symes have been good ellough to offer valuable suggestions during
the course oI thll work. The Oouncil of the Canterbury Philosophical Insti-
tute has voted money for apparatus. lIa.ny of the students at Lincoln
College, lIr. Speight. Mr. Symes. His Lordship Bishop Grimes. Mr. Crump.
and the V4'rl(f'r of the Presbytl.'ry at Lincoln, have ('ither taken weIl-
Hn.("R~"'D01ll' -.Il"tl'5l(111 Wllll~ 'II tile ('/lrlsfrl,Il1l'/' .1/1'11 15!l

observcltlOlls for mt' 01' defimtely placed wells at my U1I:IPObdl. lh. lflcl.,Y hell:!
supplied analyses of the gaseous cOlltcnts of well-waterb. Mr. W. Palnf',
telegraphist at the Bealev, has made for mt' ven careful mea.surement"
of the height of the Waimakarll'1. The followmg have supplied me with
ra.lIlfa.ll rt'coms f'lthf'l' for '!hort pl'flod" or fOl the whoh· vear: Messrs. G.
Gray and U. Rcnmc at LmLOln..J. Brunton fIJlcl R. Ellis at Rol1eston
Grrffith I'Inllth at Lawforu ..J. Wilsoll dot Ki:n'llec, J. Reid WIlsall ,\t Dal'
field. (J. Hall dot Hororata. W. Hall and G. r. Hunt at Glenroy, P. H.
Johnson at Mount Torlt'SBC. and. finally. the Govel'llment lIeteoroiogist for
several stations. Mr. Hog{/. wa" kind enough to mdke the calculatioll
concernmg the alteration in thl' volumes of the dIBsolved gases undel
changes of pressure, and Dr. Evans and Mr McLeod to provide materIal
for apparatus. To all these I beg to off!.'r my thankb. gg without then
co-operation this paper could not have been written ill its present form. I
have also to aclmowledge the IlSlllsiance giY!.'1l by the Obsl'rYcltlOllb made b~'
the late Captain HllttOll.

ART. XV.--A. NI!JW GenWl (lllIl some Neu' tJpec1es "I PI(mts.
By T. F. CHEESE~[AN, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Curator of the Auckland lUuseunl.
[Read belon the A.url:land in,tltlltr. '38t1i Soullliler. 1911.'

1. Alectryon grandis Cheesem. sll. nov.

Arbor 15-pedalis et ultra; ramulis serlceo- et ferrugineo-pubescentiLm..
FolIa pin118ta, alterna, breviter petiolata, 22-30 cm. longa; foliola 2-3-
juga, brevissime petiolata, late oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, obtusa vel
subacuta, 10-18 em. longa, 5-9 cm. lata, praeter eostam venasque pri-
marias plus minusve seric.-eo-pubescentia: venis ultimis collspicue retieu-
latis, subtus elevatis. Flores ignoti.
Hab.-Cliffs on the north side of the Three Kings Islands: a. single.>
small clump alone seen. T. F. ('.
This is the plant referred to at page 103 of the Manual under the 118mt'
of .J.leotryOfl, ezcelsttl1l var. grancNs. Although no doubt existed as to its
being a distinct species, I have deferred describing it as such, ill the hopl'
that some visitor to the Thl"ee Kings Islands might return with flowering
speoimens. But, as twenty-two years have 'elapsed since its original dis-
covery without producing any additional iniormation. it scems advisable
to publish it without further delay. As the islands are now ,isited at
least once eyery year, I trust that the publicity drawn to the plant may
result in its rediscoverr.
A. grandis can be distinguished from A. t>:ooe18um without the dlightest
difficulty by the small number of lea:fJ.ets to each leaf, and by their shape
and much greater size. In A. ezcelsum the lea.1l.ets are 2-:1: in. long, and
are ovate-lanceola.te in shape; whereas in A.. grandis they 4-7 ill. ill
!ength, and are broadly oblong or ovatt'-oblong. They are also firmer
in texture, and much more ohtuse.
160 Tram,m:tlofl6

2. Coxella Cheesem. et Hem&). In Illustr. N.Z. Flora, t. 64 {med.}. nov.

Herba erecta.. pNenms. glabra. Folm plllnatnn deCOmpO&lta: scg-
mentis linea.ribus. planis, fia.cuidis, non spmcscentil)lu,. Umbellae com-
positae, axillar~s. pedunculatae. in paniculam dispo&Itat!. Illvolucri bracteae
paucae, pa.rvae. anguste lanccolatac. Flores alhi. Calycis dentes promi-
nuli. Petola latiuscula. acuroine brevi infiexo. Frllctus late oblongus, a
dorso compressus. subequaliter 5-alatus; alis latis, tenuibus, memLranaceis.
Carpella a dorso valdt' compresss. altero 3-alato, altero 2-alato; vittae
ma.gnae, sub valleculis solitariae vel duae. Carpophorum 2-partitum.
Semen ad vittas sulcatum.
C. DieUenbfUJhii Cheesem. et Hpmsl., l.c., speCIes uniCclo. f}znridium
Dleffenbachii F. Muell .. Veg. Chat., 17, t. 1. Ligustwum DiRUc'II.baihit
Hook. f .. Handb. N.Z. Fl., 729. Anyelica DieUenbacMI, Index Kew, 1. 133.
AciphUlla Dieflt'lIboohii T. Kirk, Studpnts' Fl., 211: Chl't's"Dl., Man. N.Z.
Fl., 214:.
llab.-(''hatham Islands: Mardime cliffs, now oxceedingly scar('e.
H. H. T'f'O/I)6rs/ F. A. D. Co.c / Captain Dorrien Smith /
A very remarkable plant, of doubtful position. A glanee at the
~':I"llonyms quoted above shows that it has been placed by turns in the
genera Gi11f/idium. Ligusticum, Angelica, and Aoiphylla. From the typical
Liqustica it differs markedly in the :flattenl'd and conspicuously winged
fruit. one carpel being 3-winged and the other 2-,vinged, or '\""ery rarely
both carpels may be 3-winged. The vittae are unUl'>Ually large, and are
either 1 or 2 in the interspaces, with 2 or S on the commisural face. From
.4.lIgelica it is separated by the equally winged fruit, in the smaller nwnber
of wings (or ribs), and in the number being unequal in the two carpels.
It has much of the habit of Aoiphylla, although the leaves and bracts are
never spinescent, but diffel"S in the :flattened and winged carpels, and in
the smaller nwnber of v.-ings (or ribs) to each carpel, to say nothing of the
much largl'r vittae. Believing that it is best treated as a separate genus,
Mr. Hemslpy and myself have given it the Ilame of Corella in the forth-
coming .t Illustrations of the NeVI' Zealand Flora," ill which a carefully plate with full analytical details ,vill appear.
The name Ocn;ella is used to commemorate the seryices to 1lotO,lllCaJ.
science of Mr. F. A. D. Cox, of Whangamarino, Chatham Islands. During
a lengthened residence in this outlying corner of the Dominion Mr. Cox
has regularly and consistently collected specimens of the flora of the
islands. These he has communicated to most New Zealand botanists.
accomp.mying them with much valuable information. It is largely through
his assistance in supplying material that our prescllt lmowIl'dge of the
Chatham Islands florula is in such a. satisfactory position.
In an interesting paper prepared by Ca.ptain Dorrien Smith, entitled
" An Attempt to introduce Olearia semi-dentala into the British Islands,"
published in the Kew Bulletin for 1910 (pp. 120-26), which contains
much information of value respecting the Yegetation of the Chatham
Isla.nds, Captain Dorrien Smith gives an account of a visit to the only
known locality for Ooa:ella, near the south end of the main island. This is
accompanied by an exceUent photograph of the plant in its natural habitat.
S. Coprosma neglecta Cheesem. sp. nov.
Ab O. rham'Midu difien caule prostrato, ramulis et petiolis dense et
breviter pubescentibus. fo1iis CIassis et subcamosis, h8ccis (immaturis)
CBEE~.I!lllAN.-.rt'II· Gellm alld 80Itif Xeu Rpecies of Plallts 161

FlUtlculus prostratus, divaricatim ramosus; ramulis yslidis dense

(·ano-pubescentlbus. Folia parva, 10-15 mm. longa, 5-12 mm. lats, ob-
longa. vel rotundato-oblonga vel orbiculata, obtusa, petiolata, crassa et
subcamosa, marginibus recurvis, venis subtus conspicuis. Flores non visl.
Bacca (immatura) parva, oblonga, 5--6 mm. longa.
Hab.-North Island: On the faces of clifis ncar the Yorth Cape:
January, 1896. T. F. O.
A much-branched prostrate shrub 2-5 ft. long; branches wide-spread·
IDg: bark greyish-brown; branchlets stout or slender, the ultimate oneb
uniformly clothed with a fine greyish pubescence, which often extends up
the petioles to the main veins of the leaves. Leaves very variable in
shape and size, usually H in. long by H in. wide, oblong or oblong-
spathulate to broadly oblong or orbicular, sometimes broader than long
,lnd thus transversely oblong, obtuse, usually narrowed into a rather
sll'nder petiole, but sometimes rounded or truncate at the base, thick and
liomewhat fleshy, margins recurved, veins reticulated, conspicuous beneath.
Flowers not seen, but apparently terminating short lateral bra.nchlets.
Drupe (immature) about H in. long, oblong.
As a rule, it is not advisable to describe species of OoprosmQ unle&>
either good flowers or ripe fruit have been obtained. In this instance,
however, the creeping habit, slender branchlets clothed with a fine and
even greyish-white pubescence, the thick and fleshy broad obtuse leaves.
a.nd the fact that the immature fruit is oblong are characters which III
combination remove it from all described species.
4. Myosotis Laingii Oheesem. sp. nov. .
M. laetae simillima et forsitan ejus varletaf>. sed ddiert caulibus doltl-
oribus et floribus multo majoribus.
Perennis, undique pills albidis copiose vestitus. Rami :fioriferi gracIles,
88cendentes, 30-45 cm. alti. Folia radicslia numerosa, longe graciliterque
petiolata, 7-15 cm. longs, supra. ot infra pills albidis obsita; folia caulina
minora, superiorum sessilia.. Racemi terminales, pedunculati, simplices
aut ra.rissime £ureati. Flores fiavi, breviter pedicellati. Oalyx elongatus,
cylindraceus, lobia linearibus. Corolla anguste campa.nulata, 16 mm.
longa, 10 mm. lata; tubus cylindraceus, fauce gibbis emarginatis instructa.
Stamina 5, sub fauci affixa; filamentis elongatis: antheris majusculis,
Hab.-&luth Island: Kaikoura Mountains: J. BUMatw'I/,/ Wairau
Gorge; T. F. O. Lake TenuYlIon: R. •11. Lai'1lg/ Altitudinal range from
2,500 ft. to 4,500 ft. .
Perennial, everywhere clothed with copious soft white hairs. Flower-
ing-stems several from the root, slender, decumbent below, erect above,
12-18 in. high. Radical leaves numerous, 8-6 in. long; blade about hall
the length, linear- or lanceolate-spathulate, obtuse or subacute, gradus.lly
narrowed into the very long and slender petiole, membranous, both sur-
faces clothed with soft white hairs, midrib distinct. Cauline leaves murh
smaller, the lower shortly petioled, the upper sessile. Racemes many-
flowered, usually simple, rarely forked. Flowers large, crowded, -1-1 in.
long, yellow, shortly pedicelled. Calyx long and narrow, 5-partite; lobes
linear, acute. Corolla narrow-campanulate; tube about ha.l:f the length;
throa.t with 5 emargina.te scales; limb large, deeply lobed. the lobea.
oblong, obtuse. Stamens with slender elongated fiIaments, which are
inserted just below the scales; anthers large. narrow-linear. reaching half·
wn.y up the corolla.-Iobes. Ripe nutlets not set-no
162 l'ran~actionll.

Many vears ago the latl' Mr. Buchanan ga\"e me two specimens of this
plant, coliected in some locality in the Kaikoura Mountains; and I have
qathered what appears to be the same at the Wairoa Gorge. In the
Yanual I included both of them with my .lE. laeta, although they ob-
viously differed in the much greater size of all their parts. I have now
received good recent specimens, collected by Mr. R. M. Laing. and from
their study have come to the conclusion that they represent a distinct
ipecies, although closely allied to M. Zaeta. I have much pleasure in
associating the plant with the name of Mr. Laing, who is so well known
from his long-continued researches into the Algae of New Zealand.
3. Corysanthes Carsei Cheesero. sp. no'".
Ab O. 'Wfl9Uioulata R. Br. differt floribus angustioribus. labello apiculo
minore, sepalo postico emarginato.
Planta perpusilla. acaulis. florifera 8-12 mm. alta. Folium solitarium.
membranaceum. ovato-cordatum. scutum. 6-10 mm. longum. Flos soli-
tarius, pro planta IDajusculus. horizontalis vel deflexus. supra folium suL-
seasilis. 8epalum posticum hasi angustum, tunc lato-cucullatum. spice
incurvatum et emarginatum. 8epala.· lateralia. parva, linearia. Label-
lum magnum. 10 mm. longum. orbiculatunl. marginihus valde im"olutis.
Columna Lrev_iij. cun"ata.
Hab.-North Island: Peaty swamps between Lake Tongonge and
the coast, Mongonui County; H. Carse and H. B. Jlatthell~fI.'
A small delicate species. i-i in. high when in flower. Leaf sessile,
H in. long, ovate-cordate, acute, membranous. Flo"'er sessile or very
shortly pedunculate, about i in. long, horizontal or deflexed, dull-purplish
Upper sepal very narrow at the base, then suddenly expanded, so that
the upper two-thirds is broadly oblong and hood-shaped. extreme tip
incurved and emarginate and slightly thickened and papillose. Lateral
sepals placed under the lip, small, narrow-linear, 4-5 rum. long. Lateral
petals still smaller, 3 rom. long. Lip large. tubular. the margins involute,
meeting behind the column and enclosing it, orbicular or broader than
long when spread out. extreme tip produced into a minute projecting
lamina, between which and the overhanging emarginate tip of the upper
sepal is the only entrance to the fl'Ont of the flower. Immediately inside
the entrance the surface of the lip is furnished with a broad patch of stiff
papillae all pointing towards the interior of the flower, and which is con-
tinued as a narrow band down the median line of the lip. At the bast!
of the lip the margins on each side are rolled up on themselves, thUti
forming two minute circular openings leading to the base of the flower.
Column short. stout, curved. Capsule not seen.
This is a very curious little plant, closely allied to the Australian
U. tmguioulata,- but, judging from Mr. Fitzgerald's beautiful drawing,
that species has a much broader flower, the upper sepal is wider and not
incurved or emargina.te jIot the tip, the projecting lamina at the apex of
the lip is much smaller, and the papillae within the lip are confined to the
median line, whereas they also form a broad patch to the right and left
of the median line in O. Oarsei. There is also a relationship to O. Mat-
tkewsii,- but, among other differences, it has a much narrower dorsal sepal,
and the lip wants the projecting lamina of O. Oarsei.
The numerous additions made to the orchid flora of the North Cape
district by Mr. R. H. Matthews, and the discovery of the present species
by :Messrs. Carse and H. B. Matthews, shows how much might be done
by careful investigation in most parts of the Dominion.
B.ABTRUM..-Roc!{8 of ]Jount Cargill. DIIIINlill. 16:}

ART. XVI.-Bo'l1le Roo~·1S of .Hount Cargill, DWIPtlin.

By J. A. BARTRUM. l\1.Sc.
Communicated by Dr. Marshall.
fRead before tlle Otago In.atitute, 3rr1 October, 1911.]

IN these notes an attempt will be made to describe a series of trachy-

dolerites and phonolites outcropping near thc summit of Mount Cargill,
.tnd, with them, such adjacent rocks as may be helpful in throVlojng light
on their origin.
A difficulty in arriving at the exact relationships of the rocks in this
district lies in the fact that bush and debris obscure a large portion of
country where outcrops are probable.
Several references to Mount Cargill rocks have been made by different
writers, notably Professors Ulrich and Park and Mr. C. ~4.. Cotton, hut
Pl'Ofessor Marshall's paper on the "Trachydolerites" * and that on the
.• Geology of Dunedin "t gave the first comprehensive account of these rocks.
The standard types arrived at by Professo]' Marshall in the latter of these
two papers have been made full use of, and very much personal advice
and help has been given by Professor Marshall to the writer during the
preparation of this paper. .
It is hoped that some of the information urought fOl'ward may hf'lp
to supplement previous knowledge of the rocks described.
The Mount Cargill l'Ocks form part of the volcanic complex of the
Dunedin district. In several exposures the yolcanic rocks overlie uncon-
formably the Caversham sandstone, a member of the Oamaru series. which
is generally referred to a Miocene age.t From the fact that volcanic rocks
apparently have been unaffected by the earth-mo\-ementa that caused dis-
turbance of the Oamaru series, these former probably first were emitted
at a reriod later than that of the disturbance of the Oamaru beds. The
age 0 the earliest volcanic outburst must thus be at earliest post-Miocene.
That there are two main periods of volcanic activity in the Dunedin
area is evidenced by the occurrence of a conglomerate of volcanic material
o'\"'erlying plant-beds that are unconformable to the Caversham sandstone.§
Professor Park considers the trachydolerites to belong to the first
period.1I To this period he assigns a Pliocene agc.1f They were extruded
probably through trachytoid phonolites that have been described by Pro-
fessor Marshall** and Cotton,tt and that occupy a. large area on Sigl11l.1
Hill, about two miles south-east of Mount Cargill .

... Trans. Au>I1:. Ass. Adv. Sci., vol. 10, 1904, p. 186; Dunedin.
t Quart. Joum. Gool. Soa., val. 62, 1906, p. 381.
t Park. " Geology of New Zealand," • 23.
§ Ma.NbaIl. " 0001010" of Dunedin." Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc., Tol. 62, 190tl, p. 390.
II" Geology of New,"l.' 148. •
~"On GeOlogy of North Rea , Wa.ikouaiti,·· TrauR. N.Z. mAt., vol. 36, 11104. p. 418•
.... .Loc. cit.
tt Trans. N.Z. Iwrt., vol. 41, 1909. p. Ill.

164 Trnn ~nrtloll ~

In descrlhmg a ..action exposed at the North Head. Otago Hdol'boUl.

Professor lLnshlioll. in his papt'r .. Geology of Dunedin." nhows that thl'
phonolite was one of tht' earliest volcanics of th(' district. No definite
statement as to the perioll durin!!; which the tmchydolerite eruption took
place can be made from the field cVldencl' afforded by the outcrops of tht,
Mount Cargtll a.rea, beyond the tact that the trachydoleritt's arc nowhel'1'
overlaid bv other lava-:fI.ows. Professor Marshall. remarking 011 this, a.nd
on the additional fact that no pebbles of trachydolerite are found in (on-
glomerates formed in the interval between the two peroids of eruption.
considers that the traC'hydolerltes ,11'e amongst the latest of thE' DunE'dill
~Iount CargIll hes about fiv!;, 111lles north-east ot the Tovlll of DunedlD.
and forms a moderately well-rounded spur, rising to a series of sharp knobs
in the Main Peak (2,232 ft.), Butter's Peaks (2,040 ft.). and Mount Holmes.
There are several other less-prominent peaks at a lowt'r eleyation than
these. The main spur or ridge rullS tlouth-west from the l\Iain Peak to-
wards Pine Hill, and on the south-east there is a gradual drop to the
saddle between Mount Cargill and Signal Hill. On the north there is a
steep bush-clad face leading down mto the watershed of II. stream draining
towards Waitati. On the west fia.ttish slopes lead out to the Leith Valley.
From the south face of the Main Peak the North-east Valley Stream
drains, and has cut a well-rounded vallt'y between thE' MOllnt Cargill ILnll
Signal Hill ridges.
From the Main Peak. looking north-east II.nd cast, threE' knobtl are
prominent. The nearest one - an abrupt rock~' lmoll raIled Butter'l'I
Peaks-is composed of a basic variety of traC'hydoleritc and of a Pl'ObBble
nephelinitoid phonolite dykE'. Thl':MaUl Peak itself. A. steeply cleft ridge,
running for about 10 chains III 8 north-east by east and south-WE'Bt by
Wl'st direction, is composed chie:fl.y of the gl'neral la\"fl tmchydolerite.
A far rocky peak to thE' north-east-:Mount Holm<'s. or Remarkable
Roeks. by name-shows a splendid example of coluIDlULl' structurE' in the of which it is fonurd. A. good illustration of this outcrop is given
in P.t.rk's .• ~ology of New Zealand," p. 150. A quarter of B mill' to the
south-east of this basalt peak is a klloh called Mount Zion. \"\'lth t\ lofty
precipitous face edging thE' 1\la1l1 North Road, and composI'd of a type
of trachytoid phonolite called by the type-namE' .. Logan's Point." This
phonolite outcrops in a series of knolls for about II. quarter to half a mill'
in a south-west direction from lIount Zion.
In a south-west and west direction from the MaUl Peak the l'Oundrd
and :fI.attish slopes stretching towards Pine Hill and the Leith Valley show,
in scattered outcrops, a comparatively unvaried type of tmchydolerite.
On these slopes occasional rough hexagonal jointing is see11, and the dis-
position seems to add strength to the view of ProfE'BSOl' Marshall that the
How of the trachydolerit(' was from Mount Cargill towards Mount Flag-
About a mile and a ha.lf south-west by south from the Main Peak, Oll
the upper pol'tion of the Pine Hill slopes. is a profusIon of large blocks
of rubble showing abundant large feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minE'rals

... « Qeology of Dunedin," Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc., vol. 62, 1906, p. 40'1.
BARTRu)I,-Roch of Jloullt Cargill, 1)1111('11111 16;)

on the weathering l:Iurmces. This 11; hypabyssal tl'achydolerlte. Near it

is also found abundant rubbl(' of a. basaltic or basanitic nature.
In 3 quarry on the road running from lowt'r Pine Hill north-eastwards
alo~ the southern slopes of Mount Cargill is a type of trachytoid phono-
lite' similar to that occupyin~ Il. large urea ou Signal Hill, and known a&
the' Si~al Hill t~1>e. This phonolite runs south-west along the hillsid(.
from the uppel'most forks of thl' North-ea,t Vallcv Stream, just below
thE' steep southern face of the Mam Peak. Near these forks begins a
winding road towards the Juuction School. Along this road hypabyssal
trachydolerite in L!.r~e rubbly blocks is first met: a space covered solely by
basaltic debris intervenes; and then there IS au outcrop of basaltic scoria.
Fragments ofthe so-called" Junction basalt" arl' found plentifuUyallaround,
and shortly tht' solid rock is exposed m a shallow quarry near this road.
On a knoll a.bout 1,200 ft. high. a.bout a. quarter of a mile north-east
of the scoria outCl'OP, a fresh basamtic rOe'k I~ found In plentiful rubble.
XO outcrop was discovered.
Basaltic and basanitic rocks. and also a llcphehrutoid phonolIte, oui-
I:rop in the yalle~' of the North-cast Valley Stream. below the forks men-
tIOned above. The last-mentioned rock IS of a pe('uliar type, and seems
to be thc samc nephelinitoid phonolit«.> that occurs in the North-east VaIle~'
quarry. about a mile and 0. quarter down-stream from the upper outcrop.
Basaltic rubble is extensive on the hillside north-west of the North-east
Yalley tanner,r. No recognizable outcrops were found, and its relatioll
to thl' Signal Rill phonolite cannot definitely b(> d«.>termined.

(a.) Getu!:ral Lava T'I'ackydoleriJ.e.
In haud-lipecimen this is a heavy greyish-black fine-gl'ained rock show-
Ing fairly prominent feldspar and, in places. pyroxene crystals. It breaks
with a rough fracture. Feldspar and pyroxene show up prominently 011
weathering surfaces. This rock is describt'd by Professor Marshall in his
paper on the Dunedin tmchydolerites.*
The microscope shows a base of irregular feldspar laths, with enmeshed
aegirin«.>-aueite and other crystals. I.'n('losina model'at«.>ly abundant pheno-
Cl'VSts •
. A porphyritic character is shown by the feldspar. and to a less extent
by the nepheline and pyroxene.
The phenocrysts are sanidine. nugitE' (chiefly of various brownish tints).
l'f'sorbed hornblende. sodalite. nephl.'line. oli~ne, and occasionally aegirine-
augite and anorthoclase.
The commonest phenocrysts are those of augite.
The sanidine shows marked corrosion, and its margins are usually
dentate \Vlth aegirine-augite. Its twinning is by the Carlsbad law. The
extinction in many cases is parallel to well-marked cleavage, and in some
idiomorphic sections to the edge between the faces 100 and 010. The
crystals are usually small, but are found up to I) mm. by 4 mm. in size.
Clear glassy crystals are oharacterisitic, but both liquid and aegirine-augite
mrlusioDs are <'Ommon.

'" Tran~. AUllt. A"'Ill. _.\(h-. Hci., '1'01. 10, 1904, p. 18:.
166 Tramartion~.

A few irregular bIaxial interference figures were obtamed, but no ilol'l'

tions were found suitable for definite optical tests.
Anorthoclase occurs in occasional phenocrysts, especially in the roc·J.o,
from the upper Pine Hill slopes. The fine indefinite pericline and al1,ite
cross-twinning is cha.racteristic.
Oligoclase occurs in a few crystals. It is recognized by its albite twiI.-
ning, with a low extinction-angle on either side of the twinning-plane.
In one case sodalite is included in a crystal of sanidine.
The nepheline phenocrysts are large and fairly plentiful. Charact~r­
istic hexagonal cross-sections are not uncommon, but corrosion has beer.
a.ctiye as a general rule. In some sections no nepheline of the hrst
generation; in others, especially in those from rocks toward..
Pine Hill, the mineral is comparatively coarse and plentiful.
Sodalite is plentiful. A few large sharply idiomorphic forms simulatmg
hexagonal cross-sections of nepheline, are present, but the characteribhf'
sodalite crystal is irregular and flaky.
Olivine generally is a most plentiful phenocryst. The crystals art
large, fresh, and rounded. A" celyphitic" structure, in which pale
pinkish-brown augite and iron-ore form a "corona" around the oliyine.
is marked. Where the olivine has not this corona it shows typically a
corrosion border of magnetite dust and a deep fringe of aegirine-augIte
Resorbed amphibole is a constant and characteristic phenocryst. All
stages of resorption are exhibited. The cross-sections of even the wholly
resorbed mineral show characteristic shape and prismatic angles. The
unresorbed mineral shows intense pleochroism, in colours varying from
deep brown to golden-yellow. In some sections, pa.rticularly those from
rocks near the outcrop of hypabyssal trachydolerite, amphibole. next to
augite, is the most abundant of the minerals of the first generation. Thll'O
amphibole has been classed tentatively a.s barkevicite.
The occurrence of pyroxene is most commonly in glomeroporphyrihc
phenocrysts of a pinkish-brown variety of augite. The cleavage is Ch.1-
racteristic. Both simple and polysynthetic twins are common. Zona.l
structure is noticeable.
This pyroxene was more or less unsta.ble in the original magma. and.
though of idiomorphic outline. is almost always edged by 8 hum!:'r of
A purplish-violet pleochroic augite is found rarely ill \vell-sha.ped
crystals. The pleochroism is-parallel to c deep purplish-violet. and l
to " and .6 greyish-violet.
A rare deep-green to golden-yellow pleochroic pyroxene is ascribed to
aegirine or aegirine-augite. It shows good augitic cleavage on basal
sections. Two or three crystals of this mineral are of large size (2 rom.
by 3 mm.), and include abundant prisms of apatite and squares of
magnetite. They indicate by their irregular boundary that either they
themselves have been resolved. or that the aegirine-augite and maguetitl::'
are the resorption-products of an earlier mineral. The constant associa·
tion of aegirine-a.ugite and magnetite with resorbed amphibole strengthens
the supposition that these two minerals are the resorption-products of th~
In one case a pale-green augite crystal includes one of olivine.
Magnetite is infrequent otherwise than 8.11 a resorption-product.
BARTBUM.-Rocks of Moune Oargill. DUlIedm 167

The G,ollmillla".
A. network of predominant feldspar wraps around plentiful pale-green
..ll'!l;trIne - augite granules, a little fine nepheline, and a little iron - ore.
The feldspar, as a general rule. IS in poorly shaped untwinned laths.
Fluxiunal d.rra.ngement is rare. There is a little polysynthetically
twinned plagiocl£Lse feldsp!!,r a~o ~resent. The iron-ore is chieHy magne-
tlte in small squares, but llmemte 18 also present.
The nepheline is only distinguished by staining the sections. It IS in
nunute hexagonal forms.
:No cossyrite was observed in the many sections prepared of thIS rock,
but there is an abundance of the mineral in a similar trachydolerite from
lIount Flagstaff.
The granules of aegirine-augite are alwa.ys irregular, and at times
Simulate a mossy structurc. Apatite forms stout though never plentiful
prisms. O/(j,pr of C'rv.taUulation.
Some of the relations are uncertain, but the probable order is (1) olivine;
(2) apatite: (3) amphibole; (4) augite; (5) sodalitc; (6) sanidine, nephe-
line. with possibly anorthoclase and oligoclase. and then, in the ground-
rolSS, iron-ore, aegirine-augite, nepheline, and feldspar, in the order named.
Sections of a transition type of tT8.chydolerite come from a little east
ot the Main Peak. Olivine, in coarse aggregates of fresh rounded crystals,
with a. corrosion border of magnetite dust and aegirine-augite granules,
is very common. Pinkish augite has been corroded, and is edged. by
.1.ejli.rine-augite. Large crystals of resorbed amphibole are rare, but the
lllineral may be represented by numerous small groups of secondary mag-
netic material. Feldspar sometimes encloses this magnetite. Nepheline
is rare. There is a little very opaque coss~'l'ite.
The groundmass is very dense and fine-grained; it exhibits occasional
flow structure. Feldspar continues to be more important than the aegirine-
a.ugite. Ohsmical OhMactelS.
Two allalyses of the trachydolerite from two different localities are
appended, and with them. for purposes of comparison, two other analyses.
_-\. B. C. D.
50·43 -:1.9·02 51·86 50·06
18·00 19·50 19·87 17·00
3·78 4·37 6·30 2·96
5·65 6·60 8·11 5·42
2·91 2·14 2·33 8·61
5·76 7·35 4·88 3·53
1·37 1-18 1-48 4·85
0·38 Not det. 0·51 HuO 0·14
Not det. Not det. 0·36 0·66
Not det. Not det. Not det. 0·51
98·83 98·64 100·67 100·28
A. Trachydolerite, Main Peak, Mount Oargill. (.Analysis, J. Bartrwn.)
B. Trachydolerite, near Pine Hill. (Analysis, J. Bartrum..)
C. Trachydolerite, Dr. P. Marshall.·
D. Shoshonite, Yellowstone National Park.t
* "Geology of Dunedin," Quart. Joum.. Ueo1. Soo, vol. 62,1906, p. 407.
t &aenbl't!oh, .. EJ.eme.nte dl.'t' Gesteinslehre," p. 365. No. 13, 1001 ed.
168 J'l'flIIM,ction" .

