You are on page 1of 134

1.

INRODUCTION

A project ideally has to be self- sustained in most aspects and be able to

address at least the basic needs of residents and come up with infrastructure on

education, health care and shopping to get rating.

Township development is a trend that is catching the new face of Indian

real estate like everything that changes over times so does the toward. A trend

that has played an essential role in opening the floodgates for the development

of integrated townships across the country that offers their residents the promise

of a quality lifestyle tailored to suit every budget.

Township development in India has emerged into a growing trend in

people aspiring for more homes in township especially among the metro cities.

The has bought in the FDI’s also into the race with more and more foreign

industries investing in such projects. India is proposing to set up separate

investment regions complete with integrated township for planned growth of the

knowledge industry because the booming IT sector in major cities is straining

current infrastructure and adding to inflationary pressure.

1.1. What are integrated townships?

They are clusters of housing and commercial businesses with associated

infrastructure such as road, schools , hospital, and convenience shopping, water

treatment plants, and sewage, drainage facilities. With urban areas getting more

1
crowded and falling increasingly short on future development potential,

integrated township have been identified as a potential solution.

1.2 Benefits of integrated township

There is a marked lack of residential density in fast-growing cities such as

Coimbatore, and state governments are promoting integrated township projects

by proposing the easing of development norms for such projects. This has

caused many developers to enter this segment of development. The new master

plans for all major cities are looking at expanding the boundaries of their urban

sprawl. These new development precincts would benefit significantly if the

integrated township model were given high preference and incentives,since they

provide a holistic living environment and prevent mushrooming of unplanned

urban villages.

1.3 History of township

Township is also called as gated

Community. The idea of a gated community

Inside the walls of the city began early.

In ancient times the human being lived in


FIGURE 1 - CAVES

secure private communities: ‘caves’ and the only access to them was through a

single narrow gate that was guarded to make sure that the only people or

2
animals that came inside were the ones that belonged there. This concept of

living served us for a very. Very long time.

When the smaller gated communities began to add some basic amenities such as

markets and schools behind their guarded gates. It served more to isolate them

from the “others” outside more than any other reason. As time went on, and

populations continued to increase. Humans began to build the first the villages,

township and then cities with thick stone walls and protective gates to control

entry. In recent times, with the rapidly exploding population the need for

housing and the increasingly crowded cities led to the creation of suburbs.

Interestingly, community living spaces or gated communities are the new

buzzwords in most cities today. this phenomenon entails the development of

tightly guarded or gated neighbourhoods that are located outside the borders of

the city. Incoming traffic is closely monitored and often restricted. Visitors are

screened and parking is restricted to certain areas, integrated township, as the

name suggests, is a self-sustained township having a number of real estate

developments, including residential, commercial, retail and institutional, as well

as industrial areas in some cases.

The evolution of townships in India started with the development of clusters of

multi-storeyed apartments. These started with low height G+24. Some

developers have even planned to go up to a height of G+60.

3
These clusters grouped under the category of gated community have individual

reserve parking space supported by other basic needs of people which they got

at their doorsteps.

2. AIM

To design a self-sufficient housing complex, with sophisticated apartment,

individual villas, amenities, and other recreational facilities as an integrated

approach.

3. OBJECTIVES

 To provide quality housing incorporating efficient building services

system, to make it a user friendly environment, and create a space

that evokes a sense of pleasure and comfort to the users.

 To enhances the surroundings with recommended aesthetics.

 To emphasize the policy of a forestation and rain water harvesting to

create better micro climate in that region.

4. SCOPE

 To design an environment that shall be relaxing and pleasing to the

users considering the various aspects like privacy, access, recreational

space, gathering space, parking, views, play areas, service space,

landscape of the township,etc..

 An intensive study of efficient services systems and implrment the

same in the design.

4
5. PROJECT BRIEF

5.1 Promoter

SPR PROMOTER AT CHENNAI

5.2 SITE

Location: Binny mills, perambur @ Chennai

Climate: warm and humid

Area of the site: 96 acres

F.S.I: 2.0

Maximum height limit: 60 m

No. of dwelling units:

Type of dwellings: individual villas, Apartments

Type of amenities: commercial, institutional and recreational

5
6. SITE PLANNING

Site planning is a broad term that embraces selection of the sites, location of

buildings in function relation to each other, to the shape and topography of

the site, and to the environment, provision within the site of suitable

circulation routes well related to existing or proposed and walks,

determination of land use to complement the buildings, such as private

parking spaces and recreation areas and many other things are included

within the scope of the planning.

6.1. Topography and climate:

Topography and climate is a determining the appropriateness of the

location and design of a site. Gently rolling land offers greater opportunities

for variety in site planning and architectural design in flat land. Grade

placing of buildings changes permit more imaginative determination of

building-to-building relationships, automobile storage, and outdoor passive

and active recreation areas than do sites lacking in irregularities. the latter

are dependent on excavations, manmade hills and water bodies, and

architectural forms to create interest.

6.2. Shape:

The shape of a site is critical factor and influence usability of the

site. Therefore, in assessing a site’s usability, the following factors must be

evaluated as consequence of site shape.

6
1) Size

2) Accessibility

3) Visibility

6.3.Building orientation:

Orientation:

Orientation is the placement of a building so that it may obtain the best

advantages in relation to its physical location. The major considerations in

orientation of a building or dwelling units are,

1) Sunlight

2) Prevailing breezes

3) Views

6.4. Sunlight:

The objective of orientation for the sun is to obtain sunlight when it

is desired and to block out sunlight when it is not desired.

 It is advantageous for dwelling units to have different sun

orientations.

 No apartment should be oriented completely toward the north,

because any dwelling unit facing north will get no sun.

7
6.5. Ventilation:

 Buildings, especially in Warner climate, should be oriented

towards the prevailing in addition to the sun orientation.

 However, this may not always be possible generally orientation of

the building in relation to is considered more important that

orientated relating to the prevailing breezes.

 When it is possible to take advantage of prevailing its breezes, the

long side of the building should be faced toward the breeze.

 Recent developments in the widespread use of air conditioning and

the awareness of air pollution have deemphasized the use of natural

breeze for ventilation.

7. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR PLANNING

Keyed to the illustration are,

 A 15-foot easement for a planning screen provides protection

from non-residential use

 A 10-foot walk easement gives access to the school.

 A cul-de-sac utilizes an odd parcel of land to advantage.

 A turn around tight-of-way is 100 feet in diameter.

 Streets trees are planted approximately 50 feet apart where no

tree exist

8
 An additional building setback improves the subdivision

entrance.

 Street intersections at right angles reduce hazards.

 Three way intersections reduce hazards.

 A secondary roadway eliminates the hazards of entering a major

thoroughfare from individual driveways.

 Variations of the building line along a straight street creates

interest.

 Low planting at street intersections permits clear vision.

8.0. ACCESS STANDARDS:

FACILITIES SUGGESTED WALKING

DISTANCE

SCHOOLS: 0.4 km

(i) Nursery & Primary school 0.5 km

(ii) Secondary school

RECREATION & OTHER 0.2 km

(i) Tot lot 0.4 to 0.5 km

(ii) Children's park 0.8 to 11.6 km

(iii) Adults playground 0.4 to 0.8 km

(iv) Local shopping 0.8 to 1.6 km

(v) Health centre 0.8 to 1.6 km

9
(vi) Post office 0.8 to 1.6 km

(vii) Service shopping

Based on the planning principles outlined above, the following table gives the

minimum and maximum distance to be covered for gaining access to schools,

recreational areas, parks and playgrounds, shops and various other public

buildings in a sector:

When the town is intended for a major industry, the industry is usually located

at one of its ends, depending upon the direction of the wind to prevent fumes,

smoke and odour from affecting the residential areas of the town. The

residential areas are separated from the industry by an insulating green belt of

adequate width.

9. DCR FOR CHENNAI

(National building code of India 1983)

Multi-Storeyed Building.—“Multi-storied building” means a building

exceeding 4 floors (including ground floor or if this ground floor is used for

parking under stilts, stilt floor + 4 floors) whose height is 15 m or more.

(1) (a) Site Extent.—The minimum extent of site for construction of multi-

storied building shall not be less than 1500

Square meters.

10
(b) Road width.—the site shall either abut on a road not less than 18 meters in

width or gain access from public road not less than 18 metros in width through a

part of the site which can be treated as an exclusive passage

of not less than 18 meters in width.

Provided further that multi-storied building may be permitted with limitations

on maximum FSI and maximum height of the building on a site abutting or

gaining access from a public road of minimum 12 meters / 15 meters in width,

or gain access from public road not less than 12metres / 15metres in width

through a part of the site which can be treated as an exclusive

passage of not less than 12 m / 15 meters in width, subject to compliance of the

planning parameters stated in the Table sub regulation

(2) Below.

(c) Minimum road width of 12 meter or above shall be permissible with Multi-

storied buildings without any further

Procedures. The height of Multi-storied buildings will be technically correlated

with the width of the abutting road. Once the road width is established based on

records, these areas may be permitted with Multi-storied buildings. Special

consideration may be given to any specific recommendation to the contrary of

above rule. No further resolutions or otherwise will be required. In case of

doubts or clarification or any related issue Empowered Committee shall take a

final decision. Explanation.—Road width means whole extent of space within

the boundaries of the road / street measured at right angles to the course of

11
direction of such road / street. The qualifying road width for permitting multi-

storeyed building shall be available atleast for a stretch of 500 metres along the

length of the road abutting the site and the stretch from a junction can be

straight or a curve or zigzag or combination of the above.

To cite examples-

(a) If the road over its general length is of 18 metres width, but because of some

kinks in front of the site one end is

17.8 metres and the other end is 18.2 metres is acceptable.

(b) If the general road is of width less than 18 metres width, but only widens

opposite to or nearer to the site is more

than 18 meters, is not acceptable.

(c) If the road is generally of 18 metros width up to a considerable length on one

side, but discontinues and narrows into

a road of smaller width on the other side of the site in question and the plot

owner is willing to leave enough space

for continuity of 18 metros road in front of his site, this will have to be checked

and decided on case-by-case. This

should be referred to Empowered Committee for appropriate decision.

(d) If the general road width is less than 18 meters and the site owner merely

agrees to leave enough space to have 18 meters in front of his site only, this is

not acceptable.

12
(2) The extent of the site, FSI, set back etc., for Multi-storied Building shall be

regulated according to the Table below:—

Sl. Description Category Category Category Category III

No. I(a) I(b) II

A. Minimum plot 1200 1200sq.m. 1500 2500 sq.m.

extent sq.m. sq.m.

B. Minimum Plot 25 m 25 m 25 m 40 m

width/frontage

C. Minimum 12 m 15 m 18 m

road

width

D. Maximum FSI 1.5 1.75 2.50 2.25 2.00

E. Maximum 30% 30% 30% Above Above

coverage 30% up 40% up

to to

40% 50%

F. Maximum G+6 or G+8 Stilt + 60 meter where the width of

height Stilt + 7 9 the abutting

above Ground floors floors road is minimum 18 meter,

Level subject subject to a and exceeding

to a max. max. 30m 60 meter where the width of

13
24m. abutting road is

minimum 30.5 meters,

subject to such

conditions as may be

necessary

Height of the building Minimum required setback

above space from the

ground level property boundary

G. Minimum set Above 15 m up to 30 m 7m

back all Above 30 m For every increase in height

around of 6m or part

thereof above 30 m,

minimum extent of

setback space to be left

additionally shall be

one metre.

