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THEORY OF INDONESIAN ENGLISH TRANSLATION

“Analysis of Structure Shift in the Translation of Noun Phrase in The Short


Story Entitled Gadis dari Jendela into The Girl from the Window”

Nama: Zelia Vitalina P. Sarmento


Nim: 1601542029

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ARTS
UNIVERSITY OF UDAYANA
2018 – 2019
1. Background of the Study
Nowadays, translation become one of the common specters in our life. The process of
translation can be seen in the community, for instances many books that spread in community
is one that have been translated from other language into Indonesian or vice versa from
Indonesian to English. Moreover, translation also can be considered as one of the forms of
communication and interaction between two different languages, one function as the source
language, whereas the other as the target language. In addition, communication that occur in
translation were more about the transfer of the language textual matter from the source
language into the target language. According to this then, it can be said that translation is a
medium for the exchanges of information from one language into another within the scope of
a country or between countries.
There are a lot of interesting topic when translation is included. For instances, in
translation there are differences in cultural point of view which is fascinating to talk about, how
one thing in one country seems like such as new thing for another. Moreover, there are also a
different in how the noun phrase, verb phrase, or any other kind of phrase translated within two
different language which have two different language structure. Thus, from this the topic in
this paper is the translation that occur within the noun phrase because it is one of the most
common elements in any language and noun phrase scope a wide range of information within
the language. It also plays an important role in the construction of sentence which is why the
writer choose this topic as the focus of this paper.
Furthermore, there are some translation theory which used widely in translation. They
are theories whom proposed by Nida, Vinay, Larson, Catford, etc. Their contribution in
translation is really big and it helps us as the student to understand more in detail about what
happen in translation. Therefore, this paper incline toward using the translation Shift theory
proposed by Catford, because for the writer this theory is one of the most applicable one and
easy to conduct. In addition, from this topic the writer decided to find what kind of structure
shift used in the translation of noun phrase data from Indonesian to English, and which kind of
structure shift that occur the most in the noun phrase translation.

2. Problem of the Study


In translation process, there are a lot of problem that may arise when transferring one
language (SL) to another language (TL). This trouble may arise because of the problem in
translation such as differences in the cultural term, specific term such as legal term, differences
in idiom, the structure between the language, and also the differences of the collocation. Thus,
from this background there are two problem in this paper:
1. What types of category shift that occur in the translation of noun phrases in the short
story entitled Gadis dari Jendela into The Girl from the Window?
2. What types of category shift that occur the most?

3. Aim of the study


The objective of a scientific paper is to improve our knowledge and also give answer
to the subject matter after being observed, in this paper the subject matter is the shift that occur
in the translation of noun phrases in the short story entitled Gadis dari Jendela. Based on this
the aims of this writing are:
1. To find out and analyze the types of category shift that occur in the translation of
noun phrases in the short story entitled Gadis dari Jendela.
2. To figure out what types of category shift that occur the most in the translation of
noun phrases in the short story entitled Gadis dari Jendela.

4. Scope of Discussion
The focus of this writing is to answer the problem in this paper. Thus, there are
limitation in the discussion of data analysis. The theory that chiefly used is the Translation
Shift theory proposed by Catford. There are two types of Translation Shift by Catford, namely
level shift and structure shift. However, in this paper the focus is on the explanation of category
shift that occur in the translation of noun phrases. Category shift consists of structure shift,
class shift, unit shift, and intra-system shift.

