You are on page 1of 106

“AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF PILGRIMAGE

TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH : A CRITICAL


ANALYSIS OF CHITRAKOOT CIRCUIT”

Under the Supervision of :


Dr. Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
Assistant Professor
Sherwood College of Professional Management,
Lucknow

DISSERTATION REPORT SUBMITTED TO


INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR
THE AWARD OF
MASTER OF TOURISM & TRAVEL MANAGEMENT
(MTTM)
Student Name : OM PRAKASH
Enrolment No. : 168705504
Study Centre : Jai Narayan Degree College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226001

Regional Centre : 5/C/INS-1, Telibagh, Lucknow - 226025 (Sector-5, Vrindavan Yojna)


Programme Code: MTTM Enrolment No. 168705504

Course Code: MTTM-16 Study Centre Code : 2701

Regional Centre : 5/C/INS-1, Telibagh, Lucknow


“AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF PILGRIMAGE
TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH : A CRITICAL
ANALYSIS OF CHITRAKOOT CIRCUIT”

Dissertation submitted to the Indira Gandhi National Open University in partial fulfilment of
the requirements for the award of the Masters Degree in Tourism Management. I
herebydeclare that this is my original work and has not been submitted or copied from
elsewhere.

Signature of the Candidate _______________


Name of the Candidate - OM PRAKASH
Address OM PRAKASH AWASTHI S/O NAND KISHOR AWASTHI VILL PO
KHURHAND GOWN SHIVDASPUR CALONI THE ATARRA DIST BANDA STATE
UTTAR PRADESH PIN CO 210120
Date of Submission- 21.11.2018

1
CERTIFICATE BY THE SUPERVISOR

CERTIFICATE Certified that the Dissertation entitled AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF


PILGRIMAGE TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH : A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF
CHITRAKOOT CIRCUIT submitted by OM PRAKASH is his own work and has been
done under my supervision. It is recommended that this Dissertation be placed before the
examiner for evaluation.

(Signature of the Supervisor)


Name- Dr. Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
Address -Sherwood College of Professional
Management,(University of Lucknow)

Sector -25 Indra Nagar Lucknow Uttar Pradesh-226016

2
ABSTRACT

3
ABSTRACT
It examines the attractiveness of Chitrakoot as a tourist destination from the

perspective of foreign tourists considering several important dimensions

simultaneously. These are demographic characteristics of tourists, their

expectation on touristic attributes of the destination as also satisfaction

with the same and finally holistic impressions of the destination. A factor

analysis carried out on 24 touristic attributes pertaining to the expectation of

visitors gives rise to seven meaningful constructs. Results of step-wise

multiple regression analysis between the perceived attractiveness and the

above seven constructs reveal the importance of each of these seven

constructs in explaining the perceived attractiveness of the destination.

Holistic impressions of Chitrakoot reveal that it is a city embodying the

essence of Indian spiritualism and mysticism with Mandakani and Ghats

forming the heart of the city

4
PREFACE

5
PREFACE
Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many countries. Its importance was
recognized in the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 as "an activity
essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural,
educational, and economic sectors of national societies and on their international
relations.
The service industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services, such
as airlines, cruise ships, and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations,
including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement
parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues, and theatres. This is in addition to goods
bought by tourists, including souvenirs, clothing and other supplies.
Talking of Varanasi tourism, Varanasi has been the most lovable destination in India among
the tourist whether it is domestic tourist or international. The real growth can be seen in
Chitrakoot destinations such as Kamadgiri temple, Mandakini Ghat, Ramgarh Fort etc is
splendid in terms of accommodation facilities, or transportation or even infrastructure.
Our motive to visit Chitrakoot destinations was to analyze how this growth has come-up, is it
satisfying the visitors, why has it been so preferential. This tour report will give you an
overall view of the above given places.
We have been to these places for a time period of 09 days and enjoyed the facilities, the
beauty the uniqueness of each destination, the charm of the place, had interaction many
tourists and industry members to achieve the objective we took with ourselves.

6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

7
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to take opportunity to thanks them all those who have contributed
in this project directly or indirectly. I am highly grateful to Dr. Santosh
Upadhyay, Assistant Professor, Sherwood College of Professional Management

,Lucknow . I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and

deep regard for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant


encouragement throughout the course of this training. The help and guidance
given by him time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on
which I am about to embark.

Lastly, I am thankful to the staff of Chitrakoot tourism department for the


valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. Deeply
thanks to MR. SHAKTI SINGH (TOURIST OFFICER) Sir for his guidance
and encouragement given to me throughout the training.

I am very thankful to my HOD and college faculty for giving me such


an opportunity to show my skill and learn some technique.

8
TABLE OF CONTENT

9
TABLE OF CONTENT

 INTRODUCTION

 CHITRAKOOT TOURISM

 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 DATA ANALYSIS AND ITS INTERPRETATION

 CONCLUSION

 BIBLIOGRAPHY

 REFERENCES

 ANNEXURE

 QUESTIONNAIRE

10
INTRODUCTION

11
INTRODUCTION

Uttar Pradesh is one of the larges states of India. It posses a very rich historical heritage

which has given this state a large number of places of tourist attraction. Taj Mahal, one of

the Seven Wonders of the World, is located in the state of Uttar Pradesh at Agra, India. It

has a universal appeal and is a part of household vocabulary. The Taj Mahal is a

mausoleum of singular beauty dedicated to true and eternal love. Built at the behest of

Shahjahan, the Mughal Emperor of India in the 17 century. It took twenty years to build

employing a labour force of about 20 thousand. Constructed of pure white marble, its

eternal beauty may be likened to a 'dream in marble' specially on moonlit nights. People

the world over are attracted to it and it is the highlight of Indian tourism, which with

other unique features- natural, historical and religious justifies Uttar Pradesh being

reckoned as India's one of the most magnetic region that attracts tourists, both domestic

and foreign, in progressively increasing numbers.

Tourism in Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh has enormous natural resources and potential for Tourism Industry that can

make considerableimpact on the economic development of the state. In order to highlight

the tourism potential of Uttar Paradesh it may be mentioned that it has been home to the

cultures of Hinduism, Jainism and Islam. Innumerable monuments, most beautiful carved

temples of interest to tourists. From the point of view of tourism, Uttar Pradesh has a

special place in India. This state abounds with places of historical, religious and cultural

importance and there are innumerable destinations of fascinating natural beauty. For

these reasons a great many foreign tourists who come to India visit this state. The

Department of Tourism has constantly been trying to maintain and develop places of

tourist importance and to make necessary facilities available to tourists. With this role in

12
view tourist houses and wayside facilities provided by the Department of Tourism, has

been reassessed. Attention is being focused on the speedy completion of programmes

relating to the provision of infrastructural facilities.With its facinating beauty in diversity,

Uttar Pradesh offers, perhaps, the richest tourism potential. Snow clad mountains, thick

forests and wild life. Also shrines and temples, glorious forts and monuments. There is

amplescope for breath taking adventure and sports; trekking, skiing, hand gliding, water

and aero sports etc. Uttar Pradesh has a reputation for its beautiful arts and handicrafts,

traditional cuisine, and costumes and varied culture.

Pilgrimage Tourism has emerged as an instrument for employment generation, poverty

alleviation and sustainable human development. Pilgrimage Tourism promotes

international understanding and gives support to local handicrafts and cultural activities.

It is an important segment of the country’s economy, especially in terms of its

contribution towards foreign exchange earnings, generation of additional income and

creation of employment opportunities. The foreign exchange earnings from tourism

during the year 2000 were estimated at about Rs. 14,408 crores with an estimated direct

employment of about 15 million, which is about 2.4% of the total labor force of the

country. Pilgrimage Tourism is the third largest foreign exchange earner for India. The

International tourist traffic in the country is estimated to be 2.64 million during the year

2000. However, according to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), India’s share in

world tourism arrivals is only 0.38%, accounting for 0.62% of the world tourist receipts.

This indicates that much of the tourist potential is yet to be tapped. With rapid advances

in Science & Technology, tourism has acquired the status of an industry in all

industrialized countries. The high influx of foreign tourist traffic has accelerated demand

for certain economic production and distribution activities. Pilgrimage Tourism has

emerged as an industry next in importance only to Information Technology industry in

13
the Services sector. By 2012, the contribution of pilgrimage Tourism to the world

economy will be doubled. The economic liberalization in India and consequent foreign

investment opportunities, development of tourist facilities including expansion in air-line

services, etc. provide an impetus for a spurt in tourist arrivals as in South Asian regions.

Domestic pilgrimage tourism plays a vital role in achieving the national objectives of

promoting social and cultural cohesion and national integration. Its contribution to

generation of employment is very high. With the increase in income levels and

emergence of a powerful middle class, the potential for domestic pilgrimage tourism has

grown substantially during the last few years. Realising the importance of pilgrimage

tourism, the Government of Tamil Nadu has accorded high priority to pilgrimage tourism

promotion and has taken initiatives to improve/ create infrastructure in tourism potential

centres and geared to encourage private sector investment in this regard.

14
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism

Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their

usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one

consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an

activity remunerated from within the place visited". Tourism has become a popular global

leisure activity. In 2007, there were over 903 million international tourist arrivals, with a

growth of 6.6% as compared to 2006. International tourist receipts were USD 856 billion

in 2007.

Despite the uncertainties in the global economy, international tourist arrivals during the first

four months of 2008 followed a similar growth trend than the same period in 2007.

However, as a result of the economic crisis of 2008, international travel demand suffered

a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals

worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months, while growth from January to

April 2008 had reached an average 5.7% compared to its 2007 level. Growth from 2006

to 2007 was only 3.7%, as total international tourism arrivals from January to August

were 641 million tourists, up from 618 million in the same period in 2007.

