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The new Pembury Hospital, Kent, provides an example of the benefits to be gained from

using post-tensioned suspended concrete floors. These benefits are being increasingly
recognised by UK designers.

Concrete Structures 09 provides an insight to concrete innovation, design solutions


and project examples.

Eurocodes: The Sustainable Economic Visual


all change Whole Concrete Frame concrete
Eurocode 2 More than just Elements Your questions
resources CO2 emissions A designer’s guide answered
Eurocode 2 Resources
The concrete sector, through The Concrete Centre, has been leading the transition
from British Standards to Eurocode 2 through its range of courses and publications.

In addition, it has developed an online information resource document for those studying for the IStructE Chartered Membership Examination
www.eurocode2.info and The Concrete Centre’s technical team has been and as a scheme design manual for building design. This publication is currently
visiting practices to give specifically tailored in-house presentations. being updated to Eurocode 2.

The design guidance and resources available from The Concrete For more information on these publications visit
Centre include: www.concretecentre.com/publications

Technical Design Guidance For information relating to Eurocode 2 guidance for precast concrete elements
The How to series for designing to Eurocode 2 has been widely praised by visit: www.britishprecast.org
2 structural engineers and the compendium continues to be updated. The latest
chapter soon to be added is Chapter 12: Structural Fire Design (see page 15). Training and CPD
The current publication that can be viewed online at www.concretecentre.com/ Whatever you need to know, whether you have 45 minutes, a day or a specific
publications includes previous chapters on: project where you require assistance, we can help.

• Introduction to Eurocodes • Getting Started CPD presentation in your office


• Slabs • Beams • Building design to Eurocode 2
• Columns • Foundations • Design of civil engineering structures to Eurocode 2
• Flat slabs • Deflections
• Retaining Walls • Detailing Many other topics refer to Eurocode 2, for more information visit
• BS 8500 www.concretecentre.com/cpd

The Concise series has a new addition, Concise Eurocode 2 for Bridges. This In house courses for Building Design to Eurocode 2
is a sister publication to the Concise Eurocode 2 for Building Structures. Both • Essential elements – 3.5 hours
publications summarise the material that will be commonly used in the design of • Theory and Background – 6 CPD hours
reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges and concrete buildings respectively. • Theory and Worked Examples – 6.5 CPD hours
The Concise guides include extensive clause referencing and readers are guided • Theory and Hands-on workshop – 13 CPD hours
through Eurocode 2, other relevant European standards and non-contradictory
complementary information. To request more information email buildings@concretecentre.com

Also available to assist designers in the use of Eurocode 2 is Economic Concrete Courses in partnership with IStructE
Frame Elements (see page 7), this publication acts as a pre-scheme design For more information and to book visit www.prosols.uk.com/engineers_main.htm
handbook for the rapid sizing and selection of reinforced concrete frame elements in Discounts available for IStructE members. Courses include:
multi-storey buildings designed to Eurocode 2. RC Spreadsheets v3 is also updated
to Eurocode 2 and is intended to help with the rapid production of clear and accurate Building design to EC2 - theory and background to the UK Annex
design calculations for reinforced concrete elements. These Excel spreadsheets Building design to EC2 - theory and hands-on workshop
are intended as aids for design to both BS 8110-1:1997 and Eurocode 2.
For further information: www.concretecentre.com/events
For engineers requiring information on concrete behaviour and how to optimise
the use of the material aspects of concrete there is Properties of Concrete for Webcasts
use in Eurocode 2. Also available online is Optimising the Properties of Concrete to Eurocode
2. The filming of a recent seminar that draws on the notable features of the
In addition there is a series of How to’s for Eurocode 6, the design of masonry technical guidance from Properties of Concrete to Eurocode 2.
structures and coming soon is the first volume of Worked Examples to
Eurocode 2, and the Concrete Scheme Design Manual, which is a vital For more information visit www.concretecentre.com/webcasts
Contents
2 Eurocode 2 Resources 11 Using Visual Concrete
Resources to aid the transition to Eurocode 2 Visual concrete – your questions answered

3 Eurocodes: all change 12 A Winning Combination


March 2010 sees the withdrawal of BS 8110 Hybrid concrete construction combines the best of precast and in-situ concrete

4 The Sustainable Whole 14 Higher Strength Concrete


Sustainability is a complex interaction of many parts Cost benefits of higher strength concretes

6 Post-tensioned approach for Pembury Hospital 15 Fire Guidance


New hospital demonstrates the benefits of post-tensioned concrete New guidance on designing concrete structures to Eurocode 2

7 Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Eurocode 2 16 Concrete Information


Achieving the most efficient concrete frames A round-up of new publications from The Concrete Centre

The focus on sustainability and on the


Eurocodes: all change
economy has increased the appreciation March 2010 sees the withdrawal of BS 8110, it having been superseded
of concrete for its potential to provide by Eurocode 2. Although the withdrawn standard will be still be available
long-term, holistic sustainable construction and remain in the BSI catalogue for historical information purposes, it will
that offers a wide range of built-in benefits no longer be maintained by a BSI committee. This means that although BS
8110 will still have an acceptable level of safety it will increasingly become
Increasingly, real sustainability is being outdated and therefore will not represent current best practice. The same is
seen to be greater than the sum of its true for a number of other structural standards.
constituent parts. The wide range of
The transition to the new Eurocodes is a major event for codified structural
environmental and long-term performance benefits of concrete 3
design. The Concrete Centre has developed a comprehensive range of
means that it can provide a sustainable whole. Concrete is a locally
resources to assist the designer with their familiarisation and use (see
sourced product that has many inherent benefits all of which opposite page). These include a dedicated website, www.eurocode2.info,
contribute to whole life sustainability. a series of ‘How to’ guides and concise guides to the code as well as a
programme of training.
The Concrete Centre aims to enable engineers to realise the
benefits of concrete and so deliver the optimum structural solution. There are of range of benefits to be gained from using the new Eurocodes. They
Compared with other structural materials concrete offers a huge tend to be less prescriptive and more principle-based and this allows more scope
range of potential structural options. Tight deadlines and limited fees for innovation. They will also harmonise research and development across the
means that this can prove onerous for the engineer, however tools European Community. There are also economic benefits. For concrete design it
such as the Economic Concrete Elements to Eurocode 2, enable the is expected that there will be material costs savings due to more efficient design
examination of possible options quickly and efficiently. Meanwhile allowed in the code. Furthermore, the Eurocodes are organised to avoid repetition,
are technically advanced and should offer more opportunities for UK-based
resources from The Concrete Centre assist with the familiarisation and
designers to work throughout Europe.
use of Eurocode 2 and so make the transition from BS 8110, much
easier. In addition, technical guidance on construction techniques that Designers should not be intimidated by the new Eurocodes. They are different
are relatively new to the UK, such as post-tensioned concrete and but not difficult. The resources available from The Concrete Centre will assist
hybrid concrete construction, give the engineer the information and designers to make the transition.
confidence to examine the potential of these solutions. A network of
regional engineers and a programme of courses and seminars further
support this technical guidance.

Engineers have significant demands placed upon them to provide


the best, most cost-efficient and effective structural solution. The
Concrete Centre has developed the resources to assist the engineer
meet those demands. The Concrete Centre
Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park,
Andrew Minson Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley, Surrey GU17 9AB
Executive Director, The Concrete Centre Tel: 01276 606800
www: concretecentre.com

The Concrete Centre is part of the Mineral Products Association, the


trade association for the aggregates, asphalt, cement, concrete, lime,
mortar and silica sand industries. www.mineralproducts.org
The Sustainable Whole
Sustainability is a complex whole of many constituent parts. The achievement
of real long-term sustainability is inhibited by the concentration on traditional
headline criteria, such as embodied CO2 and recycled contents. Other criteria
that are evolving in significance and impact need to be given due weight.