5. Theoretical Framework
In this research, the theory proposed by Catford about Shifts is the main theory that
applied in this paper. Beside that, the theory of noun phrase and theory from Larson about
meaning based translation are adopted to support the analysis in this paper.
5.1 Translation Shift
The first theory of shift is proposed by J.C. Catford. He defined shift as departures from
formal correspondence in the process of going from the SL to the TL (1965:73). He then
divided the shift into two major types of shift that occur in translation, namely level shifts and
category shifts.
5.1.1 Level Shift
Catford defined level shift as a shift of level which mean that a SL item at one linguistic
level has a TL translation equivalent at a different level (1965:73). This means that level shift
occurs where there is a difference between the aspect of system, for instance between English
in present tense with English in continuous tense. Moreover, Catford also said that level shift
occurred from grammar to lexis, and vice versa. Below is the example of level shift that occur
in translation from SL (English) into TL (Indonesian).
SL: I am working hard
TL: Saya sedang bekerja keras
From this data it can be seen that the grammatical item to be + -ing (pattern of present
continuous tense in English) is translated into sedang which is a lexis in Indonesian. Thus, the
level shift in the translation is indicated by grammar in SL translated into lexis in TL.

5.1.2 Category Shift


Catford defined structure shift as the departures from formal correspondence in
translation (1965:76). Formal correspondence then can be understood as any target language
(TL) category which may be said to occupy as nearly as possible the same place in the economy
of TL as the given source (SL) category occupy the SL. Catford then divided category shift
into four types, they are structure shifts, class shifts, unit/rank shifts, and intra-system shifts.
Below are the detailed information of each category shifts:

A. Structure Shifts
Structure shifts are the shifts that occur when the source language structure and target
language structure are different. This shifts usually occur in the level of phrase, clause, and
sentence. This shift also amongst the most frequent category shift that occur at all ranks in
translation. (Catford, 1965:77). For instance:
(1) SL: I (S) wash (V) myself (O)
TL: Saya (S) mandi (P)
The structure of SL is S-V-O, whereas when it is translated into TL the structure change into
S-P, it can be seen that one element in TL which is the object (O) is not translated in TL. Thus,
structure shifts occur here.
(2) SL: Big (M) House (H)
TL: Rumah (H) besar (M)
The structure of SL is M-H with house as the head and preceding by big as the adjective pre-
modifier, whereas in TL the structure is H-M with Rumah as the head and followed by besar
as the post-modifier.

B. Class Shifts
Catford definition of class shift is derived from Halliday and he defined class as ‘that
grouping of members of a given unit which is defined by operation in the structure of the unit
next above’. Moreover, he said class shifts occur when the translation equivalent of a SL item
is a member of a different class from the original item (1965:78). It can be said that SL has
different class with TL such as from noun to verb, verb into noun, adjective into verb, verb into
adjective, noun into adjective, adjective into adverb, and vice versa. The example of class shift
that occurs from adjective to adverb and adjective to verb.
(1) SL: Mereka bekerja dengan lambat.
TL: They are working slowly.
In this sentence the word lambat in SL is an adjective, whereas in TL it is translated into slowly
which is an adverb. Thus, the class shifts occur here.
(2) SL: It’ll be lovely
TL: Itu akan menyenangkan
In this sentence the word lovely in SL is an adjective, yet when it is translated into the TL it
becomes menyenangkan which is a verb. It is obvious that the word class of word lovely shifted
into another word class which is verb in TL.

C. Unit/Rank Shifts
Unit/Rank shifts is a change of rank that is departures from formal correspondence in
which the translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the SL is a unit at a different rank in
the TL (Catford, 1965:79). It can occur from word to phrase or vice versa, and phrase to clause.
The example of unit/rank shift that occurs from word to phrase, that is:
(1) SL: Your watch is very sophisticated
TL: Jam tangan anda sangat canggih
It can be seen here in SL the word watch is translated into a noun phrase jam tangan in TL.
This example shows that there was a shift from rank of a single word to rank of noun phrase.
(2) SL: Late in winter of my seventeenth years
TL: Di penghujung musim dingin usia ketujuh belasku.
It can be seen here that in SL the word winter is translated into a noun phrase musim dingin in
TL. This shows the occurrence of unit/rank shift from the lower rank (word) into higher rank
(phrase).