Tourism is vital for many countries, such as the U.A.E, Egypt, Greece and Thailand, and

many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives and the Seychelles, due to the

large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity

for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries

include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxis, hospitality

services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment

venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, various music venues and the

theatre.

15
Definition

Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism as people who travel "The sum of the

phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as

they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity”

In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary,

short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live

and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements

for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism

defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside

the home.

The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its "Recommendations on

Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism", which involves residents of the given country

traveling only within this country; Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in

the given country; and Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another

country. The UN also derived different categories of tourism by combining the three

basic forms of tourism: Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbound

tourism; National tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; and

International tourism, which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism.

Intrabound tourism is a term coined by the Korea Tourism Organization and widely

accepted in Korea. Intrabound tourism differs from domestic tourism in that the former

encompasses policymaking and implementation of national tourism policies.

Recently, the tourism industry has shifted from the promotion of inbound tourism to the

promotion of intrabound tourism, because many countries are experiencing tough

competition for inbound tourists. Some national policymakers have shifted their priority

16
to the promotion of intrabound tourism to contribute to the local economy. Examples of

such campaigns include: "See America" in the United States; "Truly Asia" in Malaysia;

"Get Going Canada" in Canada; "Peru. Live the Legend" in Peru; "Wow Philippines" in

the Philippines; "Uniquely Singapore" in Singapore; "100% Pure New Zealand" in New

Zealand; "Amazing Thailand" in Thailand; "Incredible India" in India; and "The Hidden

Charm" in Vietnam

Domestic and International Tourism

Usually, a distention is drawn between domestic or internal and foreign of international

tourism. In domestic tourism people travel outside their normal domicile to other areas

within the country. Barriers like language, currency and documentation are not in the

domestic tourism. But in India, since difference estates have different languages, ones

own language may not serve a medium of communication. Domestic tourism has no

balance of payment implications.

When people travel to a country other that which they normally live in is known as

international tourism, the distinction between domestic and international tourism is now

diminishing. The reasons being:

• Language barriers are reduced by improving language skills

• Currency and customs unions are developing in many European countries.

• With globalization the free movement of people is growing.

Considering the greater multiplier effect in domestic tourism, domestic tourism would have

received greater emphasis in India.

17
Reliable data on the growth of domestic tourists traffic are not available as not extensive

survey has been conducted on a national level by any agency, government or otherwise

not given the numerous festivals celebrated throughout out the year, the innumerable

tourist's centers in the country, the geographical expands and the resource constraints,

estimates of documents tourists' traffic through an executive survey is considered

impossible.

Domestic tourism if considered separate from the travel for religious and commercial

purpose. It is a post-independence phenomenon. Industrial growth, improvement in the

standard of living, rise in disposable income and most importantly the improvement of

tourist infrastructure search as hotels, air, train and road transport has contributed to the

impressive growth in tourist traffic.

The definition of a domestic tourist is a person who travels within the country to a place

of residence and stays at hotels or other accommodations establishments run on

commercial basis or in dharmashalas, sarais, chaultries etc. for duration of not less than

24 hours.

The factors that govern the magnitude of domestic tourist traffic are the religious and cultural

importance of a place. The extent of manufacturing, business and trading activity, the

climatic conditions, the infrastructure facilities available and the geographical location

etc. the current rough estimate of domestic tourism in India is ten million a year.

World tourism statistics and rankings

Sustainable tourism

18
"Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way

that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural

integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity and life support

systems." (World Tourism Organization)

Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising

the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on

Environment and Development, 1987)

Medical tourism

When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure,

particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different

regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling

to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical

tourism".

Educational tourism

Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning

of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom

environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity

includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange

Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a

different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.

Other developments

19
Creative tourism

Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of

tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the

sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational

experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin

Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the Association for Tourism and

Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European

Commission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They

have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travelers

in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal

learning experiences.

Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations

such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative

tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the

specific cultural features of a place.

More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing

on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit.

Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the

United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand.

Dark tourism

One emerging area of special interest tourism has been identified by Lennon and Foley

(2000) as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as

battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration

20
camps. Dark tourism poses severe ethical and moral dilemmas: should these sites be

available for visitation and, if so, what should the nature of the publicity involved be.

Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as

mourning, remembrance, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are

rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.

Growth

The World Tourism Organization (WTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue

growing at the average annual rate of 4 %. By 2020 Europe will remain the most popular

destination, but its share will drop from 60% in 1995 to 46%. Long-haul will grow

slightly faster than intraregional travel and by 2020 its share will increase from 18% in

1995 to 24%.

With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the most traded items

on the internet. Tourism products and services have been made available through

intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their services

directly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.

It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between Tourism expenditure per capita

and the degree to which countries play in the global context. Not only as a result of the

important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the

degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for

the benefit of their local economies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism

may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the

future.

21
Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, although

compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain low

until technologies such as a space elevator make space travel cheap.

Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either on solar-

powered airplanes or large dirigibles. Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to

open in Dubai in 2009, will be built. On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever

larger cruise ships and perhaps floating cities.

Latest trends

As a result of the economic crisis of 2008, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown

beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight

months of 2008. The Asian and Pacific markets were affected and Europe stagnated

during the boreal summer months, while the Americas performed better, reducing their

expansion rate but keeping a 6% growth from January to August 2008. Only the Middle

East continued its rapid growth during the same period, reaching a 17% growth as

compared to the same period in 2007. This slowdown on international tourism demand

was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008

and a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also

reports a slowdown, as room occupancy continues to decline. As the global economic

situation deteriorated dramatically during September and October as a result of the global

financial crisis, growth of international tourism is expected to slow even further for the

remaining of 2008, and this slowdown in demand growth is forecasted to continue into

2009 as recession has already hit most of the top spender countries, with long-haul travel

expected to be the most affected by the economic crisis. However, some travel

destinations have experienced growth during hard economic times, drawing on low costs

22
of living, accessibility, and friendly immigration laws permitting tourists to stay for

extended periods of time. Recession tourism, a phrase coined by Matt Landau in his

research about Panama, has evolved as an alternative escape option for nervous crisis-

goers in 2009.

Negative impacts

Tourism is the issue that nearly every city faces. It is worldwide and a threat to beaches,

famous landmarks, holy areas and also resorts. Attracting a high volume of tourists can

have negative impacts, such as the impact of 33 million tourists a year on the city of New

York, or the potential to impact fragile environments negatively, or the impact of the

December 26, 2004 tsunami on the tourists themselves. The environment can be affected

negatively by cruise ship pollution in many ways, including ballast water discharge, and

by pollution from aircraft

Tourism in India

India attracted about 4 million foreign tourists in 2006 that spent US$8.9 billion. The tourism

industry in India generated about US$100 billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase

to US$275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate. The Ministry of Tourism is

the nodal agency for the development and promotion of Tourism in India. It maintains the

Incredible India campaign.

According to World Travel and Tourism Council, India will be the world's leading tourism

hotspot, having the highest 10-year growth potential. The Travel & Tourism

Competitiveness Report 2007 ranked tourism in India 6th in terms of price

competitiveness and 39th in terms of safety and security.

23
CHITRAKOOT
TOURISM

24
CHITRAKOOT TOURISM

CHITRAKOOT

'The religious city of the world', 'the religious capital in India', 'the city of lights',

'Chitrakoot ',

Chitrakoot, ' the hill of many wonders,' nestles peacefully in the Cnorthern spurs of the

Vindhyas, a place of tranquil forest glades and quiet rivers and streams where calm

and repose are all- pervading. This loveliest of Nature's gifts is also hallowed

ground, blessed by the gods and sanctified by the faith of pilgrims. For Chitrakoot's

spiritual legacy stretches back to legendary ages: it was in these deep forests that Rama

and Sita spent eleven of their fourteen

years of exile; here, that the great sage Atri and Sati Anusuya meditated; and here

where the principal trinity of the Hindu pantheon, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh took their

incarnations. Sufferers and seekers, poets and visionaries, princes and noblemen have,

throughthe ages, sought and found solace in Chitrakoot, drawn inspiration from its

sublime natural beauty, gained spiritual strength from its serene temples and, in turn,

become part of the hallowed legend that is Chitrakoot.

The city is the paramount worship place for Hindus among all the other holy cities where

they can plan their tour to carve a way to salvation starting with the darshan of Kamadgiri

Temple.

State of Uttar Pradesh is proud of its heritage, and Chitrakoot is part of this legacy with its

unique culture and devotion to the Lord Ram who is believed to be its founder. The name

of the city finds its connection with the Rivers Mandakini and Assi joining to form

25
Chitrakoot. Many of the great scriptures, epics and works of art and music are credited to

this place.

History

Mark Twain once quoted about the antiquity of the city highlighting the inefficiency of the

people to gauge its actual age. The city has served as a cradle to the languages, arts,

culture, education and above all religion in the purest of form possible.

Invaded and plundered again and again by numerous Turkish rulers the city rose to

prominence after every act of destruction. Some of the names that highlight themselves in

this anti-Hinduism act of demolishing centre of Hindu worship are Qutub-ud-Din Aibak,

Feroz Shah and Sikander Lodhi. In stark contrast, Mughal King Akbar contributed in

restoring the city to its earlier glory which was continued by Rajput and Maratha kings

later despite Auranzeb’s anti-Hinduism attitude. Sant Kabirdas, Haridas and Tulsidas are

also known for their contribution in terms of evolving the religious spirit through Bhakti

Movement. In the British reign, Theosophical movement led by Annie Besant found its

ground here.

26
Attractions

Kamadgiri Temple: Circumambulating of Kamadgiri is the most important ritual for the pilgrims

who come here to seek blessings. Circumambulation route has various temples, important

among them are Lord Kamtanath Temple and Bharat Milap Temple etc.

"This sacred hill is of prime religious significance and is believed to be the original

Chitrakoot."