There is seen to exist a certain similarity in chemical compoSltlOu

between thc trachydolerites and the alkali basalts. This is not borne out
by the petrological and mineralogical characters, in which the trach:,'-
dolerites approach closely to the phonolites of the adjoining area. Tilt'
analyses, to be gi"\"'en later. of these phonolites show also how closely they
merge into the trachydolerites in chemical characters. •
(b.) Hypahyssal Type of T'foonydolerite.
Two areas show extensive rubble of this rock-the one on Pine Hill.
and the other near the headwaters of the North-east Valley Stream. It
was not found actually if!, situ, but so great a heap of angular block!! as
there is on Pine Hill is not likely to have travelled far.
The difierences from the lava type are mainly te:xt1l.ral. and are.
indeed, few.
In hand-specimen large pyroxene, amphibole, and feldspar crystals are
conspicuous. The feldspar and soda-pyroxene are porphyritic. Olivine.
nepheline. and sodalite are less plentiful than in the lava type, but feld-
spar is more so. The corrosion of the feldspar is a noticeable feature.
The pyroxelle is chiefly a pleochroic green soda-bearing variety of
augite, or aegirine-augite. .A little pink faintly pleochroic augite is aisil
present. The aegirine-augite is usually idiomorphic.
Resorbed hornblende in places includes a little feldspar.
In the ground.mass the aegirine-augite is less important than the feld-
spar, and is less mossy than in the general lava rock. The plagioclase
feldspars-varying between oligoclase and acid andesine-also much increase
their importance.
The main features of the type are the increased size of the phellocrystl'>
in general and the more open nature of the groundmass.
(c.) Basic Type of Troohydolerite.
In hand-specimen this rock is indistinguishable from the dense green
nephelinitoid phonolites and tinguaites common in the Dunedin district.
It has a leek-green very fine-grained matrix, in which are a few prominent
crystals of feldspar and pyroxene. Many variations of a minor nature
are exhibited by the rocks included in this class.
Under the microscope the distinguishing features are--(I) scarcity
or lack of nepheline in the groundmass; (2) abundance of aegirine-augite
and small amount of feldspar in the groundmass: (3) the dense nature
of the groundmass; (4) typical scarcity of phenocrysts.
The relative importance of the different phenocryst mineral':j varies
hom section to section.
An interesting feature is the occurrence of small rounded leucite crystalb
with characteristic radial inclusions of aegirine-augite. Anothcr pecu-
liarity lies in the alteration (or. may be, corrosion) of the olivine pheno-
crysts. These have been more or less wholly replaced by a clear colourless
secondary mineral and magnetite dust. The fibrous nature and other
characters of this secondary mineral seem most characteristic of serpentine.
A bluish-green chloritic mineral is sometimes connected with this alter-
ation of the olivine.
Sharply idiomorphic, fresh olivine crystals are, however, not uncommon.
There is an oocasional corona of augite and magnetite to the olivine.
Phenocrysts of feldspar are less common than those of the ferro-
magnesian mine-rals; of them, sanidine is the commonest, but anorthoclase
B.\R'l'nml.-Ror.lcB 01 Mount Oar.qill, DUlledill. 169

41st) occurs ill a few large crystals The feldspars exhibit the same round-
ine: as in the general trachydolerite, but the edges art' sharply defined.
- Pyroxene and brown amphibole also form phenocrysts. The pyroxene
is generally idiomorphic pale-pinkish to pale-greenish-pink augite. It is
oOmmonly fringed by dust-like aegirine-augite. Aggregates of pinkish
augite are common.
In some sections nepheline forms important large well-shaped crystals.
~odalite in small flaky forms is moderately abundant. The augite inoludes
a, few apatite prisms.
The impenetrable nature of the groundmass is given it by the felted
dust-like grannies of aegirine-augite. Typically, no cossyritc is present:
but in a few sections, where the density of the groundmass is not so
marked as in typioal sections, a few opaqne-brown dendritic growths may
h~ of this mineral.
A few minute feldspar needles are scattered throughout. Staining
detects nepheline in the mesh of aegirine-augite dust in minute rare hexa-
gonal and squaro forms.
Magnetite is very soarce, unless it o(,('urs with aegirine-augite as a
rt'sorption-product of amphibole.
Ohemical Oha.racterll.
An analysis was made of this type, and comparison with the two other
analyses appended shows how closely it agrees chemioally with both the
trachydolerites and the traohytoid phonolites.
A. B. C.
54·24 56·19 55·10
18·08 20·25 19·25
~H8 2·76 2·77
3·53 2·32 1-66
0·88 1-12 0·83
5·01 4·30 lH4
5·01 4·19 4·68
7·29 6·33 7-41
1-79 0·65 2·19
0·63 MnOO·32
(1·57 0·48
0·54 0·4:1

98·64 99·47 100·46

A. Basic type of trachydolerite, Butter's Peaks, Mount Uargill. (An-
alysis. J. Bartrum.)
B. Trachydolerite from Columbretes, Spain. *
C. Tracytoid phonolite.t
(d.) Nepkelimitoid Type 01 Trachydolerift ..
In hand-specimens this rock is indistinguishable from the preceding
basic type.
Within a few yards in the neld this type merges, in successive vari-
ations, from the general trachydolerite to true nephelinitoid phonolite.

* Roaenbusoh. •• Elemente der OeeteiDslelIre," p. 365. No. 4-, 1901 ed.

t Bosenbusoh, Zoe. cit., p. 292, No.4.
170 Tran.actions.

Thus field relations gh-e no help ill drawing distinctions between different
petrolo¢cal types. but indicate that the origin of all is di:fferentiation of
the one magma. There is. however, a possible exception to this. for Illl
outcrop of nephelinitoid phonolite on Butter's Peaks may be a dyke.
Under the microscope the chief feature of the type is the nephelinitoid.
or cellular, structure of the groundmass. due to the nllmCrOUI4 minute
hexagons of nepheline seen under modE'ratc magnification.
The phenocrysts arc typicall~' allotriomorphic; the most common art·
pinkish-hrown augite. sodalite, sanidine, uE'pheline, and olivine.
The nepheline is large and well-shaped. but is crowded with minute
liquid inclusions. The of sodalite are yery large. and are usually
crowded with minute ~ra.seouil inf'lusions: they show good dode<:ahcdral
Sanidine is clear and glassy, hut exhibits shadoW' extinction. A feW'
characteristic anorthodase phenocrysts occur.
Olivine has (>ither 0. dense corona of aegirine-augite with maglH~tite. or
else a corrosion fringe of aegirine-augite and magnetite dust.
Pleochroic aegirine-augite is shown in tI few well-shaped crystalll that
have suffered slight resorption, and haye been edged by the common
pinkish augite. This latter variety sometimes encloses resorbed amphibole.
showing that it did not separate out till after, or was connected \nth, the
resorption of the amphibole.
The grOlludmass is holocrystalline but finE'-grained, aud generally similar
in minerals to that of the other types of traehydolerite.
Aegirine-augite in mossy granules is dominant; if often assumes a
lath shape, and then shows more or less parallel alignment.
In sections' of those rocks that, both petrographically aud in field
occurrence, approach the nephelinitoid phonolites cossyrite occurs plenti-
fully, but is absent in other sections. unless some minute opaque dentritic
growths can be referred to this minerol.
Feldspar is moderately important, and enwrapping laths show up
amongst the numerous minute hexagonal forms of nepheline. Yer~' little
magnetite is present: there are a few s(·atterl'd. fiak('s of sodalite.
No analysis of this rock 'Was made.
As ""ould Le expected, in certain places this rock merges clos('ly IDto
the type of trachydolerite just described. In se.eral sections segregations
or inclusions of the basic trachydolerite previously described are .ery
typical. The~' a.erage about 7 mm. in diameter, and are most probabl~'
of the nature of segregations.
Leucite again appears as a subsidiary mineral. It is difficult to dis-
tinguish it from numerous other rounded isotropic forms that are judged
from their ready gelatinization 'With dilute acid, and from the high percent-
age of chlorine in the rock, to be sodalite. The leucite is in small rounded
or idiomorphic shapes, and commonly shows chllol"&cteristic radial arrang~"
ment of included aegirine-augite granules.
In hand-specimen this rock is very similar to the dense basic .ariety
of trachydolerito, but has a somewhat lighter colour and greasier appearal1ee.
It weathers very readily.
Under the microscope true phenocrysts are rarely set'n, unless in the
proximity of the 'basie inclusions, where pink augite a.nd oliyil1(, especinlly
are common.
BAllTRUM.-Rorks of Mount Cargill, D,medil/. 171

The phenocrysts are of sanidine, of brownish-pink augite, of almost

('ompletely resorbed amphibole, of sodslite, and occasionally of nepheline.
Sanidine is the most common; it is usually markedly corroded, but
I)ccasional good idiomorphs show up. Carlsbad twinning is common.
When nepheline ocours it is in very large crystals; sodslite is in numerous
rounded and flaky forms.
Pinkish-brown augite not infrequently forms an outgrowth. to resorbed
hornblende. One or two deep-green pleochroic and idiomorphic aegirine-
J.ugite phenocrysts are present.
Under moderate magnification the groundmass exhibits a prominent
nephelinitoid, or cellular, structure. The nepheline of these clear cellular
portions is in minute hexagonal cross-sections.
Highly pleochroic aegirine-augite and cossyrite aggregates are scattered
regularly and fairly plentifully in the nepheline base. .All branching
portions of these aggregates are in crystalline continuity, and extinguish
together. The pleochroism of the cossyrite is from bright reddish-brown
to brownish-black, and of the aegirine-augite from deep grass-green to
greenish-yellow. The identification of the cossyrite is based on its descrip-
tion in this and similar rocks of the district by Professor Marshall. No forms
approaching idiomorphism were found on which to apply optical tests.
In portions only of certain sections feldspar shows up well in minute
needles that have rough parallelism, but elsewhere it is relatively scarce.
'There are a few scattered granules of magnetite.
From the east end of Butter's Peaks one section made was found to
differ from the others, and to present an undoubted nephelinitoid ph.onolite.
It probably represents an unimportant local variation of the general basic
trachydolerite. Cossyrite is very scarce in this section; it is in minute
dense growths. The aegirine also is very dense, and is of much less import-
ance than in the typical nephelinitoid phonolite. Nepheline forms almost
the whole of the predominant clear base of the groundmass.
Olismica' 01laracler8.
The analysis made of this Mount Cargill nephelinitoid phonolite shows
a. close agreement with that of the nephelinitoid phonolite represented
by analysis B.
..1. B.
54·88 55·01
22·80 21-67
3·66 1·95
3·26 1·86
(l·S8 0·13
2·24 2-12
3·65 3·54
7·53 9·78
0·91 2·17
0·63 O.()8
99·94 99·41
.A. Nephelinitoid phonolite from Butter's Peaks, Mount Cargill. (.An-
alysis, J. Bartrum.)
B. Nl'phelinitoid phonolitu from Hohentwiel, Hogau. *
.. Roaenbusch, " Elemt·nte de.r Geateinslehre-," );0. 0, p. 2112, HIOO ed.
172 Tran8actio,~,.

A nephelinitoid phonolite that has probably intruded earlier basarutes i:-

found in a small quarry alongside a branch track that leaves the North-east
Yalley to Junction School Road, and follows up the North-east Valley Stream.
The phenocrysts, which are almost entirely sanidine in Carlsbad twins
and a little bright emerald-green to yellowish-green aegirine-augite, are
:-halply idiomorphic. The groundmass is chiefly nepheline in small hexa-
gonl&l forms. Deep-green mossy a.egirine-augite aggregates and :Ha.kes of
Rodalite are also very plentiful.
This rock is similar to, and possibly the same as the nepheliuitoid
phonolite that is quarried lower down-stream in the North-east Valley
No hard-and-fast line can be drawn between the nephelinitoid and
some of the trachytoid phonolites of Mount Cargill. These latter phono-
lites present in the Mount Cargill area fall under two types, named respec-
tively .. Logan's Point ,. and" Signal Hill" by Professor Marshall in his
pape'r .r Geology of Dunedin." referred to previously.
The more important on Mount Cargill is the Logan's Point type, which
{orllls Mount Zion and other knolls. and through which the Mount Holmes
basalt and the trachydolerites have probably been forced. The Logan's
Point is probably earlier than thE' Signal Hill type of trachytoid phonolite.
Cotton, in a paper, .• Geology of Signal Hill, Dunedin,"· brings forward
evidence that supports this view.
The apparent succession of types in the Mount Cargill area will b~ dealt
:vith later.
(a.) Logan's Point Type of T'1'ackytoiil PhonoZite.
III the hand-specimen this is a dull leek-green fine-grained rock, showing
a few sanidine phenocrysts. Its field outcrop sho'\\"S a platy structure.
Under the microscope practically no phenocrysts appear beyond a few
poorly shaped corroded ones of sanidine, and a few of pleochroic aegirine-
augite and resorbed amphibo!e. Cossyrite and aegiline-augite, both in
the allotriomorphic mossy growths common in the allied Mount Cargill
rocks, evenly and plentifully distributed in the gtouudmass ill a clear
base of nepheline and feldspar. The pleochroism of both minprnJs is the
usual pleochroism noted already.
The feldspar of the groundDlASs is typically a.llotriomorphic, and, as
well as enwrapping the aegirine-augite and cossyrite, encloses in its most
intimate meshes minute nepheline crystals that often are only distinguished
by staining-tests. In other sections an abundance of nephelin(' causes a
cellular structure of the groundmass.
Occasionally the feldspar of the base shows good fluxional arrange·
ment; the laths then prominent are polysynthetically twinned, and are
referred, on their extinction-angles, to oligoclase. When the greater part
of the base sho\vs this structure the rock merges into the Signal Hill type.
Similarly, where the base is highly nephelinitoid the rock verges on the
nephelinitoid phonolites. This is particuls.rly the case in sections from a
small conical knob near Butter's Peaks.
In the Logan's Point rock magnetite is absent; a few prisms of apatite
are included by aegirine-o.ugite.
In a seotion made from an outcrop of this type near Butter's Peaks
large phenocrysts of olivine and pinkish augite were found. Partial resorp-
* TranR. Y.?. [nht•• vol. 41, 1909, p. Ill.
ilAH'j'Ul-:r.l.-/t'orh of Jl(Jllnf Cart/til, DUfUr/iII. 173

tion has effected It l"oUlldlll!.! of thesf' c·rystais, and an edging of a.egirinl·-

Cnless these have been caught up from elsewhere, their (It"cur-
rence shows that a closc rela.tionship to the tra.chydolerites exists.
Comparison with other IJogan's Point trachytoid phonolites shows that
the rock from Logan's Point itself it! mU('h denser and has less mossy COBSV-
rit" and less idiomorphisDl of thc £eldsl)ar phenocrysts. There' are no
feldspar phenocrystH, but abundant intl'llsely green almost unpleoc-hroic
pyroxenes, in a trachytoid phonolit(' from the foot of the North-rsst Valley
to Junction School Road.
In the saDle type of rock from tho North Head there are cOllt!pic'UOWl
phenocrysts of sanidille, but none of aegirine-augite. The nepheline 01
the groundmass can only bt' detected by staining.
A knob on Signal Rill, auo\"e Burke's. IS composed of Il. rock almost
idt'ntical with that of Mount Cargill; few 01" no feldspars show up in the
first gCll('rl\tion. Ohemicnl Oltaracter8.
An analysis 01 the Logan's Point trachytoid phonolitl' is compared
b('low with analyses of similar rocks.
Reference to the analyses of nephelinitoid phonolites 011 page 171 will
show how closely the Mount Cargill Logan's Point phonolite TE'Sembles ill
eht'miC'al composition the llf'phelinitoid typcs .
\. . B. c.
56-12 56·8 57-00
21-32 19·7 IS-56
2-59 2·2 4-5R
3·2H 3·i 2·76
0-56 0·-1 0·41
2·30 2·2 1·05
J-81 7-1 6-13
5-7U 4.·3 6·84
1-5-1 2-5 2·96
H8'66 99'79
_.\. Logan's Point trachyto1l1 phonolitl', Muuut Zion, Mount CarAiIl,
Dunedin. (Analysis by J. Bartrum.)
B. 'rrachytoid phonolitE' from East Lothian, Scotla.nd_"
('. 'rrachytoid phonolih' from Logan's Point_t
lh.) Sigl£a/ IIill Trachytvid Phonolite,
This rock does not occupy any important area on Mount (Ja,riUll itself.
but it! extensive across the NOl'th-east Valley, on Signal Hill, and 8011:10
covers a large portion of Pine Hill. Occasional sections cut from the
Mount Zion phonolitel:lhow examples of this type. but these seem to be
£ar from typical.
Basalts apparently underlie this rock towards the headwaters of the Valley Stream_ This agrees with the succession described by
Professor Marshall at the North OtalXo Head.;
.. ROIIellbusch. ,. ElementI.' dOl' Gesteinlllehre," p. 292, 1901 ed.
t lIa.1"IIh&ll, ., Geology of Dunedin," Quart. JOUnI_ Ueol. &Ie., \'oL 62, Aug_. 19(16.
I" 402.
t .. Geology of Dunedin," Qua.rt. Joum_ Ut'ol_ Roe., vol. lil, 1900, p. 418.
lIacroscopically the Signal Hill phonolite is a greasy green tine-grained
rock of plat,- nature, showing occasional feldspar crystals.
Under the IDlcroscope there is a noticeable scarcity of phenocrysts 88
compared with the typical rock from Signal Hill. In the rock outcropping
in the North-east Valley Stream. however, there are plentiful conspicuous
amphiboles up to 11 in. by 1 in. in size. Resorption of this amphibole
is noticeable, and its pleochroism is marked- a, pale golden-yellow;
&, rich brown; c. dark opaque-brown. Though the tests made werl'
scarcely satisfactory, apparently c A ~ = 6°. A = d, B = b, and mineral
is positive. This amphibole is probably barkevicite, and it is considered
that it is the same as that in the various other allied rorks of Mount Cargill.
Sanidine, in much corroded crystals of small size, is persistent, but
never plentiful. There occasional corroded crysta~s of anorthoclase.
of oligoclase. and of a more basic feldspar that is apparently andesine.
The only other phenocrysts are small scarce ragged crystals of greenish
and pink augite.
The groundmass is the most characteristic feature of the type .
.A. dense web of small feldspltr laths, showing remarkable flow structure.
constitutes the greatest part of the groundmass, and entangles fairly
plentiful augite granules, ver~- minute nepheline prisms. and 8 little
scattered magnetite.
Most of the augite is the greenish soda-bearing variety, but in many
sections pink augite also is lommon.
The chief feldspar of the gl'olmdmass is sanidine.·
Cossyrite is absent.
The typical rock from Signal Hill shows in comparison with the a1:ove
an abundance of resorbed amphibole and of coarse feldspars. amongst
which oligoclase and anorthoclase are prominent. A little serpentinized
olh-ine also is present.
t'll('miral OlmraMs.
No chemica.l analysis of thi& roek was made.
Of three main basaltic IU'8as to be described, the most important iH
the old neck of Mount Holmes. There a good example of columnar joint-
ing is shown. The disposition of the columns is irregular. hut indicates
that the vent from which the basalt flowed '\\'8S of the natur(' of a fissure.
This Mount Holmes basalt has apparently burst its way through thf'
Loga.n's Point phonolite outcropping on Mount Zion.
A basalt co,-ers a considerable area near the Junction School. and is
the same as that described from there by C. A. Cotton.· Minol'alogically
it a.grees with the Mount Holmes basalt, but, as one would expect, textural
differences are marked. It is very probable that this lava flowed from
the former vent of Mount Holmes.
A basaltic-scoria .bed of an amygdaloidal nature is found on u. branch
road leading north-west from the Junction School, and apparentlY is part
or the surrounding Junction basalt. -
On a knoll close to the west side of the Main North Road, about half
a mile north-west of its junction with the Port Chalmers Road. is a diffe-
rent type of basaltic rock. It is similar in general characters to basanites
found to the north-east of the district. Professor Park, in his paper on
the geology of North Head. Waikollaiti.t mentions Mount Car¢.ll as the
* .• Geology of Signal HilI;' 'l'1'BllK. N.Z. lnst•• vol. 41, 19(~. 1). IiI.
t Tr&IlII. ~Z. Inst., '"01. 31l. 1003, JlJI. 423. 424.
BAR'fRt::IJ .-}/O/'kR 0/ .1101l1lt Caroill, DlllZed1l1. 175

probable point of origin of hasanitic pebbles found in gravels at Mount

Cronin. It is uncertain whether this supposed basanite is that recorded
bv Professor Ulrich from the> Mount Cargill area.
. A simiJ.a.r rock is {OIDld in the valley of the North-cast Yalley
~tream above wherl' it strikes ill a northerly direction away from it~
previous course alongside the North-east Valley Road.
After some difficulty, staining-tests made on these ro<:ks showod a. few
sma.ll crystals that may he nepheline. As. however, some undoubted
olivine had gl'latinized and absorbed the staiu, there is doubt as to this
identification. For this reason theBe rocks arc only tentativel\" dassed
as basanites. . .
(a.) MOlmt Holll1(,8 Basalt.
This is macroscopically an open-grained basaltic-looking
l'Ock, showing plentiful small l'rystals of olivint' and augite. a.nd weather-
iug out to a greyish-fawn colour.
Microscopically it is holocrystalline, a.nd of pOl'Phyritic, hypidiomorphic
structnre_ The chicf phenocrysts are faint greenish-pink augite and olivine:
they are of Ittrge size. Tae olivine is very fresh and sharply edged.
Augitt' is. frequently of a dirt~'-grt'en ('olour; it occasionally enwraps the
olivine. Ta.e au,gite also commonly includcs magnetite, and in a few
instances a little feldspar.
Feldspar and au,gite are hoth porphyritic. The feldspar typically is
much con'Oded, and has llWllerous inclusions of groundmass. Twinning:
by the Carlsbad and albite la\vs is prevalent. The varieties vary from
andesine-Iahradorit{' to labradorite.
The open fine-grained base whieh encloses the phenocrysts consists of
a plexus of well-shaped feldspar J.a.ths which enwrap plentiful mierolitit·
lllmost colourless augit~ granules, fairly abundant magnetite, a little
coarser olivine, and a little ilmenite. Crystallites of indistinct naturE'
occupy the finest intt'rspaces between the augite granules.
OI.emical (]kttracrt!ll'8.
An analysis of thil:l rock shows that it is a fairly typical basalt. The
percentage of ferrous iron is partieularly high. and is probably due lal'gely
to the ~re{'nish augite. as well as to the magnetite and ilmenite.
An analysis of 3 basalt, quot<>d from Roscnbusch's .. EIl:'mente dt'r
Gesteinslehrl'." is also append('d.
A. B.
45·81:1 4-2·75
1Hi 17·24
2·60 8·01
11-77 5·88
5·80 6·li
10-05 11-14
1-54 2·48
3·60 4·21
1·211 1'()6
Sl!:l·6S 100·46
A_ Basalt. :Mount HOlm(H, 1I01mt Ca.rgill, Dunedin. (Analysis. .J.
B. Basalt. *
• RosenbuRCh, ., E1E'montl' dor GeRtE'ilUllehre," p. 323. No. 1St 11101 ed.
176 7' rIIl18(lcti()II~.

I b.) Junction B(ll1all.

The occurrellce of this roek over an area around til(" .Jullction School
has already been noted.
In hand-specimen the Junction basalt is similar to tilt' Mount Holm!.'!!
rock, but breaks with a much less regular fracture than the latter.
Under the microscope the ehief difference is seen to be in the structure.
Tae growldmass is dense and microcrystalline; it consists of predominant
magnetite in small squares, plentiful colourless augite granules. and inter-
stitial microlitie grdo1nS of feldspar.
Large laths of feldspar showing albite twinning are fairly plentiful,
and, with olivine and augite, comprise the phenocrysts. The variety of
feldspar ill chiefly labradorite. Olivine and augite are in large very
plentiful crystals. Celyphitic arrangement of the augite about the olivine
is not infrequent. The augite is a pink variety, and the olivine often
shows alteration to serpentine and to carbonates.
A few large crystals of ilmenite and magnetite are present.
A curious feature of the rock is the occurrence of occasional large
crystals of nepheline that have suffered considerable resorption; there
is a \'1ide fringing zone of small feldspars and a central remnant of th!.'
nepheline. The nepheline has probably been caught up from contiguous
rocks. It is comparath-el:r plentiful in a rock found on the hillside north-
west of the North-east Valley tannery-a basalt characterized by abundant
feldspar and sharply idiomorphic violet augite phenocrysts, and by 1\
very dense groundmass-and has there the same peculiarities.
The order of crystallization in the Junction basalt seems to be: Pheno-
crysts (in order), ioon-ore. olivine, augite, feldspar, and then (in order) the
magnetite, augite, lind feldspar of the groundmass.
Ohemical Oharactera.
An analysis of the Junction basalt is appended, with, for pUf1:oses
of comparison, analyses of two other basalts. The analysitl shows high
percentages of silica, magnesia, and ferrous iron, which correspond well
with the abundance of augite in the rock.
A. B. C.
40·80 47·&:1 48·97
INn 17-\:)U 16·37
6·14- 4·48 1·33
8·69 !H)5 8·56
3·92 8·71 6·22
8·10 5·65 7·49
1·77 2·68 1·72
·Hl 2·35 4·09
2·10 1-16 0·38
()·ll 0·20
1)·35 3·95
H9·50 99·86 100·26
A. Basalt No. 1.*
B. Junction basalt. Mount Uargill. (Allalysis, J. Bartruru.l
C. Scoriaceous basaltic lava from recent eruptions at Pantellaria.t
* Cotton, "Geology of Signal mll," 'l'raIiB. N.Z. lnbt., vol. 41, 1009, p. 122.
t H. B. Washington, .. Tit&lIift'roUII 8&A&ltK of the WestBm l\Iediterrane&n," Quart.
Joum. Geol. Soc., vol. 63, Feb., l!107, p. 7fi.
BAltTRUll.-ROl'k, oj Car!/Ill. fJulledln. 177

lIention has been made already of the so-called basanites. In the
hand -'3pecimen they are :fine-grained dense blackish rocks. showing few
conspicuous phenocrysts.
Besides the occurrences already noted, a basanite is found as extensive
rubble near the hypabyssal trachydolerite on Pine Hill.
Under the microscope these rocks show a typically dense base and ,\
paucity of phenocrysts; augite is the commonest of the few phenocrysts
that are seen. It is most often of a pale-pinkish colour, but a green augite
,vith pink botde1' and a purplish-violet variety are also present.
In the basanite found north of the Junction School a strongly pleo-
chroic mica is prominent. It occurs, along with a little serpentine. as an
alteration-product of the olivine; its p!eochroism varies from deep brown
to bright golden-brown. It is thought to be anomite.
Feldspar seldom is a phenocryst in the Mount Cargill basanites: a few
very large feldspars show albite twinning, and seem to be oligoclase. They
are, however, so crowded by augite granules and other inclusions tha.t an
exact determination cannot be made.
The groundmass is very dense, and is composed r_nainly of small grains
and squares of magnetite.
In the anomite-bearing rock the magnetite is less important, and an
interstitial feldspar is thc chief constituent, along with grains of colourlesR
augite. The augite is usually in fair amount in these rocks, but feldspar
typically occurs only in a comparatively few needle laths.
No chemical analysis of any of the basanites was made.
The analyses given in the subjoined table show how gradual a passage
there is chemically from the more basic trachydolerites to the phonolites.
Petrological characters also indicate that such a gradation js Dot a matter
of chance, but represents a differentiation of many types from the one
magma. In certain cases this is due to difierences in the rate of cooling.
All evidence from the Mount Cargill area would show that the Logan's
Point trachytoid phonolite is u. portion of the main alkaline magma, and,
in fact, a modification of the trochydolerites and thtl nephelinjtoid phono-
lites. Evidence from other parts of the distri<.'t dispels any idea of its
contemporaneity with these latter rocks.
A. B. C. D. E.
50·18 49·02 54:·24 54-·88 56·12
18-00 19·50 18-08 22·80 21·32
3·78 4·37 2·18 3·66 2·59
5·65 6·60 3·53 3·26 3·29
2·91 2·14 0·88 0·38 0·56
5·76 6'76 5·01 2·24: 2·30
4:·79 1-70 5·09 3·65 4·81
5·76 7·35 7·29 7·53 5·79
1·37 1-18 1-79 0·91 1·64
0·38 0·63 0·63 0·34
98·83 98·64: 98·72 99·94 98·66
A. Trachydolerite, Main Peak, Mount Cargill.
B. Trachydolerite, near Pine Hill, Mount Cargill.
C. Basic type of trachydolerite. Butter's Peaks, Mount Cargill.
D. Nephelinitoid phonolite. Butter's Peaks, Mount Cargill.
E. Logan's Point trachytoid phonolite, Mount Zion, Mount Cargill.
178 1'1'1111 "1I' /f)U ~ •


In his paper 011 the .. Geology of Signal Hill,"" Cotton deduces that the
Logan's Point phonolite is earlier than the Signal Hill type. His statement
is based on e'\"idence hrought forward by Professor Marshall showing the
relative sequence of the two rocks at the North Head. It is prohable that
the 1l0Wlt Cargill and Signal Hill occurrences of the two phonolites are
portions of the same :Bows, and, if this is the case. field evidence at Mount
Cargill makes it certain that the :Bow of the later of the two trachy-
toid phonolites must have been south-west. down a steep slope of the
Basaltic rocks in the North-east Yaney ::;tream. near its headwaters.
may represent basic outpourings intermediate between the two phonolites
-a supposition in accordance with the sequence noted b~' Profl:'ssor
llarshall at the North Head.t
The trachydolerite seems to overlie a surface of Signal Hill phonolitt>
that slopes gently south-west. This. together with the fact that the Mount
Holmes basalt is the north-east boundary of the trachydolerite. strongly
supports the contention that the :Bow of this latter rock was in a south-west
direction from Mount Cargill.
A series of rough joints, very steeply inclined, and running approxi-
mately east and west along the strike of thl:' prominent rock ridge of the
Main Peak and of Butter's Peaks, together with petrological evidence show-
ing differences in the rates of cooling, tends to indicate that the eruption
of trachydolerite was from a fissure occupying the site of the present ridge.
The North-east Valley seems to have begun its existence after the extru
sion of the trachydolerite and before the ejection of the Mount Holmes
basl\lt, for basalt remnants are found on both Mount Cargill and Signal
Hill slopes. and a simple explanation of this is that the basalt from Mount
Holmes flowed down the a.lread'\" formed valle,,".
The origin of the basanites' is uncertain: . possibly many of them a.rt>
more of the nature of intrusions than :Bows, but it is probable that they a.rt>
in BOme way connected with the basanitic outpourings that were frequent
in the district north-east of the Mount Cal'gill area.
The nephelinitoid phonolite of Butter's Peaks may be a dyke. Th~
other types outcropping near it are simply modifications of the main traehy-
dolerite fiow. All probably originatc from the one ma.gma.