D. Intra-System Shifts
According to Catford intra-system shifts is a shift that occurs internally within a system;
that is for those cases where SL and TL possesses systems which approximately correspond
formally as to their constitution but when translation involves selection of non-corresponding
term in the TL system it may possess formally corresponding system of number (1965:80). In
each language, the system operates in nominal groups is characterized by concord between the
exponents of S and P in clauses and so on. Moreover, in each language the system is one of
two terms singular or plural and these terms may be regarded as formally corresponding. For
instances:
SL: His eyes were the problem
TL: Mata itulah yang menjadi masalah.
It can be seen from this sentence that the intra-system shift occurs where the SL is plural and
the translation of it in TL is singular.

5.2. Meaning Based Translation


The second theory that was adopted to support the analysis is the theory from Larson
which shows the importance of meaning in translation. She explained meaning as the important
aspect in translation, she further said that:
“Translation consist of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication
situation, and cultural context of source language text, analyzing it in order to
determine its meaning and the reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and
grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural
context” (Larson, 1998:3).
Considering translation deals with two or more different languages, Larson proposed that
translating needs to recognize the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and
the cultural context, in order to make a translation sounds more natural and alive; as a result of
this the loss and gain of meaning in translating cannot be avoided.
Furthermore, Larson (1998:3) said that translation consist of transferring meaning of
the source language into target language. The transferring process I going from the form of
first language to the form of second language by way of semantic structure. When this process
happened, it will only change the form of the source language but the meaning in it will stay
the same. Moreover, translation involves both form and meaning transfer from source language
to target language. Thus, the result of the translation will not be exactly the same as the source
language.

5.3 Noun Phrase


Yule in Phung (2009) defines a noun phrase as “a phrase in which the main word is a
noun and which is used as a subject or an object”. Moreover, noun phrase plays an important
role in the construction of a sentence. The construction of a sentence in each language is
different, thus here are the explanation of noun phrase in English and Indonesian.
5.3.1 The Structure of Noun Phrase in English
In this paper, the theory of noun phrase that applied is the theory by Jackson (cited in
Phung). According to him, an English noun phrase has the following formula:
Pre-modification + Head + Post-modification
It can be seen from this formula noun phrase consist of three parts namely pre-
modification, head, and post-modification. In a noun phrase, the existence of head is a must,
whereas the Pre-modification and the Post-modification are optional. As their names have
suggested, the function of the pre-modification and post-modification is to elaborate or limit
the head noun’s meaning. Noun phrase gets its name from the head word. Thus, below are the
detailed explanation of the noun phrase element.

A. Head
The word noun phrase is self-explanatory. It is obvious that the most common kind of
head word in a noun phrase is a noun. In some cases, a pronoun may also act as the central part
of a noun phrase. There are four kinds of pronouns functioning as heads namely personal
pronoun (a), indefinite pronoun (b), possessive pronoun (c), and demonstrative pronoun (d).
For example:
a. he in he is a doctor
b. someone in someone in the house
c. his in his is large.
d. this in this happens every two years.
Usually, when a pronoun takes the role of head in a noun phrase, it is not preceded by pre-
modification; however, it can be followed by post-modification, e.g. he who hesitates.
B. Pre-modification
The pre-modification of noun phrase can be demonstrated as the following:
Pre-determiner + identifier + numeral/quantifier + adjective + noun modifier
A noun phrase can be introduced by a pre-determiner. The most common pre-
determiners are all, both, half, and fractions. For example, in the noun phrase all the students,
all functions as a pre-determiner.
What comes after a pre-determiner is the class of identifiers. Identifiers include articles
(a, an, the), demonstratives (this, that, these, those) and possessives (my, your, his, her, its, our,
their), only one of which can occur in a noun phrase. It means that they are “mutually exclusive
in English”. One thing special about noun phrase is that the article “the” can go with any head
be it singular or plural (a). In contrast, Baker in Phung said that demonstratives must “agree in
number with the common noun phrase” (b). For example:
(a) the book, the books
(b) this book, that book but these books, those books
The identifier can be followed by a numeral/quantifier. Unlike the identifier, the
numeral/quantifier can have more than one component. In general, this constituent of noun
phrase may have the three favourite sequences:
(a) ordinal numeral + indefinite quantifier, e.g. the first few guests
(b) ordinal numeral + cardinal numeral, e.g. the first two guests
(c) indefinite quantifier + cardinal numeral, e.g. several thousand guests
The groups of words coming after a numeral/quantifier are called adjectives. More than
one adjective can co-occur in a noun phrase. In this case, adjectives are arranged in a rather
fixed order. Jackson has suggested an ordering for adjectives with an example: a charming
small round old brown French oaken writing desk. In this example, the adjectives appear in an
order basing on a principle:
1. epithet (charming)
2. size (small)
3. shape (round)
4. age (old)
5. colour (brown)
6. origin (French)
7. substance (oaken)
8. Present participle (writing).
However, it is necessary to bear in mind that there is no fixed formula for a sequence
of adjective. Placed between adjectives and a head noun is a noun modifier. A noun modifier
is a noun that is placed immediately before a head noun to modify the head noun. For example,
in a country garden, the village policeman, and the news agency; country, village and news are
noun modifiers. Jackson also points out that “it is unusual for more than one noun modifier to
occur in a noun phrase” and that “noun modifier + head noun constructions are often the first
stage in the formation of compound nouns”.