Also known as the Golden temple, it is among the Ramayan Circuit where Lord Ram

manifested himself for the convenience of the devotees. The site of the temple is said to

be age old but the temple.

27
28
Ram Ghats: Ram Ghat, Hanuman Ghat, on the River Mandakini.Mandakini river is lined

up by ghats called Ramghat. Ramghat is where lord Ram, Sita and Lakshman appeared in

front of the famous poet Tulsidas and he used to sit on the river side and write Ram

Charitra Manas.

"The aarti performed in the evening is particularly beautiful."

A pilgrim to Chitrakoot has the option of enjoy boating as well as walking to get immersed in

their beauty and antiquity. Mandakini river is lined up by ghats called Ramghat. Ramghat

is where lord Ram, Sita and Lakshman appeared in front of the famous poet Tulsidas and

he used to sit on the river side and write Ram Charitra Manas.

The fragrance of incense sticks and the hymn of holy chants by the saints in saffron clothes

makes the soul calm and touched. You can go for boating in the river and enjoy the

29
beauty of this place until the evening and attend the arti with beautiful diya lightings,

sounds of bell and holy chants.

Sphatik Shila: A few kilometers beyond Janaki Kund is again a densely forested area

on the banks of the Mandakini. One can climb up to the boulder which bears the

impression of Rama's footprint and where Sita was pecked at, by Jayant in the form of a

crow. There are large fish in the river here, easily visible in the pellucid water and a few

temples.

The name Chitrakut, Chitrakut, Chitrakoot or Chitraluta (spelled in any fashion) refers to the

mythologically historical and most important forest during the times of Ramayana in

Threthayug. Later on the hermits turned villages and then developed in to town and

promoted as city and in the recent past bifurcated in to three parts because of its

30
enormous growth and claims and counter claims of the states for including it in their

territories. As a result there is one district Chitrakoot in the state of Madhya Pradesh and

the second part of it is a district in the state of Uttar Pradesh and its third piece is a world

famous waterfall called Chitrakoot falls in the state of Chhattisgarh in India.

Sphatik Shila is of soft stone as talc stone. It has a legendary story emotionally involved

to Lord Rama. Accordingly this big stone was the place where Rama used to relax and

rest whenever he felt like doing so. The rock miraculously turned as soft and smooth as

silk in order to give soothing effect to Rama, whenever he rested on this rock. This sacred

block of rock is called ‘Sphatik Shila’, meaning thereby a ‘crystal stone’. It is found on

an exceptionally natural pleasant dot which is full of green location in Chitrakut which is

noted for its natural beauty. It is filled with full of spiritual spaces closely associated with

lord Rama, Seetha and Lakshman, while they were in exile for a period of fourteen years.

They spent almost eleven years in the midst of Rishis, sages and other forest dwellers,

peacefully without any hindrance from the forest animals.

Sphatik Shila is a huge rock resembling a reddish and white crystal near Janakikund on

the left bank of River Mandakini. There are foot prints of Rama and Seetha on this rock.

The other side of the legend says that both Rama and Seetha used to relax here at times. It

is on the way to sage Athri ashram. There is another story linked to this stone. One

Jayanth, son of Devendra mischievously wanted to test the might of Rama. He pricked

the feet of Seetha. Rama was sitting in Yogasana. Observing the naughty attitude of

Jayanth, Rama left an arrow at Jayanth, who was unable to find a rescuer to protect him

against Rambhan. Ultimately he fell at the feet of Rama seeking shelter and begged for

pardon. Rambhan could not go waste as its object was to destroy the evil. Rama pardoned

Jayanth after removing one of his eyes as punishment.

It is a landmark destination in Chitrakoot. Usually the tourists pay a visit to this spot

31
without fail as this is a pictorial location that tells about the amusing and adorable story

of Jayanth. The priests are good guides and narrator of the legendary episodes during the

period of stay of Rama in this forest. This place is of prime importance for all the visitors.

Its location is on the banks of the shining Mandakini River where you can see and enjoy

the scene of attractive small and beautifully coloured fishes. It is because the river water

is crystal clear that enables you to see the charming fishes moving about in that water.

The flourishing trees around, the serenity and the charming attractiveness of this place

would certainly formulate an idea that it is a must place to see, by each and every one no

matter whether one is religious or not.

There are a good lot of places to stay for the visitors to Chitrakoot. The hotels here are

mainly in the range of budget and cheap category. They provide a peaceful place to relax

and amenities to visitors to make their trip enjoyable.

Chitrakoot is well connected by roads to all the major cities and towns of Madhya

Pradesh. If you travel by air the nearest airport is Khajuraho. The nearest Railway station

is Chitrakoot Dham Karvi. You may avail bus service or engage taxi to reach the main

town area of Chitrakoot. There are local means of transportation like buses or cycle

rickshaws to reach other places.

Don’t forget to take the boat ride in the Mandakini in the evening Aarthi celebrations.

You will enjoy the divine pleasure at that moment.

Better plan a trip for 4-5 days during November and February. I am sure you will come

recharged by nature since this is really a place of natural environment and very unique.

There may not be mush crowd as the visitors are less in number compared to other

religious shrines.

As a wondering class of people you might have experienced the company of monkeys at

temples and other tourist spots. This is especially the abode of Lord Rama for eleven

32
years. You will see umpteen number of Rambhan mini Hanumans (monkeys) everywhere

in Chitrakut. They may not harm you but intelligently snatch away the hand bags and

other things you or your children may carry in hands. Be careful about your belongings

and children. Safety is first and sightseeing is next, in your own interest

Gupt - Godavari : 18 km from the town by road is a natural wonder located at some distance

upside of a hill. The wonder here is a pair of caves, one high and wide with an entrance

through which one can barely pass, and the other, long and narrow with a stream of water

running along its base. It is believed that Rama and his brother Lakshman held

court in the latter cave, which has two natural, thronelike rocks.

The river is said to have secretly appeared here in the caves, and to have again

disappeared

beneath the ground into a water pond outside the caves.

33
spot, a few kilometres from town. hitrakoot, ' the hill of many wonders,' nestles peacefully in

the

Cnorthern spurs of the Vindhyas, a place of tranquil forest glades and quiet rivers and

streams where calm and repose are all- pervading. This loveliest of Nature's gifts is

also hallowed ground, blessed by the gods and sanctified by the faith of pilgrims. For

Chitrakoot's spiritual legacy stretches back to legendary ages: it was in these deep forests

that Rama and Sita spent eleven of their fourteen years of exile; here, that the great

sage Atri and Sati Anusuya meditated; and here where the principal trinity of the

Hindu pantheon, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh took their incarnations. Sufferers and

seekers, poets and visionaries, princes and noblemen have, through the ages, sought and

found solace in Chitrakoot, drawn inspiration

34
from its sublime natural beauty, gained spiritual strength from its serene temples and, in

turn, become part of the hallowed legend that is

Chitrakoot.

Hanuman Dhara: Mandakini river is lined up by ghats called Ramghat. Ramghat is where

lord Ram, Sita and Lakshman appeared in front of the famous poet Tulsidas and he used

to sit on the river side and write Ram Charitra Manas.

The fragrance of incense sticks and the hymn of holy chants by the saints in saffron clothes

makes the soul calm and touched. You can go for boating in the river and enjoy the

35
beauty of this place until the evening and attend the arti with beautiful diya lightings,

sounds of bell and holy chants.

Mandakini river is lined up by ghats called Ramghat. Ramghat is where lord Ram, Sita and

Lakshman appeared in front of the famous poet Tulsidas and he used to sit on the river

side and write Ram Charitra Manas.

The fragrance of incense sticks and the hymn of holy chants by the saints in saffron clothes

makes the soul calm and touched. You can go for boating in the river and enjoy the

beauty of this place until the evening and attend the arti with beautiful diya lightings,

sounds of bell and holy chants.

36
Sati Anasuiya Tample: Sati Ansuiya Ashram is near to the origin of Mandakini River.

The place has a very calm and the environment is very pleasant and natural. It is

believed that the Mandakini river emerged as a result of Anasuya’s meditation. As

per description of Valmiki at one time there was no rain in Chitrakoot for ten years.

There was a severe famine and nothing was left to eat or drink for animals and birds.

Sati Anusuya performed hard and intensive austerities and got the river Mandakini

down on earth. The temple and Ashram is situated in the lush green forests of

Chitrakoot abound by high hills. The ashram and the temple is well maintained. The

place is quite large and the nature is at its best here.

It is said that Rama along with Sita had visited this place to meet Maharishi Atri and

Sati Anusuya. It is here Sati Anusuya explained to Sita the grandeur and importance

of satitva.

37
Janki Kund: It is believed to be the bathing place of Sita Mata the consort of Lord Sri Rama

during the period of their exile. There are foot prints of Sita Mata on the rocks in the

nearby boulder house.Seetha Matha was known by several names including as Janaki

because she was the daughter of Raja Janaka of Mithila.

At Janki Kund we can see Ram Janaki Raghuvir mandir and Sankat mochan mandir. The

water in Janaki Kund is crystal clear wherein you can see the small stones turning and

rotating moving under waters of Mandakini. The water is apparently transparent as the

nature is immaculate and most excellent here. It is lovely to enjoy and remember forever.

There is tremendous calmness and tranquility to the pilgrims to enjoy the gift of nature. All

most all Pilgrims, especially ladies, strongly believe that this holy water has been

sanctified by Sita Mata and a dip in this spot would wash of all their sins and purify their

souls. The whole environs are decorated with glossy greenery and the whole thing in the

region will be singing the glory of this pleasant place particularly of Janaki Kund. This is

an ideal sacred place for relaxing and to spend some useful time along with our kith and

kins.

38
39
Ram Darshan Ram Darshan is a modern temple which is spreading the message of Ramayana.

