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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal | www.ijtsrd.com

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | Volume - 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep – Oct 2018

A Study on
n Mobile Robotics in Robotics
Karthick Vishal. K, Dr. S. Venkatesh Kumar
Department of Computer Applications, Dr. Sns Rajalakshmi
shmi College of Arts & Science,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT Odometry
Mobile Robot competitions are vital way for  Odometry is the broadly used direction finding
distribution of science and engineering to the method for mobile robot locating; it provides good
worldwide public but are also brilliant way of testing short-term
term exactness, is low-cost,
low and allows very
and comparing unlike research policies. It is discuss high sampling rates, the fundamental idea of
how today’s study challenges of Intelligent and odometry is the integration of incremental motion
Autonomousous Mobile Robots are being fingered by the information over time, which leads certainly to the
Autonomous Driving competition that takes place in abundant meeting of errors.s.
the Portuguese Robotics Open annual mobile robotics  The resulting errors can be categorized into one of
competition. two groups:
• systematic errors
Keyword: Mobile robot, micro mouse, office • non-systematic
systematic errors
navigation, ball collection, robot soccer, RoboCup,
robotics research programs, rough terrain, bounding, Non-systematic
systematic errors are those that result from the
motion planning, Little Dog, RRT, reachability
reachability-guided communication of the floor with the wheels.
RRT, transverse linearization. Typically, when a mobile robot system is installed
installe
with a hybrid odometry/landmark navigation.
INTRODUCTION
Mobile robot competitions are for over 20 years. They SYSTEMATIC ERRORS
have motivated generations of students, researchers Measurement of Odometry Errors
and amateurs alike, while overwhelming enormous One important but infrequently addressed difficulty in
amount of research subsidy and own time and effort. mobile robotics is the quantitative measurement of
Oppositions provide a goal together with an objective odometry errors. Absence of well-defined
well calculating
performance quantity, while widespread media actions for the quantification of odometry errors
coverage allows participants to present their work to a results in the poor standardization of mobile platforms
wider environment. So it is time to take a look back and single reports on odometric correctness in
and reflect on the research result of a number of scientific communications
events. In the next sections, we will take a nearer look
at three major international mobile robot Measurement of Non-Systematic
Systematic Errors
competitions. In the order of their creatio
creation dates these Borenstein and Feng [1995] both proposed
propose a method
are Micro mouse Contest, AAAI Mobile Robot for calculating non-systematic
systematic errors. This method,
Competition, and RoboCup Robot Soccer. In robot called extended UMBmark, can be used for
competitions this is reflected by guessing very strict comparison of different robots under similar
environments in early competitions, while later conditions, though the measurement of non- non
competitions take place in more open spaces. Some systematic errors is less useful because it depends
early robot competitions already played two strongly on the floor features.
challenging robots against each other, while multiple
robots work together for a common task have only
been introduced a few years ago.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct


Oct 2018 Page: 872
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
2456
Inertial Navigation  GPS was developed as a Joint Services Program
Inertial navigation uses gyroscopes and by the Department of Defence.
accelerometers to measure rate of rotation and  The system comprises 24 satellites (including
acceleration. Measurements are integrated once to three spares) which transmit encoded RF signals.
yield position. Inertial navigation systems have the Using advanced trilateration methods, ground-
ground
benefit that they are self-contained,
contained, that is, they don't based receivers can compute their position by
need external references. Inertial sensors are thus measuring the travel time of the satellites' RF
mostly unsuitable for accurate positioning over an signals, which include information about the
extended period of time. satellites' momentary location.
 This intentional degradation in positional accuracy
Accelerometers to around 100 meters (328 ft) worst case is termed
Test results from the use of accelerometers for mobile selective availability (SA)
robot navigation have been generally poor. The
University of Michigan it was found that there is a Fractional Availability of Signals:
very poor signal-to-noise
noise ratio at lower accelerations.  The dynamic test was found by driving an
Accelerometers also suffer from extensive drifdrift, and instrumented van over different types of territory.
they are sensitive to uneven ground because any  The various routes were chosen so that the GPS
disturbance from a perfectly horizontal position will receivers would be subjected to a wide variety of
cause the sensor to detect a component of the obstructions.
gravitational acceleration.  Large trucks, underpasses highway signs,
buildings, foliage, as well as small canyons
c were
Micro mouse Contest found on the interstate and rural highway driving
This report from the first "Amazing MicroMicro-Mouse routes.
Maze Contest" demonstrates the enormous media
interested in the first mobile robot competition. The AUTONOMOUS DRIVING COMPETITION
academic response was also overwhelming. Over RULES
6000 entries followed the announcement of Don The Autonomous Driving competition aims at
Christiansen [5], who originally suggested the contest. promoting developments in devices, techniques and
The task is for a robot mouse to drive from start to systems usable for vehicle autonomous driving either
goal in the fastest time. Rules changed somewhat over in
n restricted areas or, hopefully in the future, larger
time, in order to allow exploring the whole maze and public spaces, such as pathways, roads and parks.
then compute the shortest path, while also counting Therefore, the challenge comprises a path with an 8- 8
exploration time at a reduced factor. shaped configuration simulating a road, which, for the
last version of the competition, defines a two-way
t
AAAI Mobile Robot Competition street about 1.5 m wide.
At the end of the 1980s, the micro mouse contest had
outlived itself and the robotics research community Background
was losing interest. The problem was solved and did The problem of fast movement over tough terrain has
not provide any new challenges. been an active research topic in robotics, beginning
with the seminal work by Raibert in the 1980s). The
RoboCup research can be roughly divided into two categories.
The Robot World Cup Initiative (RoboCup) is an The first category uses knowledge of the robot mand
attempt to intelligent robotics research by providing a environment within a motion planning framework.
typical problem where wide series of technologies can
be integrated. For this purpose, RoboCup chose to use Little Dog Model
soccer game, and organized an world cup known as An essential component of any model based planning
The Robot World Cup Soccer Games and approach is adequately accurate identification of the
Conferences. system dynamics. Obtaining an accurate
acc dynamic
model for Little Dog is challenging owing to
GLOBAL POSIONING SYSTEM (GPS) subtleties in the ground interactions and the dominant
 The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a effects of motor saturations and transmission
revolutionary technology for outdoor navigation. dynamics.

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
2456
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