H. Spacing Height of the building Minimum required spacing

between above between blocks

block in case ground level

of Above 15 m up to 30 m 7 m

group Above 30 m. For every increase in height

14
developments of 6m or part

thereof above 30 m, space to

be left

additionally shall be one

meter.

Note: (i) The space specified above shall be kept open to sky and free from any erection /

projection (such as sunshade / balcony) of any building other than a fence or compound wall

provided that these open yards may be used for the provision of access ways to the building’s

parking facilities.

(ii) A watchman or caretaker booth or Kiosk not exceeding 2.5m x 2.5m. in size at each gate

and not exceeding 3 metre in height, or power/transformer room not exceeding 4 meter in

height shall be permitted in the set backspace at ground level after leaving 7 meters clear set

back from the main structure. Provided that the height restriction shall not apply for an open

transformer.

(iii) Gate pillars without or with arches with a minimum headroom clearance of 5.50 meter at

least to a width of 3.5 meter. may be permitted in the set back space after leaving 7 meters

clear set back from the main structure.

(iv) In the cases where street alignment has been prescribed, the front open space shall be left

from the street alignment.

(v) In cases of hospital buildings an additional Floor Space Index of 0.25 is allowable over

and above the normally permissible FSI.

(vi) The Floor space index for Information Technology development shall be allowed at 1.5

times of the FSI ordinarily permissible for respective use of that zone provided site extent is

not less than 2000 sq.m. This benefit will not be available for primary residential use zone.
15
10. STREET STANDARDS

DESIGN OF RESIDENTIAL STREETS

– Cross section of a Road STREE

STANDARDS One set of street

standards that can be used as a basis


FIGURE 2- STREET SECTION

for a comprehensive street plan is that developed by the National Committee

for Traffic Safety in 1961. It has been extensively used and accepted. Over the

years, these standards have resulted in acceptable and functional street systems

for both vehicle movement and pedestrian safety. It must be understood that

these standards are minimum and should be utilized only as a guide to meet

existing conditions.

10.1. PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY STREETS

The 5’ C’ Principle:

1. Convenience: Direct routes and the crossings

Made easy.
FIGURE 3 – PEDESTRIAN SECTION

2. Comfortable: Quality and width of footway, avoid

Obstructions.

3. Connections: Good pedestrian routes connect the places where people

want to go

4. Convivial: Attractive routes, well lit and safe.

5. Conspicuousness: Ease of finding and following route. Signs – guide

pedestrians.

16
6. Minimum dimensions for shared cyclist/pedestrian routes. Sidewalk is the

portion of a highway, road, or street intended for pedestrians and is

divided

Into 4 zones.

1) Curb zone, 2) Furniture zone, 3) Pedestrian zone, 4) Frontage zone

FIGURE 4 STREET PLAN AND SECTION

10.2. ALLEYS & DRIVEWAYS

A driveway function is to provide

access to adjacent properties along

primary Streets, to separate local from

FIGURE 5 - ALLEYS & DRIVEWAYS


17
traffic, and to permit circulation of local traffic on Each side of the principal

roadway. An alley function is to permit access at the rear of property regardless

of use.

10.3. STREET CONNECTIVITY

Roadway connectivity can result in

 Reduction in travel distance for drivers.

 Better and redundant emergency vehicle Access.

 More efficient public services access (mail, garbage, transit)

 Improved bicycle and pedestrian routes and accessibility.

 Safer roads.

11. NORMS AND STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION

CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN ROADS

Besides expressways and freeways, the urban roads can be classified as:

a) Arterial Road

b. Sub-Arterial Road

c. Collector Street

11.1. DESIGN CONSIDERATION OF URBAN ROADS

11.1.1. DESIGN SPEED: The recommended design speeds for different

categories of

roads are: Arterial-80 kph, Sub-Arterial-60 kph, Collector Street- 50


18
kph, Local Street- 30 kph

11.1.2. SPACE STANDARDS - The space standards (land width)

recommended for

different categories of roads are: Arterial-50 - 60 m, Sub-Arterial-30 - 40 m,

Collector street-20-30m, Local street- 10-20m,The land width is often referred

as * Right - of - way * . Cross – Sectional Elements. The width and layout of

urban road cross-sections depend on many factors, the chief amongst them

being the classification of roads, design speed and volume of traffic expected .

Some of the salient cross-sectional elements are below

11.1.3. STREET DESIGN CONCEPTS

Improve the functionality and appearance of new streets. Facilitate pedestrian

and bicycle travel. Reduce the potential for speeding and other safety problems

without resorting to speed bumps. Introduce desirable design elements, such as

landscaped strips and detached sidewalks that are commonly found in older

residential neighborhoods. Use shorter blocks in certain environments, such as

along residential, commercial, and downtown corridors, to slow traffic and

shorten walking distances

19
FIGURE 6- . STREET DESIGN CONCEPTS
12.HIERARCHY OF STREETS AND ROADS

1. Arterial Streets ,2.Collector Streets ,3.Local Streets

12.1. LOCAL STREETS

A road that serves individual residences or businesses

and/or distributes traffic within a given urban or rural

area. FIGURE 7 - HIERARCHY OF STREETS AND


ROADS

Key provisions of the street standards are:

The maximum width of local residential streets is 30-32 feet depending on the

expected traffic volume. Landscape strips, separating the curb from the

sidewalk, are required on local residential streets. Maximum block length is 600

feet for low volume residential streets and 800 feet for medium-volume

residential streets.

12.2. COLLECTOR STREETS

A roadway linking traffic on local roads to the

arterial road network. Key provisions of the

collector street standards are: Landscape strips,

separating the curb from the sidewalk,

may be provided. Maximum block length

is 1,000 feet for collector streets. Two

wheeler lanes should be provided on all


FIGURE 4 - COLLECTOR STREET SECTION

20
collector streets.

12.3. ARTERIAL STREETS

A major through route; arterials often provide

direct service between cities and large towns.

Key provisions of the arterial street standards are:

Maximum block length is 1,320 feet.


FIGURE 5 - ARTERIAL STREET SECTION
Raised medians with turn pockets should be provided.

Bicycle lanes should be provided on all arterial streets.

13.WIDTH OF ROAD

21
14. STREETS, ROADS AND NODES

The street is a public easement, one of the few

shared between all sorts of people. As a

component of the built environment as ancient as

human habitation, the street sustains a range of

activities vital to civilization. Transportation is

the most visible use.

14.1. ROADS:

FIGURE 6 ROADS VIEW


A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land

Between two places. Roads consist of one, or sometimes two, roadways each

with one or more lanes and also any associated pavement and road verges.

Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as public roads

or highways.

14.2. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD CITY ROAD:

It should accommodate amenities such as shady avenues , parking places ,

lighting, etc., It should afford safety to vehicles and pedestrians. Should have

good alignment and visibility. It should possess easy gradients and smooth

curves Its width and chamber should be proper. It should possess well-designed

Junctions. Its overall performance should be such that congestion of traffic is

brought down to minimum possible extent.

22
15.FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED:

Destination : the points or centers or areas which are being linked up by

the road are to be considered with respect to their capacity of attracting the

traffic.Importance of road : the overall importance of road with respect to the

surrounding roads is to be ascertained and facilities and dimensions are to be

determined. Nature of traffic : the probable traffic to be carried by the road is

studied with respect to its intensity , peak periods , type of vehicles parking

facilities , etc. Use of road : the probable use to which the road is to be put up

for maximum period during the day is to be properly estimated.

15.1. TRAFFIC CALMING TOOLS:

These includes a large number of tools used to achieve several objectives,

including Slowing traffic speeds, reducing cut-through traffic and traffic-related

noise, improving the aesthetics of the street, increasing safety for pedestrians,

bicyclists, and vehicles by the following

 Chicanes

 Speed humps

 Raised crosswalk

 Chokers/ neck downs

 Traffic circles

23
Figure 11 Chicanes Figure 12 Speed humps

Figure13 Raised crosswalk Figure 14 Chokers/ neck downs

Figure 15 Traffic circles

24
15.2. GRADES: The maximum allowable grade for roadways shall be 18%.

The maximum allowable cross slope shall not exceed 8%. No roadway shall

have a horizontal inside radius of curvature of less than 50 feet. Dead end roads

shall not exceed 800 feet. All roadways exceeding 150 feet in length shall have

an approved cul-de-sac turn around located at the end of the roadway.

Maximum Grades for Type of Highway and Terrain Conditions

An interstate is out of standard if it has a grade > 7%. The National Road (built

in 1806) had a maximum grade of 8.75%. Local roads are much higher (12% or

15% are sometimes allowed). Otter Tail MN County roads 6%, alleys 8%.

Driveways can be as much as 30% for a short distance.

15.3. WIDTH OF SIDE WALK

 IRC recommends that sidewalk should not be

less than 1.5m

 Width depends on pedestrian traffic , varying

between 1.5m-4m

FIGURE 7

25
Additional space should be given for electric post , electric box , etc.. It should

be unobstructed Streetlights, trees , electric poles should be placed at the edge

of the footpath.

 Where absolutely unavoidable in

presence of localized obstructions ,

the unobstructed width of footpath

should not be less than 1m to allow a

wheelchair (815 mm) to pass comfortably. FIGURE 17 SIDE WALK PLATFORM

Overhangs at a height greater than 3m from the footpath level.

15.4.KERB HEIGTH:

However this height is more than the clearance of vehicle doors (maruti 800 and

hyundai santro -170mm) , in this case the footpath is maintained at an elevation

Of 125mm w.r.t paved road and kerb stone flushed with footpath.

FIGURE 18- KERB HEIGTH

15.5. ACCESS RAMPS/DROPPED KERBS:

Footpaths need to be frequently broken for cross-roads , car parking ramps and

26
other reasons , in such case the footpath will be stopped abruptly making it

inconvenient for pedestrians and wheelchair bound Hence , gradual gradient not

exceeding 1:9 should be given.

FIGURE 19 ACCESS RAMPS/DROPPED KERBS

15.6. CROSS FALL:

Cross fall has to be provided within the range of 2.5%-3%. If it is too flat then ,

it is difficult to drain whereas if it is too steep , it would get dangerous to walk

on

Surface quality:

the surface has to be even , firm , well

drain , non-slip in both wet and dry

weather. Covers and gratings should be

flush with the surface , nonslip and


FIGURE 20 SURFACE QUALITY
have no openings greater than 13mm wide.

16.STREET INTERSECTIONS ,TURNS AND PEDESTRIAN

CROSSINGS:-

16.1. TURNING RADII:

27
Sufficient space has to be provided in order to avoid conflict between the

turning vehicle and vehicles in other lane. Fig. shows turning left at an angle of

90 degrees.

