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Way of Citation

(The BlueBook)

1 Cases (U.S. Supreme Court Case)


First Party v. Second Party Report Volume Number Report Abbreviation First Page Case,
Specific Page Referred to (Year).
Ex. Meritor Sav Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57, 60 (1986).
2 Constitutions (14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution)
Abbreviation of Constitution Cited Abbreviation for Amendment Number of Amendment Cited,
Section Symbol and Specific Section Cited.
Ex. U.S. CONST. amend. XIV, § 2.
Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993, art. 44.
Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, amend. Feb. 15, 2008, art. 68.
3 Statutes (U.S. Code)
Official Name of Act, Code Title Number Abbreviation of Code Cited Section Symbols and
Span of Sections Containing Statute (Year).
Ex. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 S.S.C. §§
9601-9675 (1994).
4 Regulations (U.S. Code Federal Regulation)
Code Regulation Federation Title Number Abbreviation of Set of Regulations Cited Section
Symbol and Specific Section Cited (Year).
Ex. 7 C.F.R. § 319.76 (1999).
5 Books
5.1. Books, one author
BRUCE ACKERMAN, WE THE PEOPLE: TRANSFORMATIONS (1998).
author book's title year
KENNETH W. DAM, THE RULES OF THE GLOBAL GAME: A NEW LOOK AT U.S.
INTERNATIONAL POLICYMAKING 115-25 (2001).
page number
5.2. Books, multiple authors
DOUGLAS G. BAIRD, ROBERT H. GERTNER & RANDAL C PICKER, GAME THEORY AND
THE LAW (1994). or (more than two authors, et al. can be used)
DOUGLAS G. BAIRD ET AL., GAME THEORY AND THE LAW (1994).
5.3. Books, multiple editions
RECHARD A. POSNER, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LAW (6th ed. 2003).
sixth edition edition abbr.
5.4. Books, single volume in multivolume work

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2 RALPH H. FOLSOM, INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS 76-92 (2d ed. 2002)
volume second edition
5.5. Books, edited
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LAW: SELECTED READINGS (Donald A. Wittman ed., 2003)
name of editor editor abbr.
5.6. Chapter in edited books
Michael Sandel, What Money Can't Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets, IN 21 TANNER
LECTURES ON HUMAN VALUES 89 (Grethe B. Peterson ed., 2000).
5.7. Books (James and Hazard's Treatise on Civil Procedure)
Full Name of Author, Title of Book Section Symbol and Specific Section Cited (Edition Cited Year).
Ex. FLEMING JAMES, JR. & GEOFFREY C. HAZARD JR, CIVIL PROCEDURE § 2.35 (3d ed. 1985).
5.8. Books (Charles Dickens' Bleak House) third edition
Full Name of Author, Title of Book Page Cited (Editor's Full Name Abbreviation for "Editor",
Publisher of Edition Cited Year of Edition Cited) (Year of Publication).
Ex. CHARLES DICKENS, BLEAK HOUSE 50 (Morman Page ed., Penguin Books 1971) (1983).
5.9. Working Papers
Full Name of Author, Title of Article Page cited (Publisher of Edition Cited, Working Paper
Number Cited, Year).
Ex. SOPHAL CHAN & SARTHI ACHARYA, FACING A CHALLENGE OF RURAL LIVELIHOODS: A
PERSPECTIVE FROM NINE VILLAGES IN CAMBODIA 15 (Cambodia Development Resource Institute,
Working Paper No. 25, December 2002).
5.10. Dictionary
BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY 241 (7th ed. 1999).
page number seventh edition (name of author is not required.)
6 Articles (American Journal)
Author, Title of Article, Volume Number of Journal Title of Journal First Page Number of Article,
Page Number Referred to (Year).
Ex. Steve A. McKeon, Note, Public Access to Beaches, 22 STANFORD L. REV. 564, 583 (1970).
journal title (small caps)

7 Footnotes of Articles
Author, Title of Articles, Volume Number of Journal Title of Journal First Page Number of Article,
Page Cited Footnote Number (Year).
Ex. Akhil Reed Amar, The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciary Act of 1789, 138 U. PA. L. REV. 1499,
1525 n.80 (1990).
8 Reports
8.1. Numbered federal reports and documents
Name of the house, number of Congress-number of report, the part or page number on which the
material being cited appears (year of publication).
H.R. REP. NO. 99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1985).