Once visited its memories can never be erased from man’s inner eye. Ram Darshan

constitutes the human and cultural aspects of integrated development effort that not only

provide a glimpse of Lord Ram, but also gives a deep insight into his exemplary life and

character in the highly volatile dynamics of time and interpersonal relationship. Ram‘s

character is the only factor that is incessantly constant. Ram – The most dignified and the

best among men – excels as an ideal role model in every respect and remain a timeless source

of inspiration for mankind.

40
Ganesh Bag: Ganeshbagh is a place with a architecturally beautiful temple, baoli with

seven storeys and ruins of a palace exist.

The whole complex was built by Peshwa Vinayak Rao as a summer retreat and is

also known locally as mini-Khajuraho.

41
Bharat Milap: Bharat Milap temple is located here, marking the spot where Bharata is said

to have met Rama to persuaded him to return to the throne of Ayodhya. It is said that the

meeting of four brother was so emotional that even the rocks and mountains of chitrakoot

melted .

Foot prints of Lord Rama and his brothers were imprinted on these rocks and are still

present today and seen in Bharat Milap Mandir.

Bharat Koop; Bharat Koop is a huge well near Bharatpur village, located around 20 KMs

west of Chitrakoot. It is believed that Lord Rama’s brother Bharat brought water from

all the holy places to honour Lord Ram as the King of Ayodhya. Bharat was

unsuccessful in persuading Lord Ram to return to his kingdom and take his place as

the king. Bharat then, as per the instructions of Maharishi Atri, poured the holy water

in this well. It is said that taking a bath from the water of this well means bathing in

42
all teerths (pilgrimage destination). There is also a temple here dedicated to Lord

Rama and his family.

43
ITENARY OF CHITRAKOOT TOURISM

Take a romantic boat ride on the silent water of Mandakini in Chitrakoot.

Observe the natives performing their daily activities alongside River

Mandakini. Watch people performing various rituals and witness the

grand aarti on the Ghats. Pay a visit to the place where Buddha

delivered his first sermon in Chitrakoot.

Be in the holy land of Chitrakoot to experience ultimate spirituality and

attain peace.

Day 01 :Arrival Chitrakoot - Sightseeing Temple – Kakinger Fort

You will get a warm welcome from our official at the Airport or Railway

Station, who will accompany you to the hotel, booked for you. You will

get all your tour related papers and a short description about the tour

from him.

You will move towards Chitrakoot post lunch to get the glimpses of

Buddhist monuments and edifices covering ram Ghat ,Hanuman

Dhara,KamadGiri Tample.

This 2 Days trip to Chitrakoot will take you through the major attractions

of Chitrakoot city

Tour Itinerary

44
In the evening, witness the major attraction of Chitrakoot - The grand

Aarti ceremony performed by several priests on the banks of River

Mandakini. You will get to hear the majestic blended sound of Sanskrit

mantras, drums, bells and cymbals. Stay overnight at Hotel.

45
Chitrakoot Religious Tours Holiday Packages

Chitrakoot Pilgrimage Tour

 4 Nights

 Seller : Lakra Travel House

Chitrakoot (1) Kalinger (1) Khajuraho (1) Jhansi(1)

Pilgrimage through the spiritual heart of India - Chitrakoot, Kalinger Khajuraho and Jhansi

For Hindu devotees, a trip to Chitrakoot is a pinnacle of their spiritual life. Visit the holy

river Mandakini and witness the Aarti Ceremony. Pay your respects to your ancestors and

perform rituals in their memory. Ayodhya, the birthplace of Lord Ram, is a cradle of

history, legend and spiritual nirvana. Be enchanted by the many temples of Kalinger as

well as Kalinger Fort where you have the opportunity to take a holy dip. A pilgrimage

46
centre for Kalinjar means The destroyer of time in Sanskrit. 'Kal' is time and 'jar'

destruction. Legend says that after manthan Hindu God, Lord Shiva, drank the poison and

his throat became blue (hence the name Neel (blue) Kantha (throat)) and he came to

Kalinjar and overcome the 'Kal' i.e. he achieved victory over death. This is the reason the

Shiva temple at Kalinjar is calledNeelkanth. Since then, the hill has been considered a

holy site, casting its shadow across the patches of grasslands as well as the densely

forested valley. The natural splendor of the surroundings makes it an ideal place for

penance and meditation and, surprisingly, a strange mystique still pervades all over the

hill.

The term "Kalinjar" (as "Kalanjara") appears in ancient Hindu mythology, but the exact

origins of the fort itself are uncertain. According to the 16th century Persian

historian Firishta, the town of Kalinjar was established by one Kedar Raja in 7th century.

The fort came to prominence during the Chandela rule. According to Chandela-era

legends, the fort was built by a Chandela ruler.[1] The Chandela rulers used the

title Kalanjaradhipati ("Lord of Kalanjara"), which shows the importance they attached

to the fort.

Its historical background is replete with numerous battles and invasions. The Hindu princes

of different dynasties as well as the Muslim rulers fought hard to conquer it and the fort

continued to pass from one ruler to another. But, except the Mughals, no other ruler could

reign over it for long.

In 1023 Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and received a tribute from Kalinjar, Mughal Emperor

Babur was the only commander in history to have captured the fort in 1526 when driving

away Raja Hasan Khan Mewattpati. It was also the place where Sher Shah Suri met his

death in 1545 when he was killed either in the fort or nearby on the grounds. In 1569

47
Akbar captured the fort and it was under Mughal Rule till the British occupation. Kalinjar

played a prominent part in history down to the time of the Revolt of 1857, when it was

held by a small British garrison. Both the fort and the town, which stands at the foot of

the hill, are of interest to the antiquary on account of the remains of temples, sculptures,

inscriptions and caves.

is where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment. Refresh your care-worn spirit with this 5-day

sojourn and return home with beautiful memories.

 Meals

 Accommodation

 Sightseeing

Rs.11,500

Rs.1

Day 01 :

Varanasi-Arrival

Pickup from Airport/Railway station. Check in to hotel in Varanasi. In evening enjoy Ganga

Aarti . Get a glimpse of the spiritualism at the Ganga Ghats (river front). Stay night at

hotel in Varanasi.

Timing for Ganga Arti-At the time of Sunset

 Summer-7:00-7:30 PM

 Winter-6:00-7:00 PM

Note- We offer services for Personalised Ganga Arti too.

Day 02 :

48
Varanasi-Local Sightseeing-Ganga Arti-Boat Ride-Sarnath Tour-First sermon place

of Buddha

Early morning, we will be taken for a Boat Ride on the Ganges . It is a mystical and

spiritual experience to watch religious activities at Ganga Ghats . Come back to hotel for

breakfast.

Later a fabulous city tour is arranged covering the most religious Vishwanath

Temple , Annapurna Temple, Bharat Mata Temple , BHU etc. Stay at night at hotel

in Varanasi

After Lunch, we will be taken for an excursion to Sarnath . Sarnath is the place where Lord

Buddha delivered his first sermon to his disciples . The attractions at Sarnath are

the Buddha Temples ,Dhamekha Stupa , Chaukhandi Stupa and Archaeological

Museum .

Overnight stay at hotel in Varanasi.

Day 03 :

Varanasi – Allahabad-Local Sightseeing-(150 KM, 3 hrs)

After breakfast, we drive to Allahabad . Check-in to hotel.

Enjoy the holy bath in Triveni Sangam (Meeting point) of the three rivers - Ganga, Yamuna

& Saraswati. At Sangam perform puja and ritual ablutions in the shallow waters.

Have the lunch and latter cover local sightseeing in Allahabad like Hanuman

Temple , Anand Bhavan- house of Jawahar Lal Nehru . Swaraj Bhawan - where the

former Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi was born.

Overnight stay at hotel in Allahabad.

49
Day 04 :

Allahabad – Chitrakoot (150 KM 3 hrs) – Local Tour-Allahabad (150 KM 3 hrs)

After breakfast we drive to Chitrakoot and have local sightseeing of Chitrakoot.Chitrakoot

Tour includes Ram Ghat, Hanuman Dhara , Sita Kund and Sati Anusuya

Ashram and Kamadgiri a forested mountain . Gupt Godavari is a cavern located at a

distance of 19 km south of Ram Ghat.

In evening drive back to Allahabad. Stay at night at hotel in Allahabad.

Day 05 :

Allahabad –Drop to railway station or Airport in Allahabad/Varanasi.

After breakfast, drop to Allahabad/ Varanasi Railway station/airport with pleasant memory of

holy trip.

50
REVIEW OF
RELATED
LITERATURE

51
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Review of literature is a vital part of any research. It helps the researcher to know the areas

where earlier studies had focused on and certain aspects untouched by them.

Caprihan and Shivakumar (2002) in their article observed thattourists’ decisions

worldwide were negatively influenced byunfavourable conditions like terrorist attacks,

war, epidemics andcalamities etc. It revealed that the Indian government adopted

variousmeasures like subsidies, tax breaks, shifts in marketing strategies andincreased

advertising to minimise negative impact of unfavourableconditions. However, India

adopted age old tourism strategies thosetargeting only two countries U.K. and USA. The

author emphasized onthe adoption of innovative and customized tourism strategies by

Indiangovernment.

Singh (2002) in his paper gave a brief overview of tourism policyin India. The author

highlighted that traditional tourism policies inIndia were neither elaborate nor

appropriately executed. Further, thesepolicies were domestic tourism oriented rather than

internationaltourism oriented. The study concluded that India had huge potential

todevelop tourism but the absence of appropriate process of policyformulation and

implementation seemed to be the main hurdle intourism development.

Singh (2002) in his research paper highlighted the need formanaging the impact of tourist

and pilgrim mobility in the IndianHimalayas. The objective of this study was to reduce

ecologicaldegradation and erosion of cultural values in Garhwal Himalayas withthe help

of management of visitors. The study revealed that heavy flowof pilgrims and tourists

during the peak season from April to June leadto problems relating to accommodation,

catering, sewage, sanitation,water supply, tariff and ecological degradation. It also

revealed that atreligious places, entrepreneurs did not differentiate between pilgrimsand

52
tourists. Thus, they did not differentiate between their needs andabilities to pay for

accommodation and food. The study suggested theneed for travel regulation, education of

visitors, marketing of alternativedestinations and targeted marketing to get rid of

problems relating frommass tourism and pilgrimage in Garhwal.

