You are on page 1of 3

2. A. Diallo, C. Luxey, P.L. Thuc, R. Staraj, and G.

Kossiavas, Study frequency especially at millimeter-wave frequencies is extremely


and reduction of the mutual coupling between two mobile phone difficult. That problem can be solved with broadband mixer with
PIFAs operating in the DCS1800 and UMTS Bands, IEEE Trans fixed LO and wide instantaneous IF bandwidth. Several broad-
Antennas Propag 54 (2006), 3063–3074. band mixers have been built in waveguide circuits in past [1–4].
3. S. Ranvier, C. Luxey, P. Suvikunnas, R. Staraj, and P. Vainikainen,
For optimum performance, scaled mixer models were fabricated
capacity enhancement by increasing both mutual coupling and effi-
ciency: A novel approach, IEEE AP-S International Symposium,
to determine the embedding impedances of mixer mount. The
Honolulu, HI, June 10–15,2007. structures require wishker-contacted diodes, which were difficult
4. G. Park, M. Kim, T. Yang, J. Byun, and A.S. Kim, The compact to align. Integrated circuit mixers have been also designed,
quad-band mobile handset antenna for the LTE700 MIMO applica- which requires LO band pass filter and coupler for RF-LO isola-
tion, IEEE AP-S International Symposium, USA, June 1–5, 2009. tion and to prevent dissipation of IF power in the LO port [5].
5. S. Dumanli, C.J. Railton, and D.L. Paul, Decorrelation of a Closely This article describes simple and systematic design approach of
Spaced Antenna Array and Its Influence on MIMO Channel broadband waveguide mixer at K-band using commercially
Capacity, The 2nd European Conference on Antennas and Propaga- available CAD tools. The design does not require bandpass filter
tion, UK, November 11–16, 2007. to isolate LO and IF paths. Although in this article the mixer
6. S. Chen, Y.S. Wang, and S.J. Chung, A decoupling technique for
design is outlined for K-band frequencie, mixers at high fre-
increasing the port isolation between two strongly coupled anten-
nas, IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 53 (2008), 3650–3658.
quencies such as millimeter wave frequencies can be imple-
7. D.M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed., Willey, New York, mented using the same concept.
2005. The mixer is made on a thin, low-dielectric-constant sub-
8. Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd; Available at: http:// strate mounted in the E-plane of RF and LO rectangular wave-
www.murata.com. guides with suspended stripline structure in between. The circuit
9. S. Blanch, J. Romeu, and I. Corbella, Exact representation of patterns are made on the substrate using conventional photoli-
antenna system diversity performance from input parameter thography and are thus cheaper to produce in mass quantities.
description, Electron Lett 39 (2003), 705–707. Planar GaAs Schottky barrier beam-lead diodes are used that are
10. B. Furht and S.A. Ahson, Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio mounted on the circuit with silver loaded conducting epoxy.
and Cellular Technology, Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
These diodes are commercially available with the potential for
volume manufacture while maintaining good control of the
V
C 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
diode parameters, instead of using higher performance diodes
from expensive specialist suppliers. This article describes design
COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF of such a mixer covering RF band of 18–26.5 GHz, having IF
BROADBAND SINGLE BALANCED of 8.5–17 GHz and designed to operate without external tuning
WAVEGUIDE MIXER AT K-BAND elements like LO backshort. The LO power requirement is þ10
dBm.
Arun Kumar
SAMEER Kolkata Centre, Plot-L2, Block-GP, Sector-5, Salt Lake, 2. MIXER CONFIGURATION
Kolkata-700091, India; Corresponding author: arunkr1@gmail.com
The mixer consists of a crossbar structure as shown in Figure 1.
LO signal is coupled to diodes via WR-28 waveguide to sus-
Received 1 June 2010
pended strip line transition, and RF signal is fed from WR-42
waveguide to reduced height waveguide. LO and RF signals
ABSTRACT: In this article, computer-aided design of a broadband
excites transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode and transverse
single balanced waveguide mixer covering full K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz)
is presented. Emphasis has been given on simple design approach of the electric (TE10) mode, respectively, at the diode plane so that the
mixer using commercially available CAD (computer-aided design) tools. mixer configuration behaves like 180 hybrid single balanced
The mixer circuit is implemented on suspended stripline etched on soft mixer [6]. The IF mixing product generated at the diode plane is
substrate that is integrated with RF (radio frequency) and LO (local extracted via a suspended stripline low pass filter. The mixer
oscillator) waveguides. Conversion loss of 6–8 dB with 8.5 GHz has good LO-RF and RF-IF isolation because of its balanced
instantaneous IF (intermediate frequency) bandwidth has been achieved configuration. LO-IF isolation depends on the rejection of LO
with þ10 dBm LO power at 35 GHz and the RF swept from 18 to 26.5 signal at IF port due to the IF low pass filter response.
GHz. A systematic design approach of the mixer is presented with its
simulated and experimental results. VC 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Microwave Opt Technol Lett 53:586–588, 2011; View this article at


wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.25759

Key words: broadband mixer; schottky diode; single balanced;


crossbar; computer-aided design (CAD)

