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THEORY OF INDONESIAN ENGLISH TRANSLATION

“Theory of Translation Shift by Catford and Translation Principle by Nida on


the Data of Media Text Entitled Teknologi Riset Tanggap Bencana,
Kemenristek Dikti Perkuat Riset Kebencanaan into Indonesian Govt Strengthen
Disaster Technology Research: Minister”

GROUP I:

SEPTIAN EFENDY (1601542023)


I DEWA GEDE ADI AMBARA YOGA (1601542024)
PUTU INA LARASSATI (1601542025)
NI WAYAN ARISKA HANDAYANI (1601542026)
IDA AYU TARA KIRANA DEWI (1601542027)
GUSTI NGURAH SURYA PERMADI PINATIH (1601542028)
ZELIA VITALINA PEREIRA SARMENTO (1601542029)
IDA AYU GEDE SASMIKA (1601542030)
CANTORA KARMA PARAMAHITHA (1601542031)
ANDI YASHINTA (1601542032)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ARTS
UDAYANA UNIVERSITY
2018
PREFACE

Thanks to the Almighty God for His bless and grace to us as the writers of this paper
for accomplishing the English paper assignment with the title “Theory of Translation Shift by
Catford and Translation Principle by Nida on the Data of Media Text Entitled Teknologi Riset
Tanggap Bencana, Kemenristek Dikti Perkuat Riset Kebencanaan into Indonesian Govt
Strengthen Disaster Technology Research: Minister” so we could finish the paper on time.
We also would like to deliver our sincere thanks to all the people who has given their
hands to help us completing this paper. It is written to complete the task of our theory of
Indonesian English translation class. It contains the data and the analysis of translation shift
and principle in expository text entitled “Teknologi Riset Tanggap Bencana, Kemenristek Dikti
Perkuat Riset Kebencanaan”. This is clearly not a perfect model so we, as the writers expect
any critic and suggestions in order to make it better.
We, as the writer of this paper realize that it is still imperfect but we have a high
expectation that our work may help the readers to learn about the subject itself and understand
more about this material. Hopefully this paper can be useful for a lot of people, especially for
the readers.

Denpasar, 4th of November 2018

Compiler
TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER

PREFACE ........................................................................................................................... i

TABLE OF CONTENT ...................................................................................................... ii

CHAPTER I CONCEPT ..................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Concept of Translation ........................................................................................ 1

1.2 Concept of Media Text ........................................................................................ 1

1.3 Theoretical Framework of Catford (Translation Shift) and Nida (Translation


Principle) ............................................................................................................ 2

CHAPTER II DATA SOURCE .......................................................................................... 5

2.1 Data of Source Language Text (SLT) ................................................................. 5

2.2 Data of Target Language Text (TLT) .................................................................. 5

CHAPTER III DATA ANALYSIS DISCUSSION ............................................................ 6

3.1 Data Analysis Discussion on the Theory of Catford: Translation Shift and Nida:
Translation Principle .......................................................................................... 6

CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 9

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER I
CONCEPT

1.1. Concept of Translation


According to Brislin (1976:1) translation is a general term referring to the transfer of
thoughts and ideas from one language to another, whether the language is in written or oral
form, whether the languages have established orthographies or not; or whether one or both
languages is based on signs, as with signs of the deaf. Translation is the replacement of textual
material in one language source language by equivalent textual material in another language
target language (Catford, 1965:20).
Another expert, Wilss (1982:3), states that translation is a transfer process which aims at
the transformation of a written source language text (SLT) into an optimally equivalent target
language text (TLT), and which requires the syntactic, the semantic, and the pragmatic
understanding and analytical processing of the source text. Syntactic understanding is related
to style and meaning. Understanding of semantics is meaning related activity. Finally,
pragmatic understanding is related to the message or implication of a sentence. This definition
does not state what is transferred. Rather, it states the requirement of the process.
Nida and Taber (1982: 12) see translating as a process of reproducing in the receptor
language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of
meaning and secondly in terms of style. In other words, translation is a transfer of meaning,
message, and style from one SLT to the TLT. In the order of priority, style is put the last. Here
the things to reproduce (transfer) is stated, message.