Bansal and Gautam (2003) in their study described the role ofheritage tourism in Himachal

pradesh. They stated that globally 37 percent tourism was cultural motivated and growing

at the rate of 15 percent annually. They considered that Himachal Pradesh had

largenumber of heritage sites with status of first heritage village of India.

They also highlighted four types of heritage tourism products inHimachal pradesh namely

natural, manmade but not for tourists,manmade and built to attract visitors and lastly

special events. Theauthors described that lack of resources, lack of expertise, lack of

readyproduct, mutual lack of knowledge and minimal marketing were themain reasons

affecting heritage tourism in Himachal Pradesh. Theysuggested the introduction of

entrance fees from tourists visitingheritage centres and separate heritage management

board to preserveand promote the heritage sites.

Bar and Hatab (2003) in this study examined the presentcondition of tourism in Palestine by

comparing unique characteristics ofmodern day tourism and traditional pilgrimage

tourism. They statedthat tourism and pilgrimage tourism stood at opposite ends of

acontinuum with wide range of journey within these two ends. They highlighted five

factors i.e. motives, duration, religious affiliation andsocial background, travellers’

reaction and services used by touristswhich differentiated pilgrims from tourists. The

authors revealed thatthe main reason behind modern tourists’ travelling was

culturalcuriosity, education and desire to enrich themselves. Despite this theyfound that

pilgrims preferred to visit holy sites only during religiousfestivals. The study concluded

53
that while pilgrims most of the timevisited only religious places the modern tourists

visited the holy placesand secular places equally.

Batra (2003) in his study highlighted different Buddhistpilgrimage sites like Lumbini,

Bodhgaya, Sarnath, Rajgir, Nalanda andKushinagar situated in India. He stated that these

pilgrimage sites hadtheir importance at the international level. The researcher viewed

thatIndia had tremendous potential to attract a large number of touristsfrom Far East and

South-East Asia but due to lack of proper roads,basic amenities, infrastructure facilities

and inadequate promotionalefforts on the part of both the central and state government

the growthrate of Buddhist tourism in India was very slow.

Biju (2003) in his paper stated that eco-tourism was both naturebased and ecologically

sustainable. It entailed minimum impact onenvironment because as required less

infrastructure facilities andservices when compared with conventional tourism. Thus eco-

tourismhad three main key elements like natural environment, environmentfriendly

visitors and involvement of local community. However, ecotourismactivities lead to an

unnecessary pressure on natural resourcesworldwide which required appropriate

environmental planning andmanagement of natural areas for sustainable development of

ecotourism.

54
Most of the studies pertaining to the attractiveness of tourist destination have been devoted

towards developing the conceptual framework of destination image carried out since

early 1970s to the most recent period. The image of a tourist destination has been defined

as an impression that a person holds about a state in which they do not reside (Hunt,

1975) or as the mental construct developed by a potential tourist on the basis of a few

selected impressions among the flood of total impressions (Fakeye and Crompton, 1991)

or as the sum of the beliefs, ideas and impressions that a person has of a destination

(Crompton, 1979).

Tourism researchers have analysed the formation of destination image from different

perspectives, the findings of which reveal that the destination image formation is

influenced by several constructs. Through his seminal work, Gunn (1972) demonstrated

that different types of images are formed by different sources of information. This image

about the destination gets modified, once tourists personally visit the destination

(Chon, 1991). Several researchers (Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Beerli and Martin, 2004a;

2004b) contended that personal factors including both psychological characteristics as

well as socio-demographic characteristics along with external stimuli create a powerful

image in visitors’ minds about the destination. Some studies have attempted to

determine the attractiveness of a tourist destination on the basis of attribute analysis of a

destination (Gearing et al., 1974; Ritchie and Zins, 1978; Tang and Rochananond,

1990), while a few studies have found out the attractiveness of a destination based on the

feelings, belief and opinion that individuals have about a destination’s perceived capacity

to provide satisfaction in relation to their special vacation needs (Hu and Ritchie, 1993).

Several studies have also been carried out to investigate the impact of previous visitation

55
and length of stay in the destination on the perceived image of the destination (Chon,

1991; Fakeye and Crompton, 1991; Hu and Ritchie, 1993; Milman and Pizam, 1995).

Further some studies have evaluated the image of a destination on the basis of

Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) of touristic attributes (Duke and Persia, 1996;

Joppe et al., 2001; Oh, 2001; Zhang and Chow, 2004; Leary and Deegan, 2005). A few

similar type of studies have also been carried out to assess the image of a tourist

destination based on gap analysis between expectation and satisfaction level of visitors on

different attributes (Pizam et al., 1978; Cho, 1998; Chaudhary, 2000; Das and Sharma,

2004, 2005; Das et al., 2007). Gallarza et al. (2002) have proposed a conceptual model of

destination image featuring its complex, multiple, relativistic and dynamic nature.

Contemporary studies have simultaneously made use of both multi-attribute approach as

well as holistic impressions of the tourist site to find out its image or attractiveness

(Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Choi et al., 1999; Beerli and Martin, 2004a, 2004b). The

main weakness of the multi-attribute approach is that the attribute lists of the destination

may be incomplete. Moreover, the sum or average of attribute scores is never an

appropriate assessment of the overall attractiveness of the destination. Echtner and

Ritchie (1991, 1993), therefore, mention that a complete operationalisation of destination

image or attractiveness involves measuring both attributes and holistic impressions of the

place.

The above studies seem to suggest that very few approaches, in isolation, can claim to

capture the full picture of the formation of destination image because it is rather difficult

to develop a methodology, which will incorporate all the important dimensions of image

formation into a single measure. Therefore, multi-method approach has become very

popular in recent times for measuring the image or attractiveness of a destination,

because this approach attempts to cover as many aspects as possible in a single study.

56
(Prebensen, 2006; Hunter and Suh, 2007). With this backdrop, the present study

is an attempt to assess the attractiveness of Varanasi as a tourist destination by

considering several dimensions of attractiveness simultaneously. The study has taken into

consideration

• attribute analysis of the destination based on both primary as well as secondary sources of

information

• personal factors of the visitors

• satisfaction derived by the visitors with individual touristic attributes

• holistic and unique impressions of the destination from the perspective of foreign tourists

for the ultimate purpose of evaluating the attractiveness of Varanasi as a tourist

destination.

Although a number of studies have been carried out to find out the attractiveness of tourist

destinations from the developed world, there is hardly any study carried out with

reference to a tourist site like Varanasi from India.

The following section describes, in brief, various approaches pertaining to the formation of

destination image. Section 3 presents research design in detail wherein the descriptions

about the study site, research variables, research instrument, sampling, and procedure for

administering the research instrument are lucidly explained. Section 4 reveals detailed

findings of research and discussion of the same. The paper concludes with a concise

summary, managerial implications and potential contribution of the work.

57
2 Destination image: concept and measurement

Tourism literature is replete with numerous studies concerning the concept of destination

image, its formation and measurement. Gunn (1972) was one of the first to propose

a seven-stage theory regarding the formation of destination image, which is dependent on

the sources of information. The theory is characterised by three dimensions of image,

namely organic image, induced image and modified image. Organic image is based on

non-commercial sources of information such as books, school, television documentaries,

experiences of friends and relatives etc., while induced image is dependent on

commercial sources of information such as advertising, information received from travel

agents and tour operators etc. Modified induced images are the result of personal

experience of visiting the destination. However, Gunn’s theory has not touched upon the

influence of personal factors and other important dimensions on the formation of

destination image.

Later on, several other researchers (Um and Crompton, 1990; Gartner, 1993; Baloglu, 1997;

Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Beerli and Martin, 2004a, 2004b) have revealed that the

characteristics of individuals have an important bearing on destination image

formation along with sources of information. The perceptions about the attributes of a

destination are formed by individuals being exposed to external stimuli but the same

varies depending on the characteristics of the individuals. Thus the perceived image of a

destination is formed through the image projected by the destination and the individuals’

own needs, motivations, prior knowledge, preferences and other personal characteristics.

Personal characteristics include both socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education,

social/economic class etc.) as well as psychological factors (motivations, values,

life style etc.).

58
Tourism literature shows ample evidence regarding the formation of destination image based

on two closely inter-related components,

• perceptual/cognitive image developed through stimulus factors (information sources)

• affective image developed through personal factors.

The studies further demonstrate that the cognitive component is an antecedent of the

affective component and the combination of the two gives rise to an overall, compound

image of the destination (Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Beerli and Martin, 2004a, 2004b).

Path models have been utilised by most of the researchers to show the inter-relationship

between cognitive components and affective components and their influence on the

formation of overall destination image.

Earlier, Gearing et al. (1974) established a measure of touristic attractiveness on the

basis of 17 attributes after eliciting responses from 26 Tourism Experts. Later,

Ritchie and Zins (1978) and Tang and Rochananond (1990) also attempted to

measure touristic attractiveness based on individual attributes of the destination. But

these measures project only attribute-specific image of the destination.

The formation of destination image is also found to be dependent on the absence or

presence of previous visits undertaken by a visitor (Chon, 1991; Fakeye and Crompton,

1991; Hu and Ritchie, 1993; Milman and Pizam, 1995). Milman and Pizam (1995) have

shown that people with past experience of a destination are more likely to revisit

than tourists with no experience of the destination. Ryan and Cave (2005) have revealed

in their study of destination image the importance of the role of visitor-familiarity with

site. Baloglu (2001) contended that the familiarity with a destination is developed

through both experiential as well as informational dimensions and he developed an index,

59
known as familiarity index, for the purpose of assessing the image of a destination.