1. INTRODUCTION
The design of modern microwave and millimeter wave commu-
nication systems require low-cost and high performance mixers.
Broadband mixers are key element for the receivers used in me-
teorology, radiometer, and broadband communication systems
(e.g., spread-spectrum). The broad IF bandwidth can be utilized
to extend the frequency range of existing receivers. In some
broadband receivers, where in addition to accepting a wide
range of RF frequency, wide instantaneous IF bandwidth is also
required, require sweeping LO frequency. Sweeping LO at high Figure 1 Mixer Configuration

586 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 53, No. 3, March 2011 DOI 10.1002/mop
Figure 3 Simulated results of LO-IF diplexer (1-RF port, 2-LO port,
3-IF port)

bottom part and both the parts are clamped together with screws.
The groove depth is selected as 0.75 mm to suppress spurious and
higher order modes and offering low loss [7].

4. SIMULATED AND MEASURED RESULTS


Design and optimization of each section of the mixer are first
performed with finite element method available with commercial
software like Ansoft high frequency structure simulator (HFSS)
[8]. The simulated result of LO-IF diplexer is shown in Figure
3. After designing and optimizing each section, full-wave simu-
lation of the whole mixer model is carried out. Two waveguide
ports, one each for LO and RF, one suspended stripline port for
IF and two lumped ports for two diodes are assigned to the
model. The mixer model is then simulated from dc to 70 GHz
to accommodate IF, RF, image, sum, LO and its second har-
Figure 2 Top and bottom part of Mixer mount
monic. The embedding impedances of the mixer mount pre-
sented at diodes at image and sum frequencies are important for
3. MIXER DESIGN designing low conversion loss mixers [9]. Terminating image
The mixer design has been divided into three parts namely RF frequency at short or open circuit provides low conversion loss.
matching transformer, LO-IF Diplexer, and IF Filter as shown in The embedding impedances at various frequencies can be opti-
Figure 1. The diodes are in series for RF signal so they offer mized with HFSS by varying LO backshort position, suspended
typically 200–300 X (RF impedance of each diode is typically stripline length between RF and LO waveguides and position of
100–150 X) to RF waveguide [6]. Because the RF waveguide RF short presented by the suspended stripline channel from the
characteristic impedance, Zpv (Power voltage impedance defini- diode plane. Higher harmonics of LO have not been considered
tion) varies from 300 to 450 X over the whole K-band, the match- here due to memory limitation of workstation. One can get
ing at the RF port is improved by introducing a transition from full fairly accurate results even if the higher order harmonics of LO
waveguide height to reduced waveguide height. The suspended are not considered. This statement can be justified because at
stripline channel behind the diode plane presents short circuit at higher harmonics the diode parasitic capacitance will behave
RF due to its reduced cross section. Its position from the diode almost as a short circuit so the effect of the embedding imped-
plane is also optimized for broadband RF matching. The design of ance of the mixer model at the higher harmonics on mixer con-
LO-IF diplexer is very critical and is important for broadband version loss can be neglected. Once the full-wave simulation is
mixer design. LO signal is coupled to diodes via WR28 waveguide complete, the five-port generalized S-parameters are normalized
to reduced height waveguide. For optimum coupling of LO signal with respect to 50 X and are imported to circuit simulator like
to diodes, the position of LO waveguide short and the suspended Agilent advanced design system (ADS) [10] to perform nonlin-
stripline channel length between LO and RF waveguides have ear analysis. Diodes with nonlinear model are attached at the
been optimized. The low pass filter has been designed on sus- corresponding lumped ports. The nonlinear diode model parame-
pended strip line in a 2 3 mm2 channel. The channel dimension ters obtained from manufacturer are used and are listed in
has been chosen such that it supports single mode (TEM) propaga- Table 1. RF and LO ports are assigned with appropriate power
tion and cuts off the higher order modes up to LO frequency. and corresponding port impedances. The RF and LO port impe-
The mixer circuit is fabricated on 10mil soft substrate from Rog- dances have been taken as 400 X and 472 X, respectively, and
ers Corporation with dielectric constant of 2.2. Beam lead GaAs IF port is terminated with 50 X. Conversion loss of 5–8 dB for
Schottky barrier diodes from MACOM are used for mixing purpose. þ10 dBm LO power in whole RF band and LO-IF and LO-RF
The diodes have low parasitic elements to provide low conversion
TABLE 1 Diode Parameters Used in Simulation
loss over broadband operation of the mixer, and they are attached to
the circuit with silver loaded conductive epoxy. The mixer mount is Is g u Rs Cjo M Eg
divided into two parts at E-plane of RF and LO waveguides as indi- 9.5  10 14
A 1.15 0.85 V 5X 0.02 pF 0.5 1.42 V
cated in Figure 2. The mixer circuit is mounted in a groove of the

DOI 10.1002/mop MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 53, No. 3, March 2011 587
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author is thankful to circuit integration division for assembly
of diodes on the mixer circuit. The author also like to thank me-
chanical division for precision machining of the mixer mount.