Recycling crushed demolition waste for use as secondary aggregate is just one part of the sustainability jigsaw.
Photo: Tarmac

4
A consequence of the growing recognition of the complexity of sustainability Part of responsible sourcing is to allow the specifier/purchaser to identify the
is an appreciation of the wide range of environmental benefits and credentials source of the key components and therefore the conditions under which the
of concrete construction. These arise from the material being a locally material was extracted or harvested. This requires a raw material inventory
sourced product that has many inherent benefits: robustness, durability, fire management system which is also known as the ‘chain of custody’. While it
resistance, acoustic performance, flood resilience and thermal mass – all of is important to know the origins of the components it is equally important to
which contribute to whole life sustainability. Historically, one of the main know that any ‘added value’ steps in the supply chain are equally committed
sustainability issues has been that of the embodied impact of a material. to improve their sustainable performance. Certification to recognised
However, this is only a small part of the overall picture. Indeed, the direct management systems and performance reporting helps ensure that
embodied impacts of materials only contribute to 7% of the Code for consistent values are present along the supply chain.
Sustainable Homes and to a similar amount in BREEAM assessments for
buildings. Since concrete can make constructive contributions to whole life Under the Code for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM,
performance, notably in increased energy efficiency through its thermal mass,
it can have a positive impact to a significant part of the remaining 93%. concrete accredited to responsible sourcing standard BRE
Responsible Sourcing BES 6001 can score maximum points, placing concrete
The complexity of real sustainability is demonstrated by the issue’s ongoing
evolution as new criteria are recognised and addressed. One such criterion is on a level playing field with timber stewardship schemes.
that of responsible sourcing. Responsible sourcing is embedded in the Code for
Sustainable Homes and BREEAM and will almost certainly be included in the The concrete industry provides employment opportunities and skill
Code for Sustainable Buildings. It contributes about a third to the material impacts development to its staff throughout the UK. Responsible sourcing also
and is likely to become more significant. The development of the BRE responsible requires the demonstration of active health and safety programmes within
sourcing standard, BES 6001 Framework Standard for the Responsible Sourcing of the supply chain. Working together with the Health and Safety Executive, the
Construction Products, provides a benchmark for construction products to gain concrete industry has made significant improvements over the last decade
credit under BREEAM and the Code for Sustainable Homes. towards its target of zero incidents.

Concrete’s supply chain and material benefits provide it with a range of The local availability of concrete and all the major components helps to
responsibly sourced credentials. The components of concrete are extracted minimise the CO2 emissions that can be associated with the transport of
from extensive naturally occurring UK mineral deposits either in the ground construction materials.
or from the sea bed. The industry works with stakeholders and communities
to ensure best practice is maintained during extraction and restoration to Responsible sourcing is just one component part of the sustainability jigsaw.
mitigate impacts and enhance biodiversity. The Government sets stringent The sustainability strategies and management schemes being implemented
regulations and conditions for aggregates extraction to ensure that their by the concrete industry will forward the material’s built-in embedded
supply is sustainably managed. Operating predominantly within the UK credentials. This, together with its performance benefits, will ensure that
all activities within the concrete supply chain have to conform to some concrete is a solution for whole life sustainability which designers can use
of the most stringent global environmental legislation. their skills to exploit.
The issue of sustainability and the built environment is forever developing. The
overview below is aimed at helping engineers know the current state of play.

Strategy for Sustainable Construction, 2007

Published by the Government and the Strategic Forum for Construction in response to European union requirements, the Strategy comprises ‘means’ and ‘ends’. One of
the ‘means’ is the provision of 10 ecotowns, one of the ‘ends’ is a 26% reduction of UK CO2 emission, compared to 1990, by 2020.

The direct affect of this document upon structural engineers will be seen through the Code for Sustainable Homes and the Code for Sustainable Buildings.

Code for Sustainable Homes, 2007

The Code comprises 9 categories. For each of these categories points are scored and the overall total results in a rating from 1 to 6, 6 being the best. In addition, higher
ratings require achieving a certain number of points in particular categories. A subset of the material category is dictated by the BRE Green Guide for Homes.

The impact upon structural engineers is the introduction of responsible sourced material credits and, in effect, prescription of available structural solutions if the Green
Guide is closely followed. For example, neither the Code for Sustainable Homes or the BRE Green Guide was designed for residences over 4 storeys and hence the latter
does not adequately cover the range nor provide useful rating comparisons for multi-storey structural solutions. For further information see ‘Concrete and the Code for
Sustainable Homes’ and ‘Concrete and the Green Guide’ available as a free download from www.concretecentre.com/publications

Code for Sustainable Buildings

The Code for Sustainable Buildings has been trailed in the Strategy for Sustainable Construction. It is expected that it will be similar to BREEAM. Most structural
engineers are aware that the maximum contribution of the Green Guide to Specification to a BREEAM score is low at typically less than 5%. It would be reasonable to
expect a similar percentage in the Code for Sustainable Buildings.

The impact upon structural engineers, according to a cynic, will be that they will more frequently be asked to complete sustainability questionnaires seemingly
drafted by people who have not actually built anything. In time, hopefully, the process will improve and the expectation amongst structural engineers will be that the
assessment is very simplistic because the structure is only a small part of the whole and also because the assessment needs to be widely applicable and yet remain 5
usable.

Part L (Fuel and Energy Conservation) Building Regulations

Part L, like several Building Regulations parts, will be revised in 2010. Part L is a key tool for government to achieve its energy and CO2 targets, and once revised,
is likely to include greater consideration of the benefits of thermal mass and more stringent criteria on overheating.

This will mean that architects and services engineers will want to expose structural surfaces more, require good concrete finishes and even pass air through the structure
for active cooling of slabs and walls. There may also be a move towards more solidity in facades which could then be used as vertical structure thereby eliminating
perimeter columns. All this will have a significant impact upon structural engineers.

Responsible Sourcing Material Credits

Increasingly, structural engineers are getting involved in responsible sourcing of materials. The Code for Sustainable Homes (Code) and BREEAM allocate a maximum
of around 3% for responsibly sourced materials and a similar percentage is foreseen for the Code for Sustainable Buildings. Responsible sourcing of a product means
that environmental, social and economic criteria will have been met during the extraction/harvesting, manufacturing/processing and transport of all the necessary
components. With concrete being a predominantly UK sourced product a lot of the criteria are already being met due to regulatory and legislative requirements.
A major development in BREEAM and the Code is that concrete now has parity with timber in being able to achieve the maximum number of responsible sourcing
points. The publication by BRE of BES 6001 together with the concrete industry guidance documents supports the accreditation of products to achieve these points.

Part of the process will be to ensure that the materials and products selected for the design can demonstrate the highest level of responsible sourcing, are cost
competitive and have security of supply. Responsible sourcing performance against the BES 6001 and BS 8902, which is currently under development, will become
increasingly important requirements for materials and products.

Zero Carbon Buildings

The definition of zero carbon buildings has been much debated. The government consultation, Definition of Zero Carbon Homes and Non-Domestic Buildings, issued in
December 2008 marks a critical stage in the transition towards zero carbon. All new homes and schools will have to be zero carbon by 2016 and other buildings by 2019.