Familiarity with a destination will most likely affect consumers’ attitudes towards a

destination and the activities performed there. Further, Chon (1991) has articulated that

the perception of tourists towards a destination and consequently the destination image

gets modified, once tourists undertake a visit to that destination.

Several researchers have utilised Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) model propounded

by Martilla and James (1977) for evaluating the image of a tourist destination (Duke and

Persia, 1996; Joppe et al., 2001; Oh, 2001; Zhang and Chow, 2004; Leary and Deegan,

2005). Application of IPA model requires the visitors to rate the importance of individual

attribute of a destination as also the performance of the same in a five-point or seven-

point Likert scale. Subsequently the importance and performance scores are plotted on

vertical and horizontal axes respectively which give rise to the formation of IPA grid with

four quadrants. The quadrants give valuable insights to the destination managers

regarding wherein more resources should be directed in order to make the destination

attractive. The main limitation associated with IPA model is that tourists may give certain

attributes high importance rating, but it may so happen that those attributes have hardly

any bearing on tourists’ satisfaction with the destination.

Somewhat analogous to the IPA model, two important contributions were made by Oliver

(1980) and Churchil and Surprenant (1982) in the field of consumer satisfaction. Both the

theories are rooted in the expectation and experiential dimensions of customers with the

attributes of products. Consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction is a function of

confirmation/disconfirmation between expectation on different attributes of a product or

service and performance on the same (Oliver, 1980; Churchil and Surprenant, 1982).

If the level of performance of a product or service corresponds with the level of

expectation, the consumer is satisfied. If the level of performance exceeds the level of

60
expectation, the consumer is more than satisfied. Otherwise, the consumer gets

dissatisfied, when the performance level falls below the expectation level. Tourist’s

satisfaction is also the result of interaction between a tourist’s experience at the

destination area and his expectations about that destination (Pizam et al., 1978;

Cho, 1998; Chaudhary, 2000; Das and Sharma, 2004, 2005; Das et al., 2007). Utilising

the same model, the same researchers have attempted to assess the image of a destination

on the basis of satisfaction derived by the visitors with individual touristic attributes.

Satisfaction/dissatisfaction with individual attributes present an attribute-specific picture

of the destination, which give valuable information to the destination managers for

utilising resources in the right direction. But this approach fails to provide us a holistic

impression of the destination.

The foregoing discussion seems to suggest that the concept of destination image is easy to

understand, but its formation as also measurement is a complex phenomenon. The

studies reveal that it is influenced by information sources, personal factors, attribute-

specific factors, previous visits, IPA of the attributes, satisfaction of customers with the

touristic attributes etc. However, none of the approaches is complete in itself, nor do

they, in isolation, provide holistic picture of the destination. Rather the approaches may

be considered complementary to each other. Therefore, when one approach is used in

conjunction with another, it attempts to supplement the findings of the original one

thereby making the outcome of the study more reliable.

Echtner and Ritchie (1991, 1993) have attempted to present a comprehensive framework for

the measurement of destination image. They argued that the destination image comprises

attribute, holistic, functional, psychological, common and unique components. Measuring

61
all these components involve combination of both qualitative as well quantitative

techniques. Choi et al. (1999) have found out the image of Hong Kong as a tourist

destination by applying the model proposed by Echtner and Ritchie.

Drawing on the works carried by the aforementioned tourism researchers, the present work

involves evaluating the attractiveness of Chitrakoot as a tourist destination based on its

touristic attributes, personal factors of visitors, satisfaction of visitors with individual

attributes and finally the unique and holistic impressions of the destination. Accordingly

a suitable research plan was developed in order to execute the research work for the

ultimate purpose of achieving the research objectives.

62
RATIONALE OF THE
STUDY

63
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

As the demand and popularity of any destination rely heavily on the satisfaction level of

pilgrims or tourists in terms of infrastructural facilities, availability of goods and

services in and around the pilgrimage destination, focus on the environmental

sensitivity, and relative competition in the pilgrimage tourism market. The present

study will be an attempt made to measure the potential of pilgrimage tourism in

Chitrakoot, Uttar Pradesh.

64
OBJECTIVE OF THE
STUDY

65
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 To study the present scenario of pilgrimage tourism in Chitrakoot.

 To assess the satisfaction of tourists visiting different pilgrimage sites in Chitrakoot.

 To examine the existing infrastructure and other facilities available at different

pilgrimage sites in Chitrakoot.

 To analyze the supervisory effectiveness of the agency responsible for the regulation and

maintenance at different pilgrimage sites.

 To identify various problems and suggest viable remedies to develop sustainable

Pilgrimage tourism.

66
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

67
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a way to systematically investigate the research problem. It gives

various steps in conducting the research in a systematic and a logical way. It is essential

to define the problem, state objectives and hypothesis clearly. The research design

provides the details regarding what, where, when, how much and by what means enquiry

is initiated.

Research Design

The study will basically exploratory in nature. The study shall to analyze the tourists (both

local and foreign) responses regarding religions places and any development

recommendations about the tourism i.e. pilgrimage tourism.

Primary Data Sources

 Personal meeting with pilgrimages management officials.

 Personal visits topilgrimage places.

Secondary Data Sources

Secondary data sources mainly covered government publications, brochures of venue local

magazines, local analysis reports by state and central government.

Sample

The sample of the present study will be 100.

Tool used for Data Collection

Data will be collected from the sample respondents with the help of a well-structured

questionnaire. Questionnaire will be consisted of five sections which will be used to

collect the data.

The first section will be contained the questions designed to extract the demographic profile

of the selected respondents such as age, income, gender, occupation, marital status,

68
education, family size and family composition.

The second sections will be consisted of the questions related to the traveling information of

pilgrims such as visit time, period of stay, hotel category, room rent, mode of transport,

visiting frequency, number of accompanying persons etc.

The third section will be consisted of fifty three attributes accessing the satisfaction level of

pilgrims from different services. These fifty three attributes will be identified through

discussion with knowledgeable people in the group, professional advice from academic

and tourism bodies and from the available literature. Respondent will be asked to rate

their perceived satisfaction level towards each of the attribute on a Five point scale

ranging from 1(Highly Dissatisfied) to 5 (Highly Satisfied).

The fourth section will be consisted of the questions regarding their encounter with different

services available en route through the various agencies; price perceived and expected,

the nature of problems faced etc.

And in the last section necessary suggestions will be invited from the respondents based on

their pre-trip/ post-trip evaluation of different services.

Data Analysis

The data will be collected from the tourists through questionnaire and personal meetings with

the officials of tourism department of Uttar Pradesh tourism department will be suitably

framed in tabular form and make the statistical analysis.

69
DATA ANALYSIS
AND ITS
INTERPRETATION

70
Q.1 What is the travel route that you have planned?

Travel Route

ahmedabad-Bhuj
Bhuj-Lakhpat
Nalia-Abdoned Railway Station
Kalo Dungar to Mandir Beach

ROUTES PREFERENCE (%)


Sarnath-Kashi Vishwanath temple 45
Kashi Vishwanath temple-Lakhpat 40
Gyan Vapi Kup-Abdoned Railway Station 8
Kalo Dungar to Ramgarh Fort 7

71
Q.2 How did you arrive here?

60

50

40
Rail
30 Road
20 Air

10

0
Group Individual Couple

From the above chart, it is found out that Tourist Groups preferred mostly road transport
while the couples relied mostly on rail. Data based on views of 25 random tourists.

MODE GROUP (%) INDIVIDUAL COUPLE (%)


(%)
1. RAIL 30 45 55
2. ROAD 68 54 42
3. AIR 2 1 3

72
Q.3 Main purpose of visit:

Purpose of visit

Leisure
Business
VFR
Pilgrimage
Others

This Doughnut Chart states the purpose of visit if various tourists in Kashi Vishwanath
temple. Survey based on the reviews of 25 random tourists:

PURPOSE OF VISIT PERCANTAGE (%)


1. Leisure 65
2. Business 7
3. VFR 8
4. Pilgrimage 12
5. Others 8

Q.4 Number of places covered till yet:

73
Places Covered
70

60

50

40

Series 1
30

20

10

0
1 to 3 3 to 5 More than 5

The above chart shows the number of places covered by 25 random tourists:

PLACES COVERED PERCENTAGE (%)


1. 1 to 3 65
2. 3 to 5 25
3. More than 5 10

74
Q.5 How many times have you visited Kamadgiri temple?

Bhuj Visit Frequency

First time
2 to 5
More than 5

The above disintegrated Doughnut chart represents the number of times a tourist has visited

the city of Kashi Vishwanath temple. Analysis taken from the survey of 20 random

tourists:

FREQUENCY OF VISIT PERCENTAGE (%)


1. First time 64
2. 2 to 5 25
3. More than 5 11

75
Q 6.What is the climate like?

Climate

Warm
Hot
Pleasant
Cool

The above pie-chart shows the type of climate experienced by 25 random tourists at
Kamadgiri temple:

CLIMATE TYPE PERCENTAGE (%)


1. Warm 22
2. Hot 11
3. Pleasant 44
4. Cool 22

Q 7. Cooperation with the local people:

76
Nature of locals

4
Nature of locals
3

0
Very Good Good Average Bad

The above cone bar graph indicates the nature of the Chitrakoot locals according to 25
random tourists:

NATURE VERY GOOD GOOD AVERAGE BAD


PERCENTAGE(%) 27 53 15 5

77
Q 8. How is the local City?

100%
90%
80%
70%
Bad
60%
Average
50%
Good
40% Very Good
30%
20%
10%
0%
Jodhpur Jaipur Udaipur Jaisalmer

The above cylindrical bar chart shows the preference of the local city at Kamadgiri temple,