REFERENCES
1. A. Hislop and R.T. Kihm, A broad-Band 40–60 GHz balanced mixer,
IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech MTT 24 (1976), 63–64.
2. N. Kanmuri and R. Kawasaki, Design and performance of a 60–90
GHz broadband mixer, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech MTT
24 (1976), 259–261.
3. D.N. Held and A.R. Kerr, Conversion loss and noise of microwave
and millimeter wave mixers: Part 2 Experiment, IEEE Trans
Figure 4 Simulated and measured conversion loss Microwave Theory Tech MTT 26 (1978), 55–61.
4. M.T. Faber, J.W. Archer, and R.J. Mattauch, A very low-noise,
isolations greater that 35 dB and 49 dB, respectively, have been fixed-tuned mixer for 240–270 GHz, IEEE MTT-S Int Microwave
achieved in simulation. Simulated VSWR at all ports are better than Symp Dig, St. Louis, MO (1985), 311–314.
2.0. The measured conversion loss is 6–8 dB for þ10 dBm LO power 5. R.S. Tahim, G.M. Hayashibara, and K. Chang, Design and per-
in whole RF band. The measured LO-IF and LO-RF isolations are formance of W-band broad-band integrated circuit mixers, IEEE
Trans Microwave Theory Tech MTT 31 (1983), 277–283.
greater than 40 dB and 45 dB, respectively. Simulated and measured
6. S.A. Mass, Microwave mixers, 2nd ed., Artech House, Norwood,
conversion losses are shown in Figure 4. The agreement of the simu-
MA, 1993.
lated and measured results is fairly good. Table 2 summarizes the 7. B. Bhat and S.K. Koul, Analysis, design and applications of fin
simulated and measured results. The fabricated prototype mixer lines, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1987.
shown in Figure 5, used for demonstration of the design, was preci- 8. Ansoft Corporation, Ansoft high frequency structure simulator
sion machined from aluminum and measures 30  25  22 mm3. (HFSS), Version 11, 2010 Ansoft Corporation, USA.
9. L.E. Dickens and D.W. Maki, An integrated-circuit balanced
5. CONCLUSIONS mixer, Image and sum enhanced, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory
A broadband single balanced waveguide mixer at K-band has Tech MTT 23 (1975), 276–281.
10. Agilent Technologies, Agilent advanced design system, 2009, Agi-
been developed. The mixer configuration is of crossbar type and
lent Technologies, USA.
is implemented in suspended stripline circuit integrated with RF
and LO waveguides. The mixer has wide IF bandwidth with
V
C 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
fixed LO frequency. The Mixer has been simulated, fabricated,
and measured. Simulation and measured results agrees well. The
measured conversion loss across the whole band is 6–8 dB, and DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT ON-GLASS
LO-IF and LO-RF port isolations are greater than 40 dB and 45 ANTENNAS FOR FM RADIO
dB, respectively. This mixer design approach can also be COMMUNICATIONS
applied to design broadband mixer at higher frequency bands.
This mixer will be used in broadband communication systems. Gangil Byun,1 Woojoon Kang,2 Younggi Kim,3
and Hosung Choo1
1
TABLE 2 Simulated and Measured Results of Mixer School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Hongik University,
72-1 Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791, Korea;
Simulated Measured Corresponding author: hschoo@hongik.ac.kr
2
Car Infotainment Research Department, LG electronics Inc., 19-1
Conversion Loss (dB) 5–8 6–8 Cheongho-ri, Jinwi-myeon, Pyengtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do 451-713,
LO-IF Isolation (dB) >35 >40 Korea
3
LO-RF Isolation (dB) >49 >45 KHP System Department, Korea Aerospace Industries, LTD., 802
RF-IF Isolation (dB) >30 >28 Yucheon-ri, Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 664-710, Korea
RF VSWR <2.0 <2.1
Received 14 June 2010

ABSTRACT: This letter proposes an on-glass antenna for FM radio


communications on the aircraft. We apply a multiloop structure to
obtain a high-radiation gain with broad matching characteristics. The
proposed antenna is designed to imitate the shape of the window frame
to minimize disruption to the pilot’s visual field. The measurement shows
an average bore-sight gain of 13.4 dBi and a half-power matching
bandwidth of 52% in the FM radio band. V C 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Microwave Opt Technol Lett 53:588–590, 2011; View this article at


wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.25779

Key words: on-glass; antenna; aircraft

1. INTRODUCTION
Pole-type antennas and blade-type antennas have been widely
used for FM radio communications in various types of vehicles.
Figure 5 Fabricated prototype mixer These antennas generally have low durability and high-

588 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 53, No. 3, March 2011 DOI 10.1002/mop