The effect on structural engineers will include the wider use of structure for thermal mass, more renewable power generation appendage to allow for in the structural
design and more solid facades to reduce solar gain, which will provide different space for perimeter vertical structure.
Post-tensioned approach for Pembury Hospital
UK designers are increasingly taking note of the potential of post-
tensioned (PT) suspended concrete floors.

The clear soffits of PT slabs enable service flexibility

PT offers several benefits, not least of which is the fact that the PT floor slabs The structure is braced by concrete shear walls to the stair/lift cores. The
are generally thinner than an ordinary reinforced concrete slab. They can be structure’s height is constrained between the rock line and maximum
6
up to 300mm thinner over one-storey than a steel frame. This minimises the planning level restrictions hence the benefits of PT thinner floor slabs. Due
building’s height to the extent that this could mean an extra storey on a ten- to the sloping site and planning restrictions, the hospital has been designed
storey building. to vary between three and seven storeys.

PT slabs can economically span further than a reinforced concrete slab. This in Approximately 20% of the hospital is naturally ventilated, including most
turn reduces the required number of columns and foundations and increases consulting examination rooms and all of the bedrooms. Bedrooms are
flexibility for space planning. Flexibility is further enhanced by a PT slab being designed not to exceed 28oC for more than 50 hours a year. In addition, to
able to accommodate irregular grids. The clear flat soffits of PT slabs enable the thermal mass benefits of the concrete structure, the use of PT floor slabs
complete flexibility of service layout. The absence of trimming beams around provides generous floor-to-ceiling heights that give a light and airy feeling to
service cores avoids conflicts between services and structure. There is also the hospital. The hospital is due to open in 2011.
flexibility in positioning holes through the slab because tendons are widely
spaced and can be positioned around openings. For further information see ‘Post-tensioned Concrete Floors’
Available as a free download: www.concretecentre.com/publications
In addition to all the above benefits, PT equals rapid construction. There is less
reinforcement which reduces fixing time and early stressing of the concrete
allows the formwork to be struck quickly.
Project team
The benefits of post-tensioned concrete, particularly the fast, cost-effective Client: Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust
construction, reduced frame height and flexibility for space planning and Structural engineer: Gifford
service layout made it an obvious structural choice for the new 512-bed,
£227m PFI Pembury Hospital in Kent for the Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells Architect: Anshen and Allen
NHS Trust. The new seven-storey hospital, which will cover the equivalent of Main contractor: Laing O’Rourke
13 football pitches, will provide all in-patient accommodation in single en
Frame contractor: Expanded PT
suite bedrooms, making it the first of its kind in the UK.
PT Specialist designer: Alliance Design UK Limited
The main hospital building, which has a total floor area of 66,000m2, has PT Specialist contractor: Strongforce Engineering
an in-situ concrete frame on RC pad foundations with flat post-tensioned
M&E Engineer: DSSR
bonded floor slabs of 275mm and concrete columns and retaining walls.
Many of the concrete columns were precast off site thus further reducing the
floor-to-floor cycle whilst providing high quality finishes. In addition, many of
the walls adopted precast hybrid construction comprising two precast leaves
connected by lattices of reinforcing. The wall core is cast on site to tie the
leaves together and provide continuity at the joints. The off site manufacture
of the column and wall elements led to improved quality, reductions in site
labour and improved health and safety performance.
Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Eurocode 2
A new handbook published by The Concrete Centre aims to help the structural
engineer achieve the right sizes for the most efficient concrete frames.

‘Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Eurocode 2’ acts as a pre-scheme The charts and data works on loads as follows:
design handbook for the rapid sizing and selection of reinforced concrete
For slabs – economic depths are plotted against span for a range of 7
frame elements in multi-storey buildings. It is an update of the very popular
characteristic imposed loads.
BS 8110 version published by the Reinforced Concrete Council in 1997.
For beams – economic depths are plotted against span for a range of ultimate
When conceiving a design for a multi-storey structure there are many applied uniformly distributed loads, uaudl (uaudl is the summation of ultimate
concrete framed options which can be considered. The handbook aims to loads from slabs, cladding, etc, with possible minor adjustment for beam
overcome the sheer volume of choice that is offered by reinforced concrete. self-weight and cladding).
Many view this choice as being a major advantage over other structural
materials as it allows the most optimum solution to be developed. However, For internal columns – Load:size charts are avaliable. Ultimate axial loads in
the amount of choice can make reinforced concrete a victim of its own columns may be determined from data given for slabs and beams.
success as tight deadlines and rigorous fee competition often limits the For perimeter columns – Moment and moment:load charts are available.
time that can be spent on examining all possible options. Design moments for edge and corner columns may be determined from
the moment charts. Moments for an assumed size are checked against the
Taking the guess-work and effort out of initial schemes when the fundamental appropriate moment:load chart.
decisions are being made, the handbook provides charts and data that present
economic sizes for many types of concrete elements over a range of common Example charts for slabs, beam and columns are shown in pages 8-10.
loadings and spans. The main emphasis is on floor plates as these commonly
represent 85% of superstructure costs. It does not cover lateral stability as Design assumptions
stability is presumed to be provided by other means (e.g. by shear walls) and will In producing the charts and data many assumptions have been made. The
be checked independently, nor does it cover foundations. The charts and data have assumptions are more fully described in the publication but include: Design to
been derived from design spreadsheets that carry out designs to Eurocode 2 and, EN 1992-1-1: and its National Annex. Post-tensioned design to Concrete Society
as appropriate, other Eurocodes, European and British Standards. TR43. Loads For slabs, 1.5kN/m2 has been allowed in addition to self-weight
for finishes and services. Exposure-Mild exposure conditions and one hour fire
resistance. Materials:In-situ C30/37 concrete, main steel FCK=500MPa. Precast as
determined by specialist spreadsheets. Post-tensioned C32/40 concrete and 12.9
The handbook helps designers identify the most diameter superstrand FpU=1860Mpa. Dimensions:Post-tensioned flat slabs P/A
cost-effective option by: = 2.0MPa. Troughed slab: level soffits, 150mm wide ribs at 750 mm cc, 100 mm
topping, internal beam width = beam span/3.5. Flat slab: one 150 mm square hole
• Presenting a range of feasible, economic concrete options
adjoining each column assumed, columns>=size indicated. If design parameters
• Providing preliminary sizing of concrete frame elements stray outside these limits, the sizes and data should be used with caution. All
• Providing first estimates of reinforcement quantities advice or information from The Concrete Centre is intended for those who will
• Outlining the effects of using different types of concrete elements evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility
for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss
• Helping to ensure that the right concrete options are considered
resulting from such advice or information is accepted.
for scheme design.
Charts for slabs, taken from Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Eurocode 2
In-situ slabs offer economy, versatility and inherent robustness. They can easy to construct. Each type has implications on overall costs, speed, self-
easily accommodate large and small service holes, fixings for suspended weight, storey heights and flexibility in use: the relative importance of these
services and ceilings, and cladding support details. Also, they can be quick and factors must be assessed in each particular case.
Key

Slabs requiring support from beams Characteristic


imposed load (IL) 2.5 kN/m2 5.0 kN/m2 7.5 kN/m2 10.0 kN/m2 Single span Multiple span

One-way in-situ solid slabs Span: depth chart


600 One way in-situ solid slabs are the most
MULTIPLE Span, m 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
basic form of slab. Deflection usually
Overall depth, mm
500 governs the design and steel content is
IL = 2.5 kN/m² 125 141 167 195 236 usually increased to reduce service stress
Single span
400
IL = 5.0 kN/m² 128 156
Key
184 216 257 and increase span capacity. Generally used
IL = 7.5 kN/m² 136 166
Characteristic 198 227 273 for utilitarian purposes in office buildings,
imposed load (IL)
IL = 10.0 kN/m² 144 176
2.5 kN/m2
206 237 293 retail developments, warehouse etc.
300
Ultimate load to supporting beams, internal (end), kN/m
5.0 kN/m 2

