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A SEMINAR REPORT

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on
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ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF NICKEL SUPER
ALLOY
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Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
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BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
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in
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Mechanical Engineering
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of
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SREE VIDYANIKETHAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(Autonomous)
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by
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P HEMANTH KUMAR 15121A03C1


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Under the esteemed guidance of


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Dr.N.MANIKANDHAN
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Assistant Professor
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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


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SREE VIDYANIKETHAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(AUTONOMOUS)
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(Affiliated to J. N. T. University Anantapur, Anantapuramu )
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Sree Sainath Nagar, TIRUPATI-517 102(A.P)
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2015 - 2019
S.No CONTENTS Page.No
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3
3 EDM PROCESS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND
CONDITIONS
5 PROCESS PARAMETERS
6 EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS
7 (i) ON MRR
(ii) ON SR
(iii) ON WLT
(iv) ON SCT
8 ADVANTAGES
9 DISADVANTAGES
10 CONCLUSION
11 REFERENCE
1.INTRODUCTION
RENE80 nickel super alloy has applications in aerospace industries due to its high hardness,
high degree of strength and creep properties coupled with oxidation and corrosion resistance
at elevated temperatures. This super alloy is difficult to machine due to high hardness, low
thermal conductivity and high affinity to react with the tool materials at high temperature
generated during machining. Hence it requires non-traditional machining process such as
electrical discharge machining (EDM). However, this super alloy has to satisfy the
consumer’s strict demands on surface integrity which includes chemical composition,
microstructure of matrix, surface roughness (SR) and cracks (Loo et al., 2011; Choudhary
and El-Baradie, 1998). EDM is extensively used for machining very hard, high strength, high
temperature resistant and difficult to cut materials that are used in aerospace, medical, tool
and die industries. It can machine complicated shapes and sizes with very high precision and
accuracy. Hence this process is exacting in industrial applications (Ho and Newman, 2003).

EDM is applicable to electrically conductive materials and irrelevant to their physical,


mechanical and metallurgical properties. Its greatest advantage is that there is no physical
contact between the electrode and the work piece. In spite of these advantages, some
technical challenges still exist in improving of metal removal rate (MRR) and surface
integrity of EDM components (Krishna and Prasad, 2009) especially in aerospace parts.
These parts are subjected to severe thermal gradients and mechanical loadings in service. To
avoid any failures arising from surface defects of EDM components in service, it is necessary
to enhance the quality of the process (Kruth et al., 1995). Also several questions related to
depth of affected material, surface topography, cracking behaviour and amount of phase
transformation depend on process parameters (Erden and Ekmekci, 2004). They are not
understood clearly due to stochastic nature of this process. Therefore, it is vital to develop a
thorough knowledge of the relationship between the process parameters and the machined
surface integrity of this alloy. It is well known that EDM is a process for eroding and
removing material by repetitive and transient action of electric sparks on electrically
conductive materials immersed in a dielectric liquid and separated by small gap (≈ μm). The
material is removed by melting and vaporisation due to high temperature at the point where
discharge takes place. When the peak current ceases, a sharp decrease in the temperature
triggers violent erosion process and the superheated molten material explode violently into
the dielectric fluid. Banerjee et al. (2009) claimed that not only superheating of the material
but also subsurface boiling is necessary for effective removal of the material. Finally, the
machined surface cool down instantaneously and fraction of melted and vaporised molten
material in the form of spherical shaped debris is flushed away by dielectric liquid. The
remaining molten material resolidifies and gets deposited on the machined surface. This
resolidified layer is called as white layer and the white layer thickness (WLT) depends on the
amount and duration of the discharge energy. During machining, the number of craters,
globules of debris and appendages are formed on the machined surface The diameter of these
craters along with the debris and appendages adhered on the machined surface determines the
SR value