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S. REP. NO. 95-601, at 7 (1955).
H.R. REP. NO. 98-1037, at 3 (1084) (Conf. Rep.). for a conference report
8.2. Titles and authors
8.2.1. Authors
Name of the author, name of the title, name of the house, number of Congress-number of
report, the part and/or page number, (year of publication).
Ex. CARLTON KOEPGE, THE ROAD TO INDUSTRIAL PEACE, H.R. DOC. NO. 82-563, at 29-30 (1953).
8.2.2. No authors (institutional authors)
Name of the institution, name of the title, name of the house, number of Congress-number of
report, the part and/or page number (year of publication).
Ex. U.S. IMMIGRATION COMM’N, IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION, S. DOC. NO. 61-758, at 613 (3d Sess.
1911).
8.3. Unnumbered federal documents and committee prints
8.3.1. Authors
Name of author, name of largest institutional division or included smaller unit if necessary, name
of title, page number (year).
Ex. JUDITH A. LHAMON, NAT’L ASS’N FOR LAW PLACEMENT, A FAIR SHAKE: LAWFUL AND
EFFECTIVE INTERVIEWING 3 (1987).
8.3.2. No authors (institutional authors)
Name of the subdivision prepared the work, name of overall body, name of the title, the part
and/or page number, (year of publication).
Ex. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CTR., STATE CRIME COMM’N, CRIME IN GEORGIA 41 (1980).
STAFF OF S. COMM. ON THE JUDICIARY, 81ST CONG., REPORT ON ANTITRUST LAW 17 (Comm.
Print 1950).
8.4. State materials
8.4.1. No titles
Abbreviated name of legislative body, the number of legislative body-number of the report or
document, the number of legislative session, the part and/or page number (year).
Ex. S. 178-247, 1st Sess., at 4 (Pa. 1994).
state abbreviation is required if it is not clear from the title
or author information appearing in the citation
8.4.2. Titles with institutional authors
Name of the institution, name of the title, abbreviated name of legislative body, the number of
legislative body-number of the report or document, the number of legislative session, the part
and/or page number (year).
Ex. COMMONWEALTH OF PA. DEP’T OF AGRIC., ANNUAL REPROT OF THE STATE FOOD PURCHASE
PROGRAM, S. 178-247, 1st Sess., at 4 (1994).
9 Magazine Articles
Name of Author, Title of Article, Name of Magazine, Cover Date of Issue, at First Page of Article.
Ex. Robert J. Samuelson, A Slow Fix for the Banks, NEWSWEEK, Feb. 18, 1991, at 55.
10 Newspaper Articles
Name of Writer, Headline, Name of Newspaper, Date of Article, at Page on which Article Appears.

3 By Dr. Phalthy Hap


Ex. Seth Mydans, Los Angeles Police Chief Removed for 60 Days in Inquiry on Beating, N.Y. TIMES,
Apr. 5, 1991, at A1.
If is not clear from the name of the newspaper name, add the place of publication in the parenthesis.
Ex. Trial Judge Will Not Give Enquiry Evidence, TIMES (London), June 13, 1990, at 3.
11 Unpublished and Forthcoming Sources
10.1. Manuscripts
Anatoliy Bizhko, Capitalism and Democracy 25 (Feb. 29, 2000) (unpublished manuscript, on
file with The Yale Law Journal). page date of manuscript
10.2. Dissertations and Theses
Karen Rubinstein Morton, Cognitive Complexity and Multicultural Assessment (2000)
(unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University) (on file with author).
David S. Friedman, Specialization and Professionalization: The Increasing Division of Labor
Within the American Legal Profession 32 (1993) (unpublished A.B. thesis, Harvard
University) (on file with the Harvard University Library).
10.3. Letters
Letter from Renee Chenault, News Anchor, NBC 10 Philadelphia, to Robert Toll, President,
Toll Brothers, Inc. 3 (Feb. 23, 2000) (on file with the University of Pennsylvania Law
Review).
10.4. Memoranda
Memorandum from the Ad Hoc Committee on Women and Clerkships, to the Faculty of Yale
Law School 14 (Feb. 13, 1991) (on file with author).
10.5. Press Releases
Press Release, Screen Actors Guild, Screen Actors Guild Hails Passage of California Privacy
Law (Sept. 30, 1998) (on file with author).
10.6. Interviews
Interview with Patricia Keane, Editor-in-Chief, UCLA Law Review, in Los Angeles, Cal.
(Mar. 2, 2000). the location of the interview
(for an in-person interview)
Interview by Lauren Brook Eisen with Shane Spradlin, CEO, Nextel Communications,
Potomac, Md. (Mar. 1, 2000). name of the interviewer who is not the author
10.7. Speeches and Addresses
Senator Hubert Humphrey, Address at Harvard Law Review Annual Banquet (Mar. 29, 2000)
Herbert Wechsler, Remarks at the Meeting of the Bar of the Supreme Court of the United
States in Memory of Chief Justice Stone 5 (Nov. 12, 1947) (transcript available in the
Columbia Law School Library). the address is inscribed in this library