Additional space is needed as compared to lanes intersecting at 90 degrees

FIGURE 21 - TURNING RADII

16.2. GUARD RAILS: improves segregation between footpath and paved road

Beneficial for parallel parking. Controls and regulates pedestrian traffic. The

height is in between 910mm-1.0m``

16.3. VISIBILITY:

IRC give two kinds of intersections:

Uncontrolled intersections: where intersecting roads are of equal importance

Priority intersections: like minor roads where one road takes virtual precedence

over other . IRC recommends a minimum visibility of 15m along minor road

and a sight distance of 8 seconds travel along major road.

FIGURE 22 - VISIBILITY

28
16.4. CURVES:

Curves in roads can be horizontal,

vertical or a combination of the two.

Since slopes greater than 5 percent aren't

Generally found on wet soils, the only

curves needed are horizontal. The basic

rule is to have a minimum radius

horizontal curve of35 feet for short-body

vehicles and 50 feet for tractor trailers.

These curves are acceptable for roads that will have only low-volume traffic In

higher traffic areas, curves should have a radius of 100 feet or more. This

increases visibility to about 200 feet and allows for higher but equally safe

vehicle speeds since drivers have a longer response time to apply brakes.

16.5. ACCESS OPENINGS ON EXPRESS WAYS

Access openings should not be spaced closer

than one-half mile to an adjacent public road

intersection or to another private access opening.

That is wider than 30 feet. To discourage

wrong-way movements, access openings should

be located directly opposite, or at least 300 feet from a median opening. When

recessed openings are required, the opening should be located a minimum

distance of 75 feet from the nearest edge of the travelled way.

29
17. DRAINAGE: Importance of drainage

 To prevent flooding of the road and bonding on the surface

 To protect the bearing capacity of the pavement and the sub grade

material

 To avoid the erosion of side slopes

17.1. THE PRINCIPAL TYPES OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS ARE:

 Open Drain: the most common form of road drainage on rural national

and non national roads.

 Piped (positive) Drain: French drains are used extensively on sections of

the national network and to a limited extent on non-national roads.

 French drain: Piped drainage systems are essential in urban areas and are

also used in rural areas where space is limited

17.2. STANDARDS:

Cross falls should be a minimum of 2.5% on carriageways, with

increased cross falls of up to 5.0% on hard shoulders draining to filter drains

longitudinal gradients should not be less than 0.5% on kerbed roads flat areas

should be avoided and consideration of surface water drainage is particularly

important at rollovers, roundabouts and junctions outfall levels must be

achievable; the spacing of road gullies should be sufficient to remove surface

water whilst achieving an acceptable width of channel flow.

30
One gully for every 200sq.m of paved surface is generally found to be

satisfactory

17.3. TYPES OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM:

 Kerbs & Gully (inset into

verge) commonly used in urban

areas and in rural embankment

conditions.

 Surface water flows over the

pavement to a kerb at the edge of

the road and is collected in

gullies
FIGURE 8

17.4. COMBINED KERB & DRAINAGE BLOCK

These units are especially useful where kerbs are necessary at locations with

little or no longitudinal gradient. They can also be useful where there are a

number of public utility services in the road verge, particularly in urban areas.

FIGURE 24 - COMBINED KERB & DRAINAGE BLOCK

31
LINEAR DRAINAGE CHANNEL

They are set flush with the surface and contain a drainage conduit beneath the

surface into which the surface water enters through slots or gratings.

18. TYPES OF PARKING

A major problem with medium - density housing is providing parking space that

does not dominate the scene. Three basic types of parking are explained.

18.1. DIRECT STREET ACCESS:

This means resident parking in garage, carport, or parking stall is directly

adjacent to the house. Access for residents and guests is clear, direct, and

popular with most people, but with disadvantages that living is adjacent to a

road. Where possible, the driveways of two adjacent units should be combined,

leaving more space on the street between drives for parking and eliminating

curb cuts. With an 18 foot setback, a second or visitor car can park in front of

the garage.

FIGURE 25 - DIRECT STREET ACCESS

32
18.2. COURT PARKING:

Nits placed parallel to a parking

court can be easily identified as one

arrives. A sidewalk in front of the

Parked car directs people to the units.


FIGURE 26 COURT PARKING
18.3. SEPARATE PARKING LOTS:

Separation of cars from units costs less and creates higher environmental

quality with the loss of some convenience and easy identification of units. A

pedestrian route clearly marked with signs becomes necessary. This parking

arrangement may not be acceptable to residents who prefer direct access. Walks

connect parking lots or bays to housing units. A different paving material may

be used to separate walks from roads.

FIGURE 27 - SEPARATE PARKING LOTS

33
18.4. PARKING

Parking can be done in one of the 3 ways

 Inside the boundary of a development,

 On street,

 Underground.

On street parking - allow buildings to breathe Well designed on street parking

can be attractive, improve safety and security as well as help traffic

calming.Generous footpaths or an equivalent landscaped/garden strip around

buildings will keep parking away from a building ‘s elevation and help to

reduced car impact.

18.5. OFF STREET PARKING COURTYARD PARKING

A well designed overlooked courtyard with parking arranged in clusters,

softened with landscaping and floors cape treatment. Off street parking - multi

storey car

18.6. PARKS

Providing parking within buildings is an effective method of screening car

impact from public view. Multi storey car parks should only be considered

when they can be designed to incorporate ground floor activities, such as shops

or offices and thus integrate and contribute to the street scene.

34
18.7. UNDERGROUND PARKING

Underground parking allows ground floor activity to take place. Where

underground parking is considered then the separation of the ground floor from

the street level should be minimized.

18.8. PERCENTAGE OF SPACE UTILIZATION

FOR PARKING

 Average parking loss: 2 %of total spaces

 Average permeability of parking area: 9.85 %

 Average tree canopy coverage : 16.15 %

18.2. OFF STREET PARKING STANDARDS

18.2.1.STALL SIZE:

The dimension of the parking stall for different kind of vehicles shall be:

In cases of parallel parking of cars, the dimension of parking stall shall be 6.0m

X 2.50 m. The stall dimensions mentioned above shall be clear of any structural

35
members. Where a stall is adjacent to a large element such as a wall, minimum

stall width shall be 2.7m for parallel parking and where cars cannot be parked

by reversing, minimum stall length shall be 7.2m.

18.2.2. PARKING FOR SPECIAL (PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED)

PERSONS

For Buildings having more than 2 floors 10% of the required car/two wheelers

parking spaces subject to minimum of 2 car spaces and 2 two-wheeler spaces

shall be reserved for the physically handicapped persons near the entrance. This

is to provide an exclusive reservation of car parking for physically handicapped

and also to provide them easy access to the lift and staircase.

18.2.3. DRIVEWAY AND AISLE WIDTHS

Driveway: The driveway width shall be 3.0m for one-way movement and 7.0m

for two-way movement. Aisle Widths: Aisle is a access lane leading to/abutting

the individual parking lot within a parking facility.

The aisle widths for different types of parking shall be:

The width of driveway & aisle shall be free from kerb and other encumbrances.

18.2.4. WIDTH ENTRY AND EXIT GATES

The width of entry or exit gates shall be a minimum of 3.0m


36
18.2.5. TURNING RADIUS

The minimum inner turning radius in driveway areas and ramps shall be 4.0m

18.2.6. RAMPS

The minimum clear width of the ramps shall be 3.5m for one-way movement

and 7.0m for two-way movement. Gradient shall not be steeper than 1 in 8.

18.2.7. HEADROOM

The clear headroom (between floor and beam bottom) shall be minimum

2.2metres those parts of a building intended to be used for parking of wheeled

vehicles and also for all approaching parts like ramp, covered access, etc.

18.2.8. WIDTH OF ENTRY AND EXIT

The width of entry or exit gates shall be a minimum of 4.5m. The entry or exit

gate shall be located away from junctions. In cases of large sites with frontage

along road exceeds 50 m; additional entry exit may be permitted.

18.2.9. OTHER REQUIREMENTS:

(i) Parapet/Protection Frame - All floors above ground floor shall have a RCC

parapet/protection frame of height not less than 1.0m

(ii) Ventilation - In case of parking on ground floor, all sides shall be left open

for ventilation and lighting. In case of all floors above ground floor, adequate

natural ventilation and lighting should be provided. In case of basement or sub

basement parking, adequate mechanical ventilation and adequate lighting

should be provided.

37
(iii) Where car/two wheeler lifts are proposed/provided there shall be at least

one ramp to standards from the parking floors to the ground level.

18.3.ROAD STRUCTURE

The arrangement of streets and large thoroughfares in cities can be further

divided into various arrangements throughout the different regions of the world.

The structure of the roads themselves is usually representative of the dominant

culture of the region. Roads and Streets are used as a Skeleton of the city.

18.4. RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

The norms for parks, play fields and other open space such as specified park,

amusement park, maiden, a multi-purpose open space, botanical garden and

zoological parks, traffic parks, etc. are as under:

19. URBAN OPEN SPACE

Open space is an essential part of the urban heritage, a strong element in the

architectural and aesthetic form of a city, plays an important educational role, is

ecologically significant, is important for social interaction and in fostering

38
community development and is supportive of economic objectives and

activities, In particular it helps reduce the inherent tension and conflict in

deprived parts of urban areas of Europe; it has an important role in providing for

the recreational and leisure needs of a community and has an economic value in

that of environmental enhancement...

In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for ‘park ‘green

Spaces’ and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range

from playing fields to highly maintained environments to relatively natural

landscapes. They are commonly open to public access, however, urban open

spaces may be privately owned. Areas outside of city boundaries, such as state

and national parks as well as open space in the countryside, are not considered

urban open space. Streets, piazzas, plazas and urban squares are not always

defined as urban open space in land use planning.

RECREATION-Urban open space is often appreciated for the recreational

opportunities it provides. Recreation in urban open space may include active

recreation (such as organized sports and individual exercise) or passive

recreation, which may simply entail being in the open space.

19.1. NEIGHBOURHOOD URBAN SPACES

It is an urban space common for a neighborhood unit .In general the distances

travelled to neighborhood urban open spaces will be of a limited length,

although there are some who travel outside their own physical neighborhoods

39
and communities to others for services such as schooling and thus use open

spaces in other people’s neighborhoods.

19.2. THE RESULT IS A LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE THAT STITCHES

TOGETHER ALL THESE ELEMENTS

FIGURE 28 - LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE

Those spaces considered as neighborhood urban open spaces are parks, play

Grounds, playing fields and sports grounds, school playgrounds, streets, city

farms and incidental spaces. Many neighborhood urban open spaces are

predominantly green with different layers of vegetation and are in close enough

proximity to each other to allow migration of some species from one space to

another.

40
20. STANDARDS FOR SERVICES

20.1. ELECTRICITY

Based on the estimated requirements of power supply as per the Master Plan for

Delhi, the consumption works out to be about 2 KW per household at the city

level and includes domestic, commercial, industrial and other requirements. The

actual estimation of power requirements can be made based on the industrial

development (type and extent), commercial development, domestic and other

requirements. The provision of one electric sub-station of 11 KV for a

population of 15,000 is recommended as a general standard for all categories of

towns/cities.