In previous years, although few researchers have already investigated the effect of EDM
parameters on MRR, SR, WLT and SCD, it is observed from the literature survey that very
rare work has been reported to analyse MRR and surface integrity of EDM of RENE 80
nickel super alloy till today. Also regression models relating the process parameters and
responses like MRR, SR, WLT and SCD of nickel super alloys are rarely discussed. Hence in
this research work, an effort is made to machine RENE 80 nickel super alloy on EDM and
discuss the effect of process parameters on MRR, SR, WLT and SCD. Regression models are
developed to establish the relationship between process parameters and responses like MRR,
SR, WLT and SCD for prediction of machining performance. Based on literature and
research papers, it is observed that the electrical parameters like peak current, pulse on time
and pulse off time have the most prominent effect on various responses of EDM (Krishna and
Prasad, 2009; Lee and Tai, 2003; Lee and Li, 2003; Bhattacharyya et al., 2007; Balraj et al.,
2014; Kuppan et al., 2007). Hence, the work is carried out in depth to find effects of these
parameters on MRR, SR, WLT and SCD. The work is further extended to study surface
topography of machined surfaces with the help of SEM micrographs, EDAX and XRD.
2.LITERATURE REVIEW
Rajesh et al. [6] investigated the surface integrity evaluation issues while machining Inconel
718 through EDM. The distinctive morphology of the machined surface (recast layer) was
due the enormous amount of heat discharge during sparking that causes melting and
vaporization of the material, followed by swift cooling. Surface quality was deteriorated at
high pulse current and pulse on-time.

Bharti et al. [7] investigated the machining characteristics of Inconel 718 during die-sinking
electric discharge machining process with copper as tool electrode. Discharge current and
pulse on-time were identified as common influencing parameters for MRR, SR and TWR.
Duty cycle and tool electrode lift time were found the least influential parameters.

Rajesha et al. [8] planned the experiments as per Taguchi’s L18 orthogonal array and trials
were carried out in a CNC-EDM machine with 99.9 % pure copper tool having tubular
section; commercial grade kerosene was used as dielectric fluid. The effect of process
parameters pulse current, pulse on-time, gap control and flushing pressure on MRR was
investigated while machining Inconel 718. It was concluded that the pulse current is the most
significant parameter in the process, followed by pulse on-time and pulse off-time.

Kristian [9] in his study on IN 100mod Ni-base alloy, used two different qualities of
electrode Poco AF5 and Poco EDM3 and tested in a 23 factorial test with two levels of
discharge current and pulse duration. The results demonstrated that EDM3 graphite performs
very well giving significantly higher MRR than AF5, with acceptable relative electrode wear.
The AF5 gives significantly lower electrode wear and MRR.

Hewidy et al. [10] in their work highlighted mathematical models for correlating the inter-
relationships of various WireEDM machining parameters of Inconel 601 material such as:
peak current, duty factor, wire tension and water pressure on the MRR, wear ratio and SR.
The process has proved its adequacy to machine the material under acceptable volumetric
material removal rate of 8 mm3/min and surface finish (Ra) less than 1 µm. The volumetric
metal removal rate and surface roughness both increases with increase in peak current has
been established based on the response surface methodology (RSM).
Newton et al. [11] conducted an experimental investigation to determine the main wire-EDM
parameters which contribute to recast layer formation in Inconel 718. It was established that
average recast layer thickness increased parameters tested, the recast layer was observed to be
between 5 and 9 µm in average primarily with energy per spark, peak discharge current, and
pulse duration.The range of thickness,which was highly variable in nature.The recast material
was found to possess in-plane tensile residual stresses, as well as lower hardness and elastic
modulus than the bulk material.

Ramakrishnan and Karunamoorthy [12] described the development of ANN models and the
multi-response optimization technique to predict and select the best cutting parameters for the
wire electrodischarge machining (WEDM) process of Inconel 718.

Aspinwall et al. [13] developed 3D topographic maps of workpiece surfaces, micro-structural


and micro-hardness depth profile data of Inconel 718. Average recast thickness is <11 µm.
Several trim passes show no significant change in workpiece microhardness variation with
cracking confined to the recast layer.

Muthu Kumar et al. [14] demonstrated optimization of WEDM process parameters of


Incoloy 800 super alloy with multiple performance characteristics and concluded that the
Grey-Taguchi Method is most ideal and suitable for the parametric optimization of the Wire-
Cut EDM process, when using the multiple performance characteristics such as MRR, SR
and kerf width.

Bai [15] investigated the effects of the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process with Al-
Mo composite electrode on improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Ni-
based superalloy Haynes 230. The oxidation resistance of the specimen alloyed with positive
electrode polarity is better than that of the unalloyed superalloy, and the effective temperature
of oxidation resistance of the alloyed layer was achieved to 1100 ºC. Conversely, the
oxidation resistance of the other EDA specimen alloyed with negative electrode polarity was
even worse than that of the unalloyed superalloy.