C. Post-modification
After the head noun, there appears post-modification. Post-modifications can be a word
such as an adjective, an adverb or a phrase such as prepositional phrase or a clause such as
relative clause, non-finite clause. Usually, when people need an adjective to modify the head
noun, they place it in the pre-modification position. However, in some cases, an adjective can
go after the head noun, especially in some few set phrases like blood royal, heir apparent. In
addition, in comparison with adjectives, adverbs are more frequently found in the position of
post-modification and they can be regarded as reductions of a prepositional phrase. For
example, the time before can be understood as the time before this one.
A relative clause is a clause composed of a relative pronoun as a head which refers
back to the head noun of the noun phrase. The relative pronoun “who” and “whom” refer to
people. The relative pronoun “which” is used for plants and animals. If the relative pronoun is
an index of an object, it can be omitted. For example: in the noun phrase the girl whom I met
yesterday, “whom” is optional.
A Non-finite clause can also function as post-modification. There are three kinds of
non-finite clauses according to the verb that introduces them: Infinitive Clause (a), Present
Participle Clause (b) and Past Participle Clause (c). For example:
(a) a movie to see
(b) the man talking to the teacher
(c) the movie chosen by the teacher
An infinitive clause is introduced by a to-infinitive. Likewise, a present participle and
a past participle clause are introduced by a present participle and a past participle respectively.
Non-finite clauses can be reconstructed into full relative clauses. For example:
(a) movie to see  a movie that we should see
(b) the man talking to the teacher  the man who is talking to the teacher
(c) the movie chosen by the teacher  the movie that is chosen by the teacher
A prepositional phrase is form by a preposition + a noun phrase, e.g. in the corner.
Prepositional phrases are said to be the most frequent kind of postmodifiers in noun phrases.
For example: the man in the corner. A prepositional phrase can also be rebuilt into a relative
clause, e.g. the man who is in the corner. To sum everything up below are the brief summary
of English noun phrase:

Table 1. The structure of Noun Phrase in English

5.3.2 The structure of Noun Phrase in Indonesian


According to Alwi cited in Putro (2016) noun phrase in Indonesian can be formed by preceding
modifier or adding qualifier after the noun. There are rules in how to give post modification to
a noun in Indonesian:
A. Complex Noun Phrases
(i) A head can be followed by one or more noun and addition of one pronoun
ini or itu. For example: buku matematika saya ini.
(ii) Noun is followed by adjective without any modification, word yang can be
added. For instance: bunga yang indah
(iii) A noun can be modified using clause preceded by yang. For example:
masyarakat (Noun) yang bermukiman di daerah pedalaman (Clause).
B. Basic Noun Phrase
(i) A noun can be followed by prepositional phrase. For example: jawaban
(Noun) dari pemerintah (Prepositional phrase)
(ii) If noun is followed by adjective without any modification, word yang can
be added. For example: anak yang rajin.
(iii) A noun can be followed by verb and separated by untuk. For example:
kewajiban untuk Belajar.
6. Data Source
The data source for this paper are taken from internet and is a bilingual short story. The
data sources are divided into source language text and target language text. The source
language text is in Indonesia, while the target language text is in English.