James A. Baker, Principles and Pragmatism: American Policy Toward the Arab-Israeli
Conflict, Address Before the American-Israeli Public Affairs Committee (May 22, 1989), in
DEP'T ST. BULL., July 1989, at 24-25. the address is published

10.8. Forthcoming Publications

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Cite a book, article, or other work scheduled for publication in the same manner as the
published piece would be cited, with the same typefaces, except: (i) there is no page cite following
the title of the journal or book; (ii) the designation "forthcoming" is included in the date
parenthetical; and (iii) the month of publication, if available, should be included in the date
parenthetical in addition to the year.
Dnaiel R. Garodnich, Comment, What's the BID Deal: Can the Grand Central Business
Improvement District Serve a Special Limited Purpose?, 148 U. PA. L. REV. (forthcoming
May 2000).
SARNAH BARRINGER GORDON, THE TWIN RELICS OF BARBERISM (forthcoming 2001).
F. Brandon Baer & James M. Feldam, We're Low on Vermouth: The Trials and Tribulations of
Two Summer Assoicates, 1 J.L. & OPPRESSION (forthcoming 2001) (manuscript at 3, on file
with authors).

12 Internet
 When the traditional source is accessed, increased accessibility to the source may be
provided in the form of a parallel citation to the Internet using "available at":
Ex. Am. Mining Cong. v. U.S. Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. CIV.A.93-1754-SSH (D.D.C.
Jan. 23, 1997), available at http://www.wetlands.com/fed/tulloch1.htm.
 If only the Internet is accessed, provide the traditional and Internet citations using no
explanatory phrase:
Ex. Minnesota v. McArthur & Randall R. Smith, No. C4-99-502 (Minn. Ct. App. Sept. 28,
1999), http://www.courts.state.mn.us/library/archive/ctapun/9909/502.htm.
 If the material is found exclusively on the Internet, use the explanatory phrase "at":
Ex. J.T. Westermeier, Ethical Issues for Lawyers on the Internet and World Wide Web, 6
RICH. J.L. & TECH. 5, 7 (1999), at http://www.richmond.edu/jolt/v6il/westermeier.html.
13 Films and Broadcasts
Cite films in large and small capitals, and television or radio broadcasts in italics, by title, episode
name (if available), and exact date (if available). Include the name of the company or network that
produced or aired the films or broadcast:
► Airplane! (Paramount Pictures 1980).
► Law & Order: Tabula Rasa (NBC television broadcast Apr. 21, 1999).
► Reportage: People Complaint about Landlessness (RFA radio broadcast Feb. 11, 2007).
NB:
Id.  Refer to the same previous footnote.
Id. at 100-106.  Refer to the same previous footnote but different only page number.
Supra note 4.  Refer to the above footnote number 4. Supra note can be used (unless “id.”
is appropriate) when an authority has been fully cited previously.
Supra note may refer to the same previous footnote but different vision. If the above footnote
refers to the page number in the source, this footnote refers to the whole
source.
Ex: 1. BRUCE ACKERMAN, WE THE PEOPLE: TRANSFORMATIONS 24 (1998).

