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I.

Background and Statement of the Problem


A large proportion of students eat in school canteens every day. As part of the
school environment, the school canteen plays a vital role in promoting the students’ health
and welfare. The school canteen is a great place to promote what students learn in the
classroom and supports the approach to healthy eating. It functions as an avenue for
students to hasten their interpersonal skills through interacting with their schoolmates.
With that said, the school administration should ensure the facilities and operations of the
canteen for the benefit of the students. However, it has been observed that some students
find the prices of the food served in the University of San Jose-Recoletos Main Campus
canteen expensive. The researchers wanted to know if the students’ allowance affect
their perception to the prices of food served in the canteen.
The researchers’ main objective in this study is to determine the students’
perception on the prices of food served in the USJ-R Main canteen and its relationship
with their daily allowance. Most specifically, this study sought to answer the following
questions:
1. What are the prices of food served in the University of San Jose-Recoletos?
2. How much is the average daily allowance of a college student of University of San
Jose-Recoletos?
3. What is the students’ perception on the prices of food served in their school’s
cafeteria and its relationship to their daily allowance?
4. Is there a significant relationship between students’ perception on the prices of
food served in the school’s cafeteria and their average daily allowance?

II. Brief Literature Review


Food selection is not a simple mechanism and the selection of one food over
another is complex. It is a long process involving many factors, including food availability,
price, allowance and preferences. Factors determining food preferences are both learned
and innate; food preferences are influenced by environmental and psychosocial
elements.
Allowance is an amount of money given. It is a need for teenagers where they can
save up for their wants or daily needs. Its history concerns the development means of

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carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange. Money is any clearly
identifiable object of value that is generally accepted as payment. There is a motion that
is working on teaching basic personal finances to high school students before they
graduate. (Godfrey, 2013)
Martin-Consuegra (2007), Oliver and Swan (2010) believes that price fairness or
“payment equity” refers to the perceived fairness of the price/usage trade-off. Customers
compare their current payment with the normative expectation and evaluate whether the
payment is higher or lower than what they perceive. The more equitable a customer
believes the price/usage trade-off to be, the more satisfied he/she will be with the service
(Oliver and Swan, 2010). According to Hermann (2007) Price perceptions influence
satisfaction judgments directly as well as indirectly through perception of price fairness.
Martin-Consuegra et al. (2007) found that perceived price fairness positively influences
customer satisfaction. The subsequent hypothesis is thus proposed: Price fairness has a
positive influence on the level of student satisfaction with the university cafeteria

Also, according to philSTAR.com college students typically get 150 -250 (excluding
transport allowance) per day. Students from exclusive schools like Ateneo and DLSU
receive where surrounding places to eat tend to be more expensive receive higher
allowance. The allowance covers P50 to P100 for lunch, P30 to P50 for merienda, P20
on average for photocopies and P50 to P80 for school requirements like printing, buying
pens, etc.

We can conclude that the allowance of the students vary to what kind of environment
they belong. Students who are studying in the urban areas tend to have a higher
allowance because of the food prices and their necessities rather than those in the rural
areas.

III. Research Design


i. Data to be collected
The data to be collected by the researchers are price range of the food in the canteen,
the daily allowance of the students and their perception on the relationship of their
allowances and the prices of these food served in the canteen.

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ii. Methods of data collection and instruments to be used
The researchers will utilize survey questionnaires to gather the data needed. The
researchers aim to unfold the students’ perception on the prices of food served in the
USJR Main Campus canteen with their daily allowance and examine the results using
numerical representations and through statistical analysis.
iii. Procedure
𝑁
The researcher will survey the sample population (n =1+𝑁𝑒 2) regarding the research.

The questionnaire will primarily be answered with the Likert scale wherein 1 corresponds
to strongly disagree, 2 means agree, 3 if he/she is undecided and is neutral about the
question, and 4 and 5 for agree, and strongly agree, respectively. The Likert items and
scales produces ordinal data which can be treated statistically using the mode and the
inter quartile ranges. Below shows a sample survey question with the Likert Scale.
Strong Strongly
Disagree Disagree Fair Agree Agree
1 2 3 4 5
My daily allowance is affected
by the prices in the canteen.

iv. Method of Analyses


There are two types of statistical analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics. If you
want to find out what respondents believe about a topic, you need to do descriptive
statistics. This involves, for example, finding the central tendency (what most
respondents believe) and the spread/dispersion of the responses (how strongly
respondents agree with each other).
Because Likert scales produce what are called ordinal data, the researchers calculate
the median and Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) of each item. The median (the number found
exactly in the middle of the distribution) is a measure of central tendency: very roughly
speaking, it shows what the ‘average’ respondent might think, or the ‘likeliest’ response.
The IQR is a measure of spread: it shows whether the responses are clustered together
or scattered across the range of possible responses. (Kostoulas, 2014)

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FINDING THE MEDIAN
To find the median value for a given set, the researchers will organize the data in
arraz, that is, arranging the scores in erms of increasin numerical value and apply the
formula to know which order of the term is the median.