20.2. WATER SUPPLY:

The planning, design, construction and installation of water supply, drainage

and sanitation and gas supply system shall be in accordance with National

Building Code of India. Per capita water requirement for various

Occupancies/Uses

41
SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR RESIDENCES

FLUSHING STORAGE CAPACITIES

Water Supply for domestic, non - domestic and public purpose

42
20.3. SEWERAGE:

1.The treatment of sewerage is essential to check the decay in the environment

as well as to provide hygienic conditions for the population. Besides the

sewerage from households, the waste from industries also needs attention. The

sewerage is estimated at the rate of 80% of the water supply in any area.

2.The small and medium towns may be encouraged for adopting low-cost

sanitation technologies with the technical assistance by the local bodies and

involvement of NGO's in actual implementation of such programmers.

20.4. DRAINAGE:

The drainage system for any city/town is governed mainly by natural drainage

course and topography. Besides on the impact of religion level of development,

its climate and hydrological considerations, the discharge is calculated that

guides the requirement for provision of additional drain as well as up gradation

of existing drains.

FIGURE 29 – DRAINAGE TYPES

43
General parallel drain lateral spacing and depths for different soils

20.5.SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

The production of solid waste in an urban centre is a function of the

socioeconomic profile of the population and activities in the area. The

insufficient conservancy services in most of the urban centers tend to leave the

garbage spread on the road sides or open spaces leading to unhygienic living

conditions. The garbage is removed by the municipal bodies and dumped at the

sanitary landfill or in some cases it is converted to compost especially in small

towns . The generation of waste varies from about over a quarter of kilogram in

small towns to about half a kilogram per capita in large and metro cities.

44
21. CASE STUDY 1

MAGARPATTA TOWNSHIP, PUNE

21.1. INTRODUCTION

Maharashtra has largest economy in the

country, 13% of national income

Urbanized - 42 % lives in cities

High literacy – 77% the population

Per Capita income - Rs.15, 484 (3rd in


FIGURE 30 – ENTRY OF MAGARPATTA TOWNSHIP
country)

Population: 5064700 (2008) Density: 7214/km2, metro 8th (2008)

21.2. LOCATION

FIGURE 31 – LOCATION

It is situated on national highway pune-solapur.

45
Major linkages from site

Pune station 7 kms

Race course 3.5 kms

Koregaon park 4.5 kms

M.G.roads 5 kms

Airport 9 kms

21.3. CLIMATE: TROPICAL WET & DRY

Tem: temperatures ranging between 20°C to 28°C.

Rainfall: 722 mm

Season: summer monsoon, winter

21.4. KNOWLEDGE BASED INDUSTRIES

Home of Research institutes,

Home for software industries

21.5. MAGARPATTA CITY

Architect: Ar. Prakash Deshmukh

Total Land Area: 400 acre

Population: 8,000 units residents,

Density: 100-115/acre

46
21.6. DESIGN CONCEPT

Planning principles: Design on concept of garden city

Present day need: Integration of work place and living place

Climate responsive: Rutu chakra concept taken for the landscaping for plants

to bloom all the years.

21.7. PROJECT CONCEPT

 Fast urbanization of pune city and Haphazard spread of city pune in 90’s

was major issue.

 A group 120 families of Farmers came together with an Idea to convert

agricultural land into an Innovative Township.

21.8. SITE ANALYSIS

Topography: The entire land is agricultural land it is a fertile virgin land with

32 bore wells Land is gently sloping from southwest to northeast with a level

difference of 12m.

Soil Type: Black cotton soil- good for plantation and landscaping.

Land is gently sloping from southwest to northeast.

Land profile: Almost rectangular site, site was enclosed by, further extended

city road of about 24 mt.

47
FIGURE 32 – SITE PLAN

21.9. AREA DISTRIBUTION, ZONING

 Total Area 400 acre

 Built up Area 60% of total i.e 240 acre

 Total open Area 40% i.e 160 acre

 Four entries to the site from all four direction makes a good connectivity

with locality, main entry from east direction

 Axis is taken radial cum grid pattern whole project divided in 4 phases

 Residential at periphery , middle ring for cyber city around the green core

area to balance the mass building around.

 Major Public amenities given at phase 1 & 2 near to existing market.

48
21.9.1.BUILT AND UNBUIT RATIO

Total Area = 400 acre

Built area = 240 acre

UN built area = 160 acre

21.10. OPEN AREA DISTRIBUTION

Open area 160 acre

Central gardens: 25 acre

Roads : 17%

Paved area : 20 %

2 acre of garden for each Neighbourhood or block unit i.e total 50 acre.
49
21.11. USER INTRODUCTION

User’s Occupation

• Teacher

• Doctors/ medical Professionals

• Engineers/ technical group

• Management group/ Business group

• Other Service Provider Group

50
Floating Population 14 % of residing

Working in office buildings -----8%

Individual business/ shapes ------- 2%

Service provider------------------1%

Visitors------- 2%

Frequently visiting areas

Roads/ footpaths by public transport/ private transport /

Office areas + shopping area+ utility areas/ cleaning area, + recreational /

relative place ie. Over all. Respectively.

21.12. POPULATION

Density not to exceed 30 % acre.

Residential units: 8,000 units 40,000 person avg.

Commercial: 12 companies+ offices and shops

10,000 person’s avg.

Density 100-115 person/acre

51
21.13. USER AREA CIRCULATION

FIGURE 33 - USER AREA CIRCULATION


Fig (a)Working group

(FIGURE A) Working group Frequently visiting areas Roads/ footpaths private/public

transport+ office/ commercial spaces+ recreational / walkways in evening .

(FIGURE B) Children/ youth/ non working Recreational / institutional.

21.14. Residential Zone Total area: 148 acre

11 Type Residential blocks

3 bhk 59 acre, 40%

Villas 5 bhk , 34 acre 23% of residential

2 bhk homes 13.6 acre, 9%

4 bhk, 12 acre, 8.1 %

1 BHK homes, 4.3 acre, 2%

FIGURE 34 – APARTMENT VIEW 1

52
FIGURE 35 – APARTMENT VIEW 2

There are 28 neighborhoods planned in the different phases of the city.

And the 11 options of residential buildings, with different specification.

5 no. Hierarchy for affordability, Soft areas are given main importancein whole

landscape. Lawn is used in many spaces.Community hall, club house, children

53
play area and 2 play courts are provided.

The landscape done in central open space is raised at 2.4 m to give space for

parking below.

The arrangement of building is done such manner that a central chunk of land

will be left for ladscaping.

FIGURE 36 – APARTMENT LANDSCAPES

54
FIGURE 37 – APARTMENT PLAN

21.15.PUBLIC PLACE

MEGACENTER

FIGURE 38 – MEGA CENTRE VIEW


55
Majestic commercial center of business excellence. Megacenter gives you

complete infrastructural support to run new cutting edge Information

Technology Tools.

Well spread out space 5.25 lakh sq.ft.

Parking space for 800 cars and 1000 2-wheelers.

A total of 5 floors of modern

Office space, Banking and 24-hr ATM facilities.

8 lifts, 10 no. capacity.

4- Theme cafeterias and restaurants,

Food courts

Other entertainment spots.

Facilities like Full power back up with ample parking ensure that your business

never takes on the back seat

FIGURE 39 – PLAN MEGA CENTRE

56
DESTINATION POINT

FIGURE 39 – DESTINATION POINT VIEW

The internal Amenity Center of Magarpatta City

Rising 11 floors, area 4 acre including, block land scope.

Facility offers space Shops,

Food courts and leisure activities.

There will be Hostel and Office population.

This is a place where Magarpatta City families would shop and spend time in

the evenings

Massive and modern, the Destination Centre holds a huge business promise for

you. It’s a place where business potential is best described by just one word -

extraordinary.

57
FIGURE – 40 DESINATION POINT PLAN

21.16. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

 Large Courts give all time comfortable common areas with beautiful

landscape inside also.

 Free standing curve wall and frame works etc. as the architectural

elements give it monumental look along its huge nest.

 High is rising with every offset inside from the boundary it maintain the

portion of building.

21.17.GYMKHANA COMPLEX

58
It includes: swimming pool giving beautiful look from entrance and even the

upper floors,

1st floor Pantry and snacks counter in waiting laung+ offices +gym + changing

rooms with separate way to the court of pool / shower area, store room and

tennice court , bollyball, basket ball court entance seperately,

2nd floor Meditation+ parlous, childrens section.

FIGURE 41 - GYMKHANA COMPLEX VIEW

21.18. THE MAGARPATTA CITY PUBLIC SCHOOL

'The Magarpatta City Public School' - an English medium ICSE Board School

managed by the well-known Vidya Pratisthan Trust

Area of 4 acre

Play area with swings, sculptures lawn and open central court and classes

placed around.

School is given exterior of exposed plaster and brick work the massive building

seen to merge with the nature,

59
FIGURE 42 – SCHOOL VIEWS

21.19. COMMERCIAL SECTOR

 All the IT tower- commercial Zone is planned around the central Open

ADITI Garden

 It is away from the residential and school buildings hence does not cause

a disturbance

 Modern technology has been used –glass cladding, post tensioned slabs

thus giving it a competitive look

 There are 12 buildings with 7 flotors each Separate smoking zone are

created and smoking is not allowed on the footpaths

FIGURE 43 – COMMERCIAL SECTOR


60
HOSPITAL BUILDING

FIGURE 44 – HOSPITAL VIEW

Nobal Hospital is at main road pune solapur,

It is for 250 beds

21.19.1. 'Deccan Harvest' - the restaurant in Aditi Gardens

 Play areas, court/ lawns, pools,

 Common gym includes helth care activities and sports etc.

 Shopping areas: food plazas reastaurents in destination point and in

mega centre them restaurants and other activities are the good means of

entertainment .

FIG 45 - RESTAURANT

61
 Aditi Gardens : deccan Harvest reastaurent+ three small plateform

forming informal open activity areas+ open air theater at west- south of

the site. For appx.8000 ppl.

 Individual blocks: have own recreational spaces like.

21.19.2. Roads & Transportation

21.20. PARKING & TRANSPORTATION

 Public transportation like taxies or buses are not having any separate

track.

62
Each building block are given separate parking area , Most of the parking

is in the basements

 Separated in – out basement parking ramps with slope 1: 10 taken from

the entrance point.

FIGURE 46 - PARKING

21.21SERVICES

Elevated storage tank for cybercity and other recreational areas. Storm water

from terraces through the pipes, gets collected underground. Sewage treatment

plants are provided one in each neighbourhood , The water recharged in the

bore well is used for washing & cleaning. All the units have corporation water

supply for drinking. For the bungalows and row houses, a separate water tank

Electricity & telecommunication: 4 electrical substations are given at four

corners of the site. Fiber optic cable laid throughout the complex. 1 acre of land

dedicated to telephone exchange by the Magarpatta Township. Each home

provided with internet connection.

63
21.21. SECURITY

Round the clock centralized security systems entry by security clearance.

Magarpatta is walled city with fortified gates & guarded entrances.

The city is intensively patrolled day & night by security persons.

Town level ZED security with walkie-talkie & computer surveillance.

Individual watchmen for each complex, Intercom facility in each house.