2. Supra note 1. Because it refers to the whole book of the above footnote.

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Supra note 4, at 65-70.  Refer to the same footnote number 4 but at pages 65-70. Supra
note can be subsequent footnote if the previous footnote contains
several authorities.
38
Edward B. Rock, Saints and Sinners: How does Delaware Corporate Law
Work?, 44 UCLA L. REV. 1009, 1016-17 (1997) [hereinafter Rock, Saint
and Sinners]; Edward B. Rock, The Logic and (Uncertain) Significance of
Institutional Shareholder Activism, 79 GEO. L.J. 445 (1991) [hereinafter
Rock, Shareholder Activism].
39
See Rock, Saints and Sinners, supra note 38, at 1019; Rock, Shareholder
Activism, supra note 38, at 459-63.
Supra notes 16-27.  Refer to the same footnotes from number 16 to 27.
Infra note 75.  Refer to the same beneath footnote number 75.
Supra notes 19, 29 and see accompanying text.  Refer to the same footnotes 19 & 29, and
read the text of the footnotes.
Infra notes 36-38 and see accompanying text.  Refer to the same below footnotes number
36 to 38 and read the text of the footnotes.
Introductory Signals
a. Signals that indicate support.
[no signal] Cited authority (i) directly states the proposition, (ii) identifies the source of a
quotation, or (iii) identifies an authority referred to in the text. Use “[no signal],” for
example, when directly quoting an authority or when restating numerical data from
an authority.
E.g., Cited authority states the proposition; other authorities also state the proposition, but
citation to them would not be helpful or is not necessary. “E.g.” may also by used in
combination with other signals, preceded by a comma:
See, e.g.,
But see, e.g.,
Accord “Accord” is commonly used when two or more sources state or clearly support the
proposition, but the text quotes or refers to only one; the other sources are then
introduced by “accord.” Similarly, the law of one jurisdiction may be cited as being
in accord with the law of another.
See Cited authority clearly supports the proposition. “See” is used instead of “[no
signal]” when the proposition is not directly stated by the cited authority but
obviously follows from it; there is an inferential step between the authority cited and
the proposition it supports. It is usually for secondary data.
See also Cited authority constitutes additional source material that supports the proposition.
“See also” is commonly used to cite an authority supporting a proposition when
authorities that state or directly support the proposition already have been cited or
discussed. The use of a parenthetical explanation of the source’s relevance following
a citation introduced by “see also” is encouraged.
See, e.g. refers to the existence in the source itself.

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Cf. Cited authority supports a proposition different from the main proposition but
sufficiently analogous to lend support. Literally, “Cf.” means “compare.” The
citation’s relevance will usually be clear to the reader only if it is explained.
Parenthetical explanations, however brief, are therefore strongly recommended.
b. Signal that suggests a useful comparison
Compare… Comparison of the authorities cited will offer support for or illustrate the proposition.
[and]… The relevance of the comparison will usually be clear to the reader only if it is
with…
[and]… explained. Parenthetical explanations following each authority are therefore strongly
recommended.

- For citing books, if the number of authors is more than three, it is more preferable to write only the first
author's name and use et al, for example: Gail. D. et al.
- is symbol for a space.
- § is a symbol for "section". If there are several sections, the symbol becomes §§.
- at is used to separate numbers, for example to separate date from page number.
- ed. is the symbol for “edition” or “editor”.

Bibliography
1 Books
Author. Title. Number of Edition, if any. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.
The author’s name must be written in family name followed by a comma and then first name. If there are
several authors, the others’ name must be written in normal style.
Ex. Hawkins, A.J.. Law Relating to Owners and Occupiers of Land. London: Butterworth, 1971.