6.1 Data of Source Language Text (SLT)


Data dari bahasa sumber diambil dari internet. Data yang akan digunakan dalam analisis
diambil dari kalimat yang terdapat pada cerita pendek yang berjudul “Gadis dari Jendela”.
Data diambil dari salah satu komunitas online untuk para penulis dan pembaca yaitu Wattpad.
Penulis cerita pendek ini menggunakan nama pena Kekamaip. Penulis tidak mencantumkan
nama aslinya didalam karya tulisnya.
Data yang diambil dipublish di Wattpad dengan heading Cerita Pendek Indonesia dan
Inggris | Short Stories in Indonesian and English. Cerita pendek ini terdiri dari 7 paragraph.
Cerita pendek ini menceritakan tentang seorang anak perempuan yang kesepian dan terbiasa
melihat keluar jendela untuk memperhatikan anak-anak sepantarannya bermain. Setiap kali dia
ingin ikut bermain, anak-anak tersebut menolaknya dengan alasan jumlah pemain sudah cukup,
atau tidak bisa bermain. Karena diperlakukan seperti ini dia akhirnya menjadi penyendiri. Di
akhir cerita diapun akhirnya mendapatkan teman-teman baru yang mau bermain bersamanya.
Penulis mengambil 5 kalimat dari cerita pendek ini yang mana noun phrase yang
terdapat dalam kalimat akan di analisis menggunakan teori terjemahan dari Catford mengenai
Translation Shift yaitu Structure Shifts.

6.2 Data of Target Language Text (TLT)


The data source is taken from the internet. The data that will be used in analyzing is a
short story entitled “The Girl from The Window”. It is taken from an online community named
Wattpad which is made especially for the writer and the reader. The writer of this short story
did not put his/her name, however he/she put their pen name, which is Kekamaip.
The short story is published in Wattpad under the heading Cerita Pendek Indonesia dan
Inggris | Short Stories in Indonesian and English. The story is seven paragraph long. It narrates
about a little girl whose lonely and always looking out from the windows to watch the child
her age playing. Every time she asked to join the game, those children would reject her and
said that they don’t need any player because it is full, or they cannot play. Thus, because of this
she becomes a lonely girl. Long short story, at the end of the story, she got new friend to play
with.
The writer took 5 sentences from the short story which the noun phrase found in it
would be analysed using Catford translation shift theory, especially the structure shift theory.

