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SURFACE REAF.

VEHICLE J1 1 79 DEC2002

STANDARD I ssu ed 1 977- 03

R e affi rm e d 2002-1 2

S u p e rs e d i n g J 1 1 79 FE B1 9 9 0

Hydraulic Excavator and Backhoe Digging Forces

Foreword— S AE J 1 0 5 7 h as b e e n s u p e rs e d e d b y S AE J /I S O 6 1 6 5 .

1. Scope— Th i s d o cu m e n t ap p l i e s to al l h yd rau l i c e xc avato rs an d b ac kh o e s th at are e i t h e r crawl e r m o u n te d or

ru b b e r t i re m o u n te d , wi t h or wi th o u t o u tri g g e r m e m b e rs , i d e n t i fi e d in S AE J1 1 1 6 as e art h m o vi n g m ach i n e s

an d d e fi n e d i n S AE J /I S O 6 1 6 5 .

1 .1 Purpose— Th i s d o cu m e n t is to p ro vi d e a u n i fo rm m e th o d of d e te rm i n i n g digging fo rce s fo r h yd rau l i c

e x cavat o rs an d b ackh o e s .

2. References
2.1 Applicable Publications— Th e fo l l o wi n g p u b l i cati o n s fo rm a p art of th e s p e ci fi cati o n to th e e xte n t s p e ci fi e d

h e re i n . U n l e s s o th e rwi s e i n d i cate d , th e l ate s t re vi s i o n o f S AE p u b l i cati o n s s h al l ap p l y.

2. 1 . 1 S A E PU B L I C A T I O N S —Avai l ab l e fro m S AE , 4 0 0 C o m m o n we al th D ri ve , Warre n d al e , PA 1 5096-0001 .

S AE J 1 1 1 6 —C at e g o ri e s o f O f f- R o a d Wo rk M a c h i n e s

S AE J /I S O 6 1 6 5 —E a rt h m o vi n g M ac h i n e ry—B a s i c Ty p e s —V o c ab u l a ry

3. Definitions
3.1 Working Circuit Pressure— Th at n o m i n al p re s s u re ap p l i e d to th e s p e ci fi c ci rcu i t b y th e p u m p ( s ) .

3.2 Holding Circuit Pressure— Th e m ax i m u m s t at i c p re s s u re in a s p e c i fi c c i rcu i t , l i m i te d by a re l i e f val ve at a

fl o w n o g re ate r th an 1 0 % o f th e ci rcu i t rate d fl o w.

3.3 Maximum Digging Forces— Th e m axi m u m digging fo rce s are th e digging fo rce s th at can be e xe rte d at t h e

o u te rm o s t cu tti n g p o i n t. Th e s e fo rce s are cal cu l at e d by ap p l yi n g wo rki n g ci rcu i t p re s s u re to th e cyl i n d e r( s )

p ro vi d i n g th e digging fo rc e wi t h o u t e xce e d i n g hol di ng c i rc u i t p re s s u re in an y o th e r ci rc u i t. We i g h t of

c o m p o n e n ts an d fri c ti o n are to b e e xc l u d e d fro m t h e s e fo rc e cal cu l ati o n s .

3. 3. 1 M AXI M UM B U C KE T T AN G E N TI A L F O R C E —Th e m axi m u m b u cke t tan g e n ti al fo rce , “ V” , F i g u re 1 , is th e digging

fo rce g e n e rate d b y th e b u cke t cyl i n d e r( s ) an d tan g e n t t o th e arc o f rad i u s “ C ” , F i g u re 1 . Th e b u c ke t s h al l b e

p o s i t i o n e d t o o b t ai n th e m ax i m u m o u tp u t m o m e n t fro m t h e b u c ke t c yl i n d e r( s ) an d c o n n e c t i n g l i n kag e .