1.2. Concept of Media Text


Media texts are objects produced with the explicit intention of engaging an audience. In
some cases (movies in a theatre) they are transient. Even where they are permanent (e.g. a copy
of a magazine), there is a kind of impermanence in the fact that they are continually being
produced – the next edition, the next in the series. In this way, media texts comprise a torrent
of materials and produce a flood of meanings. They are a moving target, and textual analysis
is in some ways an attempt to stem that flow, and subject it to careful attention.
Media texts also have a variety of forms both within media (publishing newspapers or
novels) and across media (the front page of a website to the titles of a TV programme).
Newspaper are Printed media usually distributed weekly or daily in the form of a folded book
of papers. The publication is typically sectioned off based on subject and content. The most
important or interesting news will be displayed on the front page of the publication.
Newspapers may also include advertisements, opinions, entertainment and other general
interest news. Some of the most popular newspapers are the Wall Street Journal, the
Washington Post, and the New York Times.

1.3. Theoretical Framework of Catford (Translation Shift) and Nida (Translation Principle)
Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language source language by
equivalent textual material in another language target language. (Catford, 1965:20). Catford
(1978) divides the shift in translation into two major types, level shift and category shift. Level
shift refers to a source language item at one linguistic level that has a target language translation
equivalent at a different level. In other words, it is simply a shift from grammar to lexis.
Category shift refers to departures from formal correspondence in translation. The
category shift is divided again into structure shifts, class shifts, unit shift, and intra-system
shifts.
a. Structure shift is the changing of words sequence in a sentence.
b. Class shift occurs when the translation equivalent of a source language item is a
member of a different class from the original item.
c. Unit shift is the changes of rank; that is, departures from formal correspondence in
which the translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the source language is a unit
at a different rank in the target language.
d. Intra-system shift refers to the shifts that occurs internally, within the system; that is
for those cases where the source and the target language possess systems which
approximately correspond formally as to their constitution, but when translation
involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the target language system.
Nida on the other hand, defines translation as translating consists in reproducing in
receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms
of meaning, and secondly in term of style. He further explained that translating must aim
primely at “reproducing the message”. To do anything else is essentially false to one’s task as
a translator. Translator must strive for equivalence rather than identity. He also emphasized in
the natural equivalent which means that a translation should not sounds like a translation.
Therefore, in the process of translation, the translator may add some information with
the hope that it does not contradict the message of the sentence. Nida states that there are three
principle which are loss, gain, and skewing of information in translation.
1. Loss of Information
Loss is the disappearance of certain features in the target language text which are
present in the source language text. In translation there is more probability of loss than gain.
This is largely attributed to the lack of immediate equivalence between concepts, words,
phrases and syntax in the target language, which are in the source language. This process is
termed ‘linguistic distance’. Loss is a result of disparate cultures because there are no two living
languages that can have the same cultures. This suggests that there are cultural concepts which
are unique to specific languages.
Loss can also be attributed to the failure by the translator to render an element of
meaning such as expressiveness where the impact, spirit and vividness of the text are lost. If
the translator is not competent in the target language some words and phrases might be omitted
hence loss occurs. To counteract such problems the translator has to be versatile and innovative
in dealing with languages. ‘Untranslatability’ is another cause of loss in translation. This can
be realized at two levels, namely the linguistic and cultural. At the linguistic level,
untranslatability occurs when there is no lexical or syntactical substitute in the target language
for a source language item. Cultural untranslatability is due to the lack of absence in the target
language culture of a relevant situational feature equivalent to that in the source language.
2. Gain of Information
Gain is a concept that relates to translation as a finished product. It is the enrichment or
clarification of the source language text. Gain enables a language to be flexible and usable in
any social circle. (McGuire 1980, p.30) describes gain as ‘the enrichment or clarification of the
source language text in the process of translation’. In this manner, gain enables a language to
change for the better and adapt to meet the needs of its speakers. For example, language
develops spontaneously with technology. This might lead to the development of new
terminology in the target language. The development of new terminology takes into account
the fact that language is not static but dynamic. Due to the dynamism of language, gain is
realized.
Gain also depends on the relative expressional abilities of a language and on the
creativity of the interpreter. The creativity is seen when the interpreter reconciles language and
social life so as to come up with a tangible interpretation. Such creativity enhances our
understanding of the role that language plays in social life as (Hatim and Mason 1990, p.1)
state that ‘translation is a useful text case for examining the whole issue of the role of language
in social life’.
3. Skewing of Information
Since two languages having an absolute meaningful expression in translation (Nida,
1975:27 and Larson, 1998: 62-63), the translator has to change the TL form. The change of the
linguistic form in the TL is intended for the closest natural equivalence to its reader. Skewing
of information is the translation of items from the source language is not the exact equivalence
in the target language.
CHAPTER II
DATA SOURCE