21.22. LANDSCAPE STUDY OF MAGARPATTA CITY

 Magarpatta city aims to provide a lush green pollution free environment

along with technologies education recreation and better living condition.

 The environment has been given the utmost priority in magarpatta city

with 3200 trees, 20 lakh sqft lawn over 10,000 shrubs and bushes and

punes largest mist foundation.

 There is at first circle is the welcome board and a board giving the

directinon to different buildings and thus a newcomer gets well directed

 Rigth at the entrance is the first signage MAGARPATTA CITY with

landscape area enhancing the entrance.

 In the administration area names of different sectors are bold and are

clear of tree or any type of landscape element.

 Even in IT tower the name of the companies who have their offices in

that building is displayed on signage board.

64
21.23. LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS

 Magarpatta city has a good water table there being 32 bore wells which is

used by all the building in magarpatta and reused for landscape.

 Black cotton soil is good for vegetation.

 existing trees retained or replanted, artificial lake covers ½ acre out of 25

acre.

 Trees and plantations also for security sound and visual barrier and idea

shade and as a boundary

 Benches for Sittings at corners or side ways of roads paved wide

footpaths to encourage pedestrian movement.

 Ramps are provided to reach various spaces.

FIGURE 47 – LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS

 To define parking zone using landscape elements – bays are marked

using cooled sheet.

65
 Landscape elements trees or plants used for creating canopy don't shed

leaves.

 For recreational areas restaurant- medium plantation water bodies ground

covers and trees bordering the court.

 For exercise Zone a combination of hard (paved path) and soft (buses ,

trees)

 landscape is used to make the environment fresh and lively. Water bodies

keep the atmosphere fresh.

21.24. PLANTING SCHEME

1. Arzadirachta indicai- neem used for shade for parking, medicinal tree.

2. Butea monosperma- flame of forset- used for shade for parking.

3. Cipharexylop quadranguralaet

4. Jacaranda mimosifolia-neel gulmohor- used for shade, colour of flora

5. Michelia champaca-golden yellow champa- son chafa used because fragrance

of the flower.

6. Spathodia companulata- Tulip tree- to create road side avenue colour of

flower

7. Tabebuia Argentia

SHRUBS

1. Eranthemum Nigrum- ebony black magic used in planting bed

2. Hamelia Pattensscarlet bush- fire bush used at the edge of the building.
66
3. Ixora duffii pink- ixora along the compound wall

4. Tabermaemontana variegated- edge of the building

GRASS : Paspalum lawn –used under the big tree and bigger lawn areas.

21.25. ECO FRIENDLY PRACTICE

21.25.1. BIOGAS PLANT

FIGURE 48 – BIO GAS PLANT

A two tonne capacity Biogas plant is installed.

Biodegradable waste goes through a process and the non-polluting biogas which

is generated is used to generate power to operate a major percentage of the

garden pumps.

This saves excessive power requirements equivalent to 118 commercial gas

cylinders of 19 kilograms capacity per month,

which translates to a power generation of over 270 electrical units per day.

67
21.25.2. SOLAR WATER-HEATING

FIGURE 49 – SOLAR WATER-HEATING

Magarpatta City, largest residential Solar Water-Heating systems in the country.

The solar panels have been put in all the residential apartments comprising of

about 3500 flats in the Phase-I & II.

On completion, the total capacity will be in the region of 7 lakh litres per day

which will save power upto 37 KWH per day and in monetary terms Rs.3.9

Crore per year.

21.25.3. RAINWATER HARVESTING

Rainwater harvesting to canalize water from terraces is planned for over 8

natural wells, over 1.25 acres of an artificial lake body and to recharge ground

water levels.

Inter-locking paving blocks and cut-out grass concrete pavers assist in raising

groundwater levels.

68
21.25.4.USE OF FLY-ASH BRICKS IN CONSTRUCTION

Fly ash which is an environmental hazardous waste produced by thermal power

plants is used as a part replacement of cement and fine aggregates,

It is an inert material & saves energy required for production of cement.

Usage of fly ash bricks helps in reduction of greenhouse gases, which are

depleting the ozone layer.

21.25.5.GARBAGE SEGREGATION AT SOURCE

Eco-friendly practice of segregation of over 400 tonnes of household and

commercial garbage, trash and waste per month is done at source of which 280

tonnes of biodegradable waste is used for vermi-culture and bio-compost.

Over 120 tonnes non-biodegradable waste is recycled in a way not hazardous to

nature, disposed off safely and the re-usable scrap is sold.

FIGURE 50 GARBAGE SEGREGATION

21.25.6.VERMICULTURE

The nursery has vermi-culture and bio-compost pits, which generate manure

from garbage segregated at source at Magarpatta City.

69
The manure composted here provides for nourishing these saplings and shrubs.

Organic pesticides like Verticillium and Trichoderma are used extensively.

Not only are plants, saplings and organic vegetables sold here, a unique facility

of a Plant Library is offered whereby just like a book/ video library.

FIGURE 51 VERMICULTURE

70
22.CASE STUDY 2

BRIGADE GATEWAY, BANGALORE

FIGURE 51 BRIGADE GATEWAY

22.1 INTRODUCTION

Brigade Gateway is a 40-acre integrated enclave, with different zones

for residential, retail, business, recreational, educational and commercial

purposes. It is a well-planned, well managed, and located in a beautiful &

secure environment.

The integrated enclave is a concept in urban planning that is

becoming increasingly popular all over the world. Hence, forming a pocket

of orderly development, the enclave offers an escape from a world of chaos

into an organized and well-managed world that has been created based

on the best practices of modern town planning.


71
The enclave focuses on high density which provides critical mass.

Thus a good means of stores and services are designed. It reduces dependency

on cars and public transport, thereby creating friendly, 'walk able'

neighborhoods. And it encourages street life and activity, which, in turn,

facilitate safety.

22.2. ARCHITECTS

 The enclave's master plan has been envisaged by Hellmuth,

Obata + Kassabaum (H.O.K.), New York—whom international industry

surveys rank as one of the world's leading architectural firms.

 The design result is the meeting of Brigade Group's vision

and H.O.K.'s philosophy: "…creating places that enrich how people

work, play, heal, worship, discover, learn and travel—places that improve

how people live".

22.3. ENCLAVE FEARURES

A. World Trade Center, Bangalore: 30 storeys

Built to Grade A++ specifications

Helipad and observation deck

Adjoining 9-level car park

B. Orion Mall & Multiplex:4 storeys

11-screen multiplex

Anchor stores, food court, restaurants and lakeside cafés

C. Man-made lake, Surrounded by:


72
Landscaped gardens

Seating areas

Tree-lined promenades

Open-air cafés

D. Sheraton Bangalore Hotel:4 restaurants

Convention centre

Health club and spa

E. Columbia Asia Hospital: Referral hospital

Multi-specialty departments

F. Galaxy Club: Swimming pool; Gym;

Indoor games and Steam

G. Four categories of apartments

H. The Brigade School

9. Extensive landscape

1.1.4 LOCATION

FIGURE 52 LOCATION
73
Brigade Gateway is a rare exception— as it is located in such a core area in a

huge site well connected to the surrounding areas with good transportation

networks. It is well connected by roads on all the sides ensuring access from all

the directions.

Climate: Salubrious & Warm

Warmest month - April, temperatures range from 33.4 C to 21.2 C

Coldest month - January, temperatures range from 25.7 C to 15.3 C

22.5. MASTER PLAN

FIGURE 53 BRIGADE GATEWAY PLAN

74
 The enclave on the whole is divided into various zones as business, retail/

commercial, lifestyle.

 The zones are well connected and positioned based on the needs and

functions. The master plan is hence designed in such a way that all the

facilities are placed in distinct location and at the same time well

interconnected to each other.

 The business zone will feature a single tower WORLD TRADE

CENTRE, the tallest buildings as of now in Bangalore.

 The location of each facility within Brigade Gateway has been logically

planned, with separate entrance and exit gates thus maximizing the

levels of privacy and facilitating smooth vehicular movement.

 All the facilities are located around a central lake which acts as a shared

landscape elegance from all the zones in the enclave.

 Thus a focus of interest is created in the master plan around which all the

functions are arranged.

The focus is created in such a way that it is a focus of interest both visually and

75
physical experience around the elegant lake surrounded by tall buildings around.

 All the zones are placed with an easy & direct access from the

roads bordering the site.

 More importance is given to parking with a separate west gate

Entrance toward the multistory parking facility onsite.

 A good hierarchy of road and pedestrian spaces are followed

to ensure safety and noise free environments.

FIGURE 54 BRIGADE GATEWAY ZONE 76


 The internal zoning of functions is designed as responsive to the

surroundings, the environment, traffic build up etc.

 Thus the placement of zones are in such a way that it does not create

traffic build up or affect the existing traffic flow analysing the

type,quantity of people using the particular functions.

 A thorough study of the roads around Brigade Gateway and designing

the internal structure of the enclave was a critical part of the master plan

design. The purpose was to identify areas that could create traffic

bottlenecks and anticipate how these bottlenecks could be avoided. As a

result of this study, the master plan has 6 gates positioned at strategic

locations:

 Two in the residential area and one each at the school, business zone,

commercial zone and hospital.

 The residential section has two dedicated entry / exit points from the

public roads: one from 1st Main Rd, Malleswaram and the other from Dr

Rajkumar Rd, Rajajinagar.

 Orion Mall has a dedicated entrance and exit from Dr Rajkumar Rd, in

addition to a drop-off point at the front of the mall.

 The 5-star Sheraton Bangalore Hotel can be entered from Dr Rajkumar

Rd.

 Columbia Asia Hospital has its own entrance from Tumkur Road,

Yeshwantapur.
77
 The Brigade School has an entrance from Malleswaram, which connects

to several other enclave facilities, barring the residential section.

 Hence the commercial/ retail zones with maximum number visitors from

throughout bangalore is located with an easy direct access from the major

road around the sire- Dr. Rajkumar road.

 The business zones with standard visitors along with the hospital is given

entry from another major road- Tumkur Road

22.6. WORLD TRADE CENTRE

Thirty storey high and crowned by an observation deck and

helipad, World Trade Center Bangalore, offers 1 million sft of premium

office space and have state-of-the-art facilities.

78
FIGURE 54 WORLD TRADE CENTRE VIEWS

General features:

o 1.1 million sft of prime office space

o 32 levels and 128 m high

o Modular design with 40,000 sft floor plate

o 4.2 m floor-to-floor height

o 21 high speed elevators, of which some are destination controlled

o Low E- glass to minimize heat and maximize visibility

o Double glazing to minimize noise and power loss

o Uninterrupted power supply with 100% power back-up

o Centralized air-conditioning

o 9-level parking

o Cafeteria for occupants

o Grand triple height atrium

o Helipad and observation deck


79
o Sky bridges connecting WTC with the 5-star Sheraton Bangalore

hotel and Orion Mall & Multiplex within the enclave

FIGURE 55 WORLD TRADE CENTRE PLAN

 Highest levels of safety and security

 The core areas are placed in the centre and the office areas are arranged

along the both sides of its length. This helps in maximum utilization of

the available space for office purposes.

 The core is thus easily accessible to both the office tenants equally.

