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CONTRAST, OPPOSITION and RESTRICTION...


In order to express these three concepts introducing nuances in
sentences, some «tool-words» of different natures are used.
I) CONJUNCTIONS: link two clauses and are thus followed by :
subject + verb.
- ALTHOUGH/ EVEN THOUGH= express concession
- WHEREAS/ WHILE= express contrast.

- His salary isn't very high although he works long and difficult
hours.
- Her sister came by train whereas her brother drove from home.

II) ADVERBS: also introduce a restriction in a new clause: they're


often followed by a comma.
* YET,
* HOWEVER, STILL, NEVERTHELESS,/ NONETHELESS,
* NOTWITHSTANDING,
- He said he had understood, however, he repeated the same mistake
several times.
III) PREPOSITIONS: often introduce a noun group (determiner +
noun)
- UNLIKE/ CONTRARY TO, IN SPITE OF + noun / DESPITE +
noun.

- Sandra is a doctor, unlike her twin sister who's an executive.

IV) ADVERBS or RELATIVE PRONOUNS: WHATEVER , HOWEVER


both introduce clauses too.

- Whatever you say, he's so stubborn that he won't obey you.

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- However repeatedly you'll ask, she won't give you what you
want.

In these two examples, HOWEVER and WHATEVER may be remplaced


by NO MATTER ...
- No matter how repeatedly you'll ask, she won't give you what you
want. (more formal)
Well well ! Now, you must be ready for the test! Good luck!

Questions :

1) 'Lucy, I'm quite angry with you... __________________ that you were tidying up your room, it's
still in a mess...'

[ ]Despite
[ ]Although
[ ]Unless

2) « You perfectly know that __________________ you do that in a hurry, we won't make that
chocolate cake you wanted to eat with your friends. »

[ ]unless
[ ]although
[ ]whatever

3) « Please, do it __________________ I'll get the ingredients ready, and pre-heat the oven. »<

[ ]while
[ ]despite
[ ]although

4) 'Oh Mom, __________________ being eager to put things in order, I can't do it... These boxes are
much too heavy for me to carry.'

[ ]in spite of
[ ]unless
[ ]however

5) ' Stop it, little girl! Put your toys in their boxes; __________________ heavy they are, I'll carry
them for you''

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[ ]although
[ ]however
[ ]despite

6) ' Thanks Mom! I'll hurry, __________________, you may have to start making the cake alone...'

[ ]whereas
[ ]although
[ ]despite
[ ]yet

7) 'Mom, do you know that Chloe will come here alone __________________ Kristin will be driven
here by her big brother.'

[ ]despite
[ ]contrary to
[ ]whereas
[ ]unlike

8) ' Mom, you're so kind! I promise, __________________ you ask from us, we'll do it!'

[ ]whereas
[ ]however
[ ]whatever

9) 'Lucy,__________________ your promise, your room isn’t tidied up yet and I’m getting more and
more irritated.'

[ ]despite
[ ]unless
[ ]although
[ ]whereas

10) 'Well! That’s how it is! __________________ hard I try, you never seem to be satisfied by my
efforts...'

[ ]While
[ ]Although
[ ]Despite
[ ]No matter how

11) 'Maddie had said she would help me decorate the room. __________________, she hasn't
arrived yet.'

[ ]Nevertheless
[ ]Although
[ ]While
[ ]Despite

12) 'Don't worry! She'll soon be coming. __________________, if she isn't here to help you at 3, I'll
do it.' 'Oh, thank you! You're great, Mom!'

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[ ]While
[ ]Despite
[ ]Although
[ ]Still

ANSWERS:

1) Although
2) unless
3) while
4) in spite of
5) however
6) yet
7) whereas
8) whatever
9) despite
10) No matter how
11) Nevertheless
12) Still

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