In their previous work Bai et al. [16] presented the EDA process of the superalloy Haynes
230 with aluminum and molybdenum, and the alloying effects of different EDA conditions
have also been determined and compared. Suitable experiment conditions can help to form an
aluminum-rich layer on the surface of the superalloy.
Klocke et al. [17] investigated the influence of powder suspended dielectrics on the recast
layer of Inconel 718 EDMed surface. They reported that a physical property of the powder
additives plays an important role in changing the recast layer composition and morphology.

Kumar et al. [18] realized the potential of graphite powder as additive in enhancing
machining capabilities of Additive mixed EDM on Inconel 718 and found that addition of
graphite powder enhances machining rate appreciably. Machining rate is improved by
26.85% with 12g/l of fine graphite at best parametric setting.

Prabhu and Vinayagam [19] carried out the EDM process on Inconel 825 with carbon nano
tube (CNT) mixed with dielectric fluid for analyzing the surface characteristics. Atomic force
microscope (AFM) analysis using CNT improves the surface characteristics like surface
morphology, surface roughness and micro cracks from micro level to nano level.

Kuppan et al. [20] carried out experimental investigation of small deep hole drilling of
Inconel 718 using the EDM process and revealed that MRR is more influenced by peak
current, duty factor and electrode rotation, whereas depth average surface roughness is
strongly influenced by peak current and pulse on-time. To achieve better surface finish low
value of pulse on-time to be selected. An increase in electrode speed leads to increase in
MRR whereas depth average surface roughness decreases to minimum value (between 200 to
300 rpm) and then increases. Better surface integrity was achieved by moderate values of
amperage.

Bozdana et al. [21] presented a comparative experimental study on machining and surface
characteristics of through and blind holes (Ø1 mm) produced on aerospace alloys of Ti-6Al-
4V and Inconel 718 by fast hole rotary EDM process using tubular hollow copper and brass
electrodes. It was revealed that the achievement of desirable MRR and EW values and
acceptable topography of machined surfaces were dependent upon the appropriate selection
of tool electrode material and the choice of making through/blind hole. The brass electrode
has provided a superior MRR for the production of through and blind holes on IN 718 and Ti
64 test pieces as compared with copper electrode.

Yilmaz and Okka [22] presented a comparative experimental investigation of EDM fast hole
drilling of Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V by using single and multi-channel tubular electrodes
made of brass and copper materials. The experimental results revealed that the single-channel
electrode has comparatively better material removal rates and lower electrode wear ratio and
multi-channel electrodes produce better surfaces than single channel electrodes for both
aerospace alloys. Micro-structural changes while drilling operations for both types of
electrodes result in an annealing effect on Inconel 718 and a tempering effect on Ti-6Al-4V
alloy. In addition, multi-channel electrodes produce comparatively lower hardness values.

Arun Muthu et al. [23] performed machining of Inconel 800 using aluminium electrode in
conventional as well as a magnetic force assisted EDM. The machining characteristics
including SR, EWR and MRR were evaluated and on comparison; a magnetic forceassisted
EDM was significant process with high efficiency and high quality of machined surfaces.
3.EDM PROCESS
It is well known that EDM is a process for eroding and removing material by repetitive and
transient action of electric sparks on electrically conductive materials immersed in a dielectric
liquid and separated by small gap (≈ μm). The material is removed by melting and
vaporisation due to high temperature at the point where discharge takes place. When the peak
current ceases, a sharp decrease in the temperature triggers violent erosion process and the
superheated molten material explode violently into the dielectric fluid.