The quantative classification of this of MOWlt Cargill rocks has
been worked out by the method of Cross, Iddings, Pirsson, and W"shin!!-
ton.t The following is the r('8ult:-
1. General trachydolcrite-
(,'lass II. Dosalane.
Ordel' 6. Norgare.
RanI! 3. Saleruase.
Subrang 4: Salemose.

* Tr,UlA. !<i.Z. hurt., '\'01. 41, 19C9. p. 113.

t .. Oeology of Dunedin," Quart. ,Jourll. Ut'Ol. Hoe., vol. 62, 19U6 II 41S.
t .. Quantative ClaMifielltioll of Ilpleou'l RoC'ks." ' •
BAHTltUlJ .-Rorl.·,11 of .VOUllt Corgtl!, D/liler/ill. 179

2. Pine Hill lava. tra.chvdolerite-

Class II. Dosalane.
Order 4:. Austrare.
Rang 5. Andsseo.
Subrang 4:. Alldose .
.:3. Dense basit: type of trachydoleritl'-
Class II Dosalane.
Order 6. Norgare.
Rang 4. (Not nltmed.)
Subrang 4:. (Not !lamed.)
4. Nephelinitoid phonoliteo.-
Class II. Dosalane.
Order 5. Germanare.
Rang 2. Monzonase.
Subrang 4. Akerose.
5. Logan's Point trachytoid phonolih>-
Class I. Persalane.
Order 5. Canadarc.
Rang 2. Pulaskase.
Subran!l, 4:. Laurvikose.
6. Mount Holmes basalt-
Class III. Salfemane.
Order 6. Portu!(
Rang 4:. (Not named.)
Subrang 3. (Not llILmed )
7. JWlction ba.salt-
Olass.-Between n (Dosal.a.neo) ILud III (SaHemane).
Order 5. Germanal'f.>. (Gallare.)
Rang 3. Andat!E'. (Camptonase.)
Subranll. 3. Shoshonose. (Kl'lltallt'llolll")

ART. XVII.-Descriptiott8 01 Neul NatiL'e Species of PJII.t.nerogaIl!8.

By D. PETRIE, M.A., Ph.D.
[Retul be/Me the Auckmlllllnmtule. 2Rth XOI'ember, 1911.,

Colobanthus monticola sp. nov.

Plants. musciformis, humilIima, dense caespitosa, ramolla. glabelTima.
Folia &rote imbrica.ta, paribus oppositis basi in vaginam membranacee.m
brevem oonnatis, 6-8 mm. longa, linee.ri-subulata. aciclilaria. viridia. mar-
ginibus stramineis va.lde incrassatis, cetera evenosa.
Flores la.terales breviter peduncula.ti, pedunculis fructiferis elongu.tiH.
Calyx alta 4-partitus; lobis augusta line81'i-subula.tis, acicularibulI,
follis subsimilibus.
Stamina 4, inter calycis lobos disposita, lobisque dimidio bre\iol'a.
Styli 4, breves, stamina. vix superantes.
Capsula. 4-loculata, sepala aequans matura..
180 1'ra /I '((('il 011'.

.t \'el'\' low dene.ely tufted blll,nched glabroutl moss-like plant. forming

!>mall cushions rising aD inch or less abo\'!' the ground.
Leaveb closeh' imbricating. ~preading, opposite PUil'tj connate a.t the
base and forming a l:Ihort membranou~ sheath, 6-8 mDl. long. linear-
subulate. acicular, green, with ~trollgl~' tllickt-ned marl-rins. (lthel'wise
Flowers nt-ar the tip!> of the branchletll, lll.teral, shortly pcduxlcled,
thp peduncles elongating in fruit.
Calyx deeply 4-partite, the lobe£' 11l1.1'l'IIW linear-subulatl', acicular, and
Stamens 4, short. inserted bptweeu the cal~'x-Iobes and barely half as
Styles 4, short, barely exceeding the bbllllens.
Capsule 4-celled. as long as th(' sepalh when mature.
Hob.-Rocky faces of the Healey Range. lIount ('ook lliKtrict, at
3.500 ft. .
The present bpecie& Ib clos(:'l~' allied tu ('. (,(~lIaftt'lIlatlllJ. '1'. Kirk. It
differs in the number of bepals aud stuUlcns, which are wuformly 4; ill
having the staillens and stylet. much IIhurter dum the tlepals; and in
the form of thp calyx-lobes, which 111'(> lincar-!luhniltt(' and acicular.

Epilobium microphyllum .t. Rich. v.!.r. prostratum val'. lillY.

Planta typo ~imIllima, raws omnibus prolltl'atiK diffuRiKque. pedunculis
fiOl'iferiK lonl/.ioribUII.
Plant similar to the type, except In itb prostrate diffuse branches and
longer floriferous peduncles.
Hab.-Broken River (lower part); Opihi Hm.'!' (neal' Fairlie): vicinitr
of Naseby, D. P.; Mount Somers, B. C. Aston.
This curious form maintains its distinctive cha.racteristic!> owr a widt'
area of the f:louth Island. It occurR on !(J'avelly flatR III vallt.'r-bottoms.

Aciphylla intermedia "p. 1I0Y.

Caulis erectulI, 4:-6 demo altus.
Folia pal'unl l'igida, 2-3-pinulltli. ::m 10 ('Ill. IOllgIL; VILbrilla una cum
p(,tiolo laminam disst'Ctam a~qualltl' \"l't ,'xredcnh.'; foliolll ultimo brevia
(f! 12 rll1. longitudine), angusta (4·5111111. latitmlilw).
lllflorellcentia lat" oblonga, ± :10 (,lll, longa.
BractearuID vaginae anguste obcunl'atae, in pl'olongntiolll'J11 I 2-pinnate
rli"itlalll foliorulll lamillis Imbsimilem procluctac.
Pedunculi uni\'erl:!alek ('ollgetlti. 10ngiul:!<'uli, h·IUI('.II. Hulc·Mi.
Fructus lineari-oblonguH. lltl'sque facie 5-nIILtUK.
Culms erect, 4-6 dcm. high, rather stClut (2~ cm. ILCI'()I!H in thp lower
part), strongly grooved.
Radical leaves numerous, 25-40 cm. long, 2-3-pinnate, pinnae in 4- 01' I)
pm; ultimate leaflets crowded, narrow·linear, grooved, slightly rigid,
8-12 cm. long, 4-5 mm. broad, spinous at thfl tips, the margins thickened
and delicately erose.
Sheaths and petioles together equalling or exceeding the dissected
hlades; l:Ihea.ths 8-10 cm. long, 1 em. broad at the tops, na.rrow-obcuncate.
furnished at either side with a lineal' "pinouR leafipt o('c&aionallv suhdivided
and barely half as long as the petiole. .
Page ISO, line 30•
.As the speoiftc llIllllC' illt6t"m.eIlia is alrea.dy II.pproprilltocl.
if the ~enus LigustioulIl Wi UIIl'(l in Cheeseman's Manual be
merged with Aoiphylla, thl' numt' oreopAilG is suggl:Sted
by the author for the speri('8.-EDITOR.
[li'fIt'I p. lQjI
PETRIE.-2\'eu' .7I'nf21'f 8pt'I'I~1< of Phflllelol/ltIllX. 181

Inflorescence broadly oblong, 30 cm. long l)r less; bracts nUln~rous.

(·JOwded. with rather long thin flaccid narrow-obcuneatt' sheaths !lUl-
mo~terl by two ~ort linear lateral s:pines and continued into ~ 1-2-pinnate
leaf-lIke prolongatIon greatly exceeding the sheath and bear~ 2-3 pail'S
of leaflets besides the terminal one.
Principal peduncles of the branched umbel crowded, sleudf'I', grooYed.
ahOllt as long as the bracts.
Fruit linear-oblong, 5-winged on either face.
Bab.-Mounts Hector and Holdsworth, Tamrua Range, \\'f'lhngton: on
the alpine meadow, from 3,500 ft. upwards.
I am indebted to Mr. B. C. Aston for speClDlens of this I:Ipecies, which
is intermediate between A. OoZensoi Hook. f. a.nd A. llf.onroi Hook. f. with
closer affinity with the latter. It is the plant referred to under the' name
Aciphylla Monroi Hook. f. in my list of the plants observed on Mount
Hector (Transactions, vol. 4:0), and probably also the plant so named in
Mr. Aston's list of the plants of the Wellington district (TransactioDl!.
vol. 4:2). The longer more flaccid leaves, the stout ta.ll stem, and especially
the dense broad elongated inflorescence mark it off from A. JtJonroi. The
male inflorescence bas not so far been !::Ieen. The plant is of infrequent
occurrence on the TararuaH, where, howeyer, A. C'olellsof is most abundant.

Coprosma Astoni sp. nov.

Frutex subhumilis, gracilis, ramOBUb, ± :2 lll. ILltw..
Rami divaricantes, graciles, foliosi; cortiC(' == ruglll:lo. ('mereo·incallu:
I'amulis dense breviterque incano-pubescentibub.
Folia plerumque fasciculata, angWite linearia, 6-10 mill. longa, 1~ mm.
lata, leviter retuS8 vel truncata, tenuia, glaberrima, plana, basim yersus
subattenuata, supra enervia, in siccitate levitel' recurva.
Flores l:IeSSiles, ramulos laterales valde abbreyilttob termimllltf'S;
malronli solitalii vel 2-4:-:{asciculati; feminei solitarii.
Drupae globosae, magnitudine mediocres, clare rubl'tw.
A rather low slendel' branched shrub, 2 m. high, or less.
Branches divaricating more or less, !llender, leafy: bark dull grey,
more or less rough and wrinkled: branchlets brownish-grey, closely clothed
with short I:Itiff greyil:lh pubescence.
Leavell in HDlaU fascicles 011 the ttrrested !:Iide I:Ihoot!::l, on the youngest
twigs often in opposite pairs, narrow-linear, 6-10 mill. long, 1~ mm. broad,
truncate or retllRe, nll.lTowed towards the base, thin, .flat, glabl'ous, slightlr
recUNed when cll'Y, nel'velel:lll above, bl'lo\'l" with (!\·ident midrib and
indistinct ner\"CH.
Stipules grey, bluntly triangula.r, long-ciliate.
Male flowers terminating the short side shootl:l. tlt!bSile, solitarr or in
fascicles of 2-4.; female similarly placed, solitary.
Drupes globose, rather small, bright red.
Hab_-Whisky Gully, near Tapanui, B. tt. Aston a.nd L. Uoekayne;
the Hump, between Lake Hauroko and the sea, J. Crosby Smith; Route-
burn Valley, in shady beech forest. D. P.
The present species has its nearest ally in my (.'oproama Bank8ii " its
leaves are smaller and shorter, very uniform in size and shape. and more
freely fascicled; the branchlets are uniformly grey-pubescent; and the
drupes are smaller, globose, and bright red. It is a very distinct plant,
and the leaves are quitt' characteristic.
182 Trf1lUact7'onR.

Celmisia Cockayniana bp. nov.

Folia anguste obovato-spathulata, 5-10 cm. longa, 11--2 cm. lata, sub-
.lCuta. subcoriacea, minute denticulata (denticulis subteretibus), minute
clpiculata; superne glabra, distincte venoss.; subtus dense et appresse
albo-tomentosa (costa media excepta), venis haud distinctis.
Scapi 2-8, It-2 dcm. longi, subgraciles, pills articulatis glandulosis (ut
etlam bracteae involucrique squamae) viscosi, raro apice divisi; bracteae
numerosae, ± imbricatae, lanceolato-oblongae, acutae vel subacutae.
Involucri squamae pluri-seria.tae, Iineari-subulatae; interiores longiores
angustioresque, apicibus sparse lanatae.
Capitula magnitudine mediocria, ± 12 mDl. lata.
Achaenia linearia, hispido-sericea.
Leaves rather few, narrow obovate-spathulate, 5-10 cm. long, It-2 cm.
bload, subacute, rather coriaceous, distantly and minutely denticulate, the
ShOlt semiterete teeth standing out from the margin, bluntly apiculate;
upper surface dull green (when dry), glabrous, with evident venation;
under-surface densely clothed with closely appressed whitish tomentum,
except the midrib, "eins indistinct.
Sca.pes 2-3 on each short creeping shoot, It-2 dcm. high, viscid.
densely clothed, as are the bracts and involucral scales, with glandular
jointed hairs, rarely branched at the top; bracts numerous, overlapping.
lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong. acute or subacute.
Involucral bracts numerous, in several series; the inner longer.
narrower, and sparingly cottony above.
Heads of moderate size (about 12 mDl. across).
Achenes linear, hispidly silky.
Hab.-lIount Fvffe, Seaward Kaikouras, at 4,000 ft.
For specimens of this species I am indebted to Dr. L. Cockayne, who
collected them so long ago as 1892. I have put off describing them, in
the hope that further material might be procured, but the plant has not
been met with since. Its affinity is 'with O. kieracifoUa Hook. f. In form.
the leaves recall those of some states of O. Sinclairii Hook. f., but they
are more coriaceous and much less distinctly dentate. The abundant
glandular pubescence of the scape and its members relates it more clearly
to C. l&ieracifolia, from which it differs in the whitish tomentum and in
the smaller narrower spathulate more acute leaves.
Celmisia Boweana sp. nov.
Folia parum numeroe.a, stricta, integerrima, vix: coriacea, 14-22 em.
longa. I-Ii em. lata, anguste lineari-lanceolata, ad apicem versus
gradatim attenuata, acuta, marginibus ± recurvis; superne glabra vel
glabrescentia. per tob:\m longitudinem rugato - sulca.ta. fia vido - viridia ;
subtus ± sulcata, pills 1!.a,·idill laxe appressis (costa media excepta)
tomentoss.; apicibus nonnunquam laxe lanatis.
Vaginae ± 6 em. longae, striatae. membranaceae. extl'a incano-tomen-
tosae, intus plerumque glabrae.
Scapi 1-4, tenuiores, foliis subduplo longiores. pills subfiavidis laxe
tomentosi; braeteae numerosae. lineares. ad apicem versus diminuentes.
Capitulum ± 2+ em. latum: involueri squamae lineares, tenues, to-
Achaenia glabra vel parum hispidula.
PETIUE.-Neu' .Yafit'e SjllfU;S oj Plmllf/O!lallU, 183

Leaves 14-22 em. long, I-I! em. broad, fairly uumerouE., btrlCt. nano,,"
lmear-laneeolate, entire, slightly coriaceous, gradually tapenng to the
dcute tip, marked by clolOe parallel longitudinal glOoves or fint' wunkhngr:.
above and less prominently below; upper surface yello,,:illh-green. l.llabrou!l
or glabrescent, the tips bometiml's loosely tomentose on both I>urfacee..
under-surface, except the midrib, covered with loosely appressed pall'-vello\\
cottony tomentum; margins more or less recurred; sheathb about' 6 cm.
long, thin and membranous, glabrous on the inside, cottony-tomf'ntose on
the edges and outside. .
Scapes 1-4, rather slender, flexuous, blightly rIgid, nea.I1r tWIce as long
as the leaves, densely clothed with creamy-yellow loose cottOny tomentum :
bracts numerous, linear, thin, tomentose except on the IDlduh'l. graduall~'
diminishing towards the top.
Heads about 2~ cm. across; involucral bracts numel·OUE., IInE-ar. thm,
Achenel! glabrous or slightly hispidulous.
Hab.-Sealey Range, Mount Cook dish'iot, ill tUbl:!ock meadow, about
5.000 ft.; T. F. Cheeseman, Mrs. F. Bowe. and D. P.
This species is dedioated to Mrs. F. Bowe, a keen observer dud ardent
lover of our native alpine and subalpine plantb. who first dIrected my
attention to it. Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., collected it a good many
years ago, and he considers it a fonn of O. Moltrol Hook. f. This -new I
am unable to entertain. It differs from O. Mom'oi in the narrO\\el. lebs
coriaoeous, more acute leaves that are green above a.nd very distllloth-
grooved or finely wrinkled; m the yellowish loost'ly appresr.ed tomentum
tha.t olothes the under-surface of the leaves and the sea pes ; and in thl'
more slender flexuous soapes.
Gentiana Mattbewsii sp. nov.
Planta subgracilis, ramol!8., glabeiTima, annua (?), Ij-2j dem. alta.
Caulia a basi ramosus; rami graciles, adscendentes vel lIuberecti, sub·
Folia radicalia pauca.. subrosulata. spa.thula.ta, tenUla, 2-4 cm. longa.
± 6 mm. lata, obtusa vel subacuta; caulina sessilia, late ovata vel ovato-
triangularia, subaouta, basi lIemi-amplexicaulia. 8-12 rom. longa, in PBlibus
distantibus disposita.
Flores liubnumerosi, solitarii, albi, 10-15 cm. longi. ramulos ultimos
Calycis lobi ovato-oblongi. subac-uti, corolla persistente fere dimidio
Capsula. matura breviter rostrata. eorollam superans.
A rather lIlender branched glabrous annual (?) herb. 1!-2~ demo high.
Stems branched from the base and again more or less subdivided;
branches slender, ascending or suberect, more or less distinctly quad-
rangular from ridges running down from the balSt's of the cauline leaves.
Radical leaves few, subrosulate, thin, spathula.te. 2-4 cm. long, about
6 mm. broad, obtuse or subacute; ca.uline 8-12 mm. lo~. sesRile in distant
pairs, broaqIy ovate or ovate-triangular, subacute, ISt'mi-amplexicaul.
Flowers fairly numerous, solitary, at the tipr. of the ultimate branch-
It'ts, 10-15 mm. long, white.
Calyx divided for three-quarters its length, half as long as the corolla ;
the lobes ovate-oblong, subacute.
Stamens rather longer than the calyx-lobes. Ca.psule whl'n matUl'f'
one-qua.rter longer than the persistent nearly dosed corolla.
184 1'ran~actlfmf.

Hab.-Moist gra&.y slopes near Lake Hamb. Routeburn Valley. Lakf'

WakatIpu, 4.000 ft.
This species IS somewhat closely allied to G. Grzsebachii Hook. f.,
differing in the stouter more erect stems and branches, the much largel
flowers, and the shorter broader calyx-lobes. It is named in honour of
the late Henry J. Matthews, for some years Chief Forester under the
Dominion Government. Though Mr. Matthews did not write much on
botanical subjects, he had a wide and accurate knowledge of the native
flora. and. as he was an acute observer and had occasion to visit many out-
of-the-way districts, he formed a fine collection of the native plants, and
contributed very considerably to our knowled~e of plant-distribution and
to the elucidation of several imperfectly known species, besides discover-
ing a number of new ones. To his kindness I am indebted for numbere.
of interesting and \-aluable specimens that have greatly enriched my
herbarium. He was equally liberal to other botanical workers. His pre-
mature death was a e,reat lose. to the science he loved so well. The
magnificent alpine garden that he established at his home in Dunedin
was one of the sights of the DominIon. Many of Its treasuret! still in
culthTation in the Dunedin Botanical Gardens, which the taste a.nd talent
of Mr. Tannock have made so attractive and instructive.

Euphrasia Laingil '1p. nov.

Plants perenms, erecta vel decumbenb. 1-2 dcm. alta, a basi
tantum ramosa. bifariam. pubesceIlll.
Foha in paribus distantibus disposita. erecta, cuneata, 8-10 mm. longa.
4-6 mm. lata, lIessilia. glaberrima, subcoriacea. obtusa, apice triloba (lobo
medio lato, lateralibus angustis), subrecurva.
Inflorescentia racemus spiciformis, elongata (5-10 em. longa) , multi-
bracteata, bracteis follis similibus.
Flores a.xillares plerumque in paribus oppositis dispositi, pedicellati,
pedicellis folio. aequantibus et ± bifariam pubescentibus.
Calyx bracteis aequilongus, breviter 4-lobatus, lobis acutis vel sub-
&cutis, manifeste venosus, venis ad 10.
Corolla infundibuliformis, 12-15 mm. longa, limbo valde dilatato, venis
Capsula cuneato-oblonga, bracteis a.equilonga, calycis tubum VlX VE'1
omnino aequans.
Perennial, erect or decumbent .It the base. 1-2 dcm. high, branched
from the base. strongly bifarioUilly pubescent.
Leaves in rather distant pairs, erect, cuneate, 8-10 mm. long, 4-6 mm.
broad at the tops, sessile, glabrous, subcoriaceous. the wide obtuse tips
out into a broad median lobe a.nd 2 narrow lateml ones, slightly recurved,
dull dark green. .
Inflorescence a bracteate spike-like raceme, 5-10 cm. long. bracts leaf-
Flowers generally in opposite pau-s, pedicellate, the pedicels as long
dS the leaves and more or less bifariousiy pubescent.
O&lyx as long 8S the bracts, 4-lobed, the lobes a quarter the length of
the tubular part. acute or subacute, veined, the 5 veins corresponding to
the midribs more prominent than the others.
Corolla-tube funnel-shaped, much exceeding the calyx, 12-15 mIn. long,
limb widely expanded with evident nerves; lower lip 8-lobed emarginate,
appar 2-1obed retuse.
PETltIE.-J'tIQ .Yatll'e Sperle/> of PhalitloyrllllR. 11-16

Uapsule cuneate-oblong, equalling the calyx-tube or rathel I:Ihortel.

Seeds numerous in each cell (8-10).
Hab.-Mount Peel and Mount Wmter&low, R. M. Laing; CraIgie Buxn
Mountains, at sources of Broken River, L. Cockayne and D. P.; Hooker
River, Mount Cook distrIct, T. F. Cheeseman and D. P.
This species is intermediate between E. Monro" Hook. f. auu
E. revoluta Hook. f. The pedicellate large flowers are like those of the
latter, while the erect I:Item&, the subcoriaceous leaves, and the capsule
resemble those of the former. The elongated inflorescence, the pedicellate
large flowers, the erect habit, and the characteristic cuneate leaves
unequally 3-lobed at the tips, form its most distinctive characters. The
plant may be easily identified by the leave~ alone.

Euphrasia Townsoni sp. nov.

Annua; cuImi graCIles, erecti, I:Iimplices vel a baSI ramOSI, 4-7 em.
alti, pilis albis crispatis in parte articulatis et glanduliferis pubescenten.
Folia pauca, parva, in paribus remotis disposita. l:IeBSilia, glaberrima,
anguste rhomboidalia, dente unico prominente a utroque latere prope
medium et lobo terminali acuto triangulari instructa, 6 mm. lone,a, 2 mm.
lata; •marginibus refl.exis.
Flores pauci extremum culmum versUb et l:I9.epe in pa.ribus oppositI"
ditlpositi, majusculi, pedunculati; pedunculi quam folia ter quaterve longl-
ores. gracillimi, pubescentes; in siccitate subflavido-albi.
Calyx campanulatus ad tertiam panem 4-lobatus. lobia acutis. angUl:ltIS
Corollae tubus calycem paullo exceden&, limbUR late expansus; labium
Ruperius 2-lobatum, inferius altl!' 3-lobatum, lobi:, omnibus emar~natl'!:
yenis conspicuis.
Capsula calyce brevior; semlllU numerosa.
Annual; stems slender, erect, simple or branched from the base.
4--7 cm. high, pubescent (in part bilariously) with shOlt crisped white
hairs interInixed towards the tops with jointed glandular ones.
Leaves few, small, in remote opposite pairs, Betlsile, narrow-rhomboidal,
with a single prominent acute tooth on either side about the middle and
an acute triangular terminal lobe, glabrous, subcoriaceous. margins reflexed.
6 nlnl. long, 2 mm. broad.
FlOWt"lS few towards the tipb. often in 0ppQ.\lite pa.n'S, pedunculate.
large, yt"llowish-white when dried: peduncles 3 or 4. times as long as
the leaves, vel)' slender. pubescent.
Calyx campanulate, 4:-10bed one-third the way down. acute, narrow.
Corolla.-tube a little longer tha.n the calyx; limb wide-spreading; upper
lip 2-lobed, lowt"r deeply 3-1obed. all the lobes widely emarginate; veins
Capsule shorter than thE' calyx; seeds numerous III each cell (8 to lO).
Hab.-llount Rochfort, near Westport. W. Townson: Denniston.
J. Caffin (1896).
The leaves of this species are highly chaI'II.cteristic, and easily
distinguish it from any of the other native species. The long slender
straight peduncles also form a good distinctive character. It gives me
pleasure to name the species after Mr. W. Townson, who has so success-
fully explored the floral riches of the West Nelson district, and to whom
I a.m indebted for specimens of a number of the species peculiar to that
part of the South Island.
186 Tral&,ar'zons

Plmelea Crosby-Smithlana 'po no •.

Pllmta hllIllllli.. lamosa, glabra.
Rami Ioubg18cileb. cicatricibus foliorum delapsorum notab.
RalllUli glaherrimi. &ubquadrangulares.
Folia (lem,e quadl'iialia.m imbricata, erecto-patentia, glaberrllllcl. acutll,
supra COnCa\-d. mfra distmcte cannata. ad basim sessilem attenuata,
a.nguste o\'ata, 7 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata., consimilia. margine cartilaginec.
instructa: subll.Olalia similia. sed paullo latiOl'8..
Inftorescenba capitata. ll.oribus numerosis.
Perianthii tllbm. folii!> aequilongus. passim lallle; 101ll!,ib albia vestitm;
lobi late oblongl. obtusi. ciliati. ~xsertum.
A low di:ffu&el.. branched shrubby plant.
Branches rather slender, greyish-brown. marked by the &car!> of faUell
Branchlets glabloUlo, bubquadrangular. closel~' quadrifariously imbncatmg. erecto-patent, glabroub,
acute, conca.e above, strongly keeled below. narrowed at the sessile base,
narrow-ovate. 7 mm. long. 3 mm. broad. very uniform, with a cartilaginOUlo
margin all round; Ioubfloral similar to the ca.uline but slightly broader.
In1l.orescence of numerous flowers, capitate.
Tube of perianth as long as the leaves. evel-ywhel'e clothed with long
white hairs: lobes broadly oblong, obtuse, ciliate.
Stigma. exserted.
Hab.-The Hump, a high hill between Lake Hauroko and the sea.
This plant was collected by Mr. J. Crosby Smith, F.L.S., of Invercargill.
Its nearest relative is P. Gnidia Willd. The south-west corner of the South
Island is difficult to explore, but Mr. Crosby Smith is reaping a fine reward
for his zeal in examining this virgin country.