7.5 kN/m2
Economic span range: 4-6m.
Slab depth, mm

Multiple span
IL = 2.5 kN/m² 38 (19) 50kN/m
10.0 (25)2 65 (33) 82 (41) 104 (52)
200
IL = 5.0 kN/m² 53 (27) Single span
71 (36) 91 (45) 113 (56) 139 (70)
Multiple span
IL = 7.5 kN/m² 69 (35) 92 (46) 116 (58) 141 (71) 173 (87)
100
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 IL = 10.0 kN/m² 88 (44) 115 (57) 144 (72) 175 (88) 215 (108)
Span, m

Hollow core slabs with 50mm topping Span: depth chart


500 Hollow core floor slabs are used in
Span, m 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
conjunction with structural topping
450 Overall depth, mm, unpropped (propped)
Unpropped where enhanced performance is required.
IL = 2.5 kN/m² 200 (200) 200 (200) 200 (200) 200 (200) 250 (250) 300 (250) 300 (300) 350 (300) 350 (350) 400 (400) The units act compositely with in-situ
400
IL = 5.0 kN/m² 200 (200) 200 (200) 200 (200) 250 (250) 300 (250) 300 (300) 350 (350) 350 (350) 400 (400) 450 (450) structural topping usually 50mm thick, to
350
Propped
IL = 7.5 kN/m² 200 (200) 200 (200) 250 (250) 250 (250) 300 (300) 350 (350) 350 (350) 400 (400) 450 (450) create a robust, high-capacity composite
IL = 10.0 kN/m²Key
Characteristic
200 (200) 250 (250) 250 (250) 300 (300) 350 (300) 350 (350) 400 (400) 450 (450) floor. Overall thicknesses are given.
300
imposed load (IL)
Ultimate load to supporting beams, internal (end), kN/m
2.5 kN/m2
250 IL = 2.5 kN/m² 53 (27) 64 (32) 75 (37) 86 (43) 103 (51) 121 (60) 133 (66) 154 (77) 167 (83) 190 (95) Economic span range: 5-16m.
Overall depth, mm

5.0 kN/m 2

7.5 kN/m2
IL = 5.010.0
kN/m²
kN/m 2 72 (36) 87 (43) 101 (51) 122 (61) 142 (71) 158 (79) 182 (91) 199 (99) 225 (113) 253 (126)
200
Unpropped
IL = 7.5 kN/m²
Propped
91 (45) 109 (55) 133 (66) 152 (76) 176 (88) 203 (102) 223 (112) 253 (126) 284 (142)
150 IL = 10.0 kN/m² 112 (56) 140 (70) 163 (82) 192 (96) 223 (112) 248 (124) 282 (141) 317 (158)
5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0
Span, m

Two-way solid slabs Span: depth chart


600 Two-way solid slabs are utilitarian and
MULTIPLE span, m 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
generally used for retail developments,
500
Overall depth, mm warehouses, etc. Can be difficult to form
IL = 2.5 kN/m² 125 125 125 141 166 191 220 250 282 when used with a grid of downstand
Key
IL = 5.0 kN/m² Characteristic
125 125 137 157 183 213 243 275 313 beams but useful where heavy loads are
400
10.0 kN IL = 7.5 kN/m²
imposed load (IL)
125 126 148 169 199 229 262 299 335 envisaged. Design is usually governed
2.5 kN/m2
Single span IL = 10.0 kN/m² 125
5.0 kN/m2 136 158 182 213 249 284 321 360 by deflection. Steel content is usually
300 7.5 kN/m
Ultimate load to supporting
2
beams, internal (end), kN/m Note: see section 8.3.4 increased to reduce service stress and
10.0 kN/m
2
increase span capacity.
Slab depth, mm

IL = 2.5 kN/m² 38 (19)


Single span 48 (24) 57 (29) 70 (35) 86 (43) 104 (52) 125 (62) 148 (74) 173 (87)
Multiple span
200
IL = 5.0 kN/m²Multiple span
53 (27) 66 (33) 82 (41) 100 (50) 121 (60) 144 (72) 170 (85) 198 (99) 230 (115)
Economic span range: 6-12m.
IL = 7.5 kN/m² 68 (34) 85 (43) 106 (53) 129 (64) 155 (77) 182 (91) 213 (107) 247 (124) 283 (141)
100
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
IL = 10.0 kN/m² 85 (42) 108 (54) 134 (67) 162 (81) 194 (97) 229 (114) 266 (133) 306 (153) 350 (175)
Span, m
8
Key

Slabs requiring support from columns Characteristic


imposed load (IL) 2.5 kN/m2 5.0 kN/m2 7.5 kN/m2 10.0 kN/m2 Single span Multiple span

Troughed slabs Span: depth chart


700
MULTIPLE span, m 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 Troughed slabs are popular in spans up to
Overall depth, mm 12m as they combine the advantages of
600
IL = 2.5 kN/m² 250 270 329 404 487 580 693
ribbed slabs with level soffits. The profile
Key may be expressed architecturally and/or
IL = 5.0 kN/m²Characteristic
250 290 352 426 512 616 722
500 imposed load (IL)
used for passive cooling. Economic depths
IL = 7.5 kN/m² 258 301 366 444 538 636 745
2.5 kN/m2 depend upon the widths of the beams
IL = 10.0 kN/m² 271 311 381 465 556 657 773
400
5.0 kN/m2
used. Deflection usually is critical to the
7.5 kN/m2
Ultimate load to supporting columns, internal (edge*) per storey, kN: *excludes cladding loads beam design, which tend to be wide and
10.0 kN/m2
Slab depth, mm

IL = 2.5 kN/m² 390 (280) 545 (370) 765 (500) 1050 (655) 1400 (845) 1830 (1080) 2420 (1390) heavily reinforced.
300
IL = 5.0 kN/m² 525 (350) 740 (475) 1030 (635) 1380 (825) 1810 (1060) 2350 (1340) 3030 (1700)
IL = 7.5 kN/m² 665 (425) 935 (575) 1280 (765) 1710 (995) 2220 (1270) 2840 (1600) 3620 (2010) Economic span range: 6-12m.
200
6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
IL = 10.0 kN/m² 830 (510) 1160 (690) 1580 (920) 2100 (1200) 2710 (1520) 3450 (1910) 4390 (2400)
Span, m

Flat Slabs Span: depth chart


600
MULTIPLE span, m 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Flat slabs are quick and easy to construct,
Overall depth, mm but punching shear, deflections and holes
500
IL = 2.5 kN/m² 200 200 206 227 250 286 343
around columns need to be considered.
Key Nonetheless, flat slabs are popular for
IL = 5.0 kN/m²Characteristic
200 200 215 246 284 347 427
400 imposed load (IL)
office buildings, hospitals, hotels, blocks
IL = 7.5 kN/m² 200 220 253 305 342 404 460
2.5 kN/m2 of flats as they are quick, allow easy service
IL = 10.0 kN/m² 200 236 278 327 399 452 533
300
700
5.0 kN/m2
distribution.
7.5 kN/m columns, internal (edge*) per storey, kN:
Ultimate load to supporting
2
*excludes cladding loads
10.0 kN/m2
Slab depth, mm