7. Data Analysis Discussion


In this data analysis discussion, the writer presents the data that will be analysed using
Catford category shift theory. The writer also would analyse the process of structure shift that
occurs in the noun phrase that belong to a short story entitled “Gadis dari Jendela”. The noun
phrase that occurs in each sentence are in bold and underlined.
Data Analysis
NO SLT TLT TYPES OF
STRUCTURE
SHIFTS
Data 1. Seorang gadis datang ke A girl came to the window  Class Shift
jendela dan melirik ke luar and glanced outside with  Unit/Rank
dengan matanya yang her intense, hazel eyes. Shift
intens dan hazel  Structure
Shift
Analysis In this sentence the occurrence of class shift can be seen in the SL noun
Data 1. phrase seorang gadis and TL noun phrase a girl. In SL the word seorang belong
to noun class according to Indonesian dictionary KBBI, whereas the word a is
an article which belong to determiner class. Thus, the class shift occurred here
because there’s a shift of the word class from noun in SL into a determiner
(article) in TL.
Moreover, Unit/Rank shift occur in the word jendela in SL and in the phrase
the window in TL. It can be seen clearly that the word jendela is translated into
a noun phrase in TL. In addition, the word the in NP the window is a pre-
modification, particularly an identifier (article), and the word window is the head
of the NP.
Furthermore, the Structure shift occur in SL NP matanya yang intense dan
hazel and TL NP her intense hazel eyes. The structure of NP in SL and TL is as
follow:
SL: Matanya(H) yang intense dan hazel(M)
TL: Her intense hazel(M) eyes(H)
In SL we can see that the head of the phrase is followed by a post-modifier
whereas in the TL the head is preceded by pre-modifier. In addition, the pre-
modifier in TL is called a pre-modification where the word her in TL NP is an
identifier (possessives), and followed by adjective which are intense and hazel.
It can be concluded that the structure shift was obligatory here because the
language system of the TL is different with the language system in SL.
Data 2. Anna duduk di jendela Anna sat down in her bay  Structure
baynya, mengawasi window, watching the Shift
halaman depan yang empty front yard.
kosong.
Analysis In this sentence the occurrence of Structure shift can be seen in SL NP
Data 2. jendela baynya and TL NP her bay window. Below are the structure of NP in
both SL and TL:
SL: Jendela(H) baynya(M)
TL: Her bay(M) window(H)
In SL we can see that the head of the phrase is jendela and it is followed by
baynya which is the post-modifier. The reason why baynya is the modifier is
because it modified the head and explained about whose window is it (refers to
-nya) and what kind of window it is (refers to bay). Whilst, in TL the head is
window and it is preceded by her bay as the pre-modifier. In addition, the
modifier in TL is called Pre-modification, precisely for the word her is an
possessives (identifier) because it shows the sense of belonging, that the window
belongs to her; and bay as an adjective because it explains about the shape of the
window.
Moreover, another occurrence of Structure shift can be seen in SL NP
halaman depan yang kosong and TL NP the empty front yard. The structure of
both SL and TL NP as follows:
SL: Halaman depan(H) yang kosong(M)
TL: The empty(M) front yard (H)
It is obvious from this structure, that both SL and TL have different NP
structure. In SL the head is halaman depan and is followed by yang kosong as
the post-modifier which explains about the condition of halaman depan that is
empty. On the other hand, the head of TL NP is front yard and it is preceded by
the empty which is the pre-modifier. Furthermore, the modifier in TL is called
Pre-modification and the specification of the word the is identifier (article), and
empty is the adjective.
Data 3. Dawn berjalan di rumput Dawn walked on the lush  Unit/Rank
hijau yang subur dan grass and walked over to Shift
mendekati ketiga anak the three boys.  Structure
laki laki itu. Shift
 Intra-System
Shift
Analysis In this sentence the occurrence of Unit/Rank shift can be seen in SL phrase
Data 3. rumput hijau and TL word grass. It can be seen here that the phrase rumput hijau
which consist of two words in SL is translated into a single word grass in TL.
Thus, indeed the Unit/Rank shift occurred in this NP.
The Intra-System shift occurrence can be seen in SL NP ketiga anak laki-
laki and TL NP the three boys. In SL anak laki-laki is a singular, whereas in TL
boys is a plural as it is marked by article -s which is the plural marker. Moreover,
there’s a different in internal system of both SL and TL, in SL there are no noun
agreement between the number and the noun thus there‘s no different in SL
whether it is satu anak laki-laki or ketiga anak laki-laki; however in TL there’s