Festuca multinodis Petrie and Hackel sp. nov.

Culmi caespltosi. decumbentes. tandem ascendentes, l'amosi, foliosi,
1-3 dcm. lorurl.
Folia ill culmis singuli& ad 12. ± secunda.
Panicula 3-6 em. longs., ovata vel lanceolata, ± complanata: rami
m£eriores binati, rhachi ramisque gla.bris.
Glumae :B.oriferae plerum.que ex-a.ristatae.
Densely tufted; cuJms decumbent below. finally ascending, leafy,
more or les~ geniculate, 1-3 dcm. long, slender, terete, subrigid. Innova-
tion shoots extra-vaginal.
Leaves generally secund, ab many as 12 on each culm; sheaths long,
overlapping, glabrous, obscurely striate; blades abruptly contracted above
the ligule, with a callus at their point of origin, shorter than the oulMb,
involute, setaceous, glabrous. acute, not or barely striate.
Panicle 3-6 cm. long, ovate or lanceolate, more or 1681:1 flattened,
straight, compact; rhachls and branches glabrous; lower bl'anches in
twos, short, sparingly subdivided.
Spikelets subsessile or shortly pedicellate, narrow-Ianceolate, 8-12 mm.
long, bearing 4-8 rather distant florets.
Empty glumes unequal, thin, the upper reaching to the tip of the
lowermost fioret, narrow-Ianceolate. acute, the lower 1- the upper 3-nerved.
PETRIE.-JYfW Natil'f~ 8pft'lf'R III Pllallf/ogflTllR 187

Flowering-glumes coliaceous. lanceolate, acute. awn none. 01 ,'en'

'1hort: nerves 5, very obscure. Palea as long as the fiowermg-glume.
",lightly coriaceous, 2-nerved; nerves glabrous.
Bab.-Coastal cliffs and rocky slopes at Port Nicholson. and the !.hores
of Cook Strait.
Mr. B. C. Aston has furnished me with a fine series of speCimen!> of
this grass, which gives promise of some considerable economic value. It
yields a large bulk of delicate foliage, and deserves experimental cultivatIon.
Professor Hackel, who has kindly reported on specimens forwarded to
him, and has also suggested the specific name, writes me as follows: .. The
species differs from Festuca rubt'a L. not only in the number of nodes and
leaves, but also in the character of the innovation shoots, which are extra-
vaginal throughout, while in F. rubra part of them grow up in the axils
of the persistent sheaths; the sheaths of F. rubra are closed up to the
mouth. those of F. muZtinoclis are split throughout. The inflorescenre
and the spikelets show little difference, but the pales of F. multinoclis IUt'
quite smooth on the keels, while these keels are scabrid or some\vhat cihatt'
in F. rubt'a."
Mr. Aston has for some years urged in correspondence with mt' that
this F6IIt"co, was a new species, but, though agreeing with him, the genull
is one of such difficulty that I should not have publisherl it had not Professor
Hackel supported our opinion.
Trisetum antarcticum Triniue., subspecit's tenella, Bubsp. nov.
Folia fere omnia radicalia, brevia, 2-4 cm. longa, involuta. ~et8cea.
tenuiter pubescentia.
Culxm valde graciles, teretes, glabri, tenuiter striati.
Panicula spiciformis, densa, oblonga, Irs cm. longa
Spiculae sessiles, compressae, 4 mm. longae.
Glumae vacuae subaequales; fioriferae vacuis pauUo longiores: aruta
IJlumam aequans.
A slender erect perennial, forming diminutive tufts.
Leaves 2-4 cm. long, involute, setaceous, :finely pubescent, olle-third a.s
long as the culma or less; ligule short, truncate, hyaline, erose, and more
or less ciliate. Cauline leaves solitary or rarely two, with sheaths several
hmes longer than the blades.
Culms very slender, terete, glabrous, :finely striate.
Panicle spiciform, dense, oblong, Ii-3 om. long, 5 mm. broad.
Spikelets sessile, compressed, 4 mm. long, the terminal ones very
shortly stalked.
Empty glumes almost equal, acute or acuminate, the lower nanOWeI.
Flowering-glumes glabrous, a little longer than the empty: the awn
springing from the back a little below the tip, about as long os the ~lume,
Rlightly refiexed.
Pale&. as long as the fiowering-glume.
Hab.-Dry shingly fiats in the wide alluvial valleys of the lIount Cook
district, 2,500-3,500 ft.; a.bundant.
The present subspecies differs from the type form of the species in the
':lhort involute setaceous leaves, the slender erect cu1ms that greatly exceed
the cauline leaves, the dense oblong spiciform panicle, and the small
Hpikelets with nearly equal empty glumes and shorter less reflex.ed awns.
Its distinctive characters show little variation. Its foliage is so short and
scanty that it is a quite unimportant element in the valley pastures.

ART XVIll.-Ou Danthonia nuda Hook. f. alld Triodia Thomsoll'

(Buohanan) Petnt', comb. not·.
By D. PETRIE, M.A., Ph.D
[Bead before the Auckland 1118titute, g8t" YOL'ellibel, 1911.J
[1\ my llerballUlU there lS II. good specimen of Danthonia lIuda Hook. f.,
collected at a high elevation on the Ruahine Range, Hawke's Bay.
There can be little doubt that this plant is a true Danthonia, though it
makes some approach to the genus Triodia. Sir J. D. Hooker'lJ descrip·
tion of it is brief. and wanting in some important details.. The culms are
very slender. leafy. and but little longer than the leaves. The sheath of
the topmost cauline leaf is three 01 four times IlS long as tllP blade. which
rp..&ches to the base of the palliclp. The floweriu!!-glumes sho\\ cousitlerable
variation in the hail)" rovering. which is more ample than one would
sllppose fl'om Hooker's description. Besides thp one or tWll small tuftl.
of hairs ou the qidet! of these glumes. there is usually n t!canty band
of sparse hail'S across the back just above the middle, and often alan
a few strag~ling hah's lower down but above the basal tuft. The awn.
which is quite Rtraight. is one-third as long all the glume. The florets in
t! spikelet are more commonly 2 than 3.
1 a few indifferent piecet! of what is most likely this species from
the Tuarua Range. collected by that excellent observer :Ml'. B. C. Aston.
Unfortunately. they are all past flowel'.
Da71thol1ia IlIIda has long been confmmded, and by mYllelf in the first
instance. with a somewhat similar grass, the Danthonia TkotH801l1& (If
Buchanan. The latter was discovered by me at Mount At. Bathan's,
Central Otago. As it has a wide distribution in districts explored by
Hectol' and Buchanan. and also by Von Haast. it is singular that it was not
found before. It may have spreart and increased since theRe early explora-
tions were :made. but I consider it much more likely that it was merely
overlooked or mistaken for some other species that was collected then.
At present it has a wide distribution in the uplaI1d districts of South
Canterbury. Otago, and Southland. It is fully and accura.tely dellcribed
in Mr. Cheeseman'H Manual under the name Dantlumia Iluda Hook. f ..
though he noteH that his plant :may not be the same as Hooker'l:I.
The grafll:l is Dot. ho,,-('Yer. a Dallthollia, but a characteristic specieR (If
Triodia, to which I now give the name Tl'ioclia Tlzomsom·. It WILI:I
ol'i!rlnally named in compliment to Mr. G. M. Thomson. and r am
specially pleased to be able to a'lllociate pel'lU8.nently with it the name
of thiR old and "aIued friend. At! a pnstUl'e-grass Triodin Thom8o'lli
poilBeBSes It. high value. It has a fair amount of foliage. is deeply
rooted tlO nil to \vithstand dl'ought and exposure to drying 'rinds, and
is palatable and highly nutritious. It {orms one of the most ('ommOll
and useful of the bottom grasses of the tussock-steppe in all the
upland distriC'ts throngh which it ranges. and is much eaten by sheep.
It is well worth artificial cultivation, and promises to help in reclaiming
the now desert and semi-desert lands from which the native pasture
has disappeared through long-continued
Triodia Tlzomsoni differs from Danthollia tlUda in the narrow panicle
with erect branches, the longer less-leafy culms that greatly exceed the
leaves, the longer narrower more numerous spikelets that usually contain
5-7 nearly Fla.brou6I floret&. and the mU1'1l shortpr less rigid aWM.
Bnow:s - IJiflrotlfJIH! of t711,' l'ol!II/~JliarH 189

ART. XIX. -Thp Jliql'atiol?8 0/ the Pol.Vne8ians (wcllrdinq tIl fhp E"ine1k'I'
01 fheir Lflnquage.
By Professor J. lIAclrILLAN BROWS.
I Reua be/ol_ tllr IJ'fnlll'ltoll PIII[o,opltll'rti 8m:lPt!l. 6th ~ept.mller. 1911.1
IN th~ "Transactions of the RClyt~1 Scientific Society of Gottiu/" for
1909 there appears u. long paper on this subject by the late Professor
Finck. of Berlin. It attempts, as its title implies, to point out some of
the distinctions between the "arious languages of Polynesia. a.nd by this
means to indicate the lines of mi~ration that peopled the:' islands in which
they are spoken.
The gist of the arguments a.nd conclusions is given in the last two paged,
and is somewhat as follows: From the southern Solomons a really united
people shifted to the northem fringe of Polynesia on their eastward trek.
Before the expedition turned southwards to Sa.moa the ancestry of th('
present-day Ellice and Tokelau people branched off. The speerh of that
time possessed all that marks Polynesian as contrasted with the rela.ted
Melanesian. t'sperially the:' use of the old tr~al as plural, and the employ-
ment of sepamte possessive pronouns where once only a suffix ,vas used; it
was, in mrt, probably the fundamental Polynesian tongue. The use of air
for" a thousand" docs not contradict this. although it appears in this sense
only in Fakaofa. Futuna. Samoa. Tonga. U,·ea. and Niue; for the word
is, as thl' }laori au·hE' shows. common to Polynesia; but it was extruded
in the other dialects by mano. There was a long rest in Samoa, as is shown
by the u~1' of fnkelau for .. north" and tonga for south ,. in a ma.jority or

the groups. words taking this sense from the direction of the Tokelau and
the Tonga Groups from Samoa. After a small colony had swarmed off
westwards to Futuna, the great eastward-going expedition went south-
wards to the Tonga Archipelago, as is shown by the use of 11, in all the
groups to the south and east for 8 in Samoa and its immediate neighbours,
and by roe use of toko as a personal prefix to words implying number and
quantity in all to the south and east for toka of Samoa, Fakaofa (the Tokelau
Group), Vaitupu (Ellice Group), and Futuna. After a. short rest in Tonga
the expedition went off eastwards. leM;ng a contingent which sent branches
to Niue and Uvea. III the Cook Group it made a long sojourn, and there
fonned the growld speech of eastern Polynesia; it changed 1 into r and
I into 11, before 0 and Il, brought the.> Bdnominal particles Ra and no into
use beside the older 0 and 0, and abbreviated the old possessive tou into to.
From this point YarioWl expeditions set onto One went to New Zealand
and the Chatham Islands and developed ]I for f before other TOWels than
a and 0,' it left before:' the counting by pairs arose that characterizes the:'
other eastern Polynesian dialects. A second went off south-east to Manga-.
reva; thence a branch hiyed off to Easter Island. farther in the same
direction, before the birth of the liuguistic neologisms that unite the di..'Llects
of the lIarquesas and Ha,,-aiian Uroups ,vith that of MangareYa, the forma-
tion of adverbs hy prt'fixing ma or InO to a noun, and the change of to'ktrlW,
into tokurau. It wa.s 10llg befoTe this northern expedition set out-long
enough to deVelop these peculiarities. The Marquesss Group developed
as linguistic cbaracteristirs the pronominal form toia and the further
duplication of numeration by pairs in the case of rau; (the~ equal to 4(0)
and mano (there equal to 4:,000) before sending off the Hawaiian branch.
Meantime from the Cook Group another colony Ilh-ed off to Tahiti, wh08t'
190 l' 1'1I1l~art/(J1l'

dialed se~ms to be closely akin to that of Rarotonga, as is sho'\m by the

common use of the plural and dual prefix pu'e. From Tahiti the Paumotu
and Manahiki Groups were colonized.
At the end of the article a sketch-map is given of these branching
migrations. But the limitations of the linguistic method arc revealed
bv the accompanying sketch-maps, one made by Horatio Hale in the
.Iforties" of last century on the" Wilkes Expedition," another by Gerland
for Waitz's "Anthropologie" in the" sixties," and a third by Weule for
Helmolt's .f History of the World" early this century. Hale brings the
expedition first to Samoa, with offshoots to the Ellice and Tokelau Groups,
then to Tonga, and thence direct to New Zealand and the Chatham Islands;
from Samoa, also, one goes off to Tahiti, whence one goes to the south-east
Marquesas, a second to the Tubuai Archipelago, and a third to the Cook
Group. A third colonizing expedition leaves Samoa for the Cook Group,
the Tubuai Archipelago, and Mangareva. Besides the branch to New
Zealand, Tonga sent ofi one to the north-west Marquesas and on to Hawaii.
Gerland, like Finck, brings his primary expedition through the Ellice and
Tokelau Groups to Samoa, thence, like Hale, over Tonga to New Zealand
and the Chatham Islands, whilst, as in Finck's, a Samoan offshoot goes to
Futuna and one Tongan offshoot to Uvea and another to Niue. He also
sends a main expedition, like Finck, over the Cook Group to the Tubuai Archi-
pelago, aud one to the Marquesas, a third to Easter Island, and a fourth
to Hawaii. Weule. like Hale, brings his expedition :first to Samoa; thence
one colony goes direct to Hawaii a.nd another by way of Tahiti; a third
goes direct to the Cook Group, and thence to the Tubuai Archipelago and
Mangareva. From the Cook Group a colony goes to New Zealand, whilst
from Tahiti one goes to the Cook Group and another to the south-east
Marquesas, and the north-west Marquesas are peopled from Tonga.
There is no better criticism of the linguisric method of finding lines
of migration than the presentation of these differences. The fact of the
matter is that these pure philologists isolate a few small phenomena that
each belongs to se'\"eral groups, and ignore hundreds of others in which
the groups thus united disagree. One instance will be enough: Finck gives
a table of the sounds of each group, and then he proceeds in his sketch
to ignore some of the more striking variations. He gives ts (the English
missionaries make it ch) as a variation of t in Futuna, Uvea. Tonga, and
the Chatham Islands before the '\"owel i; all the other dialects have only
t " yet he brings no migration from anyone of these direct to the Chatham
Islands, skipping New Zealand. So wk is given as a variation of k and I
not only in NeW' Zealand and the Chatham Islands, but in the Tokelau
Group; and the same groups are united by using 1& for t'. Yet he ignores
this community of linguistic phenomena, and brings no migration from the
Tokelau Group to the southern groups, or the reverse. These are quite as.
important as the break (') for G, on which he bases the linguistic community
of the Ellice, Tokelau, Samoan, Tahitian, South Marquesan, and Tubuai
Groups; or the variation of r from I, on which he bases an eastem Polynesian
Group, consisting of New Zealand. Chatham Islands. Tahiti, the Paumotus,
the Cook Group, Mangareva, the Tubuai Archipelago, and Easter Island.
The radical mistakes made by these philological ethnologists are the-
attempts to draw inferences from the language without the culture, and
the assumptioll that there was but one colonizing expedition. The extra-
ordinary similarity of the dialects (Finck seems to acknowledge .. dialects .,
as the proper term, for when he saye .. S'[R'achm" he always adds, .. that
Rl'ow"X -.I/i"ratIlJl/<I uf tlu 1·(Jllllle~"lI. 191

11> to s,n-.. Dwlekte ''') as contrasted Wlth the countles!> Yarlet,- ot not
merely ciIalects, but langua~es, ill the Melanesian region and the ·Malay.:m
region. if properly considerl.'d. might have saved thenl from the latter
mistake. Even the few centuries which thev seem to have in their minds
as COVerllll!, the history of the human race in Polynesu~ would ha"e developed
language& B& distinct as, say, French and Spanish, or English and German.
If we were to take into account the marvellous simllarity of the Polynesian
dialect& not only in phonology and grammar, but in vocabulary. spread
over a.n oceanic region as \vide as Europe and Asia combined, we would
not be :f.u Wl"Ong in concluding that there have been thousands of migra-
tion& from every island to every other island; in short, a new sketch-map
of the Polynesian migrations should so completely cross-hatch the central
PaCIfic that it would look In other ,vords, for centuries at least
intercourse must have been almost unbroken amongst all the groups. If
this means anything, it mea.ns tha.t for a prolonged p<>riod doll the Poly-
nesians lnUbt have inhabited .:L large island or a.rchipelago centra.lly SItuated,
and also quarantined from other regions under a social, if not politica.l.
s:"st~m that was pl'8(·tically do unity. The minute dialectic differences that
arose must have been kept in bounds by the constant social intercourse
that a single administrative system would allow-a system absolutely
different from that of Melanesia or of Malaysia. The differences are no
greater than those that separate the dialects of, say, Yorkshire and
Somerset. or Scotland and Middlesex.
The consideration of the culture conveys the impression; the
ethnological differences are as negligible as the lmguistic when placed beside
the points of agreem('nt. One can find as wide variatlOns of culture and
dialect in the purely German part of the German Empire. They seem
to have arisen ill the presence of each other, as well as of the predominant
community of culture. In other words, they must have slowly developed
during the immense period of time that certainly was taken to produce the
'Practical identity of culture and language. This identity would have been
shattered into strongly contrasted fragments had it been compelled to run
the gauntlet of the limitless variety of Malaysia and Melanesia, not to speak
of having to sail right in the teeth of the south-east trades, the only fairly con-
stant wind on that l"Oute, the contrary wind being brief, fitful, and cyclonic.
There is, of course, a striking similarity between the languages of Poly-
nesia, Melanesia, and Malaysia that makes many speak of them unitedly
as the Oceanic language. But there is a phonological gulf between the
Polynesian dialects on the one hand Ilnd the Malaysian a.nd, still more, the
Melanesian languages. Each of these two regions has its own range of
sounds, with considerable community; but Polynesian has the peculiar
and distinguishing BOunds of neither-it has the simplest range of sounds
that ever language had, all easily pronounceable by Aryan and, one may
add, by Japanese organs of speech. It has a similar contrast in voca-
bulary: with. anyone of the Malaysian or Melanesian languages except
Fijian it has never more than 20 per cent. of common words. It is the
grammar that has led to their classification as one language; for none of
them have practically any formal grammar-they all move in an atmosphere
of particles, and there is a very considerable resemblance in the particles
used. But this absence of formal grammar is the commonest characteristic
of crossbred languages - i.B., languages that have resulted from the per-
manent or continuous settlement of a masterful people amongst & people
liDauistically different; the formal graroD'atical peculiarities of both are
192 r, (I n ~(/( f /(1/1 ••

gradually dropped. and P!lltlClcs takE' their place, or variations of order

of WOrd.II.
The distinctIOn which Max Muller drew between languages, clsssIfymg
them into isolating. agglutinative, and inflective, according as they had
no formal e;rammar, formal grammar with forms detachable from the stems,
and formal gralllDl3r with forms undetachable, is no real distinction.
There arc few languages that have not at least traces of all three-isolatioll,
agglutination, and in:fl.ection-either as vanishing habits or as neologisms.
It is the phonology, or range of sounds, that really distinguisheD languages.
This cannot change-i.e .. the organs of speech cannot change, except by
change of environmentr-i.e., by change of climate or change of educative
influences in the formative period of the organs of speech. The grammar
and the vocabulary are constantly changing by loss, or addition, or de-
velopment. Within the same zone of climate and physical environment
the sounds do not change except by change of mothers-i.e., by inter-
mixture of races linguistically di:fferent.
But in the languages of the three regions rcferred to - Polynesia.
Melanesia, and Malaysia-there is a considerable similarity of particles.
This undoubtedly means that one language has saturated the languages
of all three regions. The great variety of languages in Malaysia bars that
as the region from which this language came: the still greater variety in
Melanesia still more effectually bars that. There is an easy solution when we
turn to Polynesia. which has only one language. though it has many dialects.
But were this in conflict with the raCIal and cultural phenomena of the
three regions it would have to be abandoned, or considerably modified, or
condItioned. It is not, however. .A visit to the Solomon Islands soon
convinces even the superficial, untrained observer that thl.' fundamental
race of Melanesia is negroid: the woolly, tufty hair, the thick lips, the
fiattl.'ned nostrils, the projecting muzzle, and the absence of calves on the
lower limbs are to be seen on all sides, quite apart from the dark colour
which gave the region its name. The predominance of the round head
and the low stature indicates the negritoes or pigmies as the branch of thl.'
negroid race that first peopled Melanesia. But thl.'re is a considerable
Infusion of tall stature, straight and wavy hair, light-brown and tlVell
auburn hair, European features, and light-brown colour; especially in the
eastern islands of the Solomons are the last three apparent. In the western
l'Iolomons and the Bismarck Archipelago, though the colour is close to blark,
the hair is often straight or \vavy, and the profile is what we call Semitic.
whilst ta.ll stature is not infrequent. There can be no hesitation in homing
this peculiar western Caucasianism to the west--·i.e., to Malaysia or the Asiatic
Continent-and in homing the light-haired Caucasianism of the eastern islands
to Polynesia. In Malaysia, again, we have, as the name implies, a strong
admixtUl"e of Mongoloidism with the priml.'YaI negroidism and the secondary
Caur.asianism. When \\"e turn to Polynesia we find the purest racial elements
-fundamental Caucasianism, with a slight admixture of negroidism.
The cultlIrI.' exhibits similar phenomena. Polynesia is the realm of the
patriarchate; the pivot of relationship is the father. Right through
'Melanl.'sia and Malaysia the matIiarchate is the systl.'m; the mother is the
pivot of relationship: there is therefore no history, no preservation of the
records of the past, no tradition, the mother being only a private person.
and haying no public events in her life to hand on the memory of to
posterity; the sons as well as the daughters belong to her and her kin,
and do not count any l'f'lationship with the father and his relatives. ThE"

pcLtriarchatc is at least thousands of years in advance of the matrll~rchate,

for it makes history Ilond tribal and political unities; the father hands on
to the children. and he is the warrior and event-maker; h('nce, under tb('
patriarchate, tradition accumulates into chieftainship and kingship. Therl'l"1
no broad realm of the patriarchate westwards from PolyneSIa. till we reach
India. That the Poljllesian social s\"stem should have travelled tens (If
thousands of miles in' frail canoes in the teeth of the trade-winds, and run
the gauntlet of two matri8rchal realms, has a touch of the l'Tliraculous m it
or, in other words, seems contrary to thl' laws of na.ture.
It seems more in harmony with the pOSSIble, if not the proL",LI('. that
\"fhatcyer klllShip lies between the culture!! and the languages of thesl" three
regions has gone westwards out of Polynesia. And this is borne out by
facts. Fiji, the nearest part of the two regions to Polynesia, has hlld its
'locial system tra.ns£ol'med from the matriarchal to the patriarchal: chief-
ship and tribe and h'8dition have arisen in the group. It is highly Poly-
nesianized. When we gf't to the !:!olomon Islands, the nearest part to Fiji
in the eye of thl', three islands ha"e gone in parts thl'Ough thll
same transformation-Malaita, Choiseul: 1lo11d New Geol'gio. ; and their natives
show a larger percentn~e of European features and light-brown thatl
those of any others of the group; they are also most warlike, and go back
furthest into the past with their genealogies and traditions. The mfluence
of the patriarehatc tapers off as we go farther west into Malaysia.
Tho? purpose of this excursion into ethnology is to show how close to
th(> absurd those philologists, like Finck, go who make the starting-point
~f Polynesian colonization the BOuth (they should say ra.ther the ~ast) of
the Solomons. The basis of the conjecture is a name often given to Sail
Cristo'\'a.l, the most easterly of the Solomons. Hale identifies Bulotu, th~
paradise and probable original home of Tongan and Samoan tradition. with
Bouro, one of the most easterly islands of Malaysia. German ethnologists
prefer, as a rule, to identify it \vith Bauro, the name rt'ferred to as applied
to San Cristoval. But Ba.uta IS only a district on the north-east coast of
the island, and the natives prefer to call the island, if they have a.ny name
for the whole, Mam.
We got into the region of the miraculous when we start a patriarchal,
tribal, gcnealogy-Ioving, chiefly Caucasian people from a matriarchal, kin-
divisioned, short-memoried negrito island; and still nearer the miraculous
when w~ start off. for nearly t~n thous:lond miles of open oceanic wandering,
a. canoe expedition right in the teeth of the only constant winds, the trades
that blow eight or nillt' months of the year, from an island that had only
shallow sh('lls of canoes, unfit for orossing anything but fairly narrow straits
in calm weather or a favourable wind. The Polynesians were the only
people in the world that learned Oceanil' navigation before the use of tho
compass. And it ne<lds some exceptional, if not catastl'Ophic, goad of
nature to (,%plain the exception; that we ha'\'e in the subsidence, probably
often slow. but probably as often sudden, of the central island zone of the
Pacific that stretches south-east from the southern end of Japan across the
Equator. eYen as far as Easter Island. This manifestly wont on for hundreds
of thousands of years; and any humans that got on to the islands of this
zone would, time and again. have to go off the best wily they could find m
search of other standing-places in the great fiux of waters. Nowhere else
in the history of our world has such a goad been held bv nature to the
backs of hunian beings. We may be quite certain that the regions to the
west \vould get :flooded with mi~ration8 from water-I~4!'d Polynesia.
194 T1fm~(uflon~

ART XX -Not88 011 New Zealand F!!he\ \ () 2

By EDG4.R R WAITE, F L S, CUlatOl, Cantl.'dmn Ullbeum
[Read beJore the PlnloBop1w:a' 171mtute of OanterbuIY, 6th gcplclllbel 1911]
Pla.tes X-XII

6 Aegoeonlchthys appelll Cl.ule

PIa.te X
To MI A HamIlton Dneetor of the DOmmIon l\Iubeum W'elhn~on, I
owe the pnVllege of eJ..allllnIDg the lemam.e. of 8 '!peCJ.mell of t1u& bpemes
TbJs speeunen IS, I beheve, onlv the second known, It It. III lathel deplor-
a.ble condItlon bemg In two PIece'!, a.nd has been othel"l'>6 so cut about
that no fully satlbfactorv descrlptlon can be made l\Ir HalDllton 'HIteS,
"Please do whatever you bke WIth the sm, It 1& so tom and knocked
about that you WIll find descllptIon a dlfficult mattel The "peClmen
was caught by some ::6.'lhermen on a hne at the Heads (POlt NlChol'Jon),
and used by them for baIt Somebody saw It III the boat, and blought
the remalllS to me"
Though the '3peeunen IS m 8 very dllapidated conditIon, the lanty of
the SpecIes makes It adVISable to attempt to extlact &oml.' few glams of
mfolmatlon from the remams, and these will be useful In the case of de::6.mte
and fixed characters
The type spemmen was descnbed and :figured as haVing the head and
body strongly depressed, and as the author had the speCImen entne, and
probably unmutIlated, hIS descnptIon may be cozrect, ]udglllg nom our
rem&1D.S alone, I should have saId that the head body, and taIl wele all
compressed, but the laws appeal to be so enen'Jlble and dIlatable that
the contour of the head may perhaps be alteled With the valYlng pOBltlons
of the Jaws Re'Jpectlng thls subJect, Gunther I wntes, ' ~4.ccordIng to the
::6.~e, Aeg06O'l&w},J,hys would appear to be much more deple..sed III shape
than HlmomJolophus however, we must lemember that the'Je fiacmd deep-
sea ::6.she'3 may assume, 01 be made to assume, va, ddielent appealances"
By caleful plecmg togethel It 18 found that the l\ hole of the skIn of
one Blde and of portIon of the other lemalns, so that It IS po&slble to
correctly render an account of all the fins, and the numbel and dIspoBltIon
of the dermal scutes The whole of the body, WIth the exception of the
vertebrae, IS llllBBlng, but If all the vertebrae are replesented, as I belle, e
they are, theu: total numbet 18 17. and thIS 18 al&o the number supplIed for
Hal1.eutaea, another member of the Older
Of Aegoeon.u:htltY8 Gunther also wntes, "Unfortunately, nothmg 18
known of the gills of thIS fish, whIch, as lega.rds gtotesquenes'J of form,
surpaB'3eB the fishes of the plecedlng genus (HwnalltoZopkus) It 18 eVidently
closely allIed to Hlmantolopnus 1e&f!nanitn, and I theIefore suppose that It
possesses the same number of gills If thIs should plove to be the case,
the ques1i1on Will anse whethel It should be kept as the type of a dlStlnct

~ Gunther, "C.hallenger Reports," TOl. 22 1887, P. 51.

rB~-.qe "Z heT 'OL '\.I n Pr tTl'