IL = 2.5 kN/m² 190 (95) 297 (148) 434 (217) 623 (311) 859 (430) 1179 (589) 1633 (817) Economic span range: 4-12m.
600
200
IL = 5.0 kN/m² 250 (125) 390 (195) 579 (290) 836 (418) 1167 (584) 1637 (818) 2270 (1135) Assuming column sizes are greater than
500 IL = 7.5 kN/m² 310 (155) 500 (250) 757 (378) 1110 (555) 1523 (762) 2085 (1042) 2748 (1374) span/20
100
IL = 10.0 kN/m² 380 (190) 625 (312) 951 (475) 1375 (688) 1951 (976) 2615 (1307) 3501 (1751)
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
400
Span, m
Slab depth, mm

300
Post-tensioned flat slabs Span: depth chart
500
200 MULTIPLE span, m 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 Post-tensioned flat slabs are ideally
6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
450 Span, m Overall depth, mm suited to fast and economic multi-storey
IL = 2.5 kN/m² 200 200 200 217 249 283 318 387 515
construction. Used in apartment blocks,
400
IL = 5.0 kN/m² 200
Key 200 216 249 284 320 394 508 660
office buildings, hospitals, hotels and other
Characteristic similar buildings, these slabs are easy and
350 IL = 7.5 kN/m² 200
imposed load (IL) 202 235 270 307 364 464 596
2.5 kN/m2
fast to construct especially where there is
IL = 10.0 kN/m² 200 232 270 308 378 478 604
300 5.0 kN/m2 a regular column grid.
600 Ultimate load to supporting
7.5 kN/m2 columns, kN, internal (edge*), per storey: *excludes cladding loads
10.0 kN/m2
250 IL = 2.5 kN/m² 430 (215) 580 (290) 760 (380) 1000 (500) 1340 (670) 1750 (875) 2240 (1120) 2990 (1500) 4320 (2160) Economic span range: 6-13m
Slab depth, mm

Key
Range for 5.0 kN/m2 multiple span
500 Characteristic
200
imposed load (IL)
IL = 5.0 kN/m² (PA =560 (280)
1.5–2.5 MPa)765
P/A(385) 1030force/area,
= prestressing (515) 1390MPa (695) 1825 (910) 2340 (1170) 3120 (1560) 4260 (2130) 6220 (3110) Assuming column sizes are greater than
400
2.5 kN/m2 IL = 7.5 kN/m² 700 (350) 950 (475) 1310 (655) 1750 (875) 2270 (1140) 2960 (1480) 3980 (1990) 5360 (2680) span/19 for IL = 5.0kN/m2 etc
5.0 kN/m2
150 IL = 10.0 kN/m² 856 (430) 1220 (610) 1670 (835) 2220 (1110) 2980 (1490) 4110 (2010) 5390 (2690)
6.0 7.57.0
kN/m 2
8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
300 10.0 kN/m2
Span, m
Range for 5.0 kN/m multiple span
Slab depth, mm

(PA = 1.5–2.5 MPa) P/A = prestressing force/area, MPa


200

100
12.0 13.0 14.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Charts for beams, taken from Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Eurocode 2
In building structures beams generally transfer loads from slabs to columns In-situ beams offer strength, robustness and versatility, for instance in
walls. They are designed to resist resulting ultimate bending moments and accommodating cladding support details. In overall terms for in-situ
shear forces and then checked against serviceability requirements. construction wide flat beams are less costly to construct then narrow deep
beams because the formwork is more simple to erect.
Key

Internal or ‘T’ beams (in-situ) Ultimate applied


udl (uaudl) 50 kN/m 100 kN/m 200 kN/m 400 kN/m

‘T’ beams, 600 mm wide web Span: depth chart


800
MULTIPLE span, m 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Depth, mm
700
uaudl = 50 kN/m 250 250 276 314 388 463 541 621 701
600 uaudl = 100 kN/mKey 250 271 312 363 448 537 627 730 833
Ultimate applied
uaudl = 200udl (uaudl)
kN/m 288 345 388 436 515 619 727 839
500 50 kN/m
uaudl = 400 kN/m 378 456 540 626 711 798 951
100 kN/m
Ultimate load200
tokN/m
supports/columns, internal (end), kN ult
400 400 kN/m
Beam depth, mm

uaudl = 50 kN/m 211 (106) 264 (132) 320 (160) 378 (189) 443 (222) 511 (256) 583 (291) 657 (329) 735 (368)

300 uaudl = 100 kN/m 411 (206) 516 (258) 624 (312) 735 (367) 852 (426) 974 (487) 1099 (549) 1230 (615) 1365 (682)
uaudl = 200 kN/m 814 (407) 1023 (511) 1232 (616) 1444 (722) 1662 (831) 1888 (944) 2118 (1059) 2352 (1176)
200 uaudl = 400 kN/m 1621 (810) 2033 (1017) 2450 (1225) 2869 (1435) 3292 (1646) 3718 (1859) 4160 (2080)
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Span, m

‘T’ beams, 1200 mm wide web Span: depth chart


800
MULTIPLE span, m 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0

700
Depth, mm
uaudl = 50 kN/m 250 269 326 391 454 519 589 662 748
600 uaudl = 100 kN/mKey 269 308 375 449 536 622 715 814
Ultimate applied
uaudl = 200udl (uaudl)
kN/m 314 350 428 514 609 710 821
500 50 kN/m
uaudl = 400 kN/m 398 457 522 576 693 811
100 kN/m
Ultimate load tokN/m
200 supports/columns, internal (end), kN ult
400 400 kN/m
Beam depth, mm

uaudl = 50 kN/m 334 (167) 394 (197) 468 (234) 548 (274) 633 (316) 723 (361) 820 (410) 924 (462) 1040 (520)

300 uaudl = 100 kN/m 638 (319) 755 (377) 883 (441) 1018 (509) 1164 (582) 1315 (658) 1477 (738) 1648 (824) 1826 (913)
uaudl = 200 kN/m 1248 (624) 1466 (733) 1698 (849) 1940 (970) 2191 (1095) 2452 (1226) 2724 (1362) 3007 (1504)
200 uaudl = 400 kN/m 2467 (1234) 2894 (1447) 3327 (1663) 3761 (1880) 4222 (2111) 4693 (2347) 5177 (2588)
6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
Span, m

‘T’ beams, 2400 mm wide web Span: depth chart


800 MULTIPLE span, m 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
Depth, mm
700
uaudl = 50 kN/m 250 250 275 324 375 429 486 548 613
uaudl = 100 kN/mKey 250 269 325 386 453 527 597 671 748
600
796
Ultimate applied
uaudl = 200udlkN/m
(uaudl)
269 307 375 446 532 615 703 895
500 uaudl = 400 kN/m
50 kN/m 317 360 419 503 593 689 793 903
100 kN/m
Ultimate load to supports/columns, internal (end), kN ult
200 kN/m
400 uaudl = 50 kN/m
400 kN/m 368 (184) 429 (214) 505 (253) 601 (301) 706 (353) 821 (411) 947 (474) 1087 (543) 1239 (619)
Beam depth, mm

uaudl = 100 kN/m 668 (334) 789 (394) 935 (468) 1093 (547) 1265 (632) 1452 (726) 1647 (824) 1857 (928) 2080 (1040)
300
uaudl = 200 kN/m 1276 (638) 1509 (754) 1765 (883) 2034 (1017) 2324 (1162) 2625 (1312) 2943 (1471) 3279 (1639) 3635 (1817)
Multiple
uaudl = 400 kN/m span 2498 (1249) 2937 (1468) 3391 (1696) 3872 (1936) 4370 (2185) 4886 (2443) 5424 (2712) 5983 (2991)
200
6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
Span, m
9
Key