noun agreement between the noun and the number there because in TL three
boys, the -s marker is in agreement with three which shows that there are more
than one boy.
Furthermore, the occurrence of Structure shift can be seen in TL NP rumput
hijau yang subur and TL NP the lush grass. Below are the structures for both SL
and TL NP:
SL: Rumput hijau(H) yang subur(M)
TL: The lush(M) grass(H)
It is obvious from this structure, that both SL and TL have different NP structure.
In SL the head is rumput hijau and is followed by yang subur as a post-modifier
which explains about the condition of rumput hijau. On the other hand, the head
of TL NP is grass and it is preceded by the lush which is the pre-modifier.
Furthermore, the modifier in TL is called Pre-modification and the specification
of the word the is identifier (article), and lush is the adjective.
Data 4. Alih-alih menunggu, dia Instead of waiting she  Class Shift
meraih beberapa perban, grabbed some bandages, a  Intra-System
kain basah, berwarna green, wet cloth and an Shift
hijau dan kompress es ice pack from the fridge.  Structure
dari lemari es. Shift
Analysis In this sentence the occurrence of Class shift can be seen in SL NP kain
Data 4. basah berwarna hijau and TL NP a green wet cloth. In this SL NP the word
berwarna is translated into a in TL. In here it is clear that berwarna is an
adjective based on Indonesian dictionary KBBI, whilst a is an article which is
part of word class determiner. Therefore, the occurrence of Class shift happened
because there is a shift of word class from adjective in SL to determiner in TL.
Moreover, in this NP another shift can be found, which is the Structure shift. The
structure of NP of SL and TL are as follows:
SL: Kain basah(H) berwarna hijau(M)
TL: A green(M) wet cloth(H)
It can be seen here that the head of SL NP is kain basah, and followed by post-
modifier which is berwarna hijau. On the other hand, the head of TL NP is wet
cloth, and it is preceded by Pre-modification a green; and the specification of
the word a is identifier (article), and green is the adjective. Beside the occurrence
of Structure shift in this NP, another occurrence of it can be seen in SL NP
kompress es and TL NP an ice pack. It can be seen here that the structure of this
two NP is shifted.
SL: Kompress(H) es(M)
TL: An ice(M) pack(H)
In here the head of SL NP is kompress and followed by es as the post-modifier,
whereas in TL NP the head is pack, and it is preceded by an ice which is the pre-
modifier of the head. This modifier in TL is called Pre-modification, and the
word an is identifier, more precisely article, and the word ice is the noun modifier
as it modified the noun pack.
Furthermore, the occurrence of Intra-system shift can be seen in NP
beberapa perban in SL, and some bandages in TL. In here, the word perban is a
singular, whilst the word bandages is plural; it can be seen from the occurrence
of plural marker-s at the end of the word. Thus, it can be seen here that the
singular word in SL is translated into plural in TL. In addition, SL do not have a
rule concerning noun agreement, however the TL do have noun agreement thus
that is why the noun bandage agree with the word some which means there are
more than one bandage, thus bandage becomes bandages.
Data 5. Dia memanggil yang lain He called for the others  Structure
dan mereka semua and they all lay in the Shift
terbaring di halaman grassy yard.
rumput.
Analysis In this sentence the occurrence of Structure shift can be seen in SL NP
Data 5. halaman rumput, and TL NP the grassy yard. The structure of both SL and TL
are different as follows:
SL: Halaman(H) rumput(M)
TL: The grassy(M) yard(H)
It can be seen here that in SL NP, the head is halaman, and located in front of
the post-modifier rumput; while in TL NP the head is yard and located in the
back of the pre-modifier. Thus, it is clear that there are shift of the SL NP head
which is located before the post-modifier into after the pre-modifier in TL.

8. Conclusion
After analyzing the translation process that occurred in the noun phrase from five
sentences in the short story entitled Gadis dari Jendela, it can be seen that category shift occur
in these data. Out of four category shifts namely Structure shift, Class shift, Unit/Rank shift,
and Intra-System shift; all of them can be found here. In total, the noun phrase that found in
the data is 11 noun phrases.
Moreover, out of the four category shifts, the most used category shift is the Structure
shift which dominated by 5 out of 11 occurrences in noun phrases. Furthermore, the other
category shifts are tied with each other with 2 occurrences in NP for each of the category shifts.
Bibliography
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