 Three types of lift cores are given for accessing different levels of floors

as, - low rise – mid rise – high rise

 Two fire escape staircases are given with each opening from one side of

the tenant office space.

 Two AHU rooms and electrical rooms are placed with a separate duct

provisions for maintenance.

80
 The structural pattern is designed in such a way that a column free

working space is achieved in the floor plate.

22.7. THE ENVIRONMENT & VISUAL ASPECTS :

 It is well set within the 40-acre Brigade Gateway lifestyle

enclave.

 The building overlooks a tree-fringed promenade alongside a

placid, man-made lake. This gives a soothing nerve view of the waterfront

to the occupants.

 The glass façade (low- E glass) reflects the calm water of the

man made lake and the ever changing sky. This makes the façade of

modern architecture look more dramatic

 At evenings & night, the interior lights of the offices makes

the overall structure look more iconic and unique in the whole surrounding.

22.8. MLCP

 The WTC has an attached 9 level car parking which includes 2

levels of underground parking.

 It can accommodate 2250 cars

 90,000 stf of landscaped banquet area is designed on the top of

the MLCP which includes cafeteria and gyms.

 The banquet area overlooking the Hotel Sheraton creates

ambience on par with any international building across the world.

81
22.9. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

For fire protection, the following protection systems are installed in the

building and its surrounding.

 Effective fire engine and hose access

 Fire hydrant systems are installed throughout the campus

 Automatic sprinkler system

 Manual call points and hooters

 Portable fire extinguishers

 Fire staircases

 Helipad

22.10.SECURITY SYSTEMS

World Trade Center Bangalore, will have its dedicated security personnel and

systems. The aim is to provide a high level of security with minimum

inconvenience and intrusion

a. Access

 Entry and exit points will be monitored both through electronic

surveillance and with security guards

b. Electronic security systems

 Electronic checkpoints are set up at entry / exit points

 CCTV cameras are installed in public areas and basements

 Boom gates are provided for basement security and parking Control

82
c. Fire Security in the rest of the enclave

 The entire enclave will be separated into different clusters for

security systems

 Each zone will be protected, round-the-clock, by its own

professional security personnel, who will be stationed at each zone

and in common areas

22.11. GENERAL ENCLAVE FEATURES

Sewage Treatment:

Decomposable organic matter in the sewage will be stabilised in a

compact, underground sewage treatment plant. The resultant effluent and sludge

will be harmlessly disposed of. After tertiary treatment, the water will be used

for flushing and for watering plants.

Rainwater Disposal:

Vertical rainwater pipes from the terrace floor will empty into external

storm water drains at ground level. Rainwater from balconies and various floors

will be connected to the nearest pipe and emptied to the external storm water

network.

Storm Water Disposal:

All storm water will travel through the underground drainage system to

the rainwater harvesting system. Box drains with catch basins, to collect

rainwater, will be located at the


83
periphery of the building and in open areas. Excess water will flow to the

existing storm water drain outside the premises.

Rainwater Harvesting System: Will comprise soak pits connected to

box drains, storm water recharge cells and water bodies. This system will

help to recharge the aquifers/sub-soil.

84
23. LITERATURE STUDY

MAHINDRA WORLD CITY, NEW CHENNAI

23.1. INTRODUCTION

Mahindra World City, New Chennai is India's first operational

Special Economic Zone (SEZ) and India's first Planned Integrated

Business City. The City covers an area of 1550 acres located near Chennai

Suburb Paranur.

Mahindra world city was born out of the need to create a space

Where business and life style can blend seamlessly to offer a high quality living

space.

In short it's a City that combines business demands with the needs of a

luxurious lifestyle. The city fulfils its endeavour of creating a “Sustainable

FIGURE 56 STREET VIEW OF MAHINDRA WORD CITY

Urban Community”. The City has distinct zones for Industrial (SEZs & DTA),

Residential, Social, Retail and Commercial.

85
23.2. PROMOTERS: Mahindra Group and TIDCO (Govt. of TamilNadu

Enterprise) which is a public-private initiative.

23.3. LOCATION :

FIGURE 57 LOCATION OF MAHINDRA WORLD CITY

Mahindra World City is strategically located in the suburb of Chennai

near Paranur Village in a fast expanding industrial development hub referred to

as NEW CHENNAI. The city well focuses at decentralization of the Chennai

population towards the outskirts of Chennai. Also the Mahindra City is well

connected by rail and road networks.

23.4. CLIMATE: WET &DRY

Max - Tem Around 35C -40C , Min - Tem Around 19 - 25C

23.5. MASTER PLAN- consultants

The city has been master planned by Jurong Consultants and Landscape

architecture experts Belt collins both from Singapore.

86
The award winning master plan of its residential/social zones (winner of the

honor award 2007 from the American society landscapes architecture) has been

conceptualised by the world's leading planning and architectural firm HOK

from USA.

23.6. EMPLOYMENT GENERATED/POTENTIAL

EMPLOYMENT DIRECT INDIRECT

GENERATED 23000 PERSONS 40000 PERSONS

PONTENTIAL 100000 PERSONS 150000 PERSONS

87
FIGURE 58 PLAN OF MAHINDRA WORLD CITY

1. The Business zone is located well segregated of the other living zones. The

total area allotted for the business zone is 840 acres approximately. The zone

will have Special Economic Zone (IT, apparel & fashion accessories, Auto

Ancillaries) along with a Domestic Tariff Area.

2. The residential zone is located well segregated off the business zones near the

Paranur Railway Station with a onsite Bus terminal Designed. The Zone is

supposed to be composed of several self sustained residential enclaves

supporting the business development in the city. A total area of about 285 acres
88
is allotted for the residential enclaves.

3. The commercial zones are located centrally as a connecting element between

the business and the residential areas. A total area of about 100 acres is allotted

for the commercial and retail zones.

4. The green zones are used as connecting spaces for different zones and also

for developing the city aesthetics and maintaining a green environment

throughout.

23.7. ROAD NETWORKS

FIGURE 59 ROAD NETWORKS

The road pattern consists of a long central avenue stretching the full length of

the site with collector roads branching off...

89
The Central avenue stretches from the GST road till the end of the business

zone in the DTA in the Northwest- southeast axis.

The sub arterial roads that branches off the central avenue to cater commercial

zones is provided with a 4-lane 2 way road without median. These roads are

also provided with sidewalks on both sides.

FIGURE 60 ROAD SECTIONS

A typical side-walk in MWC features:

 a central path of 1.5m with its length bordered by bushes and Flowering

plants thus defining the path aesthetically.

 Seating’s that are provided in the bushes for relaxation on the

Passages

90
23.8. WATER SUPPLY:

 The city has 8 water bodies, including a perennial lake, that

Border the site at various locations which serve to increase the ground

water table.

 Two Storage tanks with capacity of 80,000 litters are installed along with

2 respective water treatment plants.

 A total area of about 7 acres are allotted for the Water Treatment plants to

treat the water to make it potable

 Also bore wells are dug for secondary water purposes in the plugged in

infrastructure. The utilities and services are well distributed in the site

area in all its stretch and corner.

 A water treatment plant, an electric substation & solid waste management

plant is integrated just outside the special economic zone at an ideal

location of central access from all the points in the designed city. The

treatment plants are located in 2 distinct locations well apart from each

other that serve potable water to areas along its radius in the business and

commercial zones with ease reducing the load of pumping. Thus on the

whole covering all the regions of the site with ease.

 The residential enclaves built will feature a separate WTPs each serving

the individual campuses.

91
FIGURE 61 WATER TANK VIEWS

92
23.9. STROM WATER DRAINAGE

 The MWC is well designed to easily maintain and reduce the storm water

run-off throughout the city.

 The location advantage helps in making an effective and efficient design,

channelling the storm water runoff safely to the surrounding lakes.

 The Kovalai lake which has a huge stretch till Chengalpattu

region acts as the largest reservoir for the storm water harvest.

FIGURE 62 STROM WATER DRAINAGE

93
23.10. SEWERAGE AND TREATMENT PLANT:

 The sewer water and waste removal both solid and liquid would be paltry

as the industries would be pollution free.

 The sewage is well collected in the treatment plants as they are located

ideally in the lowest portions of the site near the Kolavai lake.

 IT companies have their own STP installed to maintain their respective

sewage effectively

 The treated effluent from the main STP is reused for other secondary

purpose

 The STP is located in selected ideal location in the lowest portion near

the major lake around the site- Kolavai lak

 It is located in the residential zone as maximum offices in the Business

zones have their individual STP’s to manage the Sewage.

 In addition the Residential enclaves will to have their individual own

STPs

23.11. POWER SUPPLY AND SYSTEMS:

A. GRID POWER

- Incoming power is through 2 x 33 kV feeders.

- Power distributed through 6 x 2500 kva transformers.

- On–site 230 KV substation for fail safe power.

94
B. CAPTIVE POWER:

- Adequate backup power using 5 nos. 2000KVA and one no.

500 kVA DG sets totalling 10.5 mVA. (8.5 MW) for high reliability for

plug

- All DG sets are on AMF panel to ensure that all emergency services

such as select lifts, corridor lighting etc. are energized immediately on

failure of main power.

- The DG sets are housed in an acoustically treated enclosure

- Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) system is installed for pollution

control.

FIGURE 63 DRAINGE SETION

23.12. FIRE SAFETY:

FIRE ALARM/FIRE PROTECTION: INDIVIDUAL BUILDINGS AND

CAMPUSES:

95
Intelligent Analog Addressable System using ionization detector, heat detectors,

optical detectors and MCPs.

 Emergency warning through Hooters / Announcements.

 Automatic Shutdown of AHUs, fans, etc, in case of Fire.

 The fire protection system is installed to comply with the local fire codes

and the National Building Code (NBC) of India.

 An underground sump will store 615,000 liters of water exclusively for

fire fighting.

 A wet riser cum dowser system with yard hydrants including host reels is

installed in all floors.

 All doors are designed with adequate fire retardant ratings to prevent

spread of fire.

 Main and standby pump sets with a capacity to pump water at 2850 litre /

min as well as a Sprinkler system and portable extinguishers confirming

to IS standards is provided for automatic and immediate fire fighting.

 Reliable power infrastructure and competitive tariff incentive from

Government.

 The power supplied would be continuous as it would be supplied directly

from the grid and the area of the special economic zone would also have a

backup power supply facility in case shut downs. Thus uninterrupted

power supply from dual source.

96
 Sprinklers installed every 4 meter's. Can quench fires without manual

intervention.

 Emulsifier Systems are provided for indoor transformers. Smoke and

Heat detectors are provided in Offices, Common areas and Ducts.

 For orderly evacuation in case of emergency there exists an intelligent

addressable Fire Alarm System with speakers in Office and common

areas.

 Stair cases from ground floor to top floor can be used as fire escapes.

 All the staircases are pressurized to prevent spread of fire.

 All shafts are fire stopped to prevent propagation of fire.

23.13. ANALYSIS - Zone placements:

FIGURE 64 ANALYSIS ONE

97
The business and the lifestyle zones are designed well distinct with both the

zones connected by a green belt consisting of well designed Parks serving the

residential clusters & commercial segments.