2.1 Data of Source Language Text (SLT)


Data dari bahasa sumber diambil dari internet. Data yang akan digunakan dalam analisis
diambil dari kalimat yang terdapat pada teks media yaitu koran daring yang berjudul
“Teknologi Riset Tanggap Bencana, Kemenristek Dikti Perkuat Riset Kebencanaan”. Data
diambil dari website Berita2bahasa, penulisnya bernama Cahyani Harzi.
Data yang diambil dipublish secara online pada tanggal 31 Oktober 2018. Teks media
yang berjudul “Teknologi Riset Tanggap Bencana, Kemenristek Dikti Perkuat Riset
Kebencanaan” terdiri dari enam paragraf yang mana paragrapfnya berisi informasi yang detail
tentang usaha yang dilakukan Kemenristek Dikti dalam menangani bencana di Indonesia.
Penulis mengambil lima kalimat dari teks media ini yang mana nanti akan di analisis
menggunakan teori terjemahan milik Catford dan Nida.

2.2 Data of Target Language Text (TLT)


The data source is taken from the internet. The data that will be used in analyzing is an
media text which are online newspaper entitled “Indonesian Govt Strengthen Disaster
Technology Research: Minister”. It is taken from a website called Berita2bahasa, and the writer
is Cahyani Harzi.
The text is published online on 31st October 2018. The media text is consist of six
paragraphs, which contain the detailed information about efforts made by Kemenristek Dikti
in handling disasters in Indonesia.
The writer took five sentences from the media text and will analyze it using translation
theory from Catford and Nida.
CHAPTER III
DATA ANALYSIS DISCUSSION