I •

: l

:::: :
S ~
WAITE.-Xott'b on Sell' Zealand PIsllfl'. 195

The gills in the present example are. fortunately, preserved, but as I

cannot refer to Liitken's paper* in which HimantoZopku8 reinhardtli war,
described and :figured. I am not in a position to decide the question ae. to
generic identity. It is, however, possible that with the aid of the following
description others more fortunately situated may be able to do so.
The :figure published in illustration of Clarke's papert is some"hat
crude. and, gauged by the characters of our example, inC01Tect as regards
the cephalic tentacle and the number and disposition of the dermal scutes.
I have therefore thought :fit to refigme the species from the assembled
remains of the specimen intrusted to me. I have also essayed a descrip-
tion of the specimen, but owing to the imperfect condition it will be under-
stood that the proportional measurements are merely approximate, 01.
it may be, even conjectural. These remarks apply, however, only to the
relative width and depth of the body and head, the bones being so flexible
that the character of the head may be made to assume either deprer,sed or
compressed condition, while, as before stated, the absence of the EoOft
portions of the body renders its original shape largely conjectural.
D. I, 5; A. 4; V. 0; P.17; r. 9; Vert. n7.
Head enormous and grotesque, its length half that of the total, com-
puted from the tip of the snout to the base of the caudal fin; its depth ir,
one-fifth greater than its length, and its width is a little more than half
its length. The cheeks are subvertical, and the eye is placed in a large
shallow depression rather high in the head. The eye is very small, about
12·3 in the head; it lies midway between the tip of the snout and the supra-
orbital spine; the latter marks the termination of the supraoccipital ridge j
this is widely separated from its fellow where it originates behind the
premaxilla; these ridges diverge behind, but are somewhat contracted in
the middle. The interorbital space is deeply concave, and from its centre
the remarkable tentacle takes its origin.
The gape is very wide, and the mandibular articulation is in advance
of the eye, and even in front of the tip of the snout. When closed the
mouth is almost vertical.
Teeth.-The teeth are in about three llTegular rows, the innermost con-
taining the largest; they are spine-like, slightly recurved, and depressible;
they are slightly longer in the lower than in the upper jaw; the longest
are one-:fifth more than the diameter of the eye. There are no teeth on
the vomer or palatines. Upper pharangeal teeth only are present; they
form two clusters, which appear to act in apposition, the teeth of each
group being directed to,,'ards each other to form a grasping apparatus.
The teeth are similar to those in the, but shorter and stouter, their
combined number being 14. There are no teeth on the lower pharangeaJs.
The chin forms the anterior contour of the head, projecting far beyond
the mouth when it is closed. There is an extensive frenum behind the
teeth in both jaws.
The branchiostegals are 6 in number on each side; they do not bear
teeth, as stated by Clarke. who possibly wished to expre8B the character
of the branchial arches. The gill-opening is small, and placed below the
base of the pectoral fin. The gills may perhaps be denoted by the formula
applied to Himantolophue-namely. 12! pairs-but a more detailed account
of their character will be advisable,

• Llitk.en, K. dansk. Vid.ensk. Skriv.. 181!O. p. 309, pl. 1, 2.

t Clarke, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 10. 1878. p. 2-15. pl. 6.
196 Trail ~(lcf iOll8

The outer bronchial is free only m its posterior h.a.l£, the anterior portion
being a.dnA.te to the ceratohyal. This attached portion only bears gills:
they are much sma,ller than those of the other drches, on which they are of
considerable length. There IS no trace of paired arrangement in the gills
of this outer arch. A paired disposition is apparent in the gills o{ the
two middle arches, for, though the rays are set in continuous series, they
are of heteracanth nature. The inner arch is wholly adnate to the memo
branes at the lower part of the tongue, and is fully furnished with gill-
rays. The gill-rakers are spiny tubercles; there are 12 on the :first arch,
one of whioh is on the upper limb, just above the angle; the rakers on
the median arches are in two rows, arranged alternately, there being 19
on the second arch.
Fins.-Some idea of the character of the dorsal tentacle will he derived
from Clarke's figures, but as it \vas evidently imperfect. and is even more
complicated th.a.n drawn and described. the following des('ription will not
be out of place:-
The tentacle lies in a deep groove between the supraorbital ridges. its.
l>ollbous base bemg rather nearer to the mouth than is the eye: the shaft
is very stout, and it tenninates above in a larlle semi'lpherical bulb, ita
total length from base to summit being 1·7 in the length of the head.
From a cup in the summit of the bulh arise!> a freely movable stout
tentacle, which divides at a short distance above ita insertion, each branch
throwing off 2 smaller twigs at about half its height. Inserted in the
bulb and behind the cup are 2 thick b 'anches, which, however, arise
from a common base: they become flattened distally, and each, after
throwing off a twig from ita inner side, divides into 3 arms; these are
again subdivided, but the divisions are not the same in the two branches
The illust:ra.tion accurately depicts the condition. Also, on the hinder
part of the bulb, but nearer its base and sides, are two other small twigs.
The word "frond" would be more appropriate, for the whole
tentacle may be likened to a plant of F'UCtI.8, the so-named twigs being
quite like the fronds of a seaweed, while the main and secondary stalks
answer to the stem and branches of the plant. There are, in all,
20 terminal fronds, and the distal portion of each is nacreous white,
a.nd is no doubt luminous in life. When the tentacle is bent forwards
these luminous tips dangle just in front of the mouth, and are no doubt
very efiective lures. It will be apparent th.a.t the tentaole was in('omplete
in the type specimen, the stalk arising from the middle of the cup bE.'ing
absent, and doubtless leading its author to conclude that the substance
within the cup was luminous. though he does not a.ctually say so.
The dorsal fin has a slightly more forward insertion than the anal. and
has one more ra.y. The first is simple, the other four beinp; dividE'd nearly
to their bases. The third is the longest. being 3·2 in the head. The
last ray is connected to the peduncle, just free of the upper caudal ray.
The anal ia very similar, but the first two of its 4 rays alO simple. The
pectoral is short and rounded, and is placed nearly midway between the
cmd of the snout and the base of the caudal rays. The caudal is large
rmd rounded, arising from a very compressed and short peduncle, whose
depth is equal to the longest dorsal ray.
~f'mOu,.-The skin is soft and loose, warty on snout and chin, and.
~ting the top of the head, cheekA, lower law, and all parts in front
bhenof, studded with round cartilaginous acutest each of whi('h bears in
if8 centre a h.a.rd low thorn with roots rndiating into thE' body of thE' SCllte.
WAITE.-NoteB on .Vtu· Zt'aland {I'tBke •. 197

Some of the scutes are much larger than others, and their exact number
and disposition are shown in the illustration. The covering of the main
stalk of the tentacle is formed of a mosaic of very small scutes. wbich also
hear spines, but they are reduced to hard tubercles.
CoZou",.-After long immersion in preservative the general colour if!
a pale-flesh tint; the margin of the jaws, the post-dental frenum, the space
around the eyes, and the wart-like elevation on the chin are brown; the
mid-line of the back and part of the stalk of the tentacle are also brown:
the branches of the tentacle are black, but their tips are white.
Some Measu"emtmt,.-Extreme length, chin to end of caudal, 410 mm. :
length as basis for comparisons, 270 mm.: length of head to gill-opening.
135 mm.; diameter of eye, 10 mm.; length of 78 mm. ;
extreme len~h of tentacle. inclusin, 205 mm.

7. Saccarius lineatus Giinther.

In 1861 Giinther* diagnosed a new genus and species of the Pediculati
under this The type was a single spE'cimen taken at the Bay of
["lan'ls, New Zealand, preilented to the British Museum by Sir A. Smith.
The reference is duly included in the" Oatalogue of New Zealand
Fishes, "t also in the "List of New Zealand Fishes," likewise issued by
Captain Hutton.t In his later list§ the reference is entirely omitted,
and is not, in consequence. found in the" Basic List of the Fishes of New
This Antennariid is duly catalogued by Gill" and, as I have not seen
any note discrediting the stated habitat, I presume that the omission by
Hutton was purely accidental. I therefore take this opportunity of draw-
ing attention to the omission, in order that it may not be again overlooked.
The type specimen appears to be the only example so far known.
8. Oreosoma atlanticum Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Plate XI.
During a recent visit to the Newtown Museum, Wellington, I noticed
in one of the exhibition cases a small fish which seemed familiar, though
at the time I was unable to name it. I find it to be an example of Oreo-
soma, and "the consciousness of recognition is explained by the :figures of
Cuvier and Valenciennes, and the copy by Goode and Bean, familiar to all
ichthyologists. The specimen was kindly lent to me by Mr. Perty. the
librarian in charge, who informed me that thE' specimen was obtained alive
em the beach at Lyall Bay, neal Wellington.
The genus Oreosoma is represented by a single species, of which only
one example was previously known: it was taken in the Atlantic, and
is only Ii in. ill length. This little :fish was described in 1829 by Ouvier
and Valenciennes, who state that the name Oreosoma was given in allusion
to the great cones on the body, which resemble sugar-loaves, and are 80
rugged and bold that a drawing of the :fish resembles a chart of a volcanic
* Uunther, Cat. Fihh. Brit. MuR.. vol. 3, 1861, p. 18.'t.
t Hutton. Cat. Fish. N.Z.. 1872. P. SO.
t Hutton. Tra.ns. N.Z. Inllt., vol. 22, 1890, p. 280.
§ Hutton. .. Index Faunae Novae-Zeala.ndfae," 1904.
II Waite. Rec. Cant. Mm., vol. 1, 1907.
,. Gill Smiths. MiscEolI. Coil.. vol. 19, 1880, p. 222..
It wall the evident intention of the authors to allude to these conee. In
naming the spe<'ies. for on the plate accompanying the descnptlOn the
figures are designated Oreosoma coniferum, whereas III the text the name
Oreosoma atlant,cutn 1S used.
The New Zealand example exbJ.bits characters which Ille not referred
to in the descriptlOn of the Atlan"tlc specimen, and these will be men-
tioned later. The following IS a descnption of the fish taken at Lyall
D. VI, 30; A. III, 28; V. I, 7; P. 20; C. 13 + 4; L. lat. 90.
Length of head, 2·64; h6Jght ot body, 1·3; length of caudal, 4·7 m
the lengtb; diameter of eye, 2·27; mterorbital space. 2·63: and length
of snout, 2·94 in the head.
Head compressed, eyes lateral, the supIa- and post-orbital rid~es armed
with a number of denticles, of which one in the middle of the seriee. 1&
larger, forming a short spine. Preopercle very oblique; a rIdge ac1'OSIo
the opercle. Eyes lateral. Inter01bital space flat. Nostrils close together,
in front of the upper anterior margin of the orbit; the anterior nostul
large, directed forward. Jaw~ equal; mouth protractile; the cleft e.ub-
vertical. Dentary produced downwards mto an acute angle. The maxtlla,
whose length is less than the diameter of the eye, SC&l'('ely reachee. the
anterior margin of the orbit when the mouth is closed. Gills 4 a. small
orifice behind the fourth; gill-rakers moderate, briRtle-like; pseudo-
branchiae present.
TePtk.-The teeth are extremely small and villiform m character. A
narrow band exists in the lower jaw, Lut no teeth are to be found in the
upper jaw; they are present on the vomer, but there are none on the
tongue or palatines.
The upper and binder parts of the body are compressed and normal ;
a pronounced median keel runs from the occipital region to the origin of
the dorsal fin, lying between the swellings on which the dorsal oones are
situated. The whole of the ventral portion of the body is enormously,
naturally. and permanently distended, &0 that a section across the body
is not unlike that of Laotophrys trigon us.
FifIB.-Tbe dorsal :fin arises midway between the end of the e.nout
and the base of the caudal. Its spines are short, the second and longest
being little more than half the diameter of the eye. The first spine is
very short, and the second and following are graduated. The 10ngeEot
rays occur behind the middle of the second dorsal, and are nearly a, long
as the eye. The anal spines are quite small, almost hidden WIthin the
folds of the posterior dilatations of the abdomen. The rays are similar to
those of the dorsal, but have a somewhat more posterior hinder insertion.
The ventrals are noticeably separated, and of considerable length, the
slender spine being one-half longer a.nd the first ray twice the length of
the orbit. The pectoral is rounded, a.nd its length is equal to the diameter
of the eye. The feeble tail is also rounded, and the depth of the slender
peduncle is IE'SS than half the eYE'-diameter.
Sca7es.-The scales are nowhere imbricate. but form. a mosaic, the com-
ponents varying greatly in difierent parts of the body. They are minute
on the interorbital space, smaJl on the ('heaks and operoles, and on the
upper and hinder part of the body. They are larger immediately behind
the opercles a.nd on the sides of the body, while those on the ventral
are tubercula.r. All are 6-sided and concentrically striated. The lateral
line is well marked: it originates behind the operole and rises above the
TRr,s ,\.Z [lo.ST, VOL XLIV PLATE Xl

Fac." 195 J
WAITE.-...YofeB on .Yew Zealand Fulles. 199
pectora.l fin to a point in advance of the first dorsal COllI'; it thcm't' drops
to the mid-hue of the body and passes along thl' middlf' of thp caudal
OoneB.-The remarkable cones which give the fish such a sbiking appear·
anCE' are disposed as follows: The swellings on each side of the dorsal ridge
above referred to support 2 pairs of Iilmall size; the hinder pair lie at the
base of the dorsal spines. and are directed out,vards; the pair in front of
these have a more upward aspect. All the othel" cones exiRt on the ventral
portion of the body: the largest form a series of 5 pairs disposed along
the lateral margin, the centre one on each side bein~ the largest, and
directed strai~ht from the body, those before and behind being diver-
gent. A smaller cone is placed immediately in front of each ventral fin,
and a similar, though larger one, on each side of the ,"ent between these
"entral and anal cones. There are 3 pairs of much smaller ones, which
thus complete the vertical armament. In these latter each cone is set
close to its fellow. The mosaics in the mid-ventral line form small tubl'rcles,
but quite distinct in size and character from the true cones, which. as will
be seen, number 12 pairs-namely. 2 dorsal, 5 lateral, 2 subventral, and
3 ,'entral. The cones, which arise from an enlarged series of mosaics, as hi~h as, or higher th.a.n, their diameter, and are sculptured with both
radiating and transverse striae, the former being straight and the latter
wavy. The area between each radial is :flat. These correspond in number
with the basal mosaics, of which there are 16 surrounding the largest cone
-namely, that in the middle of the lateral series.
OoZnurs.-The ground-colour is brownish-yellow. and the markings
form wide open reticulations, consisting of a black line merging into bluish-
grey, which extends so as to nearly obscure the ground-colour. The latter
remains fairly pronounced on the cheeks, the lower edge of the caudal
peduncle. and an area at the base of the anal nn, due to the absence of
maddngs on these parts. The membranes of the first dorsal fin and of
the anterior ventral rays are black: the other nns are colourless.
Lengtn, 80 mm.
One specimen only.
There is a temptation to give the Pacmc fish a distinct specific name,
not onlv on account of certain described differences in the two known
individUals, but also in consideration of the widely separated habitats,
the one being taken in the Atlantic and the other in the Paomo Ocean.
The fish must have rather limited powers of progression, for its locomotory
fins are feeble, and the general conformation of the body is opposed to
even moderate progress. The original specimen was supposed to have
been taken in the surface-net, and, as the New Zealand specimen was
secured alive on the beach, it becomes fairly evident that we have either
two very closely allied species, or, like TetragOltllrlf8, a single species of
pelagic habit, of which examples have been obtained from both Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans without any intermediate occurrences.
The differences noted between the two specimens Inay be due to certain
chara('ters in the smaller one having been overlooked. It is unlikely, for
example, that the 3 spines preceding the anal rays were absent, or that
the had only "Ie nombre ordinaire de 115." Other differences
may be noted. in the descriptions of the dental arma.ture. The French
a.uthors apparently found teeth in both jaws, wherea.s my specimen exhibits
them in the lower ja.w only. There is agreement as to the presence of
teeth on the vomer, but I find none on the palatines, their presence being
200 'l'ran~action&.

affirmed by Cuvier and Valenciennes.'" They describe the colour as that"

of cedar wood, but do not refer to any markings, though the illustration'
shows traces of large reticulations very similar though less extensive than
in our specimen.
Giinthert originally included this species with the perch-like fishes, but
afterwards accepted Lowe'st suggestion that it was a member of the Zeidae.
An examination of this.• second specimen supports the conclusion which is
adopted by Good€' ~.nd Bean,§ who give the genus the status of a sub-
family, Oreosominat;. Though Cuvier and Valenciennes counted only 5
rays in the ventral fin, the fact of our example having 7 brings the species
into still closer agreement with t~e Zeidae. 'The genus differs from other
members of the family by having the dorsal spines vmy short (shorter
than the rays), and in the development of large cones in place of the
usull.I bony plates, though they cannot be said exactly to replace them.
Boulengerll is of opinion that -Oreoso'tlla is the young form of a fish
allied to ayttU&. It is admitted that the characters of the fish are of
the bizarre nature commonly associated with very young Scombroid and
other fishes, and such might be found in examples but little over an inch
in length. I am not aware, however, if such characters are likely tll
persist so completely in a specime11" over 3 in. in length.

9. Eurumetopos johnstonii Morton.

• Plate m.
The Australian Museum, Sydney, possesses a mounted example of
E'I.W'IJfI1&6topo& iohnstonii, sent from Tasmania by the late Alexander Morton,
the author of the genus and species. He thought it was a Serranid, stating
that" it bears in many respects a close resemblance to the OligO'l"U8." I
examined the specimen referred to, many years ago, and came to the
conclusion that it was referable to the Stromateiilae. It is, however, only
quite recently that I have been able to satisfy myself on this point, and
to ascertain more closely its systematic position and affinities.
Last month (August 1911) Messrs. Dennis Brothers, of Christchurch,
sent a fish to me for determination, with the remark that, notwithstanding
their long experience in the New Zealand fish trade, they bad never seen
one like it before. On making inquiries I found that the specimen was
one of five which the firm had secured, and that other fish-merchants had
also obtained examples of the same kind, but had readily disposed of them
before I became aware of the fact. Somewhat later the daily newspapers
contained an announcement that some large fishes were being obtained
at the Chatham Islands, and, though no one was able to give them a name,
they proved to be excellent eating, and it was proposed to put them on the
market as a regular commodity. hom the popular description supplied
I strongly suspected that the Chatham Island fishes would be found to
be of the same species as those sent to Ohristchurch, and therefore enlisted
the kind aid of Mr. A. Ha~ton, Director of the Dominion Museum, 8.8
the £ish companies operating at the Ohatham Islands ship their catches

• ... ~'9ier &lid V!!len~1IIIJiEis, Rist. Nat. Poise., vol. 4. 1829. p. 515, pl. 99 (0. r,(),,'.
/mJm). ' . .
t GiiD.ther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., vol. I, 1859, P. 214; voL 2, 1860. p. 396.
t Lowe, .. Fishes of MadeiI:a.." .:m.
§ Goode and.Bean, Ocea.nio Iclth., 1895, P. 228, and fig. ,
II Boulenger Camb. Nat. HiBt.. 'Fishes .. 1904-. p. 68:~.

~ ~
~ ~

Fuca p. :eoo ]
WUTE.-.'·ote~ on Xew Zta!lwd Flh/u, 201

.mect to Wellmgton. Mr. HamiltQIl waf> fortunate in bein~ able to ."eCUle

&. ::lpecimen for me, which confirmed my supposition, and it is thi.. larger
..pecimen which forms the basis of the subjoined description.
I understand tha.t the occurrence of the fishes at the Chathalu Islands
war. of short duration only, and that, though they were quite plentiful at
the period of their appea.rance. they are not now to be obtained.
Durina a l:Iuhsequent visit to Sydnt!y I was permitted to re-examme
the specimen of EUTumetopos johllstonit. 'l.nd compared with it a cast
of the smaller of our two example!.. I found them to be "'pecifically
The Ta.. mawd.D. specimen exhihits the followin~ chara('tE'tb ;-
B. VII; D. VIII. I. 20: A. III. 15.
Thp length of the head equals the depth of the body. af'd the pectoml
il' uS long as the hea.d.
The ladial formula, as glYell by Morton* in his original de<,criptlOD,
:t::?pearl:l to have been sli~htly mutilated by the printer, producing a
ver~' mJSleading result, \~hich in all probability accounts for the non-
recognition of the affinities of the species for such a long period. The
fie:ures D, 9 1-9, were intended for D. 9, 19, or, as now more usuallv
written, D. VIII, I, 19. The anal formula is III, 13. .
The following is a description of the Chatham Island specimen:
B. VII; D. VIII, I, 20; A. III, 15; V. I, 5; P. 20; C. 24 + 6.
L. lat. 84; L. tr 18 + 34:. Vert. 10 + 12 = 22.
Length of head, 3·0; height of body. 2·7; and length of caudal, 5·5
in the length; diameter of eye, !)·2; interorbital space, 2·7; and length
of snout, 4·0 in the head.
Head rounded, compressed, naked and poroutl above, tumid O'f'er the
nostrils; the la.tter are close together, the anterior being circular, whilt'
the posterior one is an oblique slit midway between the end of the
'!Inout and the eye; snout truncate; the interorbital is broad and con'f'ex ;
the eye is relatively low in the head and is somewhat oyerhung by an obtuse
ridge. The cleft of the mouth is horizontal, and the maxilla, which has
I\. supplemental bone, extends to below the second third of the orbit: its
distal portion is rounded and its width nearly half the diameter of the eye.
The opercular bones are thin and entire, and the angle of the preopercle is
greatly, though roundly, produced. Gill-membranes united far forward
not attached to the isthmus; p;il1-rakers long, 21 in number on the firRt
arch, of which 16 art" on the lower limb; pseudobranchiae present, but
Teet/i.-The teeth are confined to the jaws. the rest of the mouth beinf!
edentulouR; they are small, set close together, and form a single serie"
along the whole margins of both jaws.
Fins.-The dorsal fin commenct'R over the edge of the operculum; the
fourth and fifth spinea are the longest, three-fourths the diameter of the
eye; the llloSt spine is continuous with the mys, the anterior uf which is the
longest and twice the diameter of the eye. The anal commences beneath
the eighth dorsal ray, and is similar in character to the dorsal, terminating
more posteriorlv, however. The pectoral is falcate, and its se\'ellth ray is
as long as the ·hea.d. The ventral spine is long and slender, its length one-
half more than the diameter of the eye; the length of the first ray is twice
the orbital diameter; the fin liB::l below the pectoral. c...udal emarginate;

• Mortou, l'rno. &tty. Roe. Ta.'IDI., 1888, p. 76, with plate.

202 TranaQcfionB.

the peduncle lOll!!, and narrow, its depth one-fourth more than the diameter
of the eye.
Scales.-Head ~enelally naked, but with soales on the operoles; upper
palt ot head with a. t3pongy porous integument. The body-soales are not
markedly deciduoug. of moderate siY..e, and finely dentioulated; they
extend on to all the, ertical fins. The lateral line does not follow the curve
of the back, excepting for its anterior half, the hinder part being almost
Lengtk, 945 mm. The type was 990 mm., doubtless measured to the
end at the lon~el:>t caudal ray.
Colou7s.-Steel-blue above, silvery beneath.
The genus Eurumetop08, of which E. ioknstonii is the type and only
known species, may be thus defined: Body oblong. compressed; snout
obtu&e; mouth large; teeth present only in the jaws. Premaxillariel'
slightly protractile, maxillaries with supplemental bone; they are not
entirely ooncealed by the preorbitals when the mouth is closed. Opercula.r
bonet3 thin, entire: branchiostegals 7; gill·membranes united far forward.
not attached to the il'thmus. pseudobranohiae developed; gill-rakers long:
scales of moderate size, fairly adherent, lateral line not concurrent with
the dorsal profile. A single dorsal fin with about IX, 20 rays; anal with
about III, 15 rays; pectoral pointed, with 20 rays; ventrals below the
pectorals. Vertebrae 22.
The qenus appears to be sufficiently established, and finds its nea.Iest
ally in PsenopsiB Gill, differing in the larger mouth, the oharacter of the
maxillaries, the more adherent scales of relatively smaller size and their
development on to the bases of the dorsal and anal fins. The lateral line
is not concurrent with the dorsal profile, and the number of rays in the
vertical fins is noticeably smaller.
The following notes are supplied for the convenience of those wi&hing
to make a further comparison: In 1862 Gill* erected the genus PSe}i(YjJ61~
for Tracl,ynotlls ollonlolus Schlegel. a &pecies taken in Japanese r.eas.t
The affinities of the fish were previously recognized by Bleeker (1853),+
who placed it in the genus PS6nes. Regan§ has more recently added
Batltyseriola oyallea Alcock,1I from Indian seas, to the genus Psellopsis,
remarking. ., There can be no question that these two species belon!!. to
the same genus, although their relationship has not hithel'to been suspected.
and the two Rpecies are yery closely allied."

Pu..TliI X.
•!((lOfOldc11,1'!/8 flP1J1'lii Clarke. Les'S than half no.tural sizp.
OI£08OlIIa Iitlaltlirllflt Curler and Valenciennes. Nearly twice natural size.
EUfll.!netop08 jolltlBtollii Morton. One-fifth natura.l size.

• Clill, Proc. Acad. Phil., 1862, p. 157.

t Schlegel. Fauna. Ja.pan. Poiss., l8i:iO, p. 107, pl. 57, fig. 2.
: Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen., vol. 26, 1853, p. 1M.
§ Regan,.Aml. ~. Nat. Rist. (7), vol. 10.1902, p. 130 (also see for further references.)
II AlcOck. Cat. Indian Deep-sea FIshes. 1899. p. 43, pL 17, fig. 1.
[The three papers last quoted are the only ones I been able to consult, but
Mr. lIcll1llloch lW. kindly assisted me by referring to others in the Anstralian MU'!eum
HOWES.-Sew SpecIe. of Lepidoptera. 203

ART. XXI.-Ncw Speo&e8 of Lepidoptera, wIth 'Yotes 011 the LarLoae and
Pupae ot some Sew Zealall(Z Butterflies.
[Read before Ule Otaqo lilstitulp. 1at August. 1911.]