Banerjee et al. (2009) claimed that not only superheating of the material but also subsurface
boiling is necessary for effective removal of the material. Finally, the machined surface cool
down instantaneously and fraction of melted and vaporised molten material in the form of
spherical shaped debris is flushed away by dielectric liquid. The remaining molten material
resolidifies and gets deposited on the machined surface. This resolidified layer is called as
white layer and the white layer thickness (WLT) depends on the amount and duration of the
discharge energy. During machining, the number of craters, globules of debris and
appendages are formed on the machined surface The diameter of these craters along with the
debris and appendages adhered on the machined surface determines the SR value.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

4.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

MATERIAL
The electrode material is pure electrolytic copper (99.97%) of diameter 14.3 mm and density
of 8.93 g/cm3. Commercial EDM oil (Rustlick grade 30) is used as dielectric fluid and it is
circulated by jet side flushing. The work pieces are cut to the size of 70 mm × 35 mm × 4
using wire EDM machine. The work piece surfaces are further polished to a surface finish
(Ra value ≈ 1 μm) using emery papers before conducting the experiments. The electrode face
is turned and polished using a very fine grade emery sheet before conducting each
experiment. The detailed experimental conditions are given in table as follow
PROCESS PARAMETERS
Process parameter experimental region is explored based on pilot experiments conducted by
varying one parameter at a time and keeping others constant. The working ranges of peak
current, pulse on time and pulse off time have been explored by conducting many
experiments and inspecting the impression produced by die sink EDM on the work piece.

It is observed that MRR is very low in the lower ranges of peak current and pulse on time (3
Amps and 5 μs) and arcing (burning of surface) instead of sparking took place in the higher
ranges (24 Amps and 100 μs) resulting in poor surface finish.

This necessitated careful selection of levels of parameters. Also process parameter levels are
selected cautiously in such a way that the ratio of largest level to the smallest level is from 3
to 5 because when the parameter levels are wide apart, the parameter effect is very large as
compared to experimental error (Phadke, 1989). The process parameters levels and detailed
experimental conditions are shown in Table 4.
The work piece weights before and after machining are calculated by digital balance with 200
gm capacity and accuracy of 1 mg. The SR value (centre line average) is measured using
surface roughness tester in five different locations randomly on machined surface of each
trial for a cut off length of 0.8 mm and the average of these five readings is taken for analysis.
After EDM operation, work pieces are cut perpendicular to the machined surface and
polished well using 300, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 mesh size silicon carbide abrasive sheets.
Further polishing is carried out on rotary polishing machine with velvet at 100 rpm for ten
minutes. The polished surfaces are then etched with Kalling’s reagent [HCL (100 ml) +
ethanol (100 ml) + CuCl2 (5 ml)] for metallographic inspection. These specimen are viewed
through SEM (Make: FEIQUANTA 200, type-FP2012/12, Czech Republic) for calculation
and analysis of average WLT and SCD. The white layers are easily identified from SEM
micrographs at the magnification of 1,000X. Four SEM micrographs (four trials) at different
locations of three specimens are taken. The WLT is measured by taking average of eight
readings per SEM micrograph using image analysis software. The calculation of surface
crack density is done using the same four SEM micrographs and it is equal to total length of
the cracks in white layer divided by the area of white layer in SEM micrograph.

EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS


ON MRR
The main effects plot for MRR confirms that MRR increases sharply as peak current
increases from 6 Amps to 24 Amps. The discharge energy supplied to remove the material is
controlled by current and hence the significance and contribution of peak current is largest.
At low current (6 Amps), a significant amount of total discharge energy is expended to
vaporise the alloy, therefore MRR is low. Whereas, at high currents (24 Amps), discharge
energy is massive which causes melting and vaporisation of the alloy quickly that results in
high MRR. It is evident that the effect of pulse on time is low on MRR. But MRR is
dependent on input discharge energy which is proportional to pulse on time. So, it is natural
to expect that MRR will increase with increase of pulse on time. However, the result obtained
is not according to this general phenomenon because this alloy has various carbides such as
MC, M23C6, M6C and M7C3 carbides where M represents various metal elements in alloy
and it may be possible that, at higher pulse on time, these carbides melt and resolidify while
some free carbide particles cause instability in the machining process. As a result, MRR is
reduced. Also the presence of very hard solid solution strengthened phase Ni-base matrix γ-
phase, intermetallic precipitate phase γ’ (Ni3Al, Ti)) and γ” (Ni3B) in this alloy reduce
melting and vaporisation of material during machining because these phases can withstand
very high temperatures for long time (ASM Handbook, 2000). This observation is similar to
the work done by (Sharma et al., 2010). These reasons impair the removal of the material
effectively.