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voluntary, and its applicability and suitability for any particular use, including any patent infringement arising therefrom, is the sole responsibility of the user.”
SAE reviews each technical report at least every five years at which time it may be reaffirmed, revised, or cancelled. SAE invites your written comments and suggestions.
Copyright ©2002 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SAE.
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SAE J1 1 79 Reaffirmed DEC2002

F I G U R E 1 —M AX I M U M B U C KE T T AN G E N T I AL F O R C E

3. 3. 2 M AXI M U M AR M /D I P P E RS T I C K FO RC E — Th e m axi m u m arm /d i p pe rs ti ck fo rce , “ W” , Fi g u re 2 is th e digging fo rce

g e n e rat e d by th e arm /d i p p e rs ti ck cyl i n d e r( s ) an d tan g e n t to th e arc of th e rad i u s “B”, F i g u re 2. Th e arm /

d i p p e rs ti ck s h al l be p o s i ti o n e d to o b tai n th e m axi m u m o u tp u t m om en t fro m th e arm /d i p p e rs ti ck cyl i n d e r( s )

an d th e b u cke t p o s i ti o n e d as i n 3 . 3 . 1 .

F I G U R E 2 —M AXI M U M AR M /D I P P E R S TI C K F O R C E

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3. 3. 3 M AXI M U M TE L E S C O P I N G BO OM C R OWD F O R C E —Th e m ax i m u m te l e s co p i n g b o o m cro wd fo rce “ U ” , F i g u re 3 , i s

th e d i g g i n g fo rce g e n e rate d b y th e te l e s co p i n g b o o m cyl i n d e r acti n g o n a l i n e p aral l e l to th e b o o m . F o rce “ U ”

is i n d e pen d en t of b u cke t p o s i ti o n . Th i s d e fi n i ti o n ap p l i e s to te l e s co p i n g boo m s o n l y, not e xte n d ab l e arm s /

d i ppe rs ti ck.

F I G U R E 3 —M AXI M U M TE L E S C O P I N G BOOM C R O WD F O R C E

4. Conditions
4.1 S p e ci fi e d b u cke t l i n kag e co n fi g u rati o n m u s t b e u s e d u n l e s s o th e rwi s e n o te d .

4.2 M axi m u m d i g g i n g fo rce s wi l l b e wi th th e s p e ci fi e d b u cke t.

4.3 Ad j u s tab l e arm /d i p p e rs ti cks m u s t b e i n th e m i n i m u m e xte n s i o n p o s i ti o n u n l e s s o th e rwi s e n o te d .

4.4 P u b l i s h e d d i g g i n g fo rce s are to be i n N e wto n s ( l b) .

4.5 Ad d i ti o n al d i g g i n g fo rce s m ay b e s p e ci fi e d s e p arate l y fo r avai l ab l e b u cke ts o r e q u i p m e n t.

4.6 Th e m an u factu re r m u s t b e ab l e to ve ri fy p u b l i s h e d h yd rau l i c d i g g i n g fo rce s b y actu al te s ts . Te s t val u e s fo r an y

n e w m ach i n e m u s t e xce e d 95% of pu bl i sh ed digging fo rce val u e s . Boom , arm /d i p p e rs ti ck, an d b u cke t are to

b e p o s i ti o n e d to m i n i m i z e th e e ffe ct o f co m p o n e n t we i g h t o n fo rce m e as u re m e n ts .

P R E P AR E D B Y TH E S AE M AC H I N E TE C H N I C AL C O M M I TTE E S C 5 —E XC AVATO R S

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SAE J1 1 79 Reaffirmed DEC2002

Rationale— S AE J 1 0 5 7 h as b e e n s u p e rs e d e d b y S AE J /I S O 6 1 6 5 .

Relationship of SAE Standard to ISO Standard— N o t ap p l i cab l e .

Application— Th i s d o cu m e n t ap p l i e s to al l h yd rau l i c e xcavato rs an d b ackh o e s th at are e i th e r crawl e r m o u n te d

or ru b b e r ti re m o u n te d , wi th or wi th o u t o u tri g g e r m e m b e rs , i d e n ti fi e d in S AE J1 1 1 6 as e arth m o vi n g

m ac h i n e s an d d e fi n e d i n S AE J /I S O 6 1 6 5 .

Reference Section
S AE J 1 1 1 6 —C a t e g o ri e s o f O f f - R o a d Wo rk M a c h i n e s

S AE J /I S O 6 1 6 5 —E art h m o vi n g M ac h i n e ry—B as i c Typ e s —Vo c ab u l ary

Developed by the SAE Machine Technical Committee SC5—Excavators


Sponsored by the SAE Machine Technical Committee