THE following are descriptions ot some new moths recently collected in

the Otago Proyince.
Larentia cinnaban sp. nov.
Expanse-in ~, 20 rom.; In~, 22 rom. Forewings pale orange, marked
with brown and light ochre. Basal area. brown, extending to about l,
where lt is edged with a dark line. then a pale-ochreous thin line, which
is followed by pale orange to i. A dark-brown area from about t to i,
edged 011 both sides with a pale-ochre line. This brown area is bent out
towards termen at centre of wing, and
slightly constricted below. Subterminal
line appears as dark shading on costa,
and very faintly below. An oblique
shaded patch below apex. With the ex-
ception of these markings, from I to
termen is pale orange. There is a termi-
nal beli~s of small dark dots. Cilia
purplish-brown, darker at base. Hind-
wings uniform orange, with slight dark
dotl:! along termen. Cilia purplish-brown. In the ~ the markings are the
same as in the ~; but the moth is paler. Considerable variation in depth
of colouring and extent of the dark markings showed in the specimens
Appears to be close to bulbulata, which it resembles in appearance and
habits. I am indebted to my brother, Mr. A. A. Howes, for the finding
of this moth, he having first noticed it in the same locality in the previous
Taken in fair numhers amongst tue.sock in e.'lampy pla.ces in the
Ga.rvie Mountains and at the Cinnabar Gold-sluicing Company's claim.
in No, ember. 1910.
Dasyuris transaureus sp. nov.
Four specimens; 19 mm. (g in.). Palpi long, with dense long ham.
6.\.ntennac tlimple in both sexes. Forewings light ochre, marked with dark
brown and golden orange. Dark-brown area
at base, followed by a thin ochre line. A
I:lmall golden patch continuing in dark brown
to dorsum. A thin ochre line at t, followed
by 8 wider dark-brown area. An equally
wide ochre line at j, followed by a broad
dark-brown area, which is interrupted at
middle by a golden triangle. .A. thin ochre
line follows, edged terminally with golden, DASYlJ'RIS 'rlWfBAUBEtI'S. x 2.
which is indented on terminal side, where
the veins cross. A dark-brown area to termen, with a faint subterminal
204 TramactJon,.

line in ochre. The veins crossing this area marked in golden. Ciha dark
ochre, barred with brown. The markings continue on through the hmd-
wings, the oIlly difference being that. there is more golden colouring. and the
cilia are light ochre barred with brmvn.
The small size of this insect, together with the triangular - shaped
golden ma..rking cutting across the other markings, mal:es this moth
very distinct. It is with some hesitation I place it in the DasYllriB.
It mav have to be removed later.
Taken on the Game Mountains. near Nevill, 20th Novemher. 1910.
Morrisonia pansicolor sp. nov.
Three females, two males; 29 mm. Head dond thor.u ochreous, tllightly
tinged with rufons. Antennae filiform, rufous. Crests well de.fined, dotted
with rufous. Abdomen
ochreous, in ~ dotted
with minute dark specks,
ochreous-rufous in c!. with
dtrong crests, especially the
anal. Forewings ochreous,
suffused with rufous; all
markingtl rufous. Subbasal
line double. much broken,
double line at 1 bending
MOBIUSOlUA PANSICOLOlt. strongly outwards at centle
of wing. A mark on costa
at i, followed by two marks over reLLiform, \vhich continue through reniform
as faint jagged lines across wing. ~\.n indistinrt !luutt'rminal line forlllt'rt
by a series of dots.
Orbicular obsolete.
Reniform :filled with
dark rufous. Veins
faintly marked with
rufous. Cilia ochreous.
Hindwings ochreous,
centre of wing clouded
with rufous brown.
Discoidal spot well
defined. A faint series lIoUIUt>UNIA MOLLIS
of subterminal dots.
Cilia whitish-ochreous. with a darker line at base. Underside pale ochrtloUI:I_
OlllVed post-medial line across both 'vings. Reniforlll and d18coidallunule
well defined.
Taken in November, at Dunedin, at .• treacle."
The moth is so close to molliB that the first specimens I took I
thought were that species. Subsequent captures, which gave me both
sexes in both species, placed the matter beyond doubt.
My last illustration of molU8 being so unsati.t:lfactory, I am giving
&nother drawing of it, along with patliscolor. In mollis the reniform is
clear, in pcmiBCOlor :filled with dark rufous.
Morrisonia sequens sp. no'".
C!. 31 mm.; ~. 84 mm. Head and thorax grey, strongly crested.
Antennae filiform. AMomen ochreous grev. crests slie;ht. Forewings
HOwES.-Sew SJitcie~ of Lepidoptera 205

brie:ht grey. irrflated with fuscous. A jagged &ubha&al lIne. strongly

marked on submedian fold, where it turns abruptly to'\\ards base. A
dark line across wmg at t, double, "'pace bet\\ een double lines grey (not
irrora.ted). a dark mark on
CObta at t, followed by two
more'\"e reniform. Sub-
terminal line faint anu suf-
fused. .\. tel'Il.llnal series of
black points; a few dark
points outline yeim. Orbi-
cular f.lint, but with a well-
defined Ime along lower edge.
Reniform defined by a dark
line below a.nd on terminal llobBlbtJNIA SEQUEN& .. 2.
edge. CIlia. grey, mixed with
fuscons. Hind-wings brown. darker towards termen. Cilia brown, WIth fine
paler line at base. Tip!:! grey-white.
Tak.·n at Whakarewarewa, ~orth Isla.nd, on the 15th February, 1910,
by Dr. G. B. Longsta:li, F.E.!:!., whom [ ha'\"e to thank foJ' the privilege
of describin~ this moth.
The \vell-defined line below reniform and orbicular readily distIn-
guishes this from ph, icUZ8. which it is ,ery close to-much closer than
M. longslaf}ti. ~either has it the ferruginous markin~s of tbl" latter
Morrisonia pascoei sp. no\·.
~, 38-40 mm.: Sj1, 36-38 mm.
~. Antennae :filiform, reddish-brown. Palpi, legs, and lace reddish-
brown. Thorax and crests reddish-brown with slight fuscous irlor.ltioll.
Cresh well denloped. Abdomen slightly fuscous, with crests strong;
ochreous at sides. Anal tuft well de'\"eloped, reddish-ochreous. Forewings
red-brown with fuscous markings. Subbasal line double, very indistmct;
a double line at k, also indistinct; another before reniform, more plainly
marked towards dorsum. Two faint jagged lines, then faint subterminal liue


hardly traceable at apex but outlined by a dark suffusion on both sides

at about "ein 7, then forming two nearly equal dentate mal'ks. then
a.gain sufiused on both sides at about vein 3 to close to tomus. Reni-
form deep fuscous, slightly edged on outer side with a thin ochre line.
Orbicular obsolete. Veins faintly marked with fuscoUB. Cilia light
reddish-brown. with a lighter line at base. Hindv.ings fnscous-brown
with red-brown suffusion along termen. Cilia red-brown, with ochreous
lille at base, and ochreous tips. Discoidal lunule &how8 faintly.
Q. Forewings pale ochreous. Marks as in male, but slightly less
defined. Cilia lighter tha.n in male. Hindwings lighter than in male.
The underside of both sexes is well marked with a well- defined
reniform marking and discoidal lunule, also a well-defined line at about
f passing right across both wings. In tlOth sexes varieties occur with
n strong fuscous suffusion from base above dorsum to near tornus, as
seen in some specimens of MO'f'risollia omoplaca. Specimens such as
these might be better to illustrate from, but apparently are not the
typical form. The forewing of the moth being dark in colour, with
few determined markings, m:tkes a poor illustration.
Apparently close to rubescell8, but more strongly crested, deepeI ill
colour in the 6, lighter in colour in the!j1. The subterminal line in
t"llbeSCSns is more deeply indented than in pascoei.
The first specimen came to .. sugar" at Orcpuki, 1st September,
1910 (a !j1). In November of the same year I took another at Queens-
town (~), and this year l\Ir. M. O. Pasco has been kind enough to send me
about twenty taken at .. treacle" at Queenstown in October. Ar. it is
through lIr. Pa.!:!CO'1j kindness I have the chance of describing from such
a good series, I am naming the moth after him.


In Hudson's" New Zealand Moths and Buttexflies" we have details

of the life-histories of most of our butterflies. The following additional
notes may prove of interest. Owing to inability to devote special time
to the larvae taken, the information here given is but scrappy and in-
Chrysophanus boldenarum.
This little buttedly appears to be commonest on the Canterbury river-
bed,. It frequents patches of DOllntia, flitting in dozens over the heated
shingle patches. The first specimens appear about October, and I have
taken it as late as March.
On the 20th November, 1909, I found larvae lionel pupae of this butter-
fiy under stones in the Makikihi River bed. I was successful in reari~
three. These all emerged on or close to the 18th December, 1909. In
November, 1910, I again
=w'~.~"b.,;~ St. ~~ ~
A. porot which appear!:! ~ ~
to me of great interest wa.s
that in each case the larvae Lar'l"8o. Pupa.
and pupae were under C:a:RYSOPKlNUB BOLDEN..I.lltl'Y. x 4..
stones that also sheltered
ants' nests, and at least two of the chrysalids had ants running over them
when I lifted the stone. Both these chrysalids produced butterflies. As
certain of the Lucaeniau.e in other countries have been taken in conjunction
with ants, this point in oonnection with one of our New Zealand butter-
fties promises to be worth investigating.
HOW'E"I.-Xeu· Species of Lepidoptera. 201
In IippearclUc.e the caterpillar ib rather slug-like, being very "deep"
for its length, with the head small.
The fe\\' tak~u bhoweu couSldera.ble "ariation, some appearing mainh-
"reen, othert! ahnObt red. The sides "ere dull green, ornamented with
~blique stripes, whIch varled m the difielent specimens bom dark brick-
red to pink. The hans showed prominently, being long and numerous.
P1ipa.-The pupa was about 6 mm. in length, and stout for its length.
The head and thorax were pale green, the abdominal segments brick-red .
..\. double pink line dorsally. According to my obst"rvatlons, no trace of
the wlll!!,-markmgs showed through before emergence.
Chrysophanus sallustius.
Although common thlOughout the South Island. this butterfly does
not appear to be aE> variable here at! in the North Island. The first
specimeDR are in flu~ht hel'e early in November, the last at the end of
When collectlll:.\ neclr the Upper Hutt with Mr. H. Simmonds he took
a single larva ot tills bpecie& when beating Copr081lta for Ooleoptera, and
this larva he kmdly hauded over to me. It was about 12 mm. long, slug-
like, bright grePD. With t1 crmlson streak down the back. The caterpillar

pupated in a half-curled leaf almost immediately. The pupa was pale

green ,vith a pall"r h11e down the back, and was 10 mm. in length. and
stout for its lenqth.
Argyrophenga anupodum.
ThiS butterfly bt!elll':l tu be confined to the South Island, frequenting
onh' the tUl!Sock country. lIr. Hudson, in his .. New Zealand :Moths and
Buttel'iIies," giveli a desCription of the larva and pupa.
In February, U.Ill, when collecting near Fairlie, I was fortunate enough
to t!ecure a single fully fed larva of this species. It remained in the
collecting-box for tlu'ee dayt! before I had time to further examine it,
and I then found that in the interval it had changed to the chrysalis.
Eight days later the butterfly emerged. The caterpillar, in shape, colour·
ing, and marki~s, closely resembled the chrysalis.
PlIpa.-Length, just! in., but, being late in the season. this specimen
was probably undersized: broad for its length: two horns tllSBock-colour,

PlP,A. 01< .l.BbYROPB1!lMUA. AS'lIPODUM X 2.

edged with white, projected nom the head, and a similar hom from the
tail. .A white line from front of head along thorax, then splitting into

two thIn \.hlte hne.. to endose cl. dar1..-~Jeenl&h dOl'ldl hue A thIn led
hne m c.on] unctIon Wlth a whIte hne from tIp ot Iro'ital holU to tlr of tall
hom T\\o wmter hnes from wmg-cover to tIp of lhdomen A V.hlte
Ime ed!:.eJ both 'JIde'! \uth led from centle of wmg (.d~e not 163.c.hmg to
end ot abdomc I A dark hne with a. "hIte hue belo\\ .tlou~ the top of
"'mgs Yem.. of tutUle 'i\1l'~' deal Iv outIm.ed As the Int:.ect neared
emelgence thE' duk ::.pot... ')'1 111 \' m.!~ '1ho\\ed plllniv the pupa

In the ' IrJ.lll:>J.(.t on'> ot roe New Zealard Inl:>btute," \01 4) lUll,
pp 127, 12~ I find I have calelt.SsI) Wlitten ' hnes ' "hele It ... ho lid
bo "IDm' UutOltUJoHteh, thIS not only mel1..e'! the descllptlon le.ld
.... 1'Onsdy d'! to fhe;-e'\.p tnqe, llUt hab cl.l"o ml,:>lead those lespon",lblt.
f01 the lerlOUUc.UOLl ot the lllu. . tl thon .. '10 th. t tlleqt ha... e been }lllU1ed
mucll o\er thell II Itt I II ..,,/

.\.a1 XXlI -Th( Rah d BauhP, (II ('a) TWfll..IHl

By B C .\.STON F I (' , F C S
[R~ad bPlal 1/" II tlltn !Ion l·h,1 n.( pIlla" "'0 pt I ./tl, (JtfobeJ 1911 j
Pl.a.te... \..Lll XI'
CtPE TUR.4.I\.IL.Uo IS the "lOlth "estenl porot uong. CcIoPl P,,'h""'1 tiht. two
tapes lllelo,>'ng that noble stretch of wcltLr known as Pallise.l R,1\ TIlt.
rem.lolkable t!eolop;lCdl and bot'll leal flcl.tUl'e c 01 Tnra1..n&e hitherto apPGQl
to ha,e escaped the attentIon the) lllt.l.t a.nd It IS \uth the hopt" of
remedymg this neglett that thll> p1.fl.r d. \\rltten
The Orongolongo RlVer, neu the mouth of ~hILh IS 8ltuated Air Rldd!
tOld's hOME'Stead, cuts through cl senes of rl1bed beaches, nov. more or les'
obseuled by drlftlllg Blond or o"elgto\\n b, herbage Thev are, mOllO,\E"
('omposed of hner IDcI.tenal-lllosth (,Oc.\l"bll band-than those SJome I Cdochl..,
d. Imle neal"Cl the lape Thell" finer llatUl"C Ib ac.counted for by the fac.t thclot
the nvelS "ould bnng down q1lcllltltIes of fine debns, wluch '\ould be
thlO\\n up by the SC<lo Three beae.hes are here to be dlstInguIshed, and,
as their altltl1de IS the s'lome the, are undoubtedly of the same as thoDO
fhroc helea.fh.'l descnbed as beme: Dearer the sea The beach pl'f"sumably
elevated at tht' bme of the. 185:> ea.rthquake IS here very v.ell de\eloped
The nUluence of the imeness of beil( h parttcles on the flora. Wlll be presentI)
notIced It IS not until one has (.loBbed the nver, cIond proreeded a wIt
01 so towards Palhser Bay, that th~ eyo of the obselver IS arrested by thl.""ordmary ph)BlOgraphJeal aspett of the eounny lymg betv.eell thE'
trac1.. at the base of tho steep hlllbide and the sea The trac1.. follo,,& clo
COUlse close to the foot of the Mia, about 100 £t above sea-level, and
betuen thts and the sea 18 a stff.hh of roc1..y country v.I.lVlng from 250 to
400 yards in mdth. and extendIng some t\\O or three llules, narroWlU~ to
nothm~ on thp further SIde of the ecl}lf' ThIs loeb plmll e.on'll'ltfl 1l1Obtl}
P \Tr \'III

is f S
~ ~
!:; j' ~

..c: :::
!.. ~~ :;:
g !3
::: ~ ~

.... .f ::
. '" :c

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of large boulders 3 it. to 8 ft. in diameter, but running roughly parallel wlth
tho sea throughout the length of the boulder-strewn plain are two excellently
defined shingle beaches. These stand out most conspicuously, and form
Ilatural roadways along which one may drive. For the greater part the
shingle presents an appearance differing little from that of beaches which
.)ften eXIst now at the ocean's margt'. In many places the shingle is, how-
ever, overgrown Wlth MUelllet1.bec'kw comple.ra, or with grasses and other
plants. The main Impression left 011 one's mind is that marvellously little
alteration has taken pla.ce m the peophng ot these areas by plD.1lt&, and ill
the extomal appeara.nce of the shlllgle generally, 1ll the hundreds of years
which have probably ela.psed since each "'as rd.ptdly elevated. The slU'\"i.yal
of the 'beaches as shingle hwolves the fact that it is composed of the harder
p.:>l'tiions of tho country rock, and which would hence, in the equable
climate, offer a considerable resistance to the weathering influences.
isolated by bouldcr pla.ins on all stdes, little dust could blow in and form
. . Qil bctween the lUtersticcs, and without soil little atmospheric moisturll
could be retained. Only specially adapted shingle - plants, such 11'>
.l!ltd"Zenbec1.ia, could, therefore, hope to survive in such a. station.
Happily, we are not cntirely in tho dark as to the rapidity \'lith which
thcse beaches may be elevated beyond the reach of the breakers. It id
well known that the coast at Mukumuku was elevated 9 ft. during thl'
earthquakes of 1855 (see Crawford, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Essay, vol. I, p. 18).
Knowing this, the author carefully searched the boulder-strewn shore "
little above high-water mark, and was rewarded by finding traces of a
shil1gle beach about that altitude above high-wa.ter mark. Further search
nearer MukumulLl showed a long strip of shingle beach quite as well
developed as the oldor beaches. The fact that the sea is now breaking on
boulders and monoliths somewhat discounts the thought that beach No. 1
may be a mere storm beach. Exploring the country adjacent to the hills,
two much older shingle bea.ches were found. These nearly everywhere
bve been oblIterated by the debris carried dovm by temporary creeks from
the steep hillsides, the site of the older beaches being now occupied by fans
of angular shingle, mixed with finer detritus, many acrcs in extent, which or may not support a flora. This recent alluvium has buritld these
two older beaches many feet below the surface, but where fra.gments of
them remain one is a.gain struck with the extremely recent appearance
·,f the beach. a.s Plate XIV, fig. 1, truly depicts. The interesting fact that
the younger of these beaches is that more thickly populated. by a flora is
probably accounted for by the difference in size of the component stones,
which explanation must also suffice for the fact that much of the newer fau-
material supports dense formations of herbage or arboreal 81owth. Five
c.listinct shingle beaches have now been mentioned, which for the sake of
ease of reference may be designated by the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and C, No. ]
being the youngest (the 1855) beach and No.5 the oldest. Observations
taken with a surveying aneroid show that the level of each of these beaches
is practically conSliant along its entire length-that is to say, No. 1
is approximately 9 ft. (see Plate XIII, :&g. 4), beach No.2 is 40 ft., beach
No.3 is 60 ft. (see Plate XIV, fig. 2), beach No. 4: is SOft. (see Plate XIII,
fig.2), and beach No.5 is 95ft. (see Plate XIV. fig. 1) above high-watoT
The material of which all this elevated country 18 composed hall so far
been roughly classified as bouldem and shingle, but there is a third most
extraordinary component, the solitary monoliths which stand out some-
210 Transactions.

times as much as 15 ft. above tho surrounding country, ena.bling a compre-

hensive view of it to be obtained from their summits. There are no mono-
liths or disproportionately sized boulders 011 the beaches, with a few
unimportant exceptions. Plate XIV, fig. 1, shows a fow large boulders have
rolled, perhaps comparatively recently, on or near beach No.6. These mono-
liths are often very much undercut, and present the appearance of having
rolled into the positions they now occupy, rathC'r than of having been
weathered into their present shape by wave-action. Where the sea broke
at the tide-limits a sbingle beach would form; above and below tho tide-
limits leBS weathering would occur. Sudden elevation would remove an
a.rea beyond reach of the waves, and as this was repeated the alternation
of shingle and boulder is thus accounted for. Possibly the original relation
of shore to sea-floor was that of a perpendicular or overhanging cliff with
the floor projected at an obtuse angle from the base of it. Successive
movements of the earth might dislodge much of the cliff-material, and
build up a subma.rine platform. One would like to :find somC' explanation
for the fact that these rolled monoliths occur such a distance £l'Om the base
of the present chffs. It is not easy to see how faulting at the base of the
cliffs can have been a factor in the uplift, as this would have to take placo
in a semicircular sweep rolild the cape, and there is plenty of evidem'e of
recent dislodgment of large masses of rock from the hillside. Earthquakt·s
may have played a considerable part in loosening large masses of rock.
One rolled monolith examined was roughly cubical in shape, and its side
measured 15 ft., its estimated weight being 250 tons.
The age of these beaches is a most fascinating theme to speculate upon.
The fresh appearance of the shingle makes it hard to realize that centuries
must have elapsed since they were removed beyond the reach of the tide
Mr. Elsdon Best informs me of a Maori tradition which relates that the
Miramar Peninsula, previously an island, was elevated about four hundred
years ago to its present position, which is evidence, of a kind, of coast-
elevation within historic times, prior to 1806. (See also Cotton, p. 246 of this
If the geological features of this area are intensely interesting, tho
botanical features are even more so. Within a few hundred yards may
be found the plants of the arid rock-faces, the fresh-water swamps and
ponds, the sea littoral, the grass meadoW'S, and the forest.
Starting fl'om the sea-shore a little above high-water mark, in a situation
well moistened by sea-spray are found the usual halophytic plants, SaUcornia
australis SoL. Sa11loZus reptm Pem., Trigloohill striatum var. fili/oZium Buch"
Apium prostratutn Labill., Seniera 'l'adioa.ns Cav., Scirpus 1I.Od08US Rottb.,
Oarex terJlaria Forst., JU'1ICUS efjusus Linn. These are growing between
boulders 3 ft. to 4 ft. in diameter, which formation occupies some 10 or
20 yards until the shingle of beach No.1 is reached. On this grow thc
beautiful GZaucium flavum Crantz (naturalized), Senecio Zautus Forst., Apium
prostratum Labill., Poa OIIIC6pS Fomt., OaZyBtegia soldaneZZa R. Br" and the
naturalized Pieris eo1Iioides Linn. and Plantago Zanceo'Zata Linn.
Now comes a stretch of big bouldem and monoliths, amongst which
are growing in very wet or very dry stations the following: LeptocarpU8
simple:!; A. Rich., MarisC'Us UBtulatuB Clarke, P1Kwmium Oookianum Le Jolis,
Se'Qie'Ta radica7ls Oav., RaouZia australis Hook. t, Mue1Ileflheckia complea;a
Meissn" Olearia Soland';' Hook. t, Oa8sinia 1Hptopkylla R. Br., Plagiantkus
divaricat'IJ8 Fomt., Hyme'M'fIthera cra8si/oUa Hook, t, .d.n.mtio C01lSPicua.
Fomt., Etvplrmbio, glauco, Fomt., Olematis Oole1l8oi Hook f., EpiZobium
ASTo'S.-Rai~t!d Berrrll"~ of Cape Tum!. irae 211

erl'ctum D. Petrie. Deyeuzia Forsteri Kunth., Poa anceps Forst., P. caespi-

losa, Forst., Myoporum and Oopl'Osma Baue1i Endl. shrubs (occasionally),
..lustrltUlla pU8illa Gaud., Adiantum affine Willd., and the naturalized
Picris echiolde8 Linn., Nasturtium ofPcinak R. Br.. MY08oti8 palustri8 Linn.
Parts of this rockery may not be so wet, and may then contain Lepto-
spennum scopOITiuln Forst., L. ericoides A. Rich., Coprosma rkatnnoides
A. Cunn., O. robusta Raoul, O. parviflora Rook. f., Pimelea laevigata Gaertn.,
Olearia Ounningkamii Hook. f., and a sward of introduced Medicago lu-
pulina Linn., and Hypochaeri8 radicata Linn., and some Oauoali8 llodosa
~cop., Cnicu8 lanoeoZatus Willd., Rosa rubigin08a Linn. occurs.
This boulder terrace occupies a width of from 5U to 150 yards, and at
the further side of it an abrupt rise consisting of shingle is encountered. This
is beach No.2, and growing on it is often a sward of naturalized Rumez
acet08ella Linn., Lolium perewne Linn., Festuca myuro8 Linn., Hordeum
murinum Linn., and Erodium oicutarium L'Herit., or a thiC'ket of Silybu11'
Jlariafl,um Gaertn.; while the native plants present are MueMenbecl.:ia 00111-
pleza Meisan., Aoipkylla 8quarrosa Forst., Hymel1,flntkera orassi/olia Hook £.,
Bulbinella Hooken Beuth., Plagiantku8 divarioatu8 Forst., Olearia Bolar/,dri
Hook t, Copro8ma propifUJua A. Cunn. At the Orongorongo River, where
the beach is composed of coarse sand, it is almost covered in parts with
the baautiful silvery Raoulia australis Hook f., with Zoysia pungens Willd.
growing through it. Near Mukumuku Stream this plant covers a sandhill
some SO ft. high, which can easily be picked out by its colour some three
miles awav.
Towards the north-east end of these bearhes, on the landward side,
just above No.2 beach, are two ponds. The vegetation SUrtOWlding and
growing in the larger of these presents considerable contrasts. On the
dry shingle of the beach characteristic rounded clumps of AI ueklenbeckia
convpleza Meisan. dominate that position. In wet ground, nearer the pond,
Jiarisou8 UstulatU8 Clarke abounds. Nearer still is Eleochari8 acuta R. Br.
and plants of Rurnez crispus Linn. (natd.). The entire margin of the
pand is fringed with a yellow Oon/erva. and the \vhole of the pond itseH
is fill(.'d with a dense dark-red growth of Myriopkyllum elatt"noides Gaud.
and a little Potamogeton Oll.eesema'fl.ii Bennett. The landward shore of
the pond is covered by Eleoc'haris and Typha angusti/olia Linn., with
some LeptOCaTpUS simplez A. Rich., Bcirpu8 lacustri8 Linn .• JU'I&CUS eDu8u8
Linn., Oladium ;ufI,<:Bum R. Br., Pko)'mium ttmO.l; Forat., Carex ternaria
Forst., Oalystegia tuguriorum R. Br. The naturalized Nasturtium officinalt'
R. Br. and MY080tis paZustris LIIm. also occur in considerable quantity.
In the dry boulder·bank or in boggy places above are to be found the rare
Sebaea ot'a!a R. Br. (a yellow-flowered gentianous plant now for the first
time recorded from Wellington Province), Potenfilla anserina Lmn., Pelar-
gonium australe Jacq., Geraniuln molle Linn., Hyilrocotyle asiatica Linn.,
Vittadinw australis A. Rich., GnapkalilU/m oolUnum L'\bill., Craspedia
un.i/lora Forst., Festuca muTtifl,odis Rack., Microtia paNJi/oZia R. Br., Lifl,um
monog!!""un Forst., Epilobium Billardiera'~Utn Ser., RanuflCulus kirtwJ
Banks & SoL, Bamolu8 repens Pars., Galium umbro8um Sol., Eupkrasia
cuneata Forst., Haloragis alaia Jacq., H. depressa Walp., Laggn,opAora
pumila Cheesm., Ranu'16Otllus nvulari8 Banks & Sol., Dickelackne cri",ita
Hook. f., and the naturalized Silen.e gallica Linn., Briza mtJJ:ima Linn.,
('yperu8 t'egetU8 Willd., View sp. Near Orongorongo Stream EryngiUflI
ve8iculo8um Lllobill. occurs plentiiully above the beach. In the centre of
the stony plain, clustering round the monoliths on the- upper edge of beach
:H2 Tr(lll \art7on ~.

~o. 2, 18 to be found a. lIttle forest, consistin~ of CorJlfiOCarpJ.6 (s'JmtlmlU ~

18 in. in C'ircumfel\!nce). Melicytus ramiflorus Forst., Myrsine Urvillet
A. D. 0.. Coprosma Cunningnamii Hook £., Panax a"boreum Fc'rst.. Oord!J
line a'lIltralis Hook. £., PiprM' excelsum For!>t.• Ooriada rusci/olia LiJUl..
.is'Plel~iI4m lucidum Forst., Coprosma Baueri Endl., Olearia 0mllllnyllamif
Hook. f .. Pellaea rotundifolium. Hook. 1. On beach No. 3 :!illurlsh most of
the plants mentioned B! fOWld on No.2. Mucklenbeclda comple:z:a Ml"issu.
is the mOf>t cha.racteristic 011 this beach, which is the best developed of
1ib,1' five described. Dantnonia semiannuloj'is R. Br., and th(' natura.lizC'tl
Potycarpo'll. tet'l'apnylZ,rm Vnn .. Poa pralemis Linn., and Brorntts ifIIOUflo
Unn. also occur.
The nexti strip of b.lUlder terrace, b~twtlen beach No.3 and Ueac·It No.4.
is most interesting for the number and yariety of f>pecies it ('ont.ainl'.
Some portions consist of boulder!> 5 ft. to 8 ft. in diameter. and fairly Ut,I-
form in size, and growing among them arl! Phormium Cool..'ial~um L) Jolis.
P. tffllJ3: Forst.. Dichondra rape1.., FOl'ilt., Epilobium insularr Haussk.,
Hymenanthrra cra8sifolia Hook. f .. MtJriscus ustulatus Clarke. IlyllrocQtulf
asiatica Linll., H. n01Ja8-zelalldiae, Dlchelaclme crinita Hook. f.. earer
temaria Forst .. •1strlia 11('1110Sa Bank... & S)1., Cordyline austral/,/, H(\(,k I ..
Leptospermum scoparium Forst., Olearia SolaAdri. Hook f., Scirpus plolifer
Rottb.. Dros(;ra bilwta L~bill., and the naturalized Ranu'l/,(Julus acn~
Vllll. and ]J,f fJosotis palustTis Lam. are common. ExtensivCl PkoTfnf,UI..
and Typha angu3tijoZia Linn. swamps occur, which also contain JUIIC'Il~
caespiticius, J. prismatocarpus R. Br., J. bufolttus Linn., J. vaginatu8 R. Br.,
Sohoenus aziUaris Poir., and ponds ma.y form. In this area occur most of
the monoliths, the :flora of which is utterly distinct from that of the swamp.
pond, or damper ground immediately below them. The most remarkable
conatituent of the monoliths' :!iora is DeTldrobium Ounningka,nii, , ..hich is
growing as a thick sward 6 in. or 7 in. high, and fully exposed 1.0 the wind
and sun, a faot first noticed by ColeJl8o in this very spot (sce "First Journey
to the Ruahine Range," p. 11). Four oth('r epiphytic orowds dl'll growiug
on the rock-faces-Sarcoc1l.ilus adversus Hook. f., BulbopkyllulII P!J9maeum
Lind!., Earina mucronata Lindl., and E. suaveolens LindL-and yellow chunps
of Sclerantnus biflorus Hook. f., the climbing PoZypodiuln serpeli8 Forst .. u.'ld
MuembTyantkemum australe Sol. In chasms or slllall clefts or on th(' top"
some soil has formed, and here arc to be found Ooprosma BaueN, Eudl..
Hymenaltt'heta cTa8sifoZia Hook. f., A.rthropodium oandidum R:wul, Heli-
ckrysutn filicaule Hook. f., .t1gropyru»~ 8cabrum BeBuv.. CraspeiJ.ia unifl,ortl
Forst., Clematis Colensoi Hook. f., Luzula campestris D. C.• Fl!stuca ,,£tilli-
nadia Hack.. Paa anceps Forst., Dantkonia semiallTlularis R. Br.• Pi'tle/eo.
laevigata Gaerhl., Linu,n monogynutn Forst., Trisctum nntarctwum Prill.,
Tillaea Sieberiana Schultz, Acipkylla squarrosa Forst., R}uryutJia nutans
R. Br., T'kelymitra longifolia Forst.. DtCkondra repells Forst.. Aspleniflftt
flabillifolium Cav., Metrosider08 robusta A. Cunn. may even occur.
Above beach No.3, in wet parts, oocur Oottita coronopifolia \'111. iJltRgri-
foZia. Linn., RanuncuZtt.s rwularis Banks &; SoL, Eleocharis OUI&ningkami,
Boeck.. Juncus paUidus R. Br., J. mMitimus Lam., J. lampocarpus Ehr.
Oare:z: fJirgata. Sol., C. Zucida Boott., A.solla rubra R. Br.. IAbeZia a.l'l.CE'p$
Linn. f., Nertetra ckpressQ, Banks &; Sol.; and in the drier }llltrts Oleari,a
FO'I'Btcri Hook. f.. PrasophyZlum OOle1l8cn Hook. f., Urtica feTor 'Forst.,
OrslystegiG 8epium R. Br., Apium prostratum var. fili/orm(' La.bill., Rubus
cis80ides A.. Cunn., Lomtui4 capen8is Willd., and the natulalized Lyihrum
hyuopi/oUum Linn., Skerardia MVtTlsis Linn., Bromu8 sterilis Linn.
On beach :No. 4:, ill places, true forest is found. This IS nearly a pure
()orynooarpUIJ association. Some of the trees are very old, measuriug up to
6 ft. in circumference, and may be two hundred years old. Pla.te XIV, fig. 1,
shows No.5 beach with one quick-gro"ing tree, Myoporum laetum Forat.,
on it j but the Oorynocarpu8 is confiner! to :No.4 beach, immediately below
and contiguous to No.5 beach. Where ('orqnocatpu8 has not established
itself on ~o. 4, Muehlenbeckia cOYtl'pu.ra :\Ieissn. covers the beach (see
Plate XIII, fig. 2). Oil the sloI'es of it grl)w a charming li.hrubbery of
Pennantia cOflJmbosa Forst., Melicopc tefJItlta Forst., Myoporum laetum
Forst., Sophora tetraptera J. Mul1. r Pittosporum te1!uiioliufn. Banks &
S.)1., Parsonsia heterophyZZrt. A. Ounn.. Pas8ifiO'ia tetra?ldra Banks & Sol.,
Oordylint australi8 Hook t. (,Ze;I/atis OolM8ni Hook. f., Piper e:r:celsum
Forst., among the hprba(,E't)ll~ plnntf> being Parietaria debilis Forst"
Waklellbcrgia gracili8 A. D. C.. W. IlMic(lZa A. D. C., and the na.turalized
Fumaria fllurnli8 S'lnd.
On bet.l·h No. IS 811 wlusual &lght lEI .11uehlt'IIbeckilJ australis l\Ieil:lSll.
adopting the habit and station nftecled by Its conp:PIlcr .ll. complexa Meisan.,
a.nd scr4mblillp: t)VeT the horizlJnta1 stones, instend of climbing over trees ill
its usual manner.
The flora (If the {ans which hav(' (overed up so much of the two oldest
beat'hos may be hriefiy described. The oldest material supports pure
woods of (!OI!J!1f)t'lll P'lS (ka.r;tkl\), oftel! with a pure fringh'g. wood of Myo-
1)?Tllnt. Pla.te XIII. fig. 1, shows a good example of a karaka grove. The
action of the willd in bWlching the tOpluost leaves and branchlets together
at the southern, seaward. and exp0f>erl extremity of the grove. while they their nOl'Uull habit as they 'lpproac·h the hills. is most instructi,,"e.
The youlljlter allm'ium supports n dens!' 'Iwa.rd of indigenous Dantkonia
pilosa R. Br. and .lIicfolaenn 8tipoit/es R. Br., and naturalized grasses and
rlovers. Thl' younllest fan-materi~ 1 grows chiefly the natura.lized thistles
Onicus lallC'eolatu8 Willd. and SilybuhI }Inrinnun. Oaprtn., the latter often
impenetrahl~ tbicbts ar~s in ('xtl'nt. Reforence must be made to that
!6Llarkable new species, :JIue'hTeltb'!(:l.·ja A.8/oni Petrie (figured in TrtllJs.
N.Z. II,st., \'01. 43, p. ~57). This ra,1'f' plant grows on the talus slopes and
shin~k' fam.. It is renlarkJble for thf' l'E'gub,rity of the angle of branching
(approximatl'Iy 120 dee;rees) and for th( fart that it is the ollly New Zealand
spEtril's with an erect habit of gMwth.
The author, who hRS made twelve ,-isits to the cape altogether, desires
to express his grateful IlclmowledjUIlents for the support he has received
{rom Pl\)feb8or Eastcrfldrl. Dr. D. Petrie, M~srs. T. F. Cheeseman, J. S.
Tenna.nt, E. Phillips Turner. P. Freyber~. and his brothers (0. G., Cyril, and
\Y. B. Aston). who have all BCI:ompameu him in these lengthy walks at
variou& ua.tes during the lOobt four years.
The raised marine beacher. at Cupe Turllki.rae &how that there has
occurred comparath'ely recently, aLd perhaps witlrin historic times, rapid
nlevation of the coast-line near Palliser Bay a.t least four times prior to
thE> sudden elevation of 9 ft. which took place in 1855. Violent; earth-
movements have so altered the physiography of the littoral as to result
in some unusual ecological fe8tur~.
214 T ranllactlon~.