Perimeter or ‘L’ beams (in-situ) Ultimate applied


udl (uaudl) 25 kN/m 50 kN/m 100 kN/m 200 kN/m

‘L’ beams, 300 mm wide web Span: depth chart


800
MULTIPLE span, m 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Depth, mm
700
uaudl = 25 kN/m 250 250 266 307 377 455 540 620 700
Key
600 uaudl =Ultimate
50 kN/m applied
250 262 309 363 446 535 630 727 830
uaudl = 100udl
kN/m(uaudl) 276 331 378 447 544 674 831
500 25 kN/m
uaudl = 200 kN/m
50 kN/m 371 454 592 777
100 kN/m
Ultimate load to supports/columns, internal (end), kN ult
400 200 kN/m
Beam depth, mm

uaudl = 25 kN/m 106 (53) 132 (66) 159 (80) 189 (94) 221 (110) 255 (127) 291 (146) 329 (164) 368 (184)
300 uaudl = 50 kN/m 206 (103) 258 (129) 312 (156) 367 (184) 426 (213) 487 (243) 550 (275) 615 (307) 682 (341)
uaudl = 100 kN/m 407 (203) 511 (255) 616 (308) 723 (361) 833 (417) 948 (474) 1069 (534)
200
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
uaudl = 200 kN/m 810 (405) 1017 (508) 1228 (614) 1444 (722)
Span, m

‘L’ beams, 600 mm wide web Span: depth chart


800
MULTIPLE span, m 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Depth, mm
700
uaudl = 25 kN/m 250 270 327 388 463 529 598
Key
600 uaudl =Ultimate
50 kN/m applied
278 306 378 457 536 622 715
uaudl = 100 udl
kN/m(uaudl) 312 364 436 522 615 719 828
500 25 kN/m
uaudl = 200 kN/m
50 kN/m 406 468 524 576 698 815
100 kN/m
400
Ultimate load to supports/columns, internal (end), kN ult
200 kN/m
Beam depth, mm

uaudl = 25 kN/m 167 (83) 197 (99) 234 (117) 274 (137) 318 (159) 363 (182) 412 (206)
300 uaudl = 50 kN/m 320 (160) 377 (189) 442 (221) 510 (255) 582 (291) 658 (329) 738 (369)
uaudl = 100 kN/m 624 (312) 735 (367) 850 (425) 971 (486) 1097 (548) 1228 (614) 1364 (682)
200
6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
uaudl = 200 kN/m 1234 (617) 1448 (724) 1664 (832) 1880 (940) 2112 (1056) 2347 (1174)
Span, m

‘L’ beams, 1200 mm wide web Span: depth chart


800
MULTIPLE span, m 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0

700
Depth, mm
uaudl = 25 kN/m 250 250 275 329 380 434 496 566 632
Key
600 uaudl =Ultimate
50 kN/m applied
250 269 325 387 464 538 609 683 760
uaudl = 100udl (uaudl)
kN/m 269 309 373 444 532 615 703 796 895
500 25 kN/m
uaudl = 200 kN/m
50 kN/m 319 361 419 503 593 691 795 906
100 kN/m
400
Ultimate load to supports/columns, internal (end), kN ult
200 kN/m
Beam depth, mm

uaudl = 25 kN/m 184 (92) 214 (107) 253 (126) 302 (151) 355 (178) 413 (206) 478 (239) 552 (276) 629 (315)
300 uaudl = 50 kN/m 334 (167) 394 (197) 468 (234) 547 (273) 637 (318) 731 (365) 829 (415) 934 (467) 1047 (523)
uaudl = 100 kN/m 638 (319) 755 (377) 882 (441) 1016 (508) 1162 (581) 1312 (656) 1471 (736) 1639 (820) 1817 (909)
200
6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
uaudl = 200 kN/m 1249 (625) 1469 (734) 1696 (848) 1936 (968) 2185 (1092) 2444 (1222) 2713 (1356) 2993 (1496)
Span, m
Charts for columns, taken from Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Eurocode 2
Column design depends on ultimate axial load, NEd, and ultimate design For an assumed column size, this moment and the ultimate axial load are
moment, MEd. For internal columns moments may generally be assumed used to interrogate moment:load charts – firstly to check the validity of the
to be nominal. Therefore the design chart for braced internal columns assumed column size and secondly to estimate the amount of reinforcement
(Figures A and B) give square sizes against total ultimate axial load NEd for required in that column size (as illustrated in Figures C and D). Some iteration
a range of reinforcing steel contents for to concrete grades for both in-situ may be required.
and precast columns.
As a first step, edge and corner columns sizes may be estimated from Figures
However, in perimeter columns moments are generally critical. In the A or B adjusting the axial load by:
publication, charts are provided so that first order moments, M, in edge
and corner columns may be estimated. For in-situ columns this is according • Adding 50% of axial load for edge columns
to whether they occur in beam-and-slab or flat slab construction. • Adding 150% of axial load for in--situ corner columns
• Adding 80% of axial load for precast corner columns

Key

Internal Columns Percentage


reinforcement 0.2% 1.0% 2.0% 3.0% 4.0%

Figure A: Load:size chart for internal columns, C30/37 Figure B: Load:size chart for internal columns, C40/50

Key 800
0.2%
Percentage
reinforcement
0.2% 700 Key
1.0%
1.0%
Percentage 600
reinforcement
2.0% 2.0% Min.
600 Min. 550 1.0%
3.0% 3.0% 2.0%
1.0% 3.0%
4.0% 4.0% 500 4.0%
2.0%
C50/60
4.0% C40/50
500 3.0% 450
4.0%
4.0% C50/60
400
400
Size, mm square

350
Size, mm square

300
300
10 250

200 200
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Figure 4.19a 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Figure 3.35 Load:size chart for Ultimate axial load, NEd, kN
Load :size chart for Ultimate axial load, NEdprecast
, kN internal columns
internal columns

Perimeter Columns: Example

Figure C: Moment deviation chart for edge column Figure D: Moment:load chart for edge columns
in flat slab construction in flat slab construction

150 3000
Mmin For the case of an assumed
125 300mm square edge column in
2500 3000
150
Mmin a flat slab, where the bays are
100 2000 2500 75m square, the imposed load
125
2000
= 5.0 kN/m2 , FCK = 30 MPa and
Column moment, M, kNm

75 100
1500 NED = 1000kN. The moment in
1500
the column is assessed as being
Column moment, M, kNm

75
Axial load, NEd, kN

50
Axial load, NEd, kN

50
1000 1000 100kNm from Figure C and
25
500
0.5% 1%
0.5%
(min.) 1%
2%
2%
3% 4%
3% 4% from Figure D the amount of
25 500 (min.)
0
reinforcement is assessed as being
0

0
4 6 8 10 12
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
3.0% (as shown by the black line).
Slab span, m 0 mm square
300 Moment, M, kNm
300 mm square
4 6 8 10 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Figure 3.41 Figure 3.42
Slab span, m Moment,
Moment:load charts for edge columns in flat slab M, kNm
300 mm square Moment derivation charts for edge columns in flat slab 300 mm square construction
construction

Figure 3.41
Key Figure 3.42
Key
MomentBeam
derivation
uaudl charts for edge columns in flat slab Percentagecharts
Moment:load reinforcement
for edge columns in flat slab
construction2.5 kN/m2 5 kN/m2 7.5 kN/m2 10 kN/m2 Min. 1.0% 2.0% 3.0% 4.0%
construction
Columns below only Columns above & below fck = 30 MPa fck = 50 MPa