Generally, no material is removed from the work piece during the pulse off time as there is no
discharge energy, but Figure 2 shows opposite of what was observed generally. Though
insignificant, MRR increases with pulse off time. This observation is analogous to work
reported by (Emden and Ekmekce, 2004). The reason could be that, at low pulse off time,
debris are suspended in the machining zone due to incomplete flushing in short time and
become barrier for effective sparking which results in unstable machining process. As the
pulse off time increases, the dielectric gets sufficient time to flush away these debris which
results in effective sparking and stability of the process and hence, MRR increases with pulse
off time.
SEM micrographs taken at 200X magnification correspond to experiment no. 1 (optimum
levels of SR taken from main effects plot), experiment no. 9 and optimum levels of MRR are
shown in Figures 6(a) to 6(c) respectively. It is observed from Figure 6(a) that the craters are
shallow and smaller in width, hence MRR is low (56.553 mg/min) because less amount of
material is removed at low currents whereas Figure 6(b) have craters deep in depth and wider
in width and hence MRR is high (538.100 mg/min) because more amount of material is
removed at high peak current.

EFFECT OF PARAMETERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS


It is seen from the main effects plot Figure 3 that SR increases with increase of peak current
and pulse on time and pulse off time. There are many reasons causing this phenomenon. A
single spark energy increases with increase of current and this results in huge striking forces
on surface (Kao et al., 2010).

This produces deeper and wider craters and hence the value of SR is high. At low values of
current, the craters are shallow and narrow, hence the SR is low. The lowest SR (4.706μm)
and highest SR (8.490μm) are observed in experiments 1 and 9 respectively and are shown in
Figures 6(a) and 6(b) SEM micrographs. The SR continues to increase with pulse on time.
Longer pulse on time leads to an increase in the rate of input discharge energy transmitted to
the work piece, i.e., applying the same heating temperature for long time. This will cause
more melting and evaporation. So, at high energy, frequent melt expulsions occur that results
in overlapping of craters. Thus, globules of debris with appendages formed are not
completely flushed away by the dielectric which results in poor surface finish. All these
reasons cause increase in SR. This is evident in Figure (b) where density of globules and
appendages is more as compared to Figure (a). It is observed that the SR is improved by
small percentage with increase of pulse off time. As the pulse off time increases, the
frequency of sparks decreases and overlapping of craters reduces. As can be seen in Figure
(c), the surface is smooth and has less density of debris and appendages at levels A3B3C3 as
compared to rough surface at levels A3B3C2 in Figure (b).
Fig:

Fig:
Fig:

EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON WATER LAYER


THICKNESS

It can be seen from Figures (a) and (b) that white layer has split and distinctive structure
separated from the parent material. Figure 5 illustrates that the WLT increases linearly as the
peak current increases from 6 Amps to 24 Amps.

The lowest WLT (9.4375μm) and highest WLT (44.6358μm) are observed in experiments 1
and 9 respectively and are shown in Figures (a) and (b) SEM micrographs respectively. When
the current is increased (24 Amps), more amount of heat is transferred into the surface of
parent material which causes the surface temperature to reach melting point more quickly and
more volume of molten material is removed.

But at the same time, the dielectric becomes increasingly unable to flush away this entire
molten material as the dielectric can flush away only fixed amount of molten material at
given constant pressure (Bhattacharyya et al., 2007), i.e., the rate of material removal is more
than the rate of flushing. This results in piling up of excess molten material on the surface of
the parent material. The excess molten material resolidifies to form the white layer during
subsequent cooling and the depth of this layer depends on the amount of molten material
removed from the surface. Hence WLT increases with increase of peak current.

The machined surface has deep wider cracks and high density of globules of debris at high
peak currents, so the surface becomes wavy dramatically and this leads to large deviation of
WLT as observed in Figure (b) as compared to thinner white layer at low peak current as
shown in Figure (a).

Fig:
Fig:

Also it is observed from the Figure 4, the WLT increases linearly with increase of pulse on
time but the increase is less as compared to the peak current. Larger pulse on time results in
higher discharge energy which allows high temperature penetration deeper into the
subsurface and causes more volume of molten material removal. But the dielectric does not
flush away entire material due to insufficient exploding pressure. Consequently, this material
settles down on the surface. Hence larger pulse on time results in larger WLT. Pulse off time
has insignificant effect on WLT as there is no removal of material and deposition on the
surface during pulse off time.