family name first name family name

Fainstein, Susan, and Scott Campbell. Urban Theory. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 1996.
Author’s work in collected works, we write:
Author. Title of work. Edited by editor’s name. Title of book. Volume number, if any, Place of
Publication: Publisher, Year.
Ex. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. The Complete Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Edited by W. G. T.
Shedd. Vol 1, Aids to Reflection. New York: Harper & Bros., 1884.
Component part by one author in a work by another, we write:
Author. “Title of component part.” In Title of book, ed. Editor’s name, page range. Place of
Publication: Publisher, Year.
Ex. Beech, Mary Higdon. “The Domestic Realm in the Lives of Hindu Women in Calcutta.” In
Separate Worlds: Studies of purdah in South Asia, ed. Hanna Papnanek and Gail Minault, 110-38.
Delhi: Chanakya, 1982.
2 Articles in Journals
Author. “Title of article.” Title of journal, Journal volume (Year): page range.
Ex. Jackson, Richard. “Running down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua New Guinea.”
Australian Geographer 14 (May 1979): 175-84.
3 Articles in Magazines

7 By Dr. Phalthy Hap


Author. “Title of article.” Title of magazine, Date: page range. (issue number is not required)
Ex. Weber, Bruce. “The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E. L. Doctorow.” New York Times
Magazine, 20 October 1985, 42.
4 Unpublished Manuscript
Author. “Title of article, date.”
Lim, Vaon. “Land Regime in Cambodia, July 2006.”

8 By Dr. Phalthy Hap


Chicago Style
Books
1 Single Author
N John Hope Franklin, George Washington Williams: A Biography (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1985), 54.
B Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1985.
2 Two Authors
N Robert Lynd and Helen Lynd, Middletown: A Study in American Culture (New York:
Harcourt, Brace and World, 1929), 67.
B Lynd, Robert and Helen Lynd. Middletown: A Study in American Culture. New York:
Harcourt, Brace and World, 1929.
3 Three Authors
N Mary Lyon, Bruce Lyon, and Henry S. Lucas, The Wardrobe Book of William de Norwell, 12
July 1338 to 27 May 1340, with the collaboration of Jean de Sturler (Brussels: Commission
Royale d’Histoire de Belgique, 1983), 42.
B Lyon, Mary, Bruce Lyon, and Henry S. Lucas. The Wardrobe Book of William de Norwell, 12
July 1338 to 27 May 1340, with the collaboration of Jean de Sturler. Brussels:
Commission Royale d’Histoire de Belgique, 1983.
4 More Than Three Authors
N Martin Greenberger and others, eds., Networks for Research and Educations: Sharing of
Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974), 50.
Or Martin Greenberger et al., eds., Networks for Research and Educations: Sharing of Computer
and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974), 50.
B Greenberger, Martin, Julius Aronofsky, James L. McKenney, and William F. Massy, eds.
Networks for Research and Educations: Sharing of Computer and Information
Resources Nationwide. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974.
5 No Author Given
N The Lottery (London: J. Watts, [1732]), 202-5.
B The Lottery. London: J. Watts, [1732].
6 Working Paper
N Sophal Chan and Sarthi Acharya, Land Transactions in Cambodia: An Analysis of Transfers
and Transaction Records, Working Paper No. 22 (Phnom Penh: Cambodia Development
Resource Institute, July 2002), 27.
B Chan, Sophal and Sarthi Acharya. Land Transactions in Cambodia: An Analysis of Transfers
and Transaction Records. Working Paper No. 22. Phnom Penh: Cambodia
Development Resource Institute, July 2002.
7 Institution, Association, or the Like as “Author”
N American Library Association, Young Adult Services Division, Services Statement
Development Committee, Directions for Library Service to Young Adults (Chicago: American
Library Association, 1978), 25.
B American Library Association, Young Adult Services Division, Services Statement