Key Key
Beam uaudl Percentage reinforcement
2.5 kN/m2 5 kN/m2 7.5 kN/m2 10 kN/m2 Min. 1.0% 2.0% 3.0% 4.0%
Columns below only Columns above & below fck = 30 MPa fck = 50 MPa
C H Goodchild, R M Webster and K S Elliot, Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Eurocode 2, The Concrete Centre, 2009
Answering your questions
on how to achieve high quality visual concrete
Increasingly, designers want to expose in-situ or precast concrete structures Is there anything else that I should do to ensure a quality finish?
and make them visual. This is for a variety of reasons including increased Many factors can affect the final finish and visual look, these include:
thermal mass, provision of low maintenance finishes and structural aesthetics.
11
However, making concrete ‘visual’, particularly for on site construction, gives • Panel layouts: the joints between the formwork panels will often be
rise to a number of specification questions, some of which are addressed below. visible. The architect should make clear how the panels should be laid
out in order to meet the project brief.
What type of formwork should I use? • Spacers: the reinforcement spacers should be chosen to minimise
The type of formwork that should be used depends upon the required finish. visual impact.
If a particular finish, such as board marking, is required then clearly the • Falsework: deflection of the formwork and falsework under the weight
appropriate formwork should be used. If you are seeking a plain, flat finish of the concrete will be visible in the final finish and can be particularly
then ideally you should describe the finish required in terms of permissible noticeable in plain finishes. The falsework design should minimise
blemishes and irregularities and seek recommendations from the formwork potential deflections.
supplier. For further information there are two major standard in-situ concrete
finish description specifications.1,2 Can I eliminate blemishes?
High quality finishes are successfully achieved in concrete. However, a
Do I need special concrete? completely uniform and blemish-free concrete finish as struck is unrealistic.
Concrete is usually specified by the structural engineer based on strength Some blemishes are unavoidable and should be considered as being part
and durability requirements. However, for visual concrete the mix design will of the visual character of concrete. If a completely blemish-free surface is
often have to be adjusted to aid placing and compaction in order to achieve required then the designer should consider a plain concrete finish, allow for
a consistent quality finish. The location of the project will be an important blowholes to be filled and the surface made good with a finishing coat.
factor because the constituents of concrete are locally sourced and vary
depending on the local geology. Concrete suppliers experienced in producing For further information on visual concrete visit: www.concretecentre.com
visual concrete will be able to offer advice for particular projects.

A coordinated concrete specification should be prepared giving both structural


and architectural requirements. It is best practice at the early stages of a
project to consider having test panels made up.

1. National Building Specification. NBS Building, BNBS 2008


2. CONSTRUCT. National Structural Concrete Specification for Building Construction. Concrete Society 2004.
A Winning Combination
Hybrid concrete construction (HCC) combines the benefits of precast
concrete with those on in-situ concrete thereby enabling the optimum
structural solution to be realised.

Precast column and floor units with cast in-situ beams. Homer Road, Sollihull. In-situ columns or walls and beams with precast floor units. West Quay car park, Southampton
Photo: Foggo Associates Photo: Hanson Concrete Products

The overall advantage of HCC is that it brings together the particular benefits Hybrid options
of precast and in-situ concrete into one total solution. These solutions The ideal combination of precast and in-situ concrete is influenced by project
12 tend to be simple, buildable and cost effective and result in safer and faster requirements. There is a wide range of possible options. A current
construction. The benefits of HCC are summarised below: UK representation of these and their benefits are highlighted below:

Table1: Benefits of hybrid concrete construction n In-Situ n Precast

Precast concrete Precast or In-situ concrete


in-situ concrete

Economic for Economic for


Inherent fire resistance
repetitve elements bespoke areas

Long clear spans Durability Continuity Type 1 Type 2


Precast twin wall and lattice girder Precast column and edge beam
slab with in-situ concrete with in-situ floor slab
Speed of erection Sustainability Inherent robustness

Buildability Acoustic performance Flexibility

Thermal mass that can


Servics coordinatoin later
High-quality finishes be utilised for fabric
in programme
energy storage
Type 3 Type 4
Locally sourced
Consistent colour Prestressing Precast column and floor units In-situ columns or walls and beams
materials
with cast in-situ beams with precast floor units

Accuracy Mouldability Short lead-in times

Low vibration
Reducted propping on site
characteristics

Reduced skilled
labour on site Type 5 Type 6
In-situ column and structural In-situ columns with lattice
topping with precast beams girder slabs with optional
and floor units spherical void formers
Table 2: Specific benefits for typical HCC options
Ease of services

storey height

construction
Soffit can be
Clear Spans

Temporary
Maximises
Deflection

minimised
Suitability
Minimises

materials
Minimise
for holes

exposed

off-site
control

works
Type 1 aa aa aa m aa a aa a aa
Type 2 aa aa a aa a a a a m
Type 3 a aa a aa aa aa m aa aa
Type 4 a aa a aa aa aa m a aa
Type 5 m m a aa aa aa m aa aa
Type 6 aa a a aa m aa aa a a

KEY aa Excellent a Good m Can be used

Design
The initial sizing of the elements for HCC can be carried out using normal
methods (see page 7). These elements can be designed as for a normal 13
reinforced concrete building, with full composite action between in-situ and
precast elements. The design should also consider the construction phase, for
instance one of the load cases could be precast concrete elements supporting
the weight of wet in-situ concrete. An additional stage may be considered if
de-propping happens before the in-situ concrete develops its design strength.

The interface between precast and in-situ concrete elements should be


considered in the design process. Particular areas to consider are bearings,
movements, differential shrinkage and restraint.

Procurement
Many UK engineers are experienced in using in-situ concrete, but would feel
less confident specifying precast concrete. However, the UK precast industry
has years of experience working on a vast range of projects. To obtain the
maximum benefit of this experience, it is advisable to involve the precast
concrete manufacturer at the earliest opportunity. The precast industry is Precast twin wall and lattice girder slab with in-situ concrete
pleased to give initial advice. Photo: John Doyle Construction Ltd

Further guidance
A Partners in Innovation research project was carried out to identify best
The Concrete Centre has developed a number of resources to assist
practice in the procurement of HCC. The research found that the benefits
designers in making the most of HCC.
result from:
• Hybrid Concrete Buildings – General guidance on HCC that explains
• early involvement of specialist contractors
the benefits of the components and the options presented here.
• using a lead frame contractor
• Design of Hybrid Concrete Buildings – A detailed design guide written
• using best value philosophy
for the structural engineer using HCC for the first time.
• holding planned workshops
• Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction – A guide
• measuring performance
to using the results of the research into procurement of HCC.
• trust
• close cooperation – with an emphasis on partnering.
These publications are available for download from The Concrete Centre
website, visit: www.concretecentre.com/publications
Using higher strength concretes can offer
distinct cost benefits
There are cost benefits to be gained by using higher strength concretes for
tall buildings. This can be shown by comparing three alternative options to
the base option of a reinforced concrete frame using C32/40 concrete.