EFFECT OF PROCESS PAERAMETERS ON SCD


Observation of all specimen cross sections at high magnification of 1,000X in SEM reveals
that cracks exist in white layer, not necessarily initiating at the surface, and majority of these
cracks travel parallel to the machined surfaces. In all specimens, the cracks are restricted to
white layer only and does not penetrate into the parent material. Every specimen confirmed
cracking but density of cracking is different. This indicates that different process parameters
cause different cracking densities. Also voids are observed, which are formed by the
entrapped gases escaping from the resolidified white layer.
The variation of SCD with peak current, pulse on time and pulse off time is shown in Figure
5. It can be seen that peak current has pronounced effect on SCD as compared to pulse on
time. SCD is decreasing almost linearly with peak current and pulse on time. This
phenomenon is in accordance with the study done by Lee and Tsai (2003). The highest SCD
(0.043217 μm/ μm2) and the lowest SCD (0.004921 μm/ μm2) are observed

Fig:
Fig:

In experiments 1 and 9 as shown in Figures (a) and (b). At low value of peak current, the
SCD is more because of lower value of WLT and hence lower area of white layer. With
increase of peak current, the thickness and hence the area of white layer increases. This
results in lower value of SCD because the lengths of cracks do not increase in similar
proportion to white layer area (Bhattacharyaa et al., 2007). This means that there is higher
density of cracks in smaller white layer area than in larger white layer area. Also the induced
stress increases with the increase of peak current but the increase is not significant. At high
currents, surface cracks get wider due to larger heat dissipation and hence same amount of
internal stress is relieved. Thus cracks do not propagate further and SCD decreases though
there is small increase in induced stress.

The increase in pulse on time not only induces more stress but also increases the amount of
crack formation as cracks become wider and hence effective lengths of cracks become
smaller. This results in lower SCD. Also large pulse on time means high discharge energy
penetration into the work piece which causes a considerable increase in the white layer area
as well as crack openings. But cracks are not increasing in similar proportion of area of white
layer.
This leads to smaller effective lengths of cracks and the SCD starts decreasing. This
observation is similar to the literature work (Lee and Li, 2003). Although the increase in peak
current and pulse on time leads to decrease in SCD, the cracks cannot be eradicated totally at
maximum peak current of 24 Amps and pulse on time of 50μs. The SCD is more or less is
same with increase of pulse off time as there is no deposition of the material on the machined

Surface during pulse off time and hence there is no variation of SCD with pulse off time.

Typical SEM views of the EDM surfaces are illustrated in Figures 6 and 9. It is observed that
EDM process causes damage of the surface by forming globules of debris, appendages,
craters, voids and cracks. Such surfaces are noticeable with all the experiments studied but
their degree is varying. This kind of surface is held responsible for uneven surface roughness.
Deeper and wider craters, larger appendages and more density of debris are evident at high
peak current and pulse on time because huge quantity of molten material is suspended in the
gap during machining and this result in the deterioration of the surface.
ADVANTAGES

1. The main advantage of EDM is there is contact between the tool and work piece.
2. It can machine complicated shapes and sizes with very high precision and
accuracy.
DISADVANTAGES

1.
CONCLUSION

The major focus of this work is to investigate the effect of influential process parameters viz.
peak current, pulse on time and pulse off time on MRR, SR, WLT and SCD in EDM of
RENE80 nickel super alloy using Taguchi method. The following conclusions are drawn
through this work

1. It is observed that MRR is mainly affected by peak current. SR is affected by peak current,
pulse on time and pulse off time. WLT and SCD are mainly affected by peak current and
pulse on time.

2. Peak current is more predominant parameter of the three. MRR, SR and WLT increases
with increase of peak current and pulse on time while SCD decreases with increase of peak
current and pulse on time. Interestingly, though small, MRR increases with increase of pulse
off time as against the normal observation in EDM.

3. The surface integrity of RENE 80 nickel super alloy includes white layer, cracks, debris,
appendages and voids. It has sufficient oxidation resistance in EDM environment. There is
little difference between the machined surfaces and unmachined surface. Only carbon is
separated from dielectric and gets deposited on the machined surface.

4. The analysis of optimal parametric combinations will be very beneficial to the


manufacturing industries working with machining of nickel.
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