23.13.1. THE RESIDENTIAL ZONE

The Residential/Social Zone master planned for 6000 homes is colocated in

close proximity to the Industrial Zone with varied social amenities built into the

master plan comprising residential units, school, hospital, business hotel, hostel,

multiplex, retail malls, recreation and leisure facilities.

The residential area is designed into various enclaves as follows,

 IRIS COUR

 AQUA LILLY

 SYLVAN COUNTY
98
All the residential enclaves are designed to be self sufficient with

Dedicated landscapes, parks, clubhouses, play courts, jogging tracks,

Treatment units for water/sewage, power management systems, other

Utilities etc.

Figure 65 IRIS COUR VIEWS

Figure 66 AQUA LILLY

99
23.13.2.RETAIL/COMMERCIAL ZONE:

 The retail/commercial zone is not totally centralised in one location but

well distributed to serve wide range of population in the city and its

surroundings in an effective way.

 The commercial zone consists of a lifestyle, commercial shopping centre

which is first of its kind in Mahindra city offers several retail and

entertainment options in an area of 60,000 sq. ft.

FIGURE 67 CANOPY VIEW

100
24. COMPARITIVE STUDY

101
102
103
104
25. SPECIAL STUDY

25.1. OPEN SPACES

Its open spaces that gives definition to a town because it create a structure you

can hold in the mind and at the same time gives people the very things that hold

them and in cities, what we now call “liveability” and “quality of life”.

Open spaces is the very antithesis of city. Open spaces can be

25.1.1. Active:

It includes spaces like play courts and athletic fields. Careful lighting

designing is required.

21.1.2.Passive:

Mainly includes spaces like picketing, walking, riding, cycling, and

nature appreciations. Free in form.

25.2. Open system spaces:

Open spaces swatches, swaths, and sweeps contributing in useful, positive

ways-especially when each in itself is well suited to its function.

A colourful tot lot tumbling with kids, for example, can add sparkle and life to a

neighbourhood. A parking compound with easy turning movements, up-lighted

trees, and planed islands can provide an inviting welcome to the community

centre.
105
A bustling shopping with its appealing sights, sounds, and smells can make on

agreeable setting for the offices and apartments crowded around.

Open spaces comes in larger sizes as well as in sports fields, recreation centres,

and riverfront park.

There are the school and institutional grounds and business office campuses.

Each open space in itself, if well conceived, adds its bit to the city. It lets the

sunlight in and the breezes blow through.

It complements the adjacent structures and enhances their use and appearance.

It provides linkage to other buildings and other activity nodes.

Then too there are the linear open paths,

walk-ways, bikeways, the parkways, and the

freeways. All with their own spatial qualities,

are best conceived as space-to-space

connectors. FIGURE 68 VIEW OF OPEN SPACES

Connection and sequential interconnection suggest an open space network or

system.

Outdoor space is by its very nature a system. As a continuum it flows, knows no

bounds, and is a composite of many variable interacting subsystems which

together are all-encompassing.

106
FIGURE 69 OUTDOOR SPACE

25.3. What constitutes open spaces?

o Green spaces

o Vegetated land

o Structure

o Water

o Geological features

o Civic spaces

o Civic square

o Market places

o Paved or hard

o Landscape areas.

25.4. TYPES OF OPEN SPACES:

FIGURE 70 PUBLIC PARK AND GARDEN

107
25.4.1. Public parks and gardens:

Areas of land normally enclosed, designed, constructed, managed and

maintained as a public park or garden, private gardens or grounds.

Areas of land normally enclosed and associated with a house or institution and

reserved for private use.

25.4.2. Amenity Green space:

Landscape areas providing visual amenity or separating different buildings or

land uses for environmental, visual or safety reasons that is road verges or green

space in business parks, used for variety or informal or social activities.

25.4.4. Play spaces for a children and teenagers:

Areas are providing safe and accessible opportunities for children’s play,

usually linked to housing areas.

25.4.5. Green Corridors:

Routes including canals, river corridors

and old railway lines, linking different

and managed network and used for

walking, cycling or house riding, or

linking towns and cities to their


FIGURE 71 GREEN CORRIDORS
surrounding countryside or country

parks.
108
25.4.5. Civic spaces:

Squares, streets and waterfront

promenades, predominantly of hard

landscaping that provides a focus for

pedestrian activity and make

connections for people and for

wildlife, where trees and planting are FIGURE 72 CIVIC SPACES

included.

25.5. WHAT MAKES A PLEASANT\GOOD OPEN SPACES?

 Access and linkage

 Comfort and image

 Uses and activities

 Sociability

25.5.1. Features of an open spaces:

 Identity

 Safe and pleasant

 Ease of movement

 A sense of welcome

 Adaptability

 Good use of resources

109
25.5.2. Users of open spaces:

 Lingerers

 Passers-through

 Male/female

 Different age groups

 Design must focus such that these 2 users do not conflict at any

places or time.

25.6. ELEMENTS TO BE CONSIDERED:

25.6.1.Circulation:

People take the shortest distance to reach

from A to B.

Create views, easy access to coffee shops,

amenities. FIGURE 73 CIRCULATION & PLANTING

Must facilitate the old people and the physically challenged.

25.6.2. Planting:

Various heights varieties, to give perception of change in color, light, grounds

slope, smells, sounds, and textures.

Screening activities like picnicking, sleeping, reading, sunbath, sprawling, other

casual activities.

110
25.6.3. Seating:

Done to view the passer by. Created at the

sides\ edges of the pedestrian way primary

and secondary type of seating’s.

Range of seating in sunny areas and shaded

areas.
FIGURE 74 SEATING

Different level of privacy of seating’s (planter boxes serve this purpose).

25.6.4. Level changes:

To create sub areas.

Separating seating\pedestrian regions.

Visual connections is still too be

maintained.
FIGURE 75 LEVEL CHANGES

Sunken regions and elevated regions must have elements views to attack people.

25.6.5. Public art and sculpture:

Create joy and delight.

Can or cannot interact with the art.

Speaks\communication to public.

Fountain for visual and aural attraction. FIGURE 76 PUBIC ART AND SCULPTURE
111
Sculpture in centre (making the space as a background to it), or on side.

25.7. PUBLIC SPACES AND SOCIAL RELATIONS:

The social value of public spaces lay in opportunities for mixing with others and

developing local attachment, and in people’s memories of places. The

possibilities for casual social encounters were a key element in people’s

commitment to their area, while memories of familier places created a sense of

belonging or safety.

FIGURE 77 PUBLIC SPACES AND SOCIAL


RELATIONS

Public spaces provided an important arena for experiencing ethnic diversity on

an everyday basis. Though there could also be tensions at times, certain places

in Newham were valued for providing opportunities for social contact between

different ethnic groups.

Everyday places had therapeutic functions. Some people discussed the benefits

of green spaces as places to unwind, enjoy leisure activities, observe others,

seek solitude or appreciate the natural environment. But just many pointed to
112
streets or markets as places the made them feel good; the benefits came more

from enjoying the vibrancy of urban life and seeing others.

The researchers concluded that:

The many uses and benefits of spaces such as streets and markets need wider

policy recognition; an emphasis on design criteria in public space policy, or on

economic benefits in regeneration policy, should not over shadow the social and

therapeutic value of public spaces; the findings have implications for the wider

’community cohesion’, ‘sustainable communities’ and ‘choosing health’ policy

agendas.

Public spaces provided an important arena for experiencing ethnic diversity.

Certain places provided opportunities for dissimilar people to mix, and were

recognized as settings for developing tolerance. For example:

A neighbourhood and semi-domestic spaces such as shared forecourts, and

residential streets, most commonly provided the first point of contact between

neighbours of different ethnic groups. Continued regular use of these areas was

instrumental in developing good relations.

A neighbourhood park adjacent to a primary school brought groups of people

together. While residents saw informal games and sports in the park as a

principal means of encounter for young people, meetings between parents in the

113
school lobby led to greater shared use of the park. Together, the school and park

were seen as bringing different communities closer.

A market attracting locals and strangers encouraged casual encounters between

different ethnic groups who would otherwise mot come into contact. A white

British woman who used the market said that applied to both shoppers and

traders.

25.8. CONCLUSION:

People need a variety of public open spaces within their local area to

meet a range of everyday needs: spaces to linger as well as spaces of transit;

spaces that people together as well as spaces of retreat. Green spaces have been

a key focus of policy research over recent years. This study indicates that the

multiple uses and benefits of hard spaces such as streets and markets also need

to be more widely acknowledged.

Ordinary public spaces can also help to support ‘choosing health’

objectives for encouraging exercise and healthier diets. In Newham, such spaces

are Important for recreation, while markets-as providers of cheap, healthy food-

are an invaluable asset in poorer areas.

114
25.9. GREEN WAYS:

FIGURE 78 GREEN WAYS

Continuity is considered as highly desirable feature of recreational open spaces,

foremost is interconnection by the roadways themselves-especially those of

lower speeds, such as the local loop drives and parkways.

These may have supplementary lanes marked for cyclers or pedestrians. Better

yet, if the right-of-way is of ample width, there may be a separate, undulating

walkway reserved for those on foot exclusively.

Circulation drives, if of sufficient right-of-way dimension, offer an ideal

opportunity for park like planting and separated paths for automobiles, bicycles

and pedestrians.

Pathways may thread through planned neighbourhoods, communities,

institutional grounds, office parks, and commercial malls. They may extend to

be and through the most intensive urban centres, adding interest as they go.

Far and away the most desirable routing, however, and one so often overlooked,

is one that follows the course of the drainage ways and streams. Here the native
115
vegetation is most generally undisturbed. Here the air seems fresher, the breezes

cooler in the summertime, and even the song of the birds more lilting.

FIGURE 9

Essential Superior greenway systems will provide:

25.9.1Safety:

They will avoid the crossing of high-speed vehicular traffic ways. They will

afford protection from falls, as from a precipice or into deep or swift water.

Hazards such as sharp objects, electrical wiring, or unexpected obstructions will

be provided.

116
25.9.2. Convenience:

They will be close to where people live and work-providing connection

between neighbourhoods, schools, shopping centers, parks, historic sites,

outstanding natural and scenic features, and the continuity and convenience are

always to be kept in mind.

25.9.3. Comfort and Pleasure:

A sweeping or meandering alignment, undulation profile, and variable widths

add interest and enjoyment to a pathway. Suitable gradients and good footing

contribute their measure of comfort.

25.9.4. Alignment:

Greenways, and blue ways which follow the shore or streams, may be routed

through the urban and regional open space frame , its drainage ways and

floodplains. They may traverse state and national forest lands, parks, recreation

areas, wildlife preserves, and conservation easements. They may follow

abandoned roadbeds through farmland and forest. They may share highway

rights of way and multiple use transmission corridors which lead to and through

city neighbourhoods and urban activity centres.

117
25.10. PLAZAS

To create an urban plaza, urban designers must know what kind to make,

where to place it, how to design it to provide a humanizing contribution JR

urban life. Contemporary plaza types include the street plaza, corporate foyer,

the urban oasis, the transit foyer, and the grand public place. Design

recommendations on all these types are reviewed including location, size, visual

complexity, activities, microclimate, boundaries, circulation, seating, planning,

public art, paving and related amenities.