The Concrete Centre has commissioned a number of cost model studies that Table 1 shows that the most cost effective option in terms of overall
compare the overall building costs when a variety of steel and concrete frames building cost is option 2, C50/60 concrete throughout, which would save
are used. The studies cover offices, schools, hospitals and, soon to be published, nearly £30,000 on a £14.4M building. The increase in the net lettable area
a 21-storey residential building. The residential study shows that the in-situ has been shown for each option too. It is not possible to evaluate this in
concrete flat slab option with concrete columns gives the lowest cost building. monetary terms because it will vary from project to project. Unsurprisingly,
the biggest increase in floor area comes from using the highest
A further study using alternative concrete classes to the base option of strength concrete.
Class C32/40, has been undertaken to establish the benefits of using higher
strength concrete. In general terms, member companies of the British Ready-Mixed Concrete
Association, part of the Mineral Products Association, can produce and
Option 1 uses a class C50/60 concrete to reduce the cross section of the supply C50/60 class concrete or above from any ready-mixed concrete
vertical elements. The reduced area of the walls is due to their increased plant, given sufficient notice and preparation time.
stiffness arising from the higher strength concrete having an increased
elastic modulus. Carrying out these comparisons, it would appear to show that by using a
C50/60 concrete throughout the structure, savings can be made in the overall
14 Option 2 uses the C50/60 concrete for the slabs as well as the walls. When frame cost as well as for other building elements. Using the same concrete
designing to Eurocode 2 the increased stiffness of the higher strength mix throughout makes the construction easier too. Finally, it is worth noting
concrete can be used to reduce the deflection or to reduce the depth for that Eurocode 2 treats it as a normal strength concrete so this means that the
the same deflection (an effect that was ignored in BS 8110). By reducing engineer does not have to make special provisions in the design. Consideration
the slab thickness there are savings to be made in other elements of the of the increase in the net lettable area may show that Option 3 is even more
building, for instance the area of the cladding and the internal partitions; cost effective.
saving materials and therefore reducing the overall building cost.
Table 1
Option 3 makes use of a C60/75 concrete to reduce the volume of the
Comparison of thee high strength concrete options.
vertical elements still further and is used in combination with a C50/60
concrete for the floors. This option minimises the floor area of the verticals,
but uses a higher strength concrete for the slabs to avoid having a large Base
Option 1 Option 2 Option 3
differential in concrete strength at the slab/column junction. Option

Concrete class
C32/40 C32/40 C50/60 C50/60
for slab

Concrete class for


C32/40 C50/60 C50/60 C60/75
vertical elements

Change from
£0 £-4,190 £-9,650 £-200
base option

Change in
£0 £0 £-16,120 £-16,120
cladding cost

Change in internal
£0 £0 £-4,040 £-4,040
partition costs

Total change
£0 £-4,190 £-29,810 £-20,360
in costs

Change in net
0.0% 1.2% 1.2% 1.8%
lettable area
Concrete is a non-combustible
material that has a slow rate of heat
transfer. For most applications it can
meet the required fire resistance
without the need for any additional
measures and design.

Fire Guidance
To aid the transition to Eurocode 2, The Concrete Centre is publishing new guidance: ‘How to
Design Concrete Structures using Eurocode 2 – Structural Fire Design’. This new guide is the
12th part of the popular ‘How to’ series of guides to Eurocode 2.
15
Fire design to Eurocode 2, Part 1 – 2 can be approached in three ways: The final option for simplified calculations is the zone method. This is
• Tabular methods considered to be a more accurate approach than the isotherm method,
• Simplified calculation methods especially for columns. Concrete in the ineffective zone at fire exposed
• Advanced calculation. surfaces is ignored and the remaining section is divided up into parallel
rectangular zones. The properties and behaviour for each zone is calculated
Tabular methods and used to determine the overall resistance.
The tables generally allow the designer to look up minimum dimensions and
cover for a particular type of element. There are a number of tables covering Advanced calculation
all the typical elements, but some do come with limitations and here the The advanced methods are for use by specialists. Further guidance on the
‘simplified calculation methods’ may have to be used. performance of concrete in fire including use of advanced methods is given
in the forthcoming Concrete Centre publication ‘Guide to the Performance
Simplified calculation methods of Concrete Structures in Fire’.
There are a number of simplified methods available. For beams and slabs it
allows the designer to determine whether the axis distance (the distance from Recommended reading:
the face of the concrete to the centre of the bar under consideration) can be 1. Fraser, A.S and Jones, A.E.K., How to design concrete structures using
justified and this is based on detailed examination of the flexural capacity. It Eurocodes2 – Structural Fire Design. The Concrete Centre, 2009.
does not allow the designer to reduce the minimum section size. 2. British Standards Instutition. BS EN 1992-1-2, Eurocode 2: design of
concrete structure. General Rules – structural fire design. BSI, 2004.
For structural members that are subject to axial loads and where their 3. Baily,C and Khoury, G. Guide to the performance of concrete structures
behaviour is influenced by second order effects, there is a calculation method in fire. The Concrete Centre, 2009
(Annex B.3) but given its complexity tables have also been produced (Annex
C). This approach is particularly useful for columns which fall outside the For information on publications from The Concrete Centre,
limitation on eccentricity for the column tabular methods. visit: www.concretecentre.com/publications

The isotherm method assumes that all concrete that has reached a critical
temperature of 500oC should be neglected and that the section resistance
can be based on the rest of the concrete which is assumed to retain its full
strength. The section resistance can then be calculated in the normal way.
Concrete information
The Concrete Centre is the central development organisation for the UK concrete industry. Its aim is to assist all those involved in design and construction to
realise the full potential of concrete. In particular, The Concrete Centre offers a comprehensive range of publications, seminars, and courses and online resources.
For further information visit: www.concretecentre.com

The Concrete Centre has published a number of titles that can assist designers in achieving optimum structural solutions. Downloads or ordering details of all of
the publications feature below can be found on: www.concretecentre.com/publications

Design of Hybrid Concrete Buildings Concrete Logistics

This design guide is intended to provide the structural engineer The UK is unusual in its preponderance of the ubiquitous
with essential guidance for the design of structures that steel shed. However, this could change as the demand for
combine precast and in-situ concrete in a hybrid concrete ever more cost-effective construction of industrial buildings is
structure. It introduces the options available for hybrid concrete coupled with a number of construction drivers that question
structures and goes on to explain the key considerations in the the assumption that steel portal frames and cladding offer the
design of this type of structure. best structural solution. This publication outlines the benefits
of concrete construction for industrial buildings including
flexibility, speed of construction and long-term performance.

Cost Model Study – School Buildings School Construction

This publication covers a comprehensive and independent Concrete construction can provide cost-effective, comfortable,
cost study comparing six structural frame options for a typical flexible and fire resistant schools, with good acoustics and
secondary school. Budget costings were assigned to all elements of minimal vibration. This publication covers concrete solutions for
construction and adjustments were made to reflect time-related school construction. Four case studies are also included, one of
costs attributable to differences in the construction programme. which is a detailed cost comparison on school design.
There was a relatively small cost variation between the options.
However, the study highlighted the extent to which elements other Also available:
than the structure can be affected by the frame material chosen. • Hospital Construction
• Concrete Framed Buildings
Also available:
• Cost Model Study – Hospitals
• Cost Model Study – Commercial Buildings

Concrete Credentials: Sustainability Thermal Mass Explained

Concrete is the robust construction material that provides a Until recently, the use of thermal mass was often disregarded
vital resource in the development of sustainable solutions. The in favour of a largely services based solution to the heating and
UK is almost completely self-sufficient in concrete and the cooling of buildings, which is not suprising in an age when cheap
constituent materials needed for its manufacture, which makes energy was plentiful and the effects of climate change had yet
it, both economically and environmentally, an option for any to be felt. However, the time to re-evaluate the contribution
project. The tables within this document present the perfor- that thermal mass can make to building performance has come.
mance benefits of concrete that designers can utilise to create To do this, it is important to have a basic working knowledge
sustainable projects and sustainability credentials of concrete of thermal mass and how to best use it. That is the purpose of
products and their constituent materials. this guide

Also available:
• Utilisation of Thermal Mass in Non-Residential Buildings

To download these free publications visit www.concretecentre.com/publications