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Development Committee. Directions for Library Service to Young Adults. Chicago:
American Library Association, 1978.
8 Editor or Compiler as “Author”
N Robert von Hallberg, ed., Canons (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984), 225.
B von Hallberg, Robert, ed. Canons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
9 Author’s Work Translated or Edited by Another (one author, one translator or editor)
N Jean Anouilh, The Lark, trans. Christopher Fry (London: Methuen, 1955), 86.
B Anouilh, Jean. The Lark. Translated by Christopher Fry. London: Methuen, 1955.
10 Author’s Work Contained in Collected Works
N The Complete Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. W. G. T. Shedd, vol. 1, Aids to
Reflection (New York: Harper & Bros., 1884), 18.
B Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. The Complete Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. edited by W. G.
T. Shedd. Vol. 1. Aids to Reflection. New York: Harper & Bros., 1884.
11 Volume in a Multivolume Work with a General Title and Editor(s)
N Gordon N. Ray, ed., An Introduction to Literature, vol. 2, The Nature of Drama, by Hubert
Hefner (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959), 47-49.
B Ray, Gordon N. ed. An Introduction to Literature. Vol. 2, The Nature of Drama, by Hubert
Hefner. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959.
12 Volume in a Multivolume Work with a General Title and One Author
N Sewall Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 4, Variability within and
among Natural Populations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 67.
B Wright, Sewall. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Vol. 4, Variability within and
among Natural Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
13 Book in a Series
N Ellen Pollak, The Poetics of Sexual Myth: Gender and Ideology in the Verse of Swift and Pope,
Women in Culture and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 124.
B Pollak, Ellen. The Poetics of Sexual Myth: Gender and Ideology in the Verse of Swift and
Pope. Women in Culture and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
14 Books in a Series Naming the Series Editor
N Charles Issawi, The Economic History of Turkey, 1800-1914, Publications of the Center for
Middle Eastern Studies, ed. Richard L. Chambers, no. 13 (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1980), 48.
B Issawi, Charles. The Economic History of Turkey, 1800-1914. Publications of the Center for
Middle Eastern Studies, ed. Richard L. Chambers, no. 13. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1980.
15 Edition Other Than the First
N M. M. Bober, Karl Marx’s Interpretation of History, 2d ed. Harvard Economic Studies
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948), 89.
B Bober, M. M. Karl Marx’s Interpretation of History, 2d ed. Harvard Economic Studies.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948.
16 Reprint Edition

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N Michael David, Toward Honesty in Public Relations (Chicago: Condor Publications, 1968;
reprint, New York: B. Y. Jove, 1990), 134-56 (page citations are to the reprint edition).
B David, Michael. Toward Honesty in Public Relations. Chicago: Condor Publications, 1968.
Reprint, New York: B. Y. Jove, 1990.
17 Component Part by One Author in a Work by Another
N Mary Higdon Beech, “The Domestic Realm in the Lives of Hindu Women in Calcutta,” in
Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, ed. Hanna Papanek and Gail Minault
(Delhi: Chanakya, 1982), 115.
B Beech, Mary Higdon. “The Domestic Realm in the Lives of Hindu Women in Calcutta.” In
Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, ed. Hanna Papanek and Gail
Minault, 110-38. Delhi: Chanakya, 1982.
18 Book Privately Printed
N John G. Barrow, A Bibliography of Bibliographies in Religion (Austin, Tex.: by the author,
1955), 25.
B Barrow, John G. A Bibliography of Bibliographies in Religion. Austin, Tex.: by the author,
1955.
19 Book Privately Printed, Publisher Not Known
N Frank Budgen, Further Recollections of James Joyce (London: privately printed, 1955), 10.
B Budgen, Frank. Further Recollections of James Joyce. London: privately printed, 1955.

Article in a journal
N Richard Jackson, “Running down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua New
Guinea,” Australian Geographer 14 (May 1979): 180.
B Jackson, Richard. “Running down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua New
Guinea,” Australian Geographer 14 (May 1979): 175-84.
start and end page number.

Published Reports and Proceedings


Published Reports
Author named
N B. G. F. Cohen, Human Aspects in Office Automation (Cincinnati: National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Biomedical and Behavioral Science, 1984), 150,
NTIS, PB84-240738.
B Cohen, B. G. F. Human Aspects in Office Automation. Cincinnati: National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Biomedical and Behavioral Science,
1984, NTIS, PB84-240738.
Chairman of committee named
N Report of the Committee on Financial Institutions to the President of the United States, by
Walter W. Heller, chairman (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1963), 12.
Or Report of the 2007 First Semester on the Activities and Results of the National Authority for
Land Dispute Resolutions, by Sitha Svay, chairman of the General Secretariat, Report

