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1 Engineering Mechanics

1.2 Definition

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1.3 Force system

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1.4 Fundamental principles

1.5 Newton’s laws of motion

(1) Newton’s law of Gravitation

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(2) Principle of Transmissibility

(3) Parallelogram Law

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1.5 Resolution and Component of forces
The process of replacing a single force F acting on a particle by two or more forces with together have
the same effect as that of a single force is called resolution of the force into component.

S.No. Force Fx FY
1 Fcos  Fsin 

2 -Fcos  Fsin 

3 -Fcos  -Fsin 

4 Fcos  -Fsin 

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Thus
F X   ( Fi cos  i )

F Y   ( Fi sin  i )

And all the force act away from the particle. The magnitude of resultant ‘R’ is calculated as
R  ( FX ) 2  ( FY ) 2
The inclination with respect to horizontal axis  is
calculated from
( FY )
tan  
(  FX )

Example
If five forces act on a particle as shown in the figure determine the resultant force.

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x and y component of Forces
S.No. Force kN Fxi (kN) Fyi (KN)
1 15cos150=14.489 15sin150=3.882

2 0 105

3 -75 0

4 -45sin550=-25.811 -45sin550=-36.862

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5 60cos400=45.963 -60sin400=-38.567

F Xi =-40.359 F Yi = 33.453

R  ( FXi ) 2  ( FYi ) 2

R  (40.359) 2  (33.453) 2  52.421kN


( FYi ) 33.453
tan   
( Fxi ) 40.359
  39.66 0

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From the signs of  F and  F the quadrant in which the resultant lies can be determined. From
xi yi

the magnitude of  F and  F , the inclination of the resultant with horizontal  can be
xi yi

determined.

1.6 Equilibrium of particle


A body is said to be in equilibrium when the resultant of the force system acting on it is zero. If a body is
in equilibrium, it will continue to remain in a state of rest or on uniform motion.

R 0
Or F
x  0 and F y 0

Example:
Three forces act on a particle ‘O’ as shown in the figure. Determine the value of F such that the resultant
of these three forces is horizontal. Find the magnitude and direction of the fourth force which when
acting along with the given three forces will keep O in equilibrium.

Solution:
Angle between F and O is 40+10=50o and 30kN is acting towards the particle. Since the resultant is
horizontal F y  0.

F y  0 gives,
-30sin300+18sin100+Fsin300=0
Therefore, F=15.5
F x  0 =30cos300+Fcos500+18cos100=53.67
Equilibrant is -53.67kN as shown in the figure.

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1.7 Free body diagram (FBD)
Free body Diagram
A diagram of a body (or a part of it) which shows all the forces and couples applied on it, and which has
all the forces and couples labeled for use in the solution of the problem is called a free-body diagram.
Follow these steps to draw a free-body diagram.
1. Select the body (or part of a body) that you want to analyze, and draw it.
2. Identify all the forces and couples that are applied onto the body and draw them on the body. Place
each force and couple at the point that it is applied.
3. Label all the forces and couples with unique labels for use during the solution process.
4. Add any relevant dimensions onto your picture.

Diagram FBD

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1.8 Types of support in 2D

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1.9 Beam
A member which bends when subjected to load applied transverse to the long dimensions (axis of the
member) is known as beam. Eg. In structures and machines.
Simple supported beam: beam supported by hinge or rolleron the smooth surfaceat the ends having
one span
Overhanging beam: Both ends project beyond the support.
Continuous beam: More than two supports.
Cantilever beam: One end is built into a wall or other support so that it cannot rotate or move
transversely.

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Types of loads: The different types of loads are given below:
S.No. Types Figure
1 Concentrated load: Acting
at the mid-point, point load
Unit=kN

2 Uniformly distributed load


(UDL): Load is constant,
Unit=kN/m, Eg.Water load
acting on the floor of a tank
when it contains water to a
height ‘h’.

3 Uniformly varying load:


Varying linearly over
considerable length, Eg. The
water pressure acting on the
side wall of tank.

Types of loads and equivalent concentrated loads (resultants) with their points of inclination.

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Q.1. Find the reaction at A & B

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Q.2. Find the reaction at A & B

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Q.3. Find the reaction at A and B.

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Friction
In practical application, perfect frictionless or smooth surface never exists. When two surfaces
are in contact with each other, tangential forces will always developed when one surface tends
to move with respect to other. The tangential forces are called frictional forces.
Dry friction
The tangential component of the contact force existing between two dry surfaces which slide or
tend relative to one another.

Characteristics of Dry Friction

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Compiled by Ashok Acharya, DOME, KU
Compiled by Ashok Acharya, DOME, KU
Compiled by Ashok Acharya, DOME, KU
Numerical Problems:

Q.1. A block weighting 800N, lying on a horizontal floor is just dragged by a force inclined at 35 0
to the floor. Find the a) the value of ‘P’ b) the inclination of ‘P’ with horizontal so that ‘P’ is
minimum. c) the value of Pmin.

Solution:

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Q.2. Find the force ‘P’ required to move the block down the plane. The force ‘P’ is applied
parallel to the plane. Weight of the block is 900N and  =0.5.
Solution:

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Centroid and centre of gravity:

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Compiled by Ashok Acharya, DOME, KU
Hence,

_

A x i i
y  A
_
Ai yi
x A
and

Where,

A   Ai

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Compiled by Ashok Acharya, DOME, KU
Compiled by Ashok Acharya, DOME, KU