3.1 Data Analysis Discussion on the Theory of Catford and Nida: Translation Shift and Nida
principle
In this data analysis discussion, the writer presents the data that will be analyzed using
Catford translation shift theory and Nida translation principle theory. The writer also would
analyze the process of translation shift that occurs in sentences that belong to media text entitled
“Teknologi Riset Tanggap Bencana, Kemenristek Dikti Perkuat Riset Kebencanaan”. The
translation shift and principle that occurs in each sentence are in bold and underlined.
Data Analysis
NO SLT TLT TYPES OF
SHIFT/PRINCIPLE
Data 1. Mohammad Nasir Mohammad Nasir said  Unit Shift
mengatakan TMC TMC was a human  Intra system
merupakan suatu usaha intervention effort in Shift
campur tangan manusia controlling water  Structure
dalam pengendalian resources in the Shift
sumber daya air di atmosphere for rain
atmosfer untuk menambah enhancement and rain
curah hujan dan/atau reduction in certain areas
mengurangi intensitas to minimize natural
curah hujan pada daerah disasters caused by
tertentu untuk climate and weather by
meminimalkan bencana utilizing weather
alam yang disebabkan oleh parameters.
iklim dan cuaca dengan
memanfaatkan parameter
cuaca.
Analysis In this sentence the phrase “sumber daya” and the word “resources” shows
Data 1. the occurrence of unit/rank shift, as it can be seen that the phrase SL is changed
into a word in TL. Besides that, intra-system shift also occurs in the phrase
“sumber daya” and the word “resources” as in SL “sumber daya” is singular
while in TL “resources” is plural, these difference shows that both languages
have different internal structure.
There is a structure shift occurred on the phrase “bencana alam” which is
translated into “natural disasters”. It’s obviously the change of a structure as in
the SL, bencana is the head of the word and on the other hand, alam is the
modifier. In the Target Language, the structure changes as the word natural is
obviously the modifier, and the word dsaster is the head. This shows the
occurrence of structure shift.
On other hand, intra-system shift can be seen in the phrase “bencana alam”
and “natural disasters” as in SL “bencana alam” is singular and in TL “natural
disasters” is plural.
Data 2. Kami akan meningkatkan We will improve  Level Shift
pengembangan penelitian development of research
kebencanaan. on disaster.
Analysis Based on the sentence and translation above, we can see that there is a level shift
Data 2. occurring in the phrase. It shows that there is a level shift occurring on the phrase
of “akan meningkatkan” which is translated into “will improve” in the target
language text (TLT). In this example, the occurrence of level shift is seen when
the grammatical form of the words “akan meningkatkan” changed in Target
Language Text. It has ‘will + verb 1’ in the target language which is translated
from lexicon ‘akan’.
Data 3. Pemerintah RI akan Indonesian government  Loss
meningkatkan dan will develop and
memperkuat. strengthen.
Analysis In SL there is the word "RI" refers to “Republik Indonesia” which if translated
Data 3. will be “Indonesian Republic”. But in TL, it only translates to "Indonesian
government". The word 'Republic' is omitted from the translation. From this it
can be seen that the meaning in SL is loss through the translation process.
Data 4. Saat ini, Kementeristek At present, the focus is on  Loss
Dikti fokus pada riset disaster research.
kebencanaan.
Analysis In SL, there is the word " Kementeristek Dikti ". While in SL, the word is not
Data 4. translated. It can be concluded it is Loss.
Data 5. Memiliki berbagai tujuan Has various objectives  Gain
seperti menambah curah such as rain enhancement
hujan untuk mengatasi and rain reduction to
kekeringan. overcome drought.
Analysis In TL, there is new phrase "rain reduction" which not mention in SL. "Rain
Data 5. reduction" means “Pengurangan hujan”. This shows that there is gain of
information in phrase above.
CONCLUSION

Catford and Nida have their own definition of translation and the theory to do it.
Definition translation according to Catford is the replacement of textual material in one
language source language by equivalent textual material in another language target language,
on the other hand Nida defined translation as translating consists in reproducing in receptor
language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of
meaning, and secondly in term of style.
We can see that this both experts have quite different definition of translation, thus this
affected the theory of translation that they have. Catford theory of translation focused on the
structure of the language between the source and target language. His theory is called
translation shift. This theory is classified into two main parts, level shift and category shift.
Category shift can be classified into 4 parts which are unit/rank shift, structure shift, intra-
system shift, and class shift. Different with Catford theory which focused on the structure
within a language, Nida theory focused more on the naturalness of the translation, therefore he
stated three principle which are the loss of information, gaining information, and skewing
information.
Using this theory from Catford and Nida, our group analyzed 5 sentences, which two
of the sentences are analyzed using Catford translation shift, and the other three are analyzed
using Nida theory. The result from using Catford theory, within the three sentences we can find
some kind of shift in it, which are structure shift, unit/rank shift, and intra-system shift and
level shift. The class shift is not used in the sentence that we analyzed. The result from using
Nida theory, one sentence use loss and another one using gain process.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Catford, J.C. (1965). A Linguistic Theory of Translation, Oxford: OUP. (2000) 'Translation
shifts', in Lawrence Venuti (ed) The Translation Studies Reader, London and New York:
Routledge, 141-147.
Nida, E. A. (1964). Toward A Science of Translating. Netherland: E.J. Brill
Nida, A. Eugene and Taber, R. Charles. (1969). The Theory and Practice of Translation.
Leiden: E.J Brill.
Briggs, A., Cobley, P. (2002). The Media: An Introduction, 2nd edn. Longman. New York
Anonym. (2018). BusinessDictionary [Internet]. Available from:
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/newspaper.html [Accessed 4 November
2018]
Waris, G. (2018). Teknologi Riset Tanggap Bencana, Kemenristek Dikti Perkuat Riset
Kebencanaan. 31 October, p1