25.10.1. Types of plazas:

Down town spaces can be categorized in many ways by size, relationship

to street, style, predominant function, architectural form, location, and so on.

This article is concerned with the interplay f form and use, how the physical

environment influences activities, socialization, or simply repose. The

classification is based on a mix of form and use, moving from smallest to

largest in size. The typology is not necessarily exhaustive; rather it is presented

as a starting point for design thinking about downtown plaza areas. The

typology is an attempt to make some sense of the varied categories of

downtown open space in cities. It can be applied to most cities as a basis for;

understanding the variety of spaces described as urban plazas, categorizing

plaza spaces in a specific city, and developing local guidelines for specific plaza

types.

118
25.10.2. The street plaza:

The street plaza is a small portion of public open space immediately

ijacent to the sidewalk and closely connected to the street. It sometimes is a

widening of the sidewalk itself or an extension of it under an arcade. Such

spaces are generally used for brief periods of sitting, waiting, and watching.

They tend to be used more by me than by women.

25.10.3. The widened sidewalk:

A widened portion of the sidewalk that is furnished with seating blocks,

steps, or bollards. Used primarily for viewing passersby

25.10.4. The bus place:

A portion of a sidewalk at a bus stop ,sometimes furnished with a bench,

shelter, kiosk, or litter container.

25.10.5. The pedestrian link:

An outdoor passage or alley connects two blocks or sometimes, two

plazas,

25.10.6. The corner sun pocket:

A building footprint that is designed to open up a small plaza where to

streets meet and where there is access to sun during the peak lunchtime period.

119
25.10.7. The arcade plaza:

A Sidewalk that is widened by means of an extension under a building

overhang.

25.10.8. The corporate foyer

The impressive forecourt. The federal office building, seattle, has a plaza

intended primarily as a walking route to an important building ,with trees,

sculpture, but few places to sit. The corporate foyer is part of a new, generally

high rise building complex. Its principle function is to provide an attractive,

often elegant entry and image for its corporate sponsor. It is usually privately

owned but accessible to the public. It is sometimes locked after business hours.

25.10.11. The urban oasis

The urban oasis is a type of plaza that is more heavily planet, has a

garden or park image, and is partially secluded from the street. Its location and

design deliberately set this place apart from the noise and reading, socializing,

and it is the one category that tends to attract more women than men, or at least

equal proportions of each. The urban oasis has a quiet reflective quality.

25.10.10. The outdoor lunch plaza:

A plaza separated from the street by a level change or a pierced wall and

furnished for comfortable lunchtime use.

120
25.10.11. The garden oasis:

A small plaza, often enclosed and secluded from the street, whose high

density and variety of planting conveys a garden image.

FIGURE 80 GARDEN OASIS FIGURE 81 ROOF GARDEN

25.10.12. The roof garden:

A rooftop area developed as a garden setting for sitting, walking and

viewing.

25.10.13. The grand public place:

The grand public space comes closes to our image of the old-world town

square or plaza. When located near a diversity of land uses(office, retail,

warehouse, transit) it tends to attract users from a greater distance and in greater

variety than do other plazas. Such a plaza is often big and flexible enough to

host brown-bag lunch crowds; outdoor cafes; passers through; and the

occasional concerts, art shows, exhibits, and rallies. It is usually a public area

owned and is often considered “the heart of the city.”


121
25.10.14. The city plaza:

An area predominately hard surfaced, centrally located, and highly visible. It is

often the setting for programmed events such as concerts, performances, and

political rallies.

25.10.15. The city square:

A centrally located, often historic place where major thoroughfares

intersect. Unlike many other kinds of plazas, it is not attached to a particular

building; rather, it often encompasses one or more complete city blocks and is

usually bounded by streets.

25.11. DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS AND CHECKLIST:

The best locations are those that attract a variety of users and both active

and passive used. A study of the effect of context on the use of five downtown

Minneapolis plazas found that the most frequently used plaza was in the area of

greatest land use diversity, where office and retail districts overlapped. In

determining whether or not a new plaza would be an asset in the proposed

location, designer and client should ask the following questions.

1. Does the analysis of nearby public open space indicate that a proposed

new space will be welcomed and used.

2. Have the client and designer determined for which function the plaza

should be designed? For example, as a visual setback for a building,

122
transition zone, lunchtime relaxation, bus waiting, sidewalk cafes,

displays or exhibits, performances, or mid-block pedestrian

thoroughfare.

3. Have the correlations between block location and type of space been

considered, either in choosing a location for the plaza within an entire

planned development, or in determining how best configure, and detail

a particularly located plaza. For example has the high-use potential of

a corner location at grade been considered, or the oasis potential of a

mid-block cul-de-sac location.

4. Assuming a catchment area of 900 ft.(274 m),will a currently

unnerved population be served by the proposed development.

5. Are there many workers in the catchment area, to ensure a lunchtime

clientele.

6. Is the plaza located where a diversity of people can use it, for

example, workers, tourists, and shoppers.

7. Does the location of the plaza tie into an existing or proposed

pedestrian system for downtown.

8. Does the local climate warrant providing a plaza if an outdoor space

can be used for less over three months of the year, and additional

public indoor space should be considered.

123
To minimize vandalism and the presence of ”undesirables” (or to render them

inconspicuous in the crowd), has the plaza been designed to encouraged heavy

use, other than by “hardening” the design.

25.11.1. Microclimate:

Climatic considerations involve thinking carefully about sunlight,

temperature, wind, precipitation, and overall comfort. Comfortable outdoor

conditions can be modified by bioclimatic design, including shading, planting

and evaporative cooling in summer and solar exposure and wind protection in

winter. Easy indoor/outdoor access to and from conditioned indoor public

spaces should also be considered for greater variability. Is the plaza sited too

receive maximum, year around sunshine, providing sun exposed areas and

shaded areas, especially where people may sit at different times.

Where the summers are very hot, is shade provided by means of

vegetation, canopies, trellises, and so on.

As a city policy, is building height and mass controlled to preserve and

enhance solar access, that is, sunlight reaching public open spaces.

Does glare from adjacent buildings be used to brighten the plaza’s

shadowed areas.

Have local wind patterns been evaluated for the plaza site. Will windiness

lead to nonuser, particularly in cities with marginally hot summers.

124
25.11.2. Boundaries

A plaza should be perceived as a distinct place, and yet must be visible

and functionally accessible to passersby. Exposure to adjacent sidewalks is

essential a successful plaza has one of preferably two sides exposure to public

rights of way, the more likely that they are to feel invited into it; thus they are

already in the plaza. Even a minor barrier or level change can considerably

reduce the number of passersby who enter and use a plaza.

25.11.3. Size:

Given that every location and context is different, have the suggestions by

lunch and Gehi been considered in regard to limiting plaza dimensions.

25.11.4. Visual complexity:

1. Does the design incorporate a wide variety of forms, colors, and

textures-foundations, sculptures different places to sit, nooks and

corners, plants and shrubs, changes in level.

2. If a complex view from the plaza is possible, has the design

capitalized on it.

25.11.5. Uses and activities:

1. Has the plaza been designed to accommodate either lingerers or passers

through or if both functions are to be included, have distinct subareas of the

plaza been provided to avoid conflict.


125
2. If people are encouraged to take shortcuts through the plaza, have

barriers between the sidewalk and plaza been eliminated, including grade

changes.

3. To encourage people to stop and linger in the plaza, have dense

furnishings, attractive focal elements, and defined edges been used. If concerts,

rallies, and so on anticipated, have unimpeded open areas been provided.

IMAGE 1 IMAGE 2

IMAGE 3

Image 1: casual or “secondary” seating on steps, walls, mounds, and planters

does not appear empty when people are not present.

Image 2: walking and sitting are two activities accommodated in this plaza in

the French quarter of New Orleans.

Image 3: Men tend to predominate in up-front, on display locations in urban

plaza.
126
26. REQUIREMENTS

AREA CALCLULATION:

SITE AREA: - 350457.8 Sq.m (86.6 ACRES)

FSI: - 2 (Apartment & Commercial)

FSI: - 1.5 (OTHERS)

APARTMENT FSI CALCULATION :-

FSI = TO BUILT UP AREA / PLOT AREA

2.0 = TO BUILT UP AREA / 153781

TO BUILT UP = FSI * 153781

= 2.0 * 153781

= 307562 Sq.m

COMMERCIAL FSI CALCULATION :-

FSI = TO BUILT UP AREA / PLOT AREA

2.0 = TO BUILT UP AREA / 77700

TO BUILT UP = FSI * 77700

= 2.0 * 77700

= 155400 Sq.m

127
OVER ALL BUILT UP AREA - 515165 Sq.m

* APARTMENT BUILT UP - 307562 Sq.m

* SOCIAL INFRA BUILT UP - 52203 Sq.m

* COMMERCIAL BUILT UP - 155400 Sq.m

ACHIEVABLE BUILT UP AREA - 195635 Sq.m

OPEN SPACE - 54% - 190202 Sq.m (47 ACRES)

PLINTH AREA - 31 % - 98636 (26.8 ACRES)

ROAD - 15 % - 51799 (12.8 ACRES)

* APPARTMENTS - 22128 Sq.m

* VILLA - 22600 Sq.m

* CLUB HOUSE - 3160 Sq.m

* OFFICE - 7498 Sq.m

* BOUTIQUE - 5696 Sq.m

* HOSPITAL - 8928.5 Sq.m

* SHOPPING MALL - 24425.5 Sq.m

* SCHOOL - 4200 Sq.m

FOR APARTMENT, NO. OF. FLOORS - G+17

128
FOR VILLA, NO. OF. FLOORS - G+1

FOR CLUB HOUSE - G+1

FOR SHOPPING MALL - G+3

FOR OFFICE - G+10

FOR SCHOOL - G+2

FOR HOSPITAL - G+2

APARTMENT BLOCK:

TOTAL NO. OF. BLOCKS - 10 BLOCKS

NO. OF. FLOORS - G+17

2 BHK - 102 Sq.m (1100 Sq.ft)

3BHK - 138 Sq.m (1485 Sq.ft)

4BHK - 180 Sq.m (1937.5 Sq.ft)

DUPLEX - TYPE 1 - 243 Sq.m (2615 Sq.ft)

DUPLEX - TYPE 2 - 260 Sq.m (2790 Sq.ft)

VILLA:

TOTAL NO. OF. UNITS -

NO. OF. FLOORS - G+1

129
AREA - 306 Sq.m (3294 Sq.ft)

SCHOOL:-

AREA - 4200 Sq.m

NO. OF. FLOORS - G+2

CLUB HOUSE:-

AREA - 3160 Sq.m

NO. OF. FLOORS - G+1

HEALTH CARE:-

AREA - 8928.5 Sq.m

NO. OF. FlOORS - G+2

130
SHOPPING MALL:-

AREA

NO. OF. FLOORS - G+3

OFFICE:-

TOTAL NO. OF. BLOCKS -1

AREA - 7498 Sq.m

NO. OF. FLOORS - G+10

131
27. SITE ANALYSIS STUDY

132
133
134