𝑀𝑑 = 𝑋𝑛+1
2
The table on the right shows a hypothetical distribution of answers of a particular
question:
Arranging from smallest to largest:
1,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4
,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5 Frequency
𝑀𝑑 = 𝑋61+1
2 Strongly Disagree
2
𝑀𝑑 = 𝑋62 (1)
2

𝑀𝑑 = 𝑋31 Disagree
9
(2)

The median is the 31st term which is 3. Neither agree or


This tells us that a lot of people are undecided disagree 24
about the question. (3)

FINDING THE IQR Agree


19
The table below shows a hypothetical (4)

distribution of answers of a particular Strongly Agree


question: 7
(5)
Arrange the data in ascending order
and divide into quartiles, of into four equal parts. The cut-off point of each part, are called
quartiles.
[1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3] [3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3][3,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4]
[4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5]

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Frequency
The IQR is the difference between the
Strongly Disagree first and third quartile. In the example, this is: Q3
5
(1) – Q1 = 4 – 3 = 1.

Disagree The range gives us a measurement of


6 how spread out the entirety of our data set is.
(2)
The interquartile range, which tells us how far
Neither agree or apart the first and third quartile are, indicates
disagree 24 how spread out the middle 50% of our set of data
(3) is (Taylor, 2017). Thus, relatively small IQR, as

Agree was the case above, is an indication of


18 consensus. By contrast, larger IQRs might
(4)
suggest that opinion is polarized, i.e., that
Strongly Agree respondents tend to hold strong opinions either
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(5) for or against this topic.
The researchers did not utilize the statistical method of finding the mean for according
to Sullivan and Artino (2013), “because the numbers derived from Likert scales represent
ordinal responses, presentation of a mean to the 100th decimal place is usually not helpful
or enlightening to readers.” Also, according to Kostoulias (2014), “Ordinal data cannot
yield mean values.”

IV. Discussion Of How The Proposed Study Will Address The Problem Identified
This proposed study will benefit the following groups of people:
v. Students - for them to know if their allowance affects their perception on the prices
of food and whether they should implement a strict budgeting of allowance.
vi. Parents/Guardian - for them to know their children’s perception on the prices of the
food in the canteen and to identify whether the amount of allowance they provide
for their children is sufficient.
vii. Canteen’s Personnel/Administration- for them to know the students’ perception on
the prices of food they served and whether the prices be lowered or put on higher
price.

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This study will enable the researchers, students, canteen personnel and parents to
understand the depth relationship of the factors, specifically the students’ allowance,
which affects the perception of students to the prices of food in the canteen. And with
such understanding, possible solutions to the identified problem may be derived out of it
to mention a few: adjusting the prices of the food or adjusting the students’ allowance and
for students to have a precise budgeting of allowance.
There are various factors of students’ food preferences related to the school menu:
Food Preferences
1. Demographic Characteristics:
• Daily Allowance
• Food Budget
• Total Monthly Family Income
2. `Food Characteristics
• Portion/size of meal
• Cooking presentation
• Determinants of Value for Money/Food Budget
3. Frequency of Menu Offering
According to Feldmana et.al (2013), Students have a stake in how the menu
information is presented on campus and their opinions could positively impact the general
selection of foods. The school canteen has a relevant means of affecting children’s eating
habits thus; its implication with the improvement in the foods sold through schools
provides an important contribution to model supportive environments for food choices.

V. References
Dumlao, M. (n.d.). Factors Influencing Food Preferences of Students: Perspective in
Developing a Viable Canteen Management Program. Retrieved from
http://www.academia.edu/24525065/Factors_Influencing_Food_Preferences_of_
Students_Perspective_in_Developing_a_Viable_Canteen_Management_Progra
m
Godfrey (2013). How do Junior High School students manage their allowance?
Retrieved from https://www.coursehero.com/file/28887147/CHAPTER-2docx/

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Kostoulas, A., PHD. (2013, February 13). On Likert scales, Ordinal Data and Mean
Values. Retrieved September 21, 2018, from
https://achilleaskostoulas.com/2013/02/13/on-likert-scales-ordinal-data-and-
mean-values/
Kostoulas, A., PHD. (2014, February 22). How to interpret Ordinal Data. Retrieved
September 21, 2018, from https://achilleaskostoulas.com/2013/02/13/on-likert-
scales-ordinal-data-and-mean-values/
Martin-Consuegra (2007), Oliver and Swan (2010) Hermann (2007).Student
Satisfaction with the Service Quality of Cafeteria: A Structural Approach. Retrieved
fromhttps://www.academia.edu/28812847/STUDENT_SATISFACTION_WITH_T
HE_SERVICE_QUALITY_OF_CAFETERIA_A_STRUCTURAL_APPROACH
Mark Kanlas (2014).The breakdown of students' allowance. Retrieved from
https://www.philstar.com/othersections/campus/2014/05/26/1327597/breakdown-
students-allowance
Role of the School Canteen in contributing to a health promoting school. (n.d.).
Retrieved from
http://health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/canteen-mgr-
tr1~role-school-canteen
Sullivan, G. M., MD, MPH, & Artino, A. R., Jr, PHD. (2013, December). Analyzing and
Interpreting Data From Likert-Type Scales. Retrieved September 22, 2018, from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886444/
School Canteen. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tascanteenassn.org.au/school-
canteen/

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