ART. XXIlI.-1'111' (}l!o[Jrapllir Relation~l!ip.! of tlie Bit'riR of Lord flou,. •

.rorfolk. and tlll! Kl'Tmadec b1(1l1dll.
B~' W. R. B. Or,H'ER.
[Read before t11B Auc!.:lwul Ilistitute, 148tl, };ouember, 1911.J
WHETHER the main ilollo.ndll of Ntlw Ztlaland, together with certain out-
l~'ing itllanrltl, be considered entitled to the full rank of biological
.. region, ,. or only that of "subregion," will not affect the contention
which the e'\"idence assemblecl in this paper is held 1.0 support-namel~-.
that the three groups of islands lying to the north of New Zealand (Lord
Howe, Norfolk, and the Kermadectl) should be included within that
region. It can be said that condutlilms drawn from the study (If onl;'
class of animals lllay not be tl'ulltworthr. and should be checked br COll-
elusion!! deduced from a consideration of other classes. There can be nll
questioning tht! truth of this statement, and I would go even further,
and sa~' that the ('laims of a distriot on the border-line of two biological
I'egiollill to be includtlu in anyone of Iiouch regions should be deciderl upon
an eXlUuillatioll of the ",hole of th~ fauna and flora of the district in
quclltioll, together with a consideratiou of its geological hitltor~·. In lJl(1st
cases this is not l'racticabltl, and in this paper I will deal principally
with thtl ll.\·ifaulla of LOl'd Howe, Korfolk, and the Ket'madec Isll\ndtl.
only refel'l'ing incidentally to other sections of thtl fauna 01' to the flora,
and endeavour to point out its true relationtlliip to those of the adjacent
biological regions.
In treating of islandi:l, the real test for deciding to which region
they should be attached is to consider the evidenee in favour of a land
connection with a part of the region within the bounds of which it is
claimed they should be included. If the probabilities are that the islands
have never been actually joined to n land-matis, then the character of the
fauna and flora must decide. But here certain life-fol"m~, such as pelagic
species, need not bl! taken into account, except as characterizing a pl'O-
'\"ince 01' subregion. _-\.gain, the prl!sence of Kuch a group as " accidental
visitors ,. ma;y be due mercl~· to climatic conditiontl, and cannot btl held
to ally one fauna to another any morc dum 1.he occasional occurrence of
a IItl"ay royal Rp(Ionbill 01' pelican in Xew Zealand allies the avifauna of
that country to that of AtlKtl'uliu.. fur speciel:! of birds cannot often be
dispenetl by Iiouch accident!;.
From 1\ geographical standpuint, the birds of 0. district may be ar-
ranged according to their life-forms or lllnllDel" of occurrence into gl'OUp!l.
The tlCologicul groups into which I have divided the bh'ds of Lord Howe.
Norfolk, and the Kermadec ItIlands, and whose numerical strl!ngth in
these illla.ndii ill shown in the following table, would not necesllarih- be
the most useful to adopt when treating the avifauna of a large area: but
are, I think, the most convenient for the purpose of this paper.
Eoologioal Group. LorJ Howe. Norfolk. Kerm&deos.
Resident land-biras-Breeding 15 19 6
Sea-birds-Breeding 8 11 12
Sea-birds 6 5 10
lIigrants 11 7 t(
Occasional 13 6 4:
Accidental 8 5 3
Totals 61 58 43
OLIVER.-Birds of Lord Hou'e, .roljulk, find Kamat/a bland>. 215

Resident land-birdll are the lllo~t i1IlPOl tuut fl um 0. g~()gl"uphical point

Clf view, as the"l" alone include t!pecil'b "!JOIIC prebellce can onl~" be accounted
for by a former land cOllneotion. Till: group l!~a-hirdlol inc1ude~ forlUS
"hich habitually frt!quent the open St!.l. hut JOCh uut includ~ L'ouJlltal
genera, such as Laru8 and Phalacrocora,,- Tllo",c l.J1"L't:!ding ill the ibiulld,
are chiefly circumtropical s},eciel:l. 0.1111 III no ",aIue ill ,It!tt!l'mining the
geographic relationtlhips of the a"l"ifauna, alii their l'l"t!~Cl1ce rlt!}It!lllh, mainl,'"
on the latitude of the place. :Migl'ant.:, t",pt!ciall:- ii ocCUrrilll,! rcgull\rl~"
and in large numbers, are important ,It- iwlicating the lille lIf a iOl'll1t'l'
land connection. * Occal:lional "l"i ... itm·h al'e thobe whi..:h rt!gulal'l~" "l'"isit the
islands, or have frequentl~· been rt!curut!ll. The: l'l'obabl~" Ut!lollg to
~pecies which are in the habit of walH1erillg fIll' 110111 tht'il' orrlinary
breeding-places, and possibly J'requcntly ('rost> nUll rl'crn<;~ the
Sea. ~lost of them are fairl: widd: dh,tributell, 1'angiug 11'1I}11 the ~Iala~"
AI'chipelago thl'ough AueotJ alia to Xc,," Zeo.l,lllIl. _\ccidental vi~it01!oo nl't!
Il1tl'llgglen (and I 11a"e includt!d uOllutfull' UlHlt!l' thh hClulinl!l.
I wish here to ackno\\'lerlge m~" ind\!htcIlll~bl'l tu )11'. Bal'lt-tlt Hull '0'1
valuable paper on the" Bil'tlh of Lorn Howe (lnd Xorfolk h.lnnllt-,"t from
which, mainly, the list of bil'd~ inhahiting dlfll:ltl .. , tClgether "ith
other infol'mation, ha"e bet!n taken. B~" ~elll'ching throul.!h tllt' Bdtie.h
lIllseum " Catalogue of Bil'll~ .. 1 lw"\'"e nll,1e!} n 1I1l1Ilut!l' of IItht'r records,
and the lists have been Ild,le,l to hum other 1!!01ll·Cc'I. In tlle liqt of birdR
or tIle Kermadec IslandR therc appear the nameR of ."be specjl'~ not
hitherto recorde,l f1'om the group-PriMI dt~(JlatI/R, Sterlla 7/t1'!/iI, l'I'III!11I
ratllltulI, Oe8frelata marl'optt'l'n, SlIl(1 ltIlColl(18ter, Plltllfll'I'()('(JI'(l, /luTel-
rostl'i8. Fol' three of thelle I Lu"I'"c to thank ).[1'. T. F. C'ht!e,cman,
F.L.S., who kindly supplitld mc with a list of the skins in the Aucklanll
:'IIUKt'Ulll collected b", ~Ir. R. A. Bell lin Kllmhn' Island. Of the fllll1'tlt-
Oestrl'latn macrol'tera-tle.lIl Hl'ccimens "~le' Intllld b:," lll:,",di in IDOl'!
waeohed up on the beach in Denhnm Ba~', Sunda~' Islnnn. A flead !lpaci-
men of Sula leuco(laster Wl\1:I fomtll 1111 the beach in Den]lnlH Bn", by
)[1'. R. S. Bell pl'e~iolls to m~" ,·;~it. nnd thc ;,:lUlI' (Ihs~]'n'r Io:tatl''1'tlu\t
It 1I111ll.11 number of Pltalar.rot'ol'flJ' IllIlrirosfriif fllle!:! Illude their ahfllle on
:'lunday and ~[acnulllY I!oIlautlll, ~tl\~'ing fm· '1I1JU!:! yen!',. rrllC~·. llowevcl',
failt'fl to eRtablish them'lclvcR.

LOUll HowE 11'l1._\:Xll.

Of fifteen species of l'esi(ltmt laul1-bil'dll bl'cellinl:!; in the i~Iul1d, tweI"\'"c
(including Aplonis fU8(,u~, which (lccurtl nlsl' 011 Xorfnlk IHlalll}) are t!n-
Ilemie. The affinities of the pt!culitll' fOl'IllS nl'C 1l1Il.inl~· with Xcw Zealand
and Xew Caledonia. Species related to Xew Zealand fOl'llltl lll'e :Xe/lollm-
IWS BlI11't!.8fri8, ;Yotorlll'lI ((fha, and C,lflnnrlmm J111ll.~ ~!l7"fi(II'1 Rrt'IIII: thohC rc-
latetl to Kew Caledonian tOl'llUl Ilrc TUI'dulI I'illitillt'fa and .{/iTol/is fUllrllx.
The two Rpecies of Ger]/(lOllf are allicII til £(11'11111 in Xf.:!W Zt'llIIIU'} nIlll Xl'W
C'alt!donia, while the Lord Howe 0.1111 XIIl'iolk 1...11\n11 t'lpt:!cielo: "f ZOHft1'oJl~
ht!lon!;!' to a group occm'ring in New Zealancl, Xew ('alcl1oniu !lUll atI-
jaCt.'nt il!lands, and ~\ustrnlill. The l't:maining th!'cc en(Icmic s.pcdell-
.Yino,'& (llburia, Rhipidlll'fl rt'l'I'ina, Pflrhllt'C]lJlfIla rOllfempfa-tll'e pro-
bably l'clated to Australian fOl'l11l!. X ullwricall~' thl:: .\uMtl'uli an, Xt'w
Zealand, and ~ew C'alcclollian elemcntM ill tIlt! l'llllclllie hh'llq of Lor,}
Howe Island are about equal, 01' n"l'"el'whclming-l:,' in fa-rolll' II! a XtlW

• Hutton, Tramo. ~.Z. Iuid., \"'01. S. P. :93.>.

t Proc. Linn, SOC'. N.S.W., \""01. M, p. 636,
216 ' ["1111 ~Il,'t 1')/&.,

Culf.ldlllllll - Xe" Zealand migl'ation UR against ,m AllRtrRlian i 1l1l11igra·

tiOll, The tl".o flightltlsS rails turn the balance in favour of New Zl'alund,
The ditltl'ibution of the three resident land-birds not peculiar to Lorrl
Howe tihows but a I!light ~xce:ls of Australian immigl'antrl over
othe1'liI, Stl'epera grllculilla extt:ndti to Australia, Halcyon vagan.s to New
Zealllnil, "hile CltalcoplwjJs cllTYdochlom (perhaps introduced) iH foulld
in Amltrulia and Xl'''' Caledonia.
Eleven migrants have been recorded from Lord Howe Island, SOlUe of
which occur regulurly in considerable numbers. Two are cuckoos, thtl
relit Charadriifol'mes; all have been recorded in New Zealand, anLl all
except EudynamY8 taite'~Bill in Australia. It is evident that the island
is in the line taken by these species on their migration to and from New
Zealand. ann thus pi'obnbly on an old land-line stretching nOl'thwarnH
[rom New Zealand.
Of the thirteen occasional villitot'1> "hich haVl' been l'eoorded in L"l'd
Howe Island, all are found in Australia, ten extend to New Zealc.nd, and
doven to New Caledonia 01' ~lnla~·a. The proxilllity of the Australian
Continent to Lord Howe Islanrl and the direction of the prevailing winrl ...
(westerly) in the south-west Pacific is sufficient to aroount for the pl'e-
ponderance of Australian forms ill the accidental visitor!! to the islanrl,
()f the t!ight recorded, only two erlend to New Zcaland.
The large proportion of endemic forms in the reRident luncl-bil'dl! oi
L(Il'd Ilowc Island points to the long p(:H'ioll the island has been an isolu.ted
'!pot. The existence of two bro,-i pinnate raill:! belonging to genera founa
tlltlewhel'e onl~' iII New il:! I!ufficient proof of a foriller land con-
nection with thtlt countrv. 'rhat th~re wu.ti also land connection to the
north, whence these birds probably, is indicated by the lal'ge pro-
portion of endemic Lord Howe Island land-birds which arc allied to New
Caledonian forms. CorrobOl'ati"e evidence of a lanu bridge between New
Caledonia and New Zealand is furnished by thl" presence in Lord Howe
Il:Iland of thl! large land-mollusc PlocOBfgluB.* It would be over this
bridge tl,at the lal'E,'e portion of the New Zt:!alancl fauna and flora show-
ing Mala~-an affinititlR migrated. As the two fiightletiS rails mentioned
above are closely nllied to :Xe'" forms, it is probable that tho
land bridge WIlS sevE-ren in the nortll before the connt'Ction with New
Zeamnd WIlB broken. Lord Ho"e Itllanti would thol'efore properly belong
to the New Z(>:lland biological regillll. AUHtrlllia clln have no claim
whatever to include I~Ot'd Howe bland within ib regiona.l limits, as 0.
permanent separntelJ tlw islanu Imcl continent, and wha.t
birds of .\ustralian origin nre found in Lord Hllwe Island have orossed
the intervening trnct of o('enn, ~'et in spite or the prox.imity of the con-
tinent have llot outnumbered the New Caledonian and New Zealand forllls
except in thoRe 1l1'OUpH which T llllve nc,.'signntccl OcCtllliOnlil n.nrl accidental
'l.'her~ M'e tweh'e enrlemic IIpccies of land-birdll (including ..dploniB
IIIBcus). Of these, four-Ilemiplwgu sp(ldicea, NeBtor prOduCtUB, C,/anor-
Twmpl1tuB ~o~lri, Gerygone. mnatRta-are related to New Zealand species;
two - Rlupi.dlt'm peltelm, l'acl'lICepllfll(l oxmflioprocfa - to Australian
speciellj four-Petroica multicolor, Diaplloropferu8 leucoPllfliu8, Turdu8
,'IIUgino8uB, Aploni8 ftlBt'IIB-tO New Caledonian Ilpecies; and there are
two IIpecieF of ZosteTopB. Xurnerically the Npw Caledonian element pre-

-Redley. Proo. r.inn. R.".'. N,'3,W,. vol i (18!):2). p, 335.

(h.I'Elt.- -Birds of Lord lIoT/',.. -,"orton·, and /\"rnladr,· /Phl/ul.. 21 i

a Huwe h,lullfl, tht:: Kpecie~ of thill and the

(lotlJl nate,. unu, ..~ '\ itll LOI
X('''' ZtdUlltl element together far outnumber those of the Austl'alian
section; but again the presence of !:Iuch important genera as lI"estor and
lifntipl!ago turns the scale in fo.\"o\11· of Xe", Zealand. Of the seven resi-
,Iellt land-birds not peculiur to the islllntl. one-IIalcyon t'Q(la1!S-exteno!-
to Xew Zealand; t",o-P1atllctlrCUIl llf(lQI18 (perhaps introduced), ·/tIinoJ:
boobool.·-to _\ ustralio. i ",hile the relllaining foul' are founu in both these
countries. Australian forms are thus !.Carcel, in eX('CbS of others.
The migrants recQrded include the bame t;,·o spe<>ies of cuckou at! occur
in Lord Howe Island, and five Charadrii:ormes, two of which al'e said to
be plentiful at certain seasons of the year. Here again an (lId In.nll-line
is indicated.
All the occasional ",iRitol's to Xorfolk Ililand occur in limit _hIRtt'ulia
and Nt''' Zealand. or the n.'I"e accidental visitors, all al'(, _·\.tlqjralil1n
formll, of which thrce have been recorded from Kew Zealand nil
I!trag~lers. and one-Hel'"dias timn,.ienll;s-is rCilid('nt thcl'l:'.
There are no species of birds in Norfolk Island whose presence de-
mands that the island should at one time have been connected with 3. InJ'gt'
land-area; nor, as far as I am aware, are there anr other members of
the indigenous fauna 01' flora of the island whose presence cannot reaSOll-
abl'{' be attributed to dispenal b'l" theil' own means or b, accident acro'l~
a nal'rmv sea. At the same time, as the avifauna show~ similar charac-
tel'istics to that of Lord Howe Island-namely, bY' its lar~e proportion of
endemic land-birds and strong New Caledonian - New Zealand affinities
-it is evident that both islands received their first In.nd-bil'ds about the
same time and by the same route. It seems most probable that at the
time Lord Howe Island was actually part of the land bridge stretching
northwards from New Zealand, Norfoll, Island was n detachen islet Iring
off the east coast of the lnnd, and thus l'ec.:>ived its fauna and flora acrORS
a narrow strait. The present contour of the ocean-floor lends support to
this ",iew, as Norfolk Island is completely s1l1'rounded by deep water-
over 1,000 fathoms-while Lord Ho""e Island lies in comparatively shallo"
wa.ter on the western edge of a submarine ridge stretching from New
Zealand to New Caledonia. For reasonll of like origin a.nd characteris-
tics the 8\"ifnunas of I.ord Huwe and Norfolk Islands proclaim that both
illlands must be included in the same biological region, and their relation-
I!thips as detailed above (lel'ine this to be the Ne,,' region.

Kl:lUl:A.DEC I Sl.A~DP,.
'fhe conspicuouM te:~ture of the a.vifauna of the KerDllldecs iii its pau-
oity of land-birds, and what few occur there are of a de<>ided New Zealand
oharacter. There is pl'actically no Australian element represented.
The migrants inolude the two cuckoos mentioned abo\'e as occurring
in Lord Howe and Korfolk. Islands, and six Charadriiformes. None occur
in any great numbers; thus tlleir presence affords but little indication of
the island l~'ing in an ancient land-line. If a large area. of land evel'
existed in this direction, it disappeared before the present islands came
lDto existence.* The occasional and accidental visitors 111'(' all common
New Zealand species, and all except .AnthtlB nOllae-:ealandiat occur also in
The Kermadeo Islands are of a typical oceanic Chlll·llcter-tho.t is, they
were formed by volcanic aotion in mid-ocean, Ilnd have been popull\ted

*TJ'II,II8. Y.Z. Ius'-. vol. 2D. p. 161; vol, oi'J, p.531

218 Traluaction&.

entirel, by tl'ans-octlunic llligr,ltillll. The land avifauna and flora are

unmist·akaLI~· closely o.llietl to those of Kew Zealand, so that the islands
fall nntllrllll~- within the X('w Zt:alnnd biological region. The marine
fauna has affinities with that of Polynesia. An explanation of this meet-
ing of XtlW Zealand lund l'Ipecit's alld Polynesian mal'ine species may lie
in the fact that during the winter 1L10nths, which oover the period when
plant-seeds are being disper~ea, th(' prevailing winds in the KermadecF.
are from the sOllth-wer.t. whilc during the summer months, when the free-
swimming llll',lli forms uf marine animals are abundant, the prevailing
winds are from the north-east.

Ha,ing' 0;;}10\\"11 b~' ,.Ill ulluly!:!is of their avifaunas that Lord Howe, N01'-
folk, and the Kel'mauec Islo.ndl:l fall within the limits of the New Zealand
biological rcgion, it remains only to oonsider whether they form one 01'
more Ilrovincc~ 01' subl'cgiontl of that region.
The I).,ifllunatl of Lorll Howe and Norfolk Islands are undoubtedh'
closeh" allielI. Of the resident land-birds two species are common, t:l
whioh must he added the endemio species of four genera - Gerlluone.
O,/anornamplluB, Turdu8, ZOBtel'opB-having representative forDls in each
island. }'Iost of tIle Hell- biIds (breoding), migrants, and occasional
visitors common to the two islands, but, from the manner of their
oocurre-nce. this iR not the case with the accidental visitors and the sea-
birds (visitorR).
With regard to the Rix resident land-birds of the Kermadec Islands, all
except Proatllemadera nOI'(le-zealandiae are identical with or closely allied
to species in Xorfolk Island or Lord Howe Island. But of resident land-
birds in Lord Howc or Xorfolk. Islands found also in the Kermadecs the
proportion iR very low. NO that the fact that five-sixths of the Kerruadec
land-birdN IlI'C related to IIpecies found in Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands
merely shows that in nIl prohabilit~·, as with the plants, some of the species
in the Kel'JIIlldt'cK which occur in both ~ew Zealand and Norfolk Island arrive 11 il'OIll Xorfolk I!:!land direct. The sea-birds (breeding) and
migrants chiefly belling til the same species as occur in Lord Howe ann
~orfolk Islnndll. TIlt:' occasional and acciden.tal visitors, like the resident
land-bil'ds. al'l' VI.;'I'~" few. n faot which can be explained by the isolated
position of the isl:mrlR.
The three iRlanns therefore fall no.turall~- into two biological provinces.
One includes Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, and is charactorized bJ" an
avifauna containing foul' main elements: (1) an original element whioh
includes the species which came by the ancient New Caledonia - New Zea-
land land bridge (majority of resident land-birds); (2) Australian and
New Zealand species arrived subsequently by trans - oceanic migration
(some of the resident land-birds and all the visitors except migl'ants);
(3) circumtropical species (sea-birds. breeding); (4) migrants. The Ker-
madec province oontains only- (1) New Zealand (and Norfolk Island)
species arrived by trans - oceanic migration; (2) cll'oumtropicnl specieS!
(sea-birds, breeding); (3) migrants. Although the important and charac-
teristic element oircumtropioal species is common to the three islands.
and, in the of plants, formed the basis of. my subtropical island!:!
province,* I think now, on a consideration of the avifauna, that a more

'" TraDS. N.Z. Inst.. vol 42, P. 155.

OLIYER.-Bi,.dll 0/ Lord HO?t'r, .Yol'/ollt. alld Kermflder J"lalld~. 219

natural al'l"angement is to keep tho Kel"llladec hlandl! lSeparate frum Lord

Howt: and XOl'folk blands. Tht: two avifaunu!> (and fioruH) will thul- be
grllu)Jed naturally aL'COl'ding to their origin and characteristicb.
The following ill a list of spt'Cielo of bil'III! arranged in groups ac.cord-
ing to tht:h' lllallner IIi occurrence : -

Lunll HOWE I "'L.!XD.

Ilexiclellt Lmlfl-bil'dlJ-Brt'uliIlU.
<'halcophaps Chl·ysochlora. Rhipillura ccrvinu.
Xebulitnnas svlvestris. 'furdul! vinitincta.
Xotornis albi. Pach~· cuntclll}lta.
Xino:x albaria. Zoqterops tephro)JlcurR.
C;nl.D(Jrhamphus l!ubfl3.vt!scenq. Z. strt:nua.
Hulc'\""on vagnnH. Aplonilo. fUSCUi••
(j.el'~·gone thnrpei. Strel'el'a gnculina.
CL inbulal'iR.
Sea-bil'dll-BI'I (dill!!.
Pllffinu~ spht:'nurul!. Pl'Ocdsterna cinCJ'ell.
P. curneipes. Anom. HtuliduH.
OCbtrl!lata montana. l:'lulli c~·anops.
8tel'lla fl1liginosa. Phaetliol1 l"ulll'iclll1(lu.

rillifol X-Sf a-hi,.,,-.

}Iujuqueus aequinoctiali~. Fregata ariel.
Pl'ion tleKolatuti. Phaethon leptul'uK.
Anoul! leucocapilll1s. Hub leucogaster.

r ill!fUI'II-JJ igralltll.
•\.relllLl·ia interpl'es. LimosR novae-zealandiae •
('haradrius dulllinicllK. Tringa canutuR.
XUlllt!nius varie~at\l'l. Gnllinagll austl'ali ...
X. c~·anopus. {'halcococcv.:s: lucidllll.
Erolia nUl·ita. Eud~·nam.;s taitenKill.
E. ft'l'ruginea.

r i/lif(JlII-Oualllllltul.
PUl'ph~Tio melanollotuR. Circus gouldi.
rhal'ndl'ius bicinctus. EUl';vstlllllUlI pllcificu~.
Xutophoyx novae-Illlllandiae. l'uculuH inlll'natuR.
X \'cticorax caienonicuil. ('acolllllntiil l'ufulm•.
AntlN superciliosa. Cm'acil1a l'ohusta.
Phulncrocol'nx sulcil'ostris. G1'8I1inll picnta.
P. llIelanoleuc3.H.

r isitCJrR-.AcciueII taT .
Phapli clegnntl. •\stUl' novae-hol1anditle.
Himantopus leucoceplulllllol. Haliaetus leucogaatel'.
Hel'ouias tiruoriensiK. Halinstllr sphenuruR.
Al'd~ttll pURilla. C'helidon neo:xena.

ReBidMt lAnd-birds -Br~ediIlY.

Hemiphaga spadicea. Uel'ygoDtl modesta.

Hypotaenidia philippensis. Rhipidura pelzelni.
Porzana plumbea. Diaphoroptel'lls lcucopygiufl.
POl"l'h;:vrio lUel::monotu~. Tur<lus fuliginosus.
Ninol: boobook. Pach;:vcephala xanthoproctu..
Nestor productus. Zostel'ops caerulescens.
Platycercuf! elegans. Z. albigularis.
C~-anorhalllphus cooki. Z. tenuil'ostris.
Halcyon vagnns. Apillnis fuscull.
Petroica multicolor.

PuffinulI liphennrus. Anous stoliduB.
P. assimilis. .\.. leucocephalus.
P. grisem.. Gygis alba.
Oestrl.!l:ltu philippi. Sula cyallops.
Hterna fuligiuuqa. Phaethon l"ubricaudn.
ProcelRterna ciut.·rea

Visitor,-8 e.a-birdlS .
Uestrelata macroptera. Sterna albistriata.
Puffinlls rerneipes. Ossifraga giga.ntell.
Megalestris antarotica.

