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SPM BASKIE’S SCORE A+ CHEMISTRY SEMINAR

E: CHEMISTRY SPM : PAPER 3: ESSAY QUESTIONS


HYPOTHESIS AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Solubility of salt :
Hypothesis If salt A and salt B dissolve in water , salt A and B are soluble salt
: soluble/insoluble salt.
Operationa When a salt is added into water and dissolves to form a solution, it is a soluble
l definition: salt //
When a salt dissolves in water to form a solution, it is a soluble salt.
Rusting of iron:
Hypothesis When a more / less electropositive metal is in contact with iron, the metal inhibits /
: (speeds up) rusting of iron.
When a more / less electropositive metal is in contact with iron, rusting of iron is
slower / faster.
When iron nail is in contact with a more electropositive metal, rusting does not
occur; when iron nail is in contact with a less electropositive metal, rusting occurs
Operationa When iron is in contact with metal lower than iron in electrochemical series, blue
l definition: colouration indicates rusting.
Rusting occurs when iron nail is in contact with copper / tin / less electropositive
metal and form blue colouration.
Blue colouration is formed when iron is in contact with metal lower than iron in
electrochemical series.
Hardness of materials:
Hypothesis The harder / softer the material, the smaller / bigger the diameter of the dent.
:
Operationa The smaller dent produced when 1 kg weight is dropped on the block.
l When a 1 kg weight is dropped at height of 50 cm on a ball bearing which is taped on
definition: material X and Y separately, the material with a smaller dent formed is a harder
material.
Reactivity of halogen:
Hypothesis Going down the Group 17, the reactivity with iron wool decreases.
: Going down the Group 17, the brightness of flame with iron wool decreases.
Operationa The brightness of flame when halogens flow to hot iron.
l definition:
Position of metals in the electrochemical series
Hypothesis The further the distance between two/pair of metals in the electrochemical series
: the higher/larger/bigger the voltage value.
Operationa When pair of metals are further apart in the Electrochemical Series is dipped in an
l definition: electrolyte, the higher voltmeter reading.
Reactivity of metal powder with oxygen
Hypothesis The more reactive metal react more vigorous with oxygen.
: The more reactive a metal is, the more vigorous the metal burns in oxygen.
Operationa A metal that reacts more vigorously with oxygen is a more reactive metal.
l definition:
Electrical conductivity
Hypothesis: Electrolyte can conduct electricity while non-electrolyte cannot conduct
electricity.
Operationa Ammeter needle deflected when the circuit is completed.
l
definition:
Heat of combustion
Hypothesis When the number of carbon atoms per molecule alcohol increases, the heat of
: combustion increases.
Operationa When 1 mole of ALCOHOL is burnt to heat 200 cm3 of water, X kJ of heat energy is
l definition: released.
Alkanes and alkenes
Hypothesis Hexene decolourised the brown colour of bromine water, hexane does not.
: Hexene decolourised the purple colour of acidified potassium manganate(VII)
solution, hexane does not.
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SPM BASKIE’S SCORE A+ CHEMISTRY SEMINAR
Operationa When bromine water is added to hexene / alkene, brown bromine water
l definitiondecolourised.
for alkene: When acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution is added to hexene, purple
colour potassium manganate(VII) solution decolourised.
BASKIE’S SCORE A+ CHEMISTRY SEMINAR CONFIDENTIAL

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