Kamadgiri Sphatik Shila Hanuman Dhara RamGhat Janki Kund Pauranik Maoni Baba

Sthan-Banda District Kalinger Foert and Ram Ghats. From the data it is estimated that

Ram Ghats is the most preferred destination for Ship/Boats. Data has been analyzed from

the review of 25 random tourists who have visited these places:

PREFERENCE (%)

PLACES VERY GOOD GOOD AVERAGE BAD


1. Kamadgiri 49 21 23 09
temple
2. Ramghat 28 41 24 7
3. Hanuman 37 26 30 7
Dhara
4. Janaki KUnd41 45 12 2

78
Q 9. Accommodation Facility at the hotel:

Accommodation Facility

Very Good
Good
Average
Bad

The doughnut chart above shows the accommodation facility in the hotel at Chitrakoot. This

data has been taken from 20 random tourists who has checked in and stayed overnight at

some hotels in Chitrakoot:

ACCOMODATION FACILITY PERCENTAGE (%)


1. VERY GOOD 21
2. GOOD 24
3. AVERAGE 40
4. BAD 15

79
Q10. Transportation Facility:

90
80
70
60 Very Good
50 Good
40
Average
30
Bad
20
10
0
Jodhpur Jaipur Jaisalmer Udaipur

The above complex bar diagram indicates the Transport facility in four major cities of

Varanasi. The data has been taken and analyzed by 25 random tourists who have used the

local transport in these cities:

TRANSPORT FACILITY (%)

CITIES VERY GOOD GOOD AVERAGE BAD


1. KAMAD GIRI 9 15 56 20
TEMPLE
2. RAMGHAT 19 33 40 08
3. SATI ANSUIYA 5 10 15 70
4. MAUNI BABA 25 30 35 15
ASHRAM

80
Q11. How are the historical and cultural antique shops?

Antique Shops

Very Good
Good
Average
Bad

The above pie chart indicates the analysis of 25 random tourists in Chitrakoot about their

experience at any antique shops:

EXPERIENCE PERCENTAGE (%)


1. VERY GOOD 38
2. GOOD 40
3. AVERAGE 24
4. BAD 4

81
Q12. How did you come to know about these places?

Sources

60

40

20
Sources

0
Internet Sources
Magazine
Relatives
Others

The above cylindrical bar diagram indicates the sources from which the tourists came to

know about Chitrakoot. The data has been analyzed by the reviews of 25 random tourists:

SOURCES PERCENTAGE (%)


1. INTERNET 49
2. MAGAZINE 19
3. RELATIVES 25
4. OTHERS 15

Q13. Did it meet your expectations?


82
Expectations

Yes
No

The above doughnut chart shows the data analysis made from the reviews of 25 random

tourists whose expectations were met or not from what they had heard and what they

have experienced till now:

EXPECTATION MET PERCENTAGE (%)


1. YES 85
2. NO 15

Q.14 The thing that you liked most about this place?

83
Most Liked

Scenic beauty
Palace/Forts
Cuisines
Antiques
People

From the above pie chart it is clear that the tourists are most fascinated by the Palaces and

Forts of Chitrakoot. The data has been analyzed from the views taken from 25 random

tourists:

MOST LIKED PERCENTAGE (%)


1. Scenic Beauty 28
2. Palaces/Forts 47
3. Boat 8
4. Antique 5
5. People 12

84
Q.15 Do you think that city of Chitrkoot needs more development?

Does Ahmedabad needs development


90

80

70

60

50
Does Udaipur needs
40 development
30

20

10

0
Yes No

The above bar diagram is made from the reviews by 25 random tourists if the city of

Chitrakoot needs development:

DEVELOPMENT NEEDED PERCENTAGE (%)


1. YES 69
2. NO 31

Q.16 How was your experience at Kamadgiri temple?

85
Bhuj Experience

Very Good
Good
Average
Bad

The above bar diagram is made from the reviews by 25 random tourists if the city of
Chitrakoot needs development:

DEVELOPMENT NEEDED PERCENTAGE (%)


1. YES 69
2. NO 31

Q17. Would you like to visit these places again?

86
Is it worth a visit

Yes
No
Maybe

The above doughnut chart indicates the review of 25 random tourists which states if they

want to visit Varanasi again or not:

WORTH A VISIT PERCENTAGE (%)


1. YES 69
2. NO 20
3. MAYBE 11

87
CONCLUSION

88
CONCLUSION
Chitrakoot is home of the valiant He known for their bravery and chivalry. Chitrakoot is

said to have been a region where human settlements dated back to the early historical

period. By travelling through different areas, we found that every region has its very own

dialect of music and dance. The Religious dance from Chitrakoot and Kalbeliya dance of

Ram Ghats have international recognition. Folk music is a vital part of Chitrakoot

culture.

Chitrakoot Tourism needs to wake up and revise its social media content strategy as

a whole to stop being repetitive in nature. People are looking for fresh content

and if the state decides to stick to its boring updates, it might begin loosing fans

and followers. They should invest in chunk sized information and topical content.

They could also have videos where they interview tourists and try to show various

perceptions. Chitrakoot Tourism can have innovative contests too which can be

executed on Twitter in an attempt to increase followers and awareness.

Chitrakoot tourism is making all-out efforts to maintain the momentum with promotion of

upcoming events like Saputara Monsoon Fest, Taranetar Fair, Navratri Festival and

Rann Utsav all over the country. With the recent move by Planning Commission to

provide a special grant of Rs 1,20 crore for coastal tourism development projects in the

state, it is expected to act as a major booster for tourism infrastructure development in

line with the impressive growth in number of tourist arrivals.

89
The panoramic view especially during sunrise or sunset, astride a camel, leaves an indelible

image in the mind. In this backdrop of the desert landscape and ruggedness of the

expanse of the desert one can spend hours admiring this marvel of nature.

The study has attempted to assess the attractiveness of Chitrakoot as a tourist

destination from the point of view of foreign tourists taking into account several

dimensions simultaneously. The study has considered tourists’ expectations on touristic

attributes based on primary and secondary sources of information and demographic

factors (e.g., gender and economic class) of tourists for evaluating the attractiveness of

the destination. Further satisfaction with individual attributes of the destination as also

unique and holistic impressions of the destination have also been taken into

consideration for examining the attractiveness of Chitrakoot. The findings of the study

suggest that the perceived attractiveness depends on expectation of visitors on seven

factors of touristic attributes. Few dominant factors responsible for improving the

perceived attractiveness of Chitrakoot are ancient flavour of the city, distinctive local

features, support services and so on. Accordingly, the destination managers may decide

to undertake certain measures to improve the status of the dominant factors, which will

ultimately lead to the improvement in visitors’ perception towards the tourist

destination.

The study has examined the influence of tourists’ economic class and gender on

the expectation of tourists pertaining to seven touristic factors. It is found that the

expectations of visitors on touristic infrastructure, support services, ancient flavour

of the city and cultural attributes differ significantly on the basis of their economic class.

Based on this vital inputs, tourism managers can formulate suitable policies to target a

particular segment (economic class) of tourists based on the needs of that particular

class and the inherent capacity of the destination to satisfy those needs of the tourists

90
belonging to that class. Further significant differences in the expectation of male and

female tourists are found in respect of support services and distinctive local features.

The study reveals that out of 24 key attributes and support services, tourists feel

satisfied only on six items like Archaeological Museum, Mandakini Aarti, Classical

music and dance etc. These attributes are, as far as possible, to be maintained and

preserved at least in its original form and to be improved gradually on a

continuous basis. Few attributes on which the expectation of the tourists remains

unfulfilled are Centre of Indian spiritualism and mysticism; Chitrakoot, the oldest

surviving city; the Holy Ganges and the Ghats. All these attributes are the heart of

tourism at Varanasi for which tourists come to Chitrakoot from different parts of the

globe. Accordingly various policies need to be undertaken by the Government, tourism

planners and developers to restore the flavour of ancient Chitrakoot as a prominent

centre of Indian spiritualism and mysticism.

As regards support services, Chitrakoot is perhaps one of the worst tourist destinations

from the perspective of foreign tourists. The basic infrastructure, quality of hotels,

quality and variety of food, quality of physical and psychological environment, travel

arrangements, accessibility to Chitrakoot, connectivity between Chitrakoot and other

tourist sites, reservation facilities etc., are very poor. The expectations of foreign tourists

on facilities and support services at Varanasi are to be properly managed by making

them aware of the kind of facilities available in a developing country like India prior to

their arrival. This will rather help foreign tourists in making up their mind while

travelling to Chitrakoot and will help in reducing the negative perception on support

services which will ultimately reduce the dissonance between their expectation and

experience of support services at Chitrakoot.

91
As regards the scope of future work, the present study has not found out the

influence of age, occupation, country of origin and psychological factors on the

expectation of tourists pertaining to the touristic factors, which could be taken up as an

extension of the present work.

The study suffers from the limitation of varying number of visitors belonging to

different economic class in the sample. Further the total number of responses collected

from foreign tourists (sample size) is not very high. Nevertheless the study contributes

to the existing body of tourism literature by way of looking at the attractiveness of a

tourist destination from all possible angles. The same type of study can be replicated

to other destinations also for determining its attractiveness. This will immensely benefit

the destination managers for the purpose of formulating effective tourism policies,

which will address the expectations, needs and concerns of tourists and project the

destination as attractive.

92
BIBLIOGRAPHY

93
BIBLIOGRAPHY
All the information, details, facts and pictures that consist in this Academic Tour Report has

been obtained by our visit to the State of Chitrakoot, which includes the cities of Ram

Ghats, Kamadgiri temple,Human Dhara and Sati Ansuiya Aashram, Janki Kund ,Sphatik

Shila Gopta Godavari Laxaman Hills Sita Rasoi. The sheer experience that we received

during the Educational Tour encouraged us to know more about the places in depth and

thus make a noteworthy Tour Report.