Arenaria interpres. Limosn novae-zea.landiae.
Charadrius dominicus. Chalcococcyx lucidlls.
~umenius variegatus. Eudynnmys taitensis.
Glottis llebularius.

f'harudrius bicinctus. Phalacrocorax sulcil'ostriH.
Notophoyx novae-}lOllandiae. Eurystomus po.oificllfol.
Anas sUl'erciliosn. Circus gould i.

ri,itors-Acciden till.
Himantopus leucocephalus. Larus novae-hollnndine.
Plataleo. regia. Astur approximans.
Herodins timoriensis.


Re8idtmt Land-bird8-Brttding.
Proethemadera novae-zeaIandiAe. Anaa auperoiliosll..
Halcyon ve.gans. Porzana plumbea..
Cyanol'hamphua oynnurus. , Hemiphaga. novae-zeall.l.ndia.e.
Or.IVl<:n -Bzrd~ of Lord You'e, .\"orlull.:, altd ll.ermadec islalld, 221

::lea-UI rdB-Breeding .
.::Itl'lllJ. fuliginosa. PUffillUS ~lJhellUl'u"
r:'I'gi~ ,tlba. P. assimilis.
Anous 1tlucocapillus. Ot.:strelata cervicali~.
Pl'ocel'lterno. cinerea. O. neglecta.
Phaethon rubl·icaudn. o nigripenni:..
:-! ula. cya.nops.
J)uption capensitl. PUtilllUb tenuirostri...
Diomtluea tl::i:Ulam,. ~'rtlgatn aquil..1
D. lIIdanophrys. Prion rlesollltIH•.
Phocbetl"ia fuliginosa. Ollbtn·luto. macl"opteru
Ptllugodromn. marina. :-Itema ht'l"gii.
:3Uhl leucogaster.
Charadrim. rlominicus. E.'olil.l. .W 'itt.
C. veredul!. Limosll novae-zealandillt!,
Tringa co.nutus. Chalcococc'i'x lucidu:..
XUIIlenius variegutm.. Elldynull1~:':I taitt>nMil"l.

Circus gouldi. Anthus Iw\·ac-zealanrlill.c,
Zosterops caerulescens. Phalucroc'll"a'C sulcir"lIt'rh•.
ViBitors -Acci(lentnl.
Hypota.enidia philippensis. Demiegrettll. ~acl'a.
Porphyrio melanonotus.

AUT. xxn~. -A l'relimhUlru .4.rrO/llit ,'f fnt' I.ouler Traipam r;OI'(lI!,

By R. SPEIGHT, ~I.Sc., F.U.A.

[ReaG be/ore the Pl"1or.ophiral 11~ljt1l16 0/ n"nterbIl71/, 611. j1t'CembeT, 1911.]

ALTflOUGB the various localities of North Canterbury whet'e Cretaceous a.nd

Tertiarr rocks ooouI', such as the lliddle Waipllra, W'eka Pass, lfotunau,
OlDihi, and the Okuku, have received most ctU'eiul u.ttention, and have
been fully dealt with on diffel'ent occasions b~' the officers of the Geological
Survey, by Haast, Hutton, and Park, and latterly b~' lIal'shnll, Cotton.
and the present writer, the district at the mouth of the Waipu.ra River
has hardly been noticed. Except the very brief mention of its strllcture
by Hector (Geological Reports, 1868-69, p. x) and by lIust (" Geol~'
of Canterbury and Westland." pp. 316-li), Ule published matter dealing
with it consists merely of the list of fossils collected b\'" Buchanan and
Haast, referred to by Hutton in his report on the . f Geol~'gy of the Xorth-
east Portion of the South Island" (Geologicul Survtl~· Report, 1873-14,
p. 62) and in his various publica.tions denling with our Tertiary series
and its fossil-content. and the list ~ivt'n h~' Hun;!t in his .. Geology of
222 '['ranSll(·tIOIZS.

Cd.nterbUl~· Ilwl W~btl,mu," pp. :HU-22. This i~, II.b fILl' nb 1 ha,'~ heen
ablc to glean, tht' total l~fclCnCtl in publibhed ltlports to thi~ intel t'bting
locality. The prebcllt account il> necebsd.lily imperfect, but it iN ba~eJ on
work dom: on llUlIlt'l'OllS vh.ih., 011 ho of which I "111> fortlluute ill having
the Itrlvi~ ana a~to.h.t.UlCtl of Dr. Mall!hall, to whom, ab "ell al> to MI'.
::lutel' fOl' valu ••bltl hdp ill illel1tif~'ing the rOfosil&, lily 'IinCelll thankR lire
(jE:"l'ER.!.I. D.Ill:IUltIPTION OF THE LOC.o\J,Il'Y.
(See map.)
The Jibtrict rtlfel'l'ed to in thi~ account lies, 1 oughly, to tht: 1>1Iuth-
tld.llt of thtl point whtlre the ra.ilway 1 unning north frolll Chlit.tcliul'ch
Ol'ObbeS the Waipard. River, and f01 the purposelol of lllOle a«.CUl'ate Ildi-
nition the lower gorge of the river 1IlILy be taken as that part of its
course \,hich lie':! between ith junction "'ith the Omihi Creek <11111 thtl hca.
The creek joinb the ri\"61 about two lllil!::s below the railway·crobbing, unll
is historically important, since it flows from the swamp where Haaolt
obtaintlti his Glemnark collectioll of mOIL-l emains. TIlt' actual length of
the gorge is about fOUl wiles. Its bides are lllodel'ately ~teep, eabilv
climbed in lllllst plact!s, but unscalable in PIlI'tS, and ribing to an Ilverage
htlight of about 3;)0 ft. above the river-beu. 'l'he~' are higher on the
eastern siae, "hence thl!~' extend itS It IIb'etch of irregular dO"llb towlI.rus
the slopes of :Uount ('abll, which forllls the bouth-welltern buttrf::'Ss of the
Limestone Range. On the western side of the river the banks are not 10.0
high, anll they form part of the low do"nb I:Itretching to the houth-west
towards Amberley. The breadth of the gorge varie':!, but it usually pI'e-
bents a wide floor covered with Wiingle, on whioh the rivel' wanders. At
times, however, its brearlth ill reduced to about 100 yards, 01' even less,
and then the river-channel is more tit!finitel;v fixed. In some places the
stream forms well-defined loops or meanders-a notable one occurs about
half-way through thtl gorgtl-and it is now destroying the spurs which
project laterall~' from the high banks into thel!(> loops. Although the
",tream has considerablt! iall, the large amount of detrital matter which
it transports frolll higher levelb, anti ~pecinny from the banks of lool:le
..hingle bordering itll COUl'sa through the Waipara Plainll, hILS so dimin-
ished its vowel' of erollion that it has apparently 1 cached a temporary
base-l~vel, and this in I:Ipite of the fact that within fail'l;v recent tin1ell-
oertainly t!ince the Pleistocene-the con!.t hail experienced a distipct up-
ward movement .
.\. recent upward lllovel.nent of the coast-line to the north of the
Waipara has lJ~n recorued by McKay at Amuri Bluff (Ueport of the
Geological Survey, 1874-76, p. 177), whert' benchet! with Recent shells
al'e found at a height of :>00 ft. Evidence of the RaDle movement at the
mouth of the Conwa~' and at 1\[otunau ill given by Hutton (Report of the
Geological Survey, 1~73-74, p. 54), where the land has certainly risen
1;)0 ft., and, judging from the featuretl of the remarkable plain of marinl'
denudation noted b~' Hutton and examined lllore recently b~' the present
author, the elevation hall in all probability betln much greater. Renl-
nants of this plain ovel' a mile in breadth are to be found on both sides
of the mouth of the Waipara River. A little way back from the present
beach is an old sea-cliff about 50 ft. high extending along the coast for
several miles, and from the summit of this the land slopes gently back
for about a mile, the upturned edges of the beds forming the solid eub·
stra.tum. of the country being planed oft neatly b~' the former action of
the sea a.nd then covered with u thin veneer of loose shingle, some of it
SPEIGHT .-Lower Trai para Gorge. 228

Geological Sketch Map


,. ~

Scale In Miles

FIG. 1.
'1J'1':PIMlrlllJn~ •

of lual"iue oI"lgin, IIncl of material \\ hicl! closely l'eseIllble~ the loells of the
Bouth-eal>!wrn portiCJn of the South IsI'lIld. 'l'his plain sloVes bllck to the
base of the low clowns near .\.llIberley, "hert! it reaches a height of about
1 jll ft. Hmwver, on looking up tht! CllaI>!t to the north from the wont h
of tltt! Wuipara, decided l"emnant!l of a t-.hore platform can be seen I~t an
!!btiUlatt!ll ht;ight of 230 ft. above the sea, and fronting the plain there
art' suvl'rul small remnants at lm\er levtlh. marking stationary pcrious
!luI'ing the vrolongt!d elevation, It is therefore thllt a long stretch
uf coast-line has experienced the effect of this movement. 'flw,t the ril>(J
ip of recent date it! \'"er~- clear from the species of shtlils founu at MotullBU,
and also il'OIU tLl.' forIllS of the iltrell.l1l-vallers that haye been esta-
blisherl on the elevaterl marine shelf. With few exceptions, the streams
which I'un acrostl it have ,el'Y short courses, anrl are little more than
c\tcnrlerl gUllit!b or wa..houts: Through thE" some"hat 100KE" Momnau
llmrls, whloh form the s'llirl ba!le IIf the bnll, the~' have eroded deep
dumnel'l, at time$ liver ] 00 ft. in Ilepth, extremely narrow, and witl,
liiclelS so prccipit()ulo. that they arl.' I(lJ~(llutel:r illlPo.lI~ltble for long di,.tanceb.
Th(' whole plain itl dissected by thelU. and they render cOllltlmniclltion a
lUatter of difficulh" "here roud!ol and tl ncks do not e'l:ist. 'lhe district
furnilihes a flll)Rt rClllUrkabll.' ('}..amplt! or the effect of a recent npward
land-movement on the gradienl and crostl-section of the stream-channels.
The phenomenon is intensified by the Ilnifol'!l1 ReD.warcl dip at mocleratt"
angles of the beds llDller tile plnin, Imd tht! parallelism uf the strike to
the'. A I'imilar phenomenon is to be obserl"cu near the mouth
of the Waipara. but the featllreR are not quite so perfect.
This plain of lllarille denUllation once erlended much fmthcr sea-
ward, and the small island at lIIotunau is a remnant of it. its Hat top
lIhowing a marked alignment of its surface with that of the coast-line
opposite. How far this plain extended seawards it is impoSilible to say at
prE"sent, but at the month of the Waipara the river-terraces appear high
above the present level Ilf the water, and are terminateu Ruddenly when
they I'each the edlle of the old marine cliff which mnrks thE' edge of the
coas1>111 plain. .tt a former period the river ruUl>!t have extended WllCh
further scaward, anll Howed on the top of the plain, the terraces with
their shorn ends giving J,ositive proof of its higher level and seMmrd
el.1:ension at that level. ..\11 river erosion was proceeuing the sea was
eating back the margin (If the plain, thus giving the streams a steeper
gradient and increasing their erosive power, and the truncated ends of
thE" terl'aces mark the limit to which the plain was destroyed. When one
takes into account their perfect ('()ndition he must conclude that E'ither
terraces are stable land-fm'JU!I or that marine orosi on on this Btl'etch of
coast haR been vary rapid and comparatively recent.
There is also evidence of a more recent land-movement still. Along
the bast> of the old marine cliff, referred to p1'eviouRly as bordering the
{'oastal, there is a p,trip of flat land consisting- of shingle-beds, sand-
dunes, and swamp, half II mile wide and but slightly raised above the
liea. It has, without rlouht, heen formed of detrital matter brought down
by the rivel'tI in thE' vicinity. IIllch as the A.shle~" and WaipBrR.. as well as
by the E.Ultlll titreuDlS which flow directly into the sea, their load of
waste beinl! distribnten 1l~' waves, tides, and currentfll along the base of
the old cliB. These nccUlnulationf. are Reveral miles in length, and their
Rize suggestll that there has been either a remarkable increase in the
Rupply of detritml or tbat there has been a small recent upward move-
llIent of the coast. TherE" ill no apparent reaSOli wh~' the 'ltreams should
hl\ve been 8uddenly 1\11'nillhel1 with an inereaserlloud of d(.>trihlR, nlthougb
8PUI.lH'l'.-I.ulI't"I' ""'PUIlI (Jol!/e. 225

~t Ul~bt be no!ed that they a.rc full~' charg!:!cl at thtl pr!:!~llt tim!:!, and it
IS tlUlte conceIvable that the~' could build up It t!hallow ~a-bottolll till it
was above sea-Itl\"el without any chauge in the lldv!:!l of the lallrl. I call-
not, however, think that this exphmation is altog!:!th~r l!atisfaetorv and
concluJe that a IS!Ullll and }Jroblibl~' clllltinuoul! u!,lift halt taken 'place
aftel' a co~uparatlvdy long peril)i! of btuLilitr, during "'hie]} th~ old
coastal plam was eaten back to the line IIf the forlUer liica-cliff.
.r udging ft'om the profiles of the ..tre.1!llt! joining the WaiV81'3. fro111
the :Banks of the Deans Range and elwwhcl e, thib movel1l!:!nt has extended
!ts f.,flects some distance i;nland, Tl,e lu(,p~ of thtl river in the gorgE>
ttsell. placed as they are m a !!ollle~,hat narrllw trellch, llla\" o'l'.-e their
urigin primarily to the fact that at a fortHer period the ri;'er reacherl
b8Foe-level, anrl that the gorge W8S cut ~ltl\\n t .. Ib, Ill'esent depth ,luring
a sub"e'luent period of elevation "hell the river had increased power to
corrade, anti that now it hlu; again .1lmost adjub1:ed its grade to thc load
it carrie!!, and all it!! er(,bive encrgT is (levoted to destroying the loops it previoul'Ily- tormed. - It is -Very- ilifficuIt, --!n",wever, to correlal..
thebe effects with eel tainty.
ORI .... I:-i OF THl=: W.UP,\RA GORGE,
Th~ circumstances reRulting in the fOl'luation of the Waipara Gorge
furnii'lh on~ of those interesting problems with relSpect to drainage direc-
tion!! for which the North Canterbury district is noted. mf.'n tbe river
lea'l"es the hill!! between ~nt Bl'own altd t1e Dt:ElnH, and iRSUl'N fronl tlJe
middle gorge, whose existence baE> been largely determined by the great
~lid-Waipal'a fault, it pUl'I!ues a course lIf about seven miles acr08S the
Waipara Plains, and, instead of taking the eaRY path to the sea paRt
Amberley, it cuts a somewhat deep channel through the downs which
stretch south-west hom the tel'ruination of the Limestone Range, Here
it runs practica.lly along the strik.e of the beds which form this somewhat
elevated ground. At timet! it breaks acrost! the strike for a short dis-
tance; still. the coincidence:! is very marked, even when the strike swings
round through a right angle. When the river lea'l"es the downs and
debouches on to the coastal plain it pursues a dit'ect course to the sea,
still following the strike approximately. There seems to be no reason
from the present configuration of tIle ground why this difficult path
should havt! been selected whE.'n an ea!!" one was ready to hand, so that it
is apparentl:," one of the instances o(the allomaillus' behaviour of rivel's
which the diRtl'ict furnishcs.
The Waiau and Hurunui, a few miles further north. and even the
Waipara it~lf in its upper portion, have cut gorges through mountains
composed of hard greywackes and slaty shales of Mesozoic age when they
might easily have avoided the obstructions. The only satisfactory ex-
planation is based on the fact that they are instances of •• lIuperimposed I I
drainage, In late Cl'etaceous and eal'l~" Tel-ti81'~' times an archipelago
of small islands fOl'med of rocks of Lowel' Mesozoic age occuJlied the area
now known as North Canterbul'"Y and the Amuri districts, In the Rtraits
and bays among these i!Jontls, 'greensunds. solid lim!:!stones. mal·1s. and
loose inooherent calcareous sands and gravels ",el'e laid flown, so that
the original surface was completely mar.ked, ""hen the land 'WaR raised
a.bove the sea in late Tertiar,- timeR the cOUl'se of the streams established
upon it was largely determined by the form of the land as it emerged.
While cutting down their channels the stream!! removed a large part of
the veneer of loose and readily eroded material, encountered the h~d
underlying rockR, cut into thenl, and maintained their original direc-
8- Tr£lIl!,

tions. As time went on 11l0re and more of the loose sediments was re-
moved, and the original f01'111 o.f the In:nd-sul"face c~ll~}Jletely altered.
The existing Tertiary depos1ts a~'e m all probablht~· but a smull part
of those originally laid dow-n. for lsolated fragments of thelre ro~ks arc
found in various places high above the present vallt!y-fioors, .and In such
positions that the~' nla~' ·well ha,,·c .formed part of ~n extens1ve she~t. I
think that this is the bel:lt explanatlOn of the e",[)lut10n ?f the land ;n .the
district, as well as of the anomalous co.urll6b of tl~e r1",er8. A slmllar
explanation was also indicated b)' Captal~ Hutton lD a short parag.rap~
contained in hiil paper on "The Formation of the Canterbury PlaIDS
(Trans. N'.Z. lnst., vo1. :11. 1905, p. ·167). _.
It is quite possible, howe"'t!r, that the presenctl of the Lower "iIlpara
Gorge in the peculiar sit~ation in ~hich it now occurs may be due to a
small coastal sheam cnttmg: back lts head thl'ough the escarpments of
harder I'ocks, capturing the headwatel'S of othe~ small streams, and finally
tapping the W~ipa1"u.. itself; but t~e eAplitnatlOn based on the fact that
--it Is " case tit lSapel'lwpoSClt-'"' tlnrinaKc fih. the case bellt.

The quebtion of the strlltigraphy cnn naturally be elucidated by a
com}Jl~rison with other known localities. Fortunat~l~·. the Mid-Wo.ipara.
and ilie 'Weka Pass (in close proximity) have become classic in the history
of New Zealand geology, having been reported on by nearly all those
who have done field·work in this country. ~ thetle typical localities the
following ill a representa.tive set!ltenc~, starting frolll the top, of the beds
that have been recorded : -
8. Motunau or Greta Beds.-8ands and conglomerates, mostly ca}careoulI,
with 811e11l:l of MollltlBca in varying states of preservation, but
usua.lly fragmentary. The beds are generally loose and incoherent,
but a.t time concretion ary.
i. ;\lount Brown Bells.-Rough cnlcal'eoutl sandstones with harder con-
cretiollary bands. markedly fossilif~rous in places.
6. Gl'ey l\larl.-(il"e~· and greenish sanclstones and blu~ sandy and cal-
ca.reous cI8~·s.
5. Weka. Pass Stone.-Glauconitic nnd tllightly arllnaceous limE!stone.
4,. Amuri Limcstone.-Fornminiferal and argillaceollH limestone.
.3. Greensands.-:Uark(!dly glnllclInitic in the upper portions. anrl with
conoretions full of sam'ian remains in the lower part. These beds
are often argillaceous. ferruginoul'l. and calcal'eous, and at times
exhibit marked efHol"eRcence of sulphur.
:1. Oyster - beds, oontaining: shelll:! of OBtren, 00llrhofh/lra pa'l'asif7"cn,
fragments of Belemmtes, Inoerrnm1/~, and other RhE'lls.
1. Sands a.nd claYII with brown COllI and impul"E' ltmonite.
The lower pOl'ti?n of this .se;ies is more cnml-'letely developed further
to the north-east, In the OlUlht Creek and at Amul"i Bluff. According
to Hector, Haast, Hutton, Park, nnd perhaps McKar. the sequence is
broken by unconformities. placed in di.fferent positions by the different
authors, but it is very probllble that it is quite conformable throughout.
However, it is only the upper part of the sequencl- wiili whioh this paper
is specially concerned-that is, with the Motunau and Mount Brown beds,
and the Grey Marls and Weka Pass beds, which underlie them. The
whole of the bankl'l and terraces bordering the Waipllra River as it passes
through the lower gorge consist of the sands nnn conglomerates forming
SPEIUHT.-Lower WttiJlnt"ll Gorge. 221

the highellt members of the bequence record~u above; the othill' OOUI! are,
howll~er, in cloioll proximity to the river on its east!:!l"ll !lid!:!. '!'he former
will be reflll'red to hereafter as the Parcorn series, !leeing that their fossil
fauna shows a close relation~hip to that of the typic.!.l Pareora locality.
STRCC'l't:llE .\XD .Ann.\:li'I.lElfENT OF 1'FIE DEDS IX THE GORUE.
(See map &ncl ~eetio:J.).

At the junction of the Omihi Creek with the Waival'a Ri~er the beds
COlibist of !!and!!, sandy clay!! with concl'etionary band!!, and collglomerateb
with shells. Thtl strike is N. 5° W., with a westerl~' dip of about 22,0 .
.A. good exposul'e is to he seeu whera a recellt flood hall removed the
surface covering of shingle, and laid hare the solid bank jul!t opposite
the mouth of the Omihi Creek. In the Omihi itSlllf, just above the
junction, the beds :strike north-eallt nnu clip to the llol'th-west at 450.
It is evident that the flh'ike here swings 1'ound lIomewhat, a fllatul'e which
will be readiJ:' under'stood whlln the general structural filatures of the
locality are comi(lilred lllt!:!r, thil! IImoll movement being onl;'1' 11 pnl't of
olle of widll erient.
On following the rivt)r down from the junction, the high banb on
the east are founu to be ohHCured by soil anu slip-material, but after
going about :i00 yards the ail' ub~tlrved at the jUllction changes to
the south-east, with the lIame &trike as before. The stl'ucture il-l thutl

anticlinal, and tIle Sallltl anticline can be uistinctl~· trllced fOJ' over a



mile to the north-east alollg the bank of Limestone Creek, a tributary

of the Omihi coming from the northern slopes of lIount Cass, the stream
having eroded It deep channel for some distance along the axis of the
anticline. On going still further in that direction the underlying lime-
stones are exposed, with "hat has all the appearance of an anticlinal
Following the banks of the Waipara further clown, tbe south-eahterly
dip iR maintainerl till the second gully below the Omihi is reached.
At the hearl of thill n well-marked lI~'ncline is expoRed, the 'Western side
being chiefly composed of thick beds of fine gravel, but overlying them
is a bed of coarse gl'avel with numerous lllolluacan remains. These
include Fulguraria arabirn, Ost1'ea nelsoniana, O. ingells, O. allgaBi.
Siplwnalin diZatnta, Paphia curta, Crepidula greflflria, Jlactra elo1l(lata,
Ancilla hebera, Ancilla australis, and Chione illtermedia. The syncline
here exposed can be traced to the north-east, parallel to the anticline
running up Limestone Creek.
On going still further down-stream the beds dip to the west. and an
angle of about 600 is maintained for a distance down the river of about
two miles. the ~trike being between N'. 25 0 E. and N. 350 E. The
beds are well exposed in the bluff just below the point where thti road
from Glasnevin Railway-station meets the river. They consist of sands.
228 TransQctionli.

calcareoutl sandI! \\ itlt cllllcl"etiolllll'~' bnndl-o, llllll gl'avel- heW! lllore or

lest! cemeuted. and 11."(' hig-hly !Ol>biliferous. , Th~ chief genera to be col-
lected are Jloctra, Chio,le, Ostrea, Pecftl1, ()repzdula, and uillo Bryo;oa.
Some beds are 1l1ll10l!t wholly fOl'med of the l'cmaim, of Cl'epidllla, but
th~", are usually in a poor Rtate of preservation. A citaracterilltic
feature of the bedR at this point are ~he massiv(.! bannh of C081'Ml cemented
gravels dipping to Ule west at nn augle of 60 0 • For a 10llg distall~
Oll~ of these beds form!> one ballk of the river, and it can be trailed som~
distance to the north-east on the north side or Mouut Cat!h. Here it
dips at a steeper angle,. and 011 going. f~~thel: it. iR apparentlJ lost
under the covering of solI. In all JossIbIhty It Will reappear 111 the
creeks which flow from the northerll Elide of thll Limetltolle Hallge.
The same direction of dip and strike is approxinlatel~' maintained
on following down the river til the immediate neighbourhood of a
pronouncen meander ot the stream. The Hb'ike here begins to ",wing
round in a pORitive direction, so that, while just a.bove the loop it iEl
N. 50 ~t the loop itself it is X. 50 W., with a wellt(!rl~' clip, several
harabands of cemented grin'el occurring at thi", point rendering an
accnrate 11etermiuII.tion en~y. Just past the luop, on the eastern siel~
of the river, alld also on the flank of the high escarpment a little further
clown-stream, tht' bedll conKist of santI and concretionary bands full
of shell-remains in el.('ellent state of" preservation. This is one of the
best localities that I know of for the collection or Tertiary fo",sill!, and
when thoroughly exhausted will be found to yield 8 ver~' rich harvest .
.:\. list of spec;es 030llected by Dr. Marshall and m~'self is given later in
this artiole, and it wlll be foullel to show a markctl agreement Witll those
collected at the typical Pareora loc&lit~·, in South Canterbury.
The structure of the bens becom~ at this point somewhat compli-
cated, and its unravellllent is an il1tel"eRtil1g problt'llI" On following
elown the western siele of the river below the loop the Rtrike is observed
to swing round ill the same direction all highel up tl'e river. JURt at
the mouth of tIl!! gorge pruper tILl:' Rtrike it! X. 150 W., with U wct.lterly
dip, and just below tht.! Te\'"iotdnlc Bridge. half n mile further on, it
become!! N. ii;j0 W.
In passing through the gorge the strike has thllK swung round through
a right angle. fmc1 its elIect is to be seen in the ",hupt' uf the ringE'S of
the downs toward!! Amberler, ",hicll nre found to cirele rounel. with it,
the outward slope nf tht' Cl0,,"1111 heillg genel"all~' towardt! the llip of the
beds. At a point about 600 :'&1'118 abo\'"e the hricl~c. at tilt;' mouth of
a small gully, tL.ere hat; beeu a marked 'li~locatioll of the bells. The~'
have been appareutly foIllet! 110wll in an acute il!oclille, HO that thc two
limbs are approxilllatel~' parallel; but the bellR inl1nelliatelv on either
side of it do not appeal" to be affc.'Ctpd, aIul they 110 lIot change their
proper level or alter their nip 01" iltrike. The (litsturbaIlOO appears to
be quite local, and it is not !!trongly in evidence on the oppollite bank
of the river. This ill the onl~' marked dislocation to be observ~d through-
out the whole length of the gorgt!. and I have not b~n Ithle til find any
sign of the fault lll:ntioned by Hector (loc" cit.). .
If we now conSider the arrangement of the bens on tIle eaRtern side
of the river, the structure on the 'Western side can bE, l'eanil", understood.
Below t~ loop mentioll~d }lrevioUhI~, on the t!lope of the' high escarp-
ment whICh fronts the river to the west and north-"'est of the Teviot-
dale Station, the beds dip to the lIouth-east} but (In open anticline it;
clearly visible at the point 'Whicb projects into the river hulf a mile
below" The axis of this anticline is not horizontal. but l'itcheR to
SPUGHT.-[,O!t'lll· Jr aipora Gorge 229
tlLt' bUilth-west. and thus the gradual Il'wing-round ()f the strike of the
belI.. to the west o~ the river i~ easily explained. The amount of
pitch lllu~t be conslIlerable, for the lowebt beds aotnall, exposed ill
tht' ~orge, at a height of about 100 ft. abo'l:! sea-level, °are the Gl'C,"
:\1arl." whereas the limestones which uuderlie the marh; are exposed oil
~Iuullt ('as.~, about three miles. to the north-east. at an elevation of
1, iOO ft. It is possible. also, that the;"IitlE' not onl.. pitches, bur
ditl., out as well. It is, howt:Ter, that it is dh.tinctly unsym-
metrical, and the western limb dips down at a steeper angle' than the
ea~ tern lirub.
The llirectioll of the tlb'ike obb6l Vtld ill the river near the axis or
the anticline changell 011 following thtl escarpment tu" al'dlll ~Iuunt CaSh.
It is at first parallel with the river, but, on b(.>ing foU"wcll fm·ther,
strikes. llol'th-ell....t with It dip to the souih-eal>t, a1l(1 the beds forming it
lie in jUl'ot the same lelation to the limestones or ~rouDt Cafli\ and thc
Lime~tone nange a .. the MOUllt Brown Lellt; ill the W'eka Pass do to
the limestones occull'il1g there. The similarity of the arl'al1~lllent i...
moltt marked. If the Greek£. between the clIca1'pment and :lIOUllt Cass be
examined. the " Grey M:trl " of the SUI'vey is fOllUd in its proper position
ann with characteristic development; but ollly the upper lIandy beds
of these marls are visible in the gorge itselt in the ilmnediate vicinity
of the loop of the river and in the reach below it, The axis of the
anticline which runs out in the Waipara contillues to the north-eaRt.
the IhneRtone of the Mount Cass ridge forllling the limb dipping to thc
south-ea<;t, while the north-cast limb ill represented by isolated block ..
to the north of the Lime!ltone Range. At the core of the anticlilJe.
immediatel~' to the north of Mount Cass, lies a prominent hill, forme