11 By Dr. Phalthy Hap


No.198/07/RB/GCD (Phnom Penh: National Authority for Land Disputes Resolutions, August
22, 2007), 1.
B Report of the Committee on Financial Institutions to the President of the United States. By
Walter W. Heller, chairman. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1963.
Or Report of the 2007 First Semester on the Activities and Results of the National Authority for
Land Dispute Resolutions. By Sitha Svay, chairman of the General Secretariat. Report
No.198/07/RB/GCD. Phnom Penh: National Authority for Land Disputes Resolutions,
August 22, 2007.
Unpublished Materials
Letter
N Percy Bysshe Shelley, Padua, to Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Este, 22 September 1818,
transcript in the hand of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein
Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
B Shelley, Percy Bysshe, Padua, to Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Este, 22 September 1818.
Transcript in the hand of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Special Collections, Joseph
Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
Speech
1. Eulogy
N Eulogy of Charles V in Latin, apparently written at the monastery of St. Just, Spain, [ca. 1500],
Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
B Eulogy of Charles V. In Latin, apparently spain, [ca. 1500]. Special Collections, Joseph
Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
2. Sermon
N Thomas Foxcroft, “A Seasonal Memento for New Year’s Day” (sermon preached at the Old
Church lecture in Boston on 1 January 1746-47), Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
Yale University, New Haven.
B Foxcroft, Thomas. “A Seasonal Memento for New Year’s Day” (sermon preached at the Old
Church lecture in Boston on 1 January 1746-47). Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript
Library, Yale University, New Haven.
3. Lecture
N Bory Say, “Cambodian Legal and Judicial Systems before 1975” (lecture taught at the Nagoya
University Graduate School of Law on 7 February 2007), p. 7 (on file with author).
B Say, Bory. “Cambodian Legal and Judicial Systems before 1975” (lecture taught at the
Nagoya University Graduate School of Law on 7 February 2007) (on file with author).
4. Official Speech
N Chhunlim Im, “Santeakrakatha thleng knong pithy bet veak sekhasala ampi karphlaspdou
batpisort ney kardohsray viveat deithy,” (Speech at the Closing Workshop on the Exchange of
Experience in Land Dispute Resolutions) (Kampong Cham: Cambodia, 27 April 2006)
(photocopy of transcript), p. 2.
B Im, Chhunlim. “Speech at the Closing Workshop on the Exchange of Experience in Land
Dispute Resolutions.” Kampong Cham: Cambodia, 27 April 2006 (photocopy of
transcript).

12 By Dr. Phalthy Hap


Manuscript
N Robert Craft, “A Catalog of Manuscripts and Documents [of] the Original Works o fIgor
Stravinsky, 1970 (?),” TMs (photocopy), p. 136, Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein
Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
B Craft, Robert. “A Catalog of Manuscripts and Documents [of] the Original Works o fIgor
Stravinsky, 1970 (?).” TMs (photocopy). Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein
Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
Thesis or Dissertation
N Gilberto Artioli, “Structural Studies of the Water Molecules and Hydrogen Bonding in
Zeolites” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1985), 10.
B Artioli, Gilberto. “Structural Studies of the Water Molecules and Hydrogen Bonding in
Zeolites.” Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1985.
Newspaper Article
N Tyler Marshall, “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated,” Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985,
sec. 1A, p. 3.
B Marshall, Tyler. “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated.” Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985.
Foreign Newspapers
N Loran Leguonvich, “A Camp of Evicted People from Bassac Area: A Glance of a
Photograph,” Samné Thmei (Phnom Penh), 3-9 July 2006, p. 6.
B Leguonvich, Loran. “A Camp of Evicted People from Bassac Area: A Glance of Photograph.”
Samné Thmei (Phnom Pneh), 3-9 July 2006.
Article in a Magazine
N Bruce Weber, “The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E. L. Doctorow,” New York
Times Magazine, 20 October 1985, 42.
B Weber, Bruce. “The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E. L. Doctorow.” New York
Time Magazine, 20 October 1985.

NB:
 Ibid. is used to refer to the same previous reference without any intervening references. E.g.,
1
Hernando de Soto, The Mystery of Capital (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 157.
2
Ibid. → everything is the same note number 1.
3
Ibid., 160. → the same as previous but different only with page number.
4
Ibid., 190; idem, The Other Path: The Economic Answer to Terrorism, 102. → idem refers to
the same previous author but different work. Note that idem is a complete word, not an
abbreviation, and is therefore not followed by a period.

13 By Dr. Phalthy Hap