The sites that were looked upon for the data and pictures have been given below:-

 www.google.co.in

 www.Chitrakoottourism.co.in

 www.tourismindia.com

 www.upTourism.gov.in

 www.mptourism.gov.in

 www.ministryof tourism.gov.in

 www.chitrakootdham.com

94
REFERENCES

95
REFERENCES

 Pilley and Kevin (1999) Once in a Lifetime is Not Enough. Financial Times.

London (UK). pp. 21.

 Goswami B K and Raveendran G (2003) -- Text Book of Indian Pilgrim Tourism.

 Ahmed Z (1992) Islamic Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Kaaba in Makka (Saudi Arabia). An

International Tourism Activity, The Journal of Tourism Studies. Vol.3 (1), pp.35-43.

 Gupta V (1999) Sustainable Tourism: Learning From Indian Religious

Traditions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Bradford: Vol.11 (2/3). pp. 91.

 Mcvey Michel and Brian K (2000) A Profile of India‘s Hotel Sector: Is a Giant Finally

Awakening? Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 25 (2) pp. 97-100.

 Heo et al. (2004) Customer-focused adaptation in New York City Hotels: Exploring the

Perceptions of Japanese and Korean Travelers, Hospitality Management, Vol. 23, pp. 39-

53.

 Vukonic B (1996) Tourism and Religion, Pergamon, U.K. pp. 53-60, 117-142.

 William H S and Tomasi L (2002) From Medieval Pilgrimage to Religious Tourism: The

Social and Cultural Economics of Piety, Praeger, Westport, CN. pp.3-12.

 Lucy (2006) Food Pilgrimages: Seeking the Sacred and the Authentic in Food

Department of Popular Culture, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, USA.

pp. 7-9.

 Baloglu, S. (1997) ‘The relationship between destination images and socio-demographic

and trip characteristics of international travelers’, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 3,

pp.221–233.

96
 Baloglu, S. (2001) ‘Image variations of Turkey by familiarity index: informational and

experiential dimensions’, Tourism Management, Vol. 22, pp.127–133.

 Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K.W. (1999) ‘A model of destination image formation’,

Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp.868–897.

 Beerli, A. and Martin, J.D. (2004a) ‘Factors influencing destination image’, Annals of

Tourism Research, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp.657–681.

 Beerli, A. and Martin, J.D. (2004b) ‘Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of

tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis – a case study of Lanzarote, Spain’, Tourism

Management, Vol. 25, pp.623–636.

 Chaudhary, M. (2000) ‘India’s image as a tourist destination – a perspective of foreign

tourists’,

 Tourism Management, Vol. 21, pp.293–297.

 Choi, W.M., Chan, A. and Wu, J. (1999) ‘A qualitative and quantitative assessment of

Hong Kong’s image as a tourist destination’, Tourism Management, Vol. 20, pp.361–

365.

 Chon, K.S. (1991) ‘Tourism destination image modification process: marketing

implications’,

 Tourism Management, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.68–72.

 Churchil, G.A. and Surprenant, C. (1982) ‘An investigation into the determinants of

customer satisfaction’, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 19, November, pp.491–504.

 Cho, B.H. (1998) ‘Assessing tourist satisfaction – An exploratory study of Korean youth

tourists in Australia’, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp.47–54.

 Crompton, J.L. (1979) ‘An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination

and the influence of geographical location upon that image’, Journal of Travel Research,

Vol. 18, No. 4, pp.18–23.

97
 Das, D. and Sharma, S.K. (2004) Towards a Sustainable Tourism Development: A

Quality Function Deployment Approach, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Banaras Hindu

University, India.

 Das, D. and Sharma, S.K. (2005) ‘Perspective of foreign tourists with reference to a

tourist destination: a case study’, Proceedings of International Conference on Services

Management, 11–12 March, Delhi, pp.175–182.

 Das, D., Mohapatra, P.K.J., Sharma, S. and Sarkar, A. (2007) ‘Factors influencing the

attractiveness of a tourist destination: a case study’, Journal of Services Research

(Indian), forthcoming, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.103–134.

 Duke, C.R. and Persia, M.A. (1996) ‘Performance-importance analysis of escorted tour

evaluations’, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp.207–223.

 Echtner, C.M. and Ritchie, J.R.B. (1991) ‘The meaning and measurement of destination

image’,

 Journal of Tourism Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.2–12.

 Echtner, C.M. and Ritchie, J.R.B. (1993) ‘The measurement of destinations image: an

empirical assessment’, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp 3–13.

 Fakeye, P.C. and Crompton, J.L. (1991) ‘Image differences between prospective, first-

time and repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley’, Journal of Travel Research,

Vol. 30, No. 2, pp.10–16.

 Gallarza, M.G., Saura, I.G. and Garcia, H.C. (2002) ‘Destination image: towards a

conceptual framework’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.56–78.

 Gartner, W.C. (1993) ‘Image formation process’, Journal of Travel and Tourism

Marketing, Vol. 2, Nos. 2–3, pp.191–215.

 Gearing, C.E., Swart, W.W. and Var, T. (1974) ‘Establishing a measure of touristic

attractiveness’,

98
 Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp.1–8.

 Gunn, C. (1972) Vacationscape – Designing Tourist Regions, Taylor and

Francis/University of Texas, Washington DC.

 Hu, Y. and Ritchie, J. (1993) ‘Measuring destination attractiveness: a contextual

approach’,

 Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.25–34.

 Hunt, J.D. (1975) ‘Image as a factor in tourism development’, Journal of Travel

Research, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.1–7.

 Hunter, W.C. and Suh, Y.K. (2007) ‘Multimethod research on destination image

perception: Jeju standing stones’, Tourism Management, Vol. 28, pp.130–139.

 India Tourism Office (1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002) Tourist Statistics,

Chitrakoot.

 Joppe, M., Martin, D.W. and Waalen, J. (2001) ‘Toronto’s image as a destination: a

comparative importance-satisfaction analysis by origin of visitor’, Journal of Travel

Research, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp.252–260.

 Leary, S.O. and Deegan, J. (2005) ‘Ireland’s image as a tourism destination in France:

attribute importance and performance’, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 43, February,

pp.247–256.

 Martilla, J.A. and James, J.C. (1977) ‘Importance-performance analysis’, Journal of

Marketing, Vol. 41, pp.77–79.

 Milman, A. and Pizam, A. (1995) ‘The role of awareness and familiarity with a

destination: the Central Florida case’, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 33, No. 3,

pp.21–27.

 Norusis, M.J. (1988) SPSS-X Advanced Statistics Guide, 2nd ed., SPSS Inc., USA.

Nunnaly, J. (1978) Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York.

99
 Oh, H. (2001) ‘Revisiting importance-performance analysis’, Tourism Management, Vol.

22, pp.617–627.

 Oliver, R.L. (1980) ‘A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of

satisfaction decisions’, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XVII, November, pp.460–

469.

 Pizam, A., Neumann, Y. and Reichel, A. (1978) ‘Dimensions of tourist

satisfaction with a destination area’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 5, pp.314–

322.

 Prebensen, N.K. (2006) ‘Exploring tourists’ images of a distant destination’, Tourism

Management, forthcoming.

 Ritchie, J.R.B. and Zins, M. (1978) ‘Culture as determinant of the attractiveness of a

tourism region’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, April–June, pp.252–267.

 Ryan, C. and Cave, J. (2005) ‘Structuring destination image: a qualitative approach’,

Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 44, pp.143–150.

 Tang, J.C.S. and Rochananond, N. (1990) ‘Attractiveness as a tourist destination: a

comparative study of Thailand and selected countries’, Socio-Economic Planning

Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp.229–236.

 Um, S. and Crompton, J. (1990) ‘Attitude determinants in tourism destination choice’,

Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 17, pp.432–448.

 Zhang, H.Q. and Chow, I (2004) ‘Application of importance-performance model in tour

guides’ performance: evidence from Mainland Chinese outbound visitors in Hong

Kong’, Tourism Management, Vol. 25, pp.81–91

100
QUESTIONNAIRE

101
Destination 1:

QUESTIONNAIRE
Name: Age:
Address: Phone
No.:
E-Mail ID:
Nationality:
Sex: M( ) F( )
Marital Status: Married ( ) Unmarried ( )
Per Annum Salary:
Below 1 Lakh ( ) 1-3 Lakh ( ) 3-5 Lakh ( )

 What is the travel route that you have planned?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 How did you arrive here?

Railways Airways Roadways

 Main purpose of visit:

Leisure Business VFR Pilgrimage Other

 Number of places covered till yet:

1-3 3-5 More than 5

102
 How many times have you visited Kamadgiri temple?

First time 2-5 times More than 5

 What is the climate like?

Warm Hot Pleasant Cool

 Cooperation with the local people:

Very Good Good Average Bad

 How is the local Chitrakoot tourism?

Very Good Good Average Bad

 Accommodation Facility at the hotel:

Very Good Good Average Bad

 Transportation Facility:

Very Good Good Average Bad

 How are the historical and cultural antique shops?

Very Good Good Average Bad

 How many days are you planning to stay in this destination?

103
1-2 days 3-5 days More than 5

 How did you come to know about this place?

Internet Magazines Friends/Relatives

Other sources (please specify) ___________________

 Did it meet your expectations?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 The thing that you liked most about this place?

Scenic Beauty Palace/Forts Cuisine

Antiques People

 Do you think that city of Chitrakoot needs more development?

Yes No Please specify:

______________________________________________

 How was your experience at Kamadgiri temple?

Very Good Good Average Bad

 Out of the places you have visited, which one will always be in your memories forever

and why?

Hanuman Dhara Kamad Giri temple Janki Kund

104
Ram Ghats Sati Ansuiya Aashram Sphatik Shila

Reason:

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________.

 Would you like to visit these places again?

Yes No Maybe

 Your personal suggestion from the experiences during this tour:